WorldWideScience

Sample records for apes

  1. Status of the apeNEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Boucaud, P; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Pietri, R; Renzo, F D; Errico, W; Fucci, A; Guagnelli, M; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; De Luca, S; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Petronzio, Roberto; Palombi, Filippo; Pleiter, D; Paschedag, N; Rapuano, F; De Riso, P; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01755-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  2. The apeNEXT project (Status report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Luca, S; De Pietri, R; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Paschedag, N; Pleiter, D; Pène, O; Rapuano, F; Renzo, F D; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  3. APE1/Ref-1: versatility in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-03-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Over the past decade and a half, knowledge of the biological functions, interactions, mechanisms of action, and regulation of the protein APE1/Ref-1 has grown exponentially. The multifunctional nature of APE1/Ref-1 is uncovering and has been extensively studied in the cellular response against oxidative stress. Recent evidence shows a biological role of APE1/Ref-1 can be modulated by the different post-translational modification. Because of APE1/Ref-1 importance to genomic stability and cell survival, APE1/Ref-1 is focused as the leading therapeutic target molecule for the oxidative stress condition or pathologic conditions such as cancer. This forum, dedicated to APE1/Ref-1, provides ample testimony that even though we have learned a great deal about APE1/Ref-1 over the past 15-plus years, our knowledge still constitutes the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding this versatile protein.

  4. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Recently, adaptive beamformers have been introduced to medical ultrasound imaging. The primary focus has been on the minimum variance (MV) (or Capon) beamformer. This work investigates an alternative but closely related beamformer, the Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) beamformer. APES offers...

  5. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries.

  6. APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    of cryptographic schemes actually require the nonce assumption for their security. In this paper, we propose APE as the first permutation-based authenticated encryption scheme that is resistant against nonce misuse. We formally prove that APE is secure, based on the security of the underlying permutation....... To decrypt, APE processes the ciphertext blocks in reverse order, and uses inverse permutation calls. APE therefore requires a permutation that is both efficient for forward and inverse calls. We instantiate APE with the permutations of three recent lightweight hash function designs: Quark, Photon...

  7. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central....../eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost...

  8. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  9. Ape language research: A review and behavioral perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hixson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The ape language research of the Gardners, Fouts, Terrace, Rumbaugh, and Savage-Rumbaugh is reviewed. This research involved the raising of chimpanzees (and a bonobo) in human-like environments over extended time periods. The results indicate that apes are capable of learning small verbal repertoires in a fashion similar to that of human infants. The writings of the ape language researchers show an opposition to behavioral approaches to language. Although they characterize each other's work a...

  10. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  11. Urinary APE1/Ref-1: A Potential Bladder Cancer Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Song, Ki Hak; Na, Yong Gil; Chang, Seok Jong; Lim, Jae Sung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urothelial cancers with still noticeable incidence rate. Early detection of BCa is highly correlated with successful therapeutic outcomes. We previously showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) was expressed at an increased level in the serum of BCa patients when compared to the level in healthy controls. In this study, we investigated whether urinary APE1/Ref-1 was also elevated in patients with BCa. In this case-control study, voided urine was collected from 277 subjects including 169 BCa patients and 108 non-BCa controls. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). APE1/Ref-1 levels were significantly elevated in BCa patients relative to levels in non-BCa controls and were correlated with tumor grade and stage. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels were also higher in patients with recurrence history of BCa. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of APE1/Ref-1 showed an area under the curve of 0.83, indicating the reliability and validity of this biomarker. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was determined to be 82% and 80% at a cut-off value of 0.376 ng/100 μL for detection of APE1/Ref-1 in urine. In conclusion, urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels measured from noninvasively obtained body fluids would be clinically applicable for diagnosis of BCa.

  12. Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bearzi, M.; Stanford, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Dolphins and African apes are distantly related mammalian taxa that exhibit striking convergences in their socioecology. In both cetaceans and African apes, two or more closely related species sometimes occur in sympatry. However, detailed reviews of the ways in which sympatric associations of dolph

  13. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and popula

  14. Apes have culture but may not know that they do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud eGruber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence that some ape behaviours can be transmitted socially and that this can lead to group-specific traditions. However, many consider animal traditions, including those in great apes, to be fundamentally different from human cultures, largely because of lack of evidence for cumulative processes and normative conformity, but perhaps also because current research on ape culture is usually restricted to behavioural comparisons. Here, we propose to analyse ape culture not only at the surface behavioural level but also at the underlying cognitive level. To this end, we integrate empirical findings in apes with theoretical frameworks developed in developmental psychology regarding the representation of tools and the development of metarepresentational abilities, to characterise the differences between ape and human cultures at the cognitive level. Current data are consistent with the notion of apes possessing mental representations of tools that can be accessed through re-representations: apes may reorganise their knowledge of tools in the form of categories or functional schemes. However, we find no evidence for metarepresentations of cultural knowledge: apes may not understand that they or others hold beliefs about their cultures. The resulting Jourdain Hypothesis, based on Molière’s character, argues that apes express their cultures without knowing that they are cultural beings because of cognitive limitations in their ability to represent knowledge, a determining feature of modern human cultures, allowing representing and modifying the current norms of the group. Differences in metarepresentational processes may thus explain fundamental differences between human and other animals’ cultures, notably limitations in cumulative behaviour and normative conformity. Future empirical work should focus on how animals mentally represent their cultural knowledge to conclusively determine the ways by which humans are unique in their

  15. Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Bania, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable scientific debate. Here, we examined handedness for coordinated bimanual actions in a sample of 777 great apes including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans. We found population......-level right-handedness in chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, but left-handedness in orangutans. Directional biases in handedness were consistent across independent samples of apes within each genus. We suggest that, contrary to previous claims, population-level handedness is evident in great apes but differs...

  16. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  17. Does Sympathy Motivate Prosocial Behaviour in Great Apes?

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Liebal; Amrisha Vaish; Daniel Haun; Michael Tomasello

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underl...

  18. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Vaish, Amrisha; Haun, Daniel; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food) compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  19. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Liebal

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  20. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  1. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives.

  2. A new approach for monitoring ebolavirus in wild great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E Reed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Africa is a "hotspot" for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs of global and local importance, and a current outbreak of ebolavirus is affecting multiple countries simultaneously. Ebolavirus is suspected to have caused recent declines in resident great apes. While ebolavirus vaccines have been proposed as an intervention to protect apes, their effectiveness would be improved if we could diagnostically confirm Ebola virus disease (EVD as the cause of die-offs, establish ebolavirus geographical distribution, identify immunologically naïve populations, and determine whether apes survive virus exposure.Here we report the first successful noninvasive detection of antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV from wild ape feces. Using this method, we have been able to identify gorillas with antibodies to EBOV with an overall prevalence rate reaching 10% on average, demonstrating that EBOV exposure or infection is not uniformly lethal in this species. Furthermore, evidence of antibodies was identified in gorillas thought previously to be unexposed to EBOV (protected from exposure by rivers as topological barriers of transmission.Our new approach will contribute to a strategy to protect apes from future EBOV infections by early detection of increased incidence of exposure, by identifying immunologically naïve at-risk populations as potential targets for vaccination, and by providing a means to track vaccine efficacy if such intervention is deemed appropriate. Finally, since human EVD is linked to contact with infected wildlife carcasses, efforts aimed at identifying great ape outbreaks could have a profound impact on public health in local communities, where EBOV causes case-fatality rates of up to 88%.

  3. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  4. Foresight, function representation, and social intelligence in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We find problems with Vaesen's treatment of the primatological research, in particular his analysis of foresight, function representation, and social intelligence. We argue that his criticism of research on foresight in great apes is misguided. His claim that primates do not attach functions to particular objects is also problematic. Finally, his analysis of theory of mind neglects many distinctions.

  5. Ape limb bone from the oligocene of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, J G; Simons, E L; Conroy, G C

    1975-07-11

    An ulna attributed to Aegyptopithecus zeuxis provides the first evidence for interpreting the locomotor behavior of the earliest apes. The fossil indicates that Aegyptopithecus was an arboreal quadruped and that the primitive hominoid locomotor pattern was most nearly analogous, among living primates, to that of Alouatta, the howler monkey.

  6. Phylogenetic Approach to Object Manipulation in Human and Ape Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Parker and Gibson's developmental model of evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids is described and discussed; data from a comparative study of object manipulation in two apes and a human infant are reported; and, human ontogenic developmental retardation in locomotion is discussed in terms of its implications for the differential…

  7. Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Irani, Kaikobad [Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jeon, Byeong Hwa, E-mail: bhjeon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Trichostatin A (TSA) increased APE1/Ref-1 secretion in HEK293 cells. •Lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R) was not secreted by TSA. •TSA induced cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. •APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation. -- Abstract: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 μM). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.

  8. Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Irani, Kaikobad; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 μM). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.

  9. Unexplored Archaeal Diversity in the Great Ape Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Goodman, Andrew L.; Ochman, Howard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Archaea are habitual residents of the human gut flora but are detected at substantially lower frequencies than bacteria. Previous studies have indicated that each human harbors very few archaeal species. However, the low diversity of human-associated archaea that has been detected could be due to the preponderance of bacteria in these communities, such that relatively few sequences are classified as Archaea even when microbiomes are sampled deeply. Moreover, the universal prokaryotic primer pair typically used to interrogate microbial diversity has low specificity to the archaeal domain, potentially leaving vast amounts of diversity unobserved. As a result, the prevalence, diversity, and distribution of archaea may be substantially underestimated. Here we evaluate archaeal diversity in gut microbiomes using an approach that targets virtually all known members of this domain. Comparing microbiomes across five great ape species allowed us to examine the dynamics of archaeal lineages over evolutionary time scales. These analyses revealed hundreds of gut-associated archaeal lineages, indicating that upwards of 90% of the archaeal diversity in the human and great ape gut microbiomes has been overlooked. Additionally, these results indicate a progressive reduction in archaeal diversity in the human lineage, paralleling the decline reported for bacteria. IMPORTANCE Our findings show that Archaea are a habitual and vital component of human and great ape gut microbiomes but are largely ignored on account of the failure of previous studies to realize their full diversity. Here we report unprecedented levels of archaeal diversity in great ape gut microbiomes, exceeding that detected by conventional 16S rRNA gene surveys. Paralleling what has been reported for bacteria, there is a vast reduction of archaeal diversity in humans. Our study demonstrates that archaeal diversity in the great ape gut microbiome greatly exceeds that reported previously and provides the basis

  10. The role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Yang, Sun; Misner, Bobbye J; Liu-Smith, Feng; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a third of the estimated cancer-caused deaths worldwide. To deeply understand the mechanisms controlling HCC progression is of primary importance to develop new approaches for treatment. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox effector factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) has been uncovered elevated in various types of cancer, including HCC. Additionally, HCC progression is always correlated with elevated copper (Cu). Our previous data demonstrated that Cu treatment initiated APE/Ref-1 expression and its downstream targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that APE/Ref-1 may be involved in HCC progression through mediating the effect of Cu to its signaling cascades. Following different treatments, human HCC cell line (Hep3B) and immortalized non-malignant hepatocyte cell line (THLE3) were analyzed to explore the role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway. Unstained human tissue microarrays (TMA) were subjected to IHC analysis to study the relationship between APE/Ref-1 expression and clinic features. APE/Ref-1 was upregulated in HCC cells consistent with the strong expression of APE/Ref-1 in HCC tissue microarray. Greater cytoplasmic accumulation of APE/Ref-1 was found in poorly differentiated and more aggressive tumors. Also we provide evidence to show that APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway stimulates cellular proliferation, enhances anti-apoptosis, and facilitates metastasis through experimental knockdown of APE/Ref-1 using siRNA in Hep3B cells or overexpressing APE/Ref-1 in THLE3 cells. These results define a novel role of APE/Ref-1 in HCC progression as being an important mediating and potentiating molecule, and also provide a basis for further investigations utilizing appropriate APE/Ref-1 inhibitors in combination with chemo-drugs for HCC treatment.

  11. A new method for interharmonic detection via APES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Y.; Sun, Y. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electrical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    This paper presented a method of detecting the amplitudes and phases of interharmonics in electric power systems. The amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid (APES) spectral estimation method was used as a non-parametric spectral analysis technique with a computerized simulation of an AC-DC-AC converter designed to generate interharmonic signals. The APES estimator was classified as a matched-filterbank (MAFI) estimator that was used to decompose N observations obtained from the complex amplitudes of sinusoidal signals. Formulas for the evaluation of harmonic and interharmonic frequencies for DC-link, supply system, and output side currents were presented. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to accurately predict all interharmonic parameters. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R Alan; Gnerre, Sante; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Huddleston, John; Meyer, Thomas J; Herrero, Javier; Roos, Christian; Aken, Bronwen; Anaclerio, Fabio; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Baker, Carl; Barrell, Daniel; Batzer, Mark A; Beal, Kathryn; Blancher, Antoine; Bohrson, Craig L; Brameier, Markus; Campbell, Michael S; Capozzi, Oronzo; Casola, Claudio; Chiatante, Giorgia; Cree, Andrew; Damert, Annette; de Jong, Pieter J; Dumas, Laura; Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos; Flicek, Paul; Fuchs, Nina V; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Hahn, Matthew W; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hubley, Robert; Ianc, Bianca; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Jablonski, Nina G; Johnstone, Laurel M; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Konkel, Miriam K; Kostka, Dennis; Lazar, Nathan H; Lee, Sandra L; Lewis, Lora R; Liu, Yue; Locke, Devin P; Mallick, Swapan; Mendez, Fernando L; Muffato, Matthieu; Nazareth, Lynne V; Nevonen, Kimberly A; O'Bleness, Majesta; Ochis, Cornelia; Odom, Duncan T; Pollard, Katherine S; Quilez, Javier; Reich, David; Rocchi, Mariano; Schumann, Gerald G; Searle, Stephen; Sikela, James M; Skollar, Gabriella; Smit, Arian; Sonmez, Kemal; ten Hallers, Boudewijn; Terhune, Elizabeth; Thomas, Gregg W C; Ullmer, Brygg; Ventura, Mario; Walker, Jerilyn A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Walter, Lutz; Ward, Michelle C; Wheelan, Sarah J; Whelan, Christopher W; White, Simon; Wilhelm, Larry J; Woerner, August E; Yandell, Mark; Zhu, Baoli; Hammer, Michael F; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; Fulton, Lucinda; Fronick, Catrina; Muzny, Donna M; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wilson, Richard K; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-09-11

    Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation ∼5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat.

  13. Differential expression of APE1 and APE2 in germinal centers promotes error-prone repair and A:T mutations during somatic hypermutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnezer, Janet; Linehan, Erin K; Thompson, Mikayla R; Habboub, Ghaith; Ucher, Anna J; Kadungure, Tatenda; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Schrader, Carol E

    2014-06-24

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody variable region genes is initiated in germinal center B cells during an immune response by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils. During accurate repair in nonmutating cells, uracil is excised by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), leaving abasic sites that are incised by AP endonuclease (APE) to create single-strand breaks, and the correct nucleotide is reinserted by DNA polymerase β. During SHM, for unknown reasons, repair is error prone. There are two APE homologs in mammals and, surprisingly, APE1, in contrast to its high expression in both resting and in vitro-activated splenic B cells, is expressed at very low levels in mouse germinal center B cells where SHM occurs, and APE1 haploinsufficiency has very little effect on SHM. In contrast, the less efficient homolog, APE2, is highly expressed and contributes not only to the frequency of mutations, but also to the generation of mutations at A:T base pair (bp), insertions, and deletions. In the absence of both UNG and APE2, mutations at A:T bp are dramatically reduced. Single-strand breaks generated by APE2 could provide entry points for exonuclease recruited by the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6, and the known association of APE2 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen could recruit translesion polymerases to create mutations at AID-induced lesions and also at A:T bp. Our data provide new insight into error-prone repair of AID-induced lesions, which we propose is facilitated by down-regulation of APE1 and up-regulation of APE2 expression in germinal center B cells.

  14. Chromosomes and the origins of Apes and Australopithecines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaline, Jean; Durand, Alain; Marchand, Didier; Dambricourt Malassé, Anne; Deshayes, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    International audience; Comparison of molecular data suggests that the higher apes (Gorilla, Pan) and humankind (Homo) are closely related and that they diverged from the common ancestor through two speciation events situated very closely together in time. Examination of the chromosomal formulas of the living species reveals a paradox on the distribution of mutated chromosomes which can only be re-solved by a model of trichotomic diversification. This new model of divergence from the common a...

  15. Age-dependent cognitive inflexibility in great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Manrique, Hector; Call, Josep

    2015-01-01

    The ability to suppress and/or change behaviour on the basis of negative feedback, often conceptualized as cognitive flexibility, has rarely been investigated in nonhuman great apes across a broad age range. In this study, 25 chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, eight bonobos, Pan paniscus, seven orang-utans, Pongo abelii, and three gorillas, Gorilla gorilla, whose ages ranged from 5 to 48 years, were presented with a transparent Plexiglas rectangular box horizontally attached to their cage mesh. A ...

  16. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  18. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  19. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must...... behavior needs of captive great apes and demonstrate the importance of including all components of the captive enclosure in comprehensive analyses of great ape behavior and welfare...

  20. apeNEXT: A multi-TFlops Computer for Simulations in Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Pietri, R; Renzo, F D; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Lukyanov, M; De Luca, S; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Pleiter, D; Paschedag, N; Rapuano, F; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We present the APE (Array Processor Experiment) project for the development of dedicated parallel computers for numerical simulations in lattice gauge theories. While APEmille is a production machine in today's physics simulations at various sites in Europe, a new machine, apeNEXT, is currently being developed to provide multi-Tflops computing performance. Like previous APE machines, the new supercomputer is largely custom designed and specifically optimized for simulations of Lattice QCD.

  1. An Analysis of The Hairy Ape from the Perspective of Trauma Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-hui

    2015-01-01

    The Hairy Ape is a representative play of Eugene O’Neill that distinguishes collective trauma of mechanization and ma⁃terialism in the 20th century of America. Till now, there have not been any thesis discussing The Hairy Ape from the perspective of trauma theory. And the studies of other works on trauma theory is also not many. Based on trauma theory, this thesis makes a decoding in The Hairy Ape.

  2. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans.

  3. Effect of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu Polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 Expression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that genetic variation in base excision repair (BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. Thus, we evaluated the influence of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 expression in normal and tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer. The results indicate a downregulation of OGG1 and an upregulation of XRCC1 expression in tumor tissue. Regarding the anatomical location of APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1, a decrease in gene expression was observed among patients with cancer in the rectum. In patients with or without some degree of tumor invasion, a significant downregulation in OGG1 was observed in tumor tissue. Interestingly, when taking into account the tumor stage, patients with more advanced grades (III and IV showed a significant repression for APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1. XRCC1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in tumor samples and were correlated with all clinical and histopathological data. Concerning the polymorphism T2197G, GG genotype carriers exhibited a significantly reduced expression of genes of the BER repair system (APE1, XRCC1 and PARP1. In summary, our data show that patients with colorectal cancer present expression changes in several BER genes, suggesting a role for APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 and APE1 polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  4. APE1/Ref-1 regulates STAT3 transcriptional activity and APE1/Ref-1-STAT3 dual-targeting effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Angelo A; Jiang, Yanlin; Luo, Meihua; Reed, April M; Shahda, Safi; He, Ying; Maitra, Anirban; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a largely incurable disease, and increasing evidence supports strategies targeting multiple molecular mediators of critical functions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Intracellular redox state modulates the activity of various signal transduction pathways and biological processes, including cell survival, drug resistance and responsiveness to microenvironmental factors. Recently, it has been shown that the transcription factor STAT3 is under redox control, but the mechanisms involved in its regulation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by the redox function of the APE1/Ref-1 endonuclease, using overexpression and redox-specific mutational strategies, and gene knockdown. Also, pharmacological blockade of APE1/Ref-1 by the redox-selective inhibitor E3330 abrogates STAT3 DNA binding. Since APE1/Ref-1 also exerts redox control on other cancer-associated transcription factors, we assessed the impact of dual-targeting of STAT3 signaling and APE1/Ref-1 redox on pancreatic cancer cell functions. We observed that disruption of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity synergizes with STAT3 blockade to potently inhibit the proliferation and viability of human PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we show that STAT3-APE1/Ref-1 dual targeting promotes marked tumor cell apoptosis, with engagement of caspase-3 signaling, which are significantly increased in comparison to the effects triggered by single target blockade. Also, we show that STAT3-APE1/Ref-1 dual blockade results in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration. Overall, this work demonstrates that the transcriptional activity of STAT3 is directly regulated by the redox function of APE1/Ref-1, and that concurrent blockade of STAT3 and APE1/Ref-1 redox synergize effectively inhibit critical PDAC cell functions.

  5. Synthetic lethal targeting of DNA double strand break repair deficient cells by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Rebeka; McNeill, Daniel R.; Abbotts, Rachel; Mohammed, Mohammed Z.; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z.; Qutob, Haitham; Seedhouse, Claire; Charles A. Laughton; Fischer, Peter M.; Patel, Poulam M.; Wilson, David M.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is an obligatory cytotoxic intermediate in DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) that is processed by human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is essential for BER and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have isolated novel small molecule inhibitors of APE1. In the current study we have investigated the ability of APE1 inhibitors to induce synthetic lethality in a panel of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair deficient and proficient cells; a) Chine...

  6. Ape1/Ref-1 Stimulates GDNF/GFRalpha1-mediated Downstream Signaling and Neuroblastoma Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Young; Kim, Kweon Young; Yoon, Young; Kang, Yoonsung; Kim, Hong Beum; Youn, Cha Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hui; Kim, Mi-Hwa

    2009-10-01

    We previously reported that glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) is a direct target of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1). In the present study, we further analyzed the physiological roles of Ape1/Ref-1-induced GFRalpha1 expression in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. Ape1/Ref-1 expression caused the clustering of GFRalpha1 immunoreactivity in lipid rafts in response to GDNF. We also found that Ret, a downstream target of GFRalpha1, was functionally activated by GDNF in Ape1/Ref-1-expressing cells. Moreover, GDNF promoted the proliferation of Ape1/Ref-1-expressing Neuro2a cells. Furthermore, GFRalpha1-specific RNA experiments demonstrated that the downregulation of GFRalpha1 by siRNA in Ape1/Ref-1-expressing cells impaired the ability of GDNF to phosphorylate Akt and PLCgamma-1 and to stimulate cellular proliferation. These results show an association between Ape1/Ref-1 and GDNF/GFRalpha signaling, and suggest a potential molecular mechanism for the involvement of Ape1/Ref-1 in neuronal proliferation.

  7. Dynamic Regulation of APE1/Ref-1 as a Therapeutic Target Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 functions in the DNA base excision repair pathway, the redox regulation of several transcription factors, and the control of intracellular redox status through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. APE1/Ref-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus; however, its subcellular localization is dynamically regulated and it may be found in the mitochondria or elsewhere in the cytoplasm. Studies have identified a nuclear localization signal and a mitochondrial target sequence in APE1/Ref-1, as well as the involvement of the nuclear export system, as determinants of APE1/Ref-1 subcellular distribution. Recently, it was shown that APE1/Ref-1 is secreted in response to hyperacetylation at specific lysine residues. Additionally, post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, S-nitrosation, and ubiquitination appear to play a role in fine-tuning the activities and subcellular localization of APE1/Ref-1. In this review, we will introduce the multifunctional role of APE1/Ref-1 and its potential usefulness as a therapeutic target in cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Differences in the Nonverbal Requests of Great Apes and Human Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M. H.; Tomasello, Michael; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how great apes and human infants use imperative pointing to request objects. In a series of three experiments (infants, N = 44; apes, N = 12), subjects were given the opportunity to either point to a desired object from a distance or else to approach closer and request it pro

  9. Genistein induces apoptosis by stabilizing intracellular p53 protein through an APE1-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwu; Zhang, Chong; Qing, Yi; Cheng, Yi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Mengxia; Yang, Zhenzhou; Wang, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Genistein (GEN) has been previously shown to have a proapoptotic effect on cancer cells through a p53-dependent pathway, the mechanism of which remains unclear. One of its intracellular targets, APE1, protects against apoptosis under genotoxic stress and interacts with p53. In this current study, we explored the mechanism of the proapoptotic effect of GEN by examining the APE1-p53 protein-protein interaction. We initially showed that the p53 protein level was elevated in GEN-treated human non-small lung cancer A549 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. By examining both protein synthesis and degradation, we found that GEN enhances p53 intracellular stability by interfering with the interaction of APE1 and p53, which provided a plausible explanation for how GEN initiates apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the interaction between APE1 and p53 is important for the degradation of p53 and is dependent on the redox domain of APE1 by utilizing the redox domain mutant APE1 C65A. Our data suggest that the degradation of wild-type p53 is blocked when the redox domain of APE1 is masked or interrupted. Based on this evidence, we hereby report a novel mechanism of p53 degradation through an APE1-mediated, redox-dependent pathway.

  10. The role of APE/Ref-1 in oxidative stress injury%APE/Ref-1在氧化应激损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建宏; 吴丽颖; 朱玲玲; 范明

    2009-01-01

    APE/Ref-1是一个在体内广泛分布的多功能蛋白质,在DNA碱基切除修复、细胞信号转导、转录因子的氧化还原和活性氧簇(ROS)的调控等多个重要生物学过程中发挥着重要作用.本文综合近几年国内外的众多文献,从APE/Ref-1的结构、分布、功能入手,综述了APE/Ref-1的各种功能和作用机制,重点阐述了APE/Ref-1在氧化应激损伤中的作用.

  11. APES-based procedure for super-resolution SAR imagery with GPU parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaojian; Xu, Guangyao

    2015-10-01

    The amplitude and phase estimation (APES) algorithm is widely used in modern spectral analysis. Compared with conventional Fourier transform (FFT), APES results in lower sidelobes and narrower spectral peaks. However, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with large scene, without parallel computation, it is difficult to apply APES directly to super-resolution radar image processing due to its great amount of calculation. In this paper, a procedure is proposed to achieve target extraction and parallel computing of APES for super-resolution SAR imaging. Numerical experimental are carried out on Tesla K40C with 745 MHz GPU clock rate and 2880 CUDA cores. Results of SAR image with GPU parallel computing show that the parallel APES is remarkably more efficient than that of CPU-based with the same super-resolution.

  12. New Protein Vector ApE1 for Targeted Delivery of Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pozdniakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new chimeric gene ApE1 encoding the receptor-binding domain of the human alpha-fetoprotein fused to a sequence of 22 glutamic acid residues was constructed. A new bacterial producer strain E. coli SHExT7 ApE1 was selected for ApE1 production in a soluble state. A simplified method was developed to purify ApE1 from bacterial biomass. It was shown that the new vector protein selectively interacts with AFP receptors on the tumor cell surface and can be efficiently accumulated in tumor cells. In addition, ApE1 was shown to be stable in storage and during its chemical modification. An increased number of carboxyl groups in the molecule allows the production of cytotoxic compound conjugates with higher drug-loading capacity and enhanced tumor targeting potential.

  13. The strength of great apes and the speed of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alan

    2009-04-01

    Cliff Jolly developed a causal model of human origins in his paper "The Seed-Eaters," published in 1970. He was one of the first to attempt this, and the paper has since become a classic. I do not have such grand goals; instead, I seek to understand a major difference between the living great apes and humans. More than 50 years ago, Maynard Smith and Savage (1956) showed that the musculoskeletal systems of mammals can be adapted for strength at one extreme and speed at the other but not both. Great apes are adapted for strength--chimpanzees have been shown to be about four times as strong as fit young humans when normalized for body size. The corresponding speed that human limb systems gain at the expense of power is critical for effective human activities such as running, throwing, and manipulation, including tool making. The fossil record can shed light on when the change from power to speed occurred. I outline a hypothesis that suggests that the difference in muscular performance between the two species is caused by chimpanzees having many fewer small motor units than humans, which leads them, in turn, to contract more muscle fibers earlier in any particular task. I outline a histological test of this hypothesis.

  14. Lucanthone and its derivative hycanthone inhibit apurinic endonuclease-1 (APE1 by direct protein binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta D Naidu

    Full Text Available Lucanthone and hycanthone are thioxanthenone DNA intercalators used in the 1980s as antitumor agents. Lucanthone is in Phase I clinical trial, whereas hycanthone was pulled out of Phase II trials. Their potential mechanism of action includes DNA intercalation, inhibition of nucleic acid biosyntheses, and inhibition of enzymes like topoisomerases and the dual function base excision repair enzyme apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1. Lucanthone inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity. Our goal was to decipher the precise mechanism of APE1 inhibition as a prerequisite towards development of improved therapeutics that can counteract higher APE1 activity often seen in tumors. The IC(50 values for inhibition of APE1 incision of depurinated plasmid DNA by lucanthone and hycanthone were 5 µM and 80 nM, respectively. The K(D values (affinity constants for APE1, as determined by BIACORE binding studies, were 89 nM for lucanthone/10 nM for hycanthone. APE1 structures reveal a hydrophobic pocket where hydrophobic small molecules like thioxanthenones can bind, and our modeling studies confirmed such docking. Circular dichroism spectra uncovered change in the helical structure of APE1 in the presence of lucanthone/hycanthone, and notably, this effect was decreased (Phe266Ala or Phe266Cys or Trp280Leu or abolished (Phe266Ala/Trp280Ala when hydrophobic site mutants were employed. Reduced inhibition by lucanthone of the diminished endonuclease activity of hydrophobic mutant proteins (as compared to wild type APE1 supports that binding of lucanthone to the hydrophobic pocket dictates APE1 inhibition. The DNA binding capacity of APE1 was marginally inhibited by lucanthone, and not at all by hycanthone, supporting our hypothesis that thioxanthenones inhibit APE1, predominantly, by direct interaction. Finally, lucanthone-induced degradation was drastically reduced in the presence of short and long lived free radical scavengers, e

  15. Tat-APE1/ref-1 protein inhibits TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun Jeong; Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Kwon Ho; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2008-03-28

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved both in DNA base excision repair and redox regulation. In this study we evaluated the protective role of Tat-mediated APE1/ref-1 transduction on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-activated endothelial activation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. To construct Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein, human full length of APE1/ref-1 was fused with Tat-protein transduction domain. Purified Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein efficiently transduced cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and reached maximum expression at 1h after incubation. Transduced Tat-APE1/ref-1 showed inhibitory activity on the TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. These results suggest Tat-APE1/ref-1 might be useful to reduce vascular endothelial activation or vascular inflammatory disorders.

  16. 5-HMF prevents against oxidative injury via APE/Ref-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-H; Di, Y; Wu, L-Y; He, Y-L; Zhao, T; Huang, X; Ding, X-F; Wu, K-W; Fan, M; Zhu, L-L

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative injury is involved in many diseases, including ischemic and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant drugs can be used to relieve the oxidative injury caused by these diseases; however, there are very few antioxidant drugs available for clinical use. In this study, we found that 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (5-HMF) protects against the oxidative damage induced by cerebral ischemia in rats or by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in PC12 cells. We demonstrated that 5-HMF performs this function via apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1). APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in oxidative DNA damage repair through the base excision repair (BER) pathway and in the regulation of the DNA-binding activity of several transcription factors. The current study focused on the role of APE/Ref-1 in the antioxidative properties of 5-HMF. The results show that 5-HMF inhibited the reduction of APE/Ref-1 protein level caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats or H2O2 treatment in PC12 cells. Treatment with an APE/Ref-1 inhibitor blocked 5-HMF-induced protection, suggesting that APE/Ref-1's DNA repair function contributes to antioxidation. In conclusion, this study suggests that APE/Ref-1 may be a potential target for antioxidant drugs.

  17. Subcellular localization of APE1/Ref-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma: possible prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maso, Vittorio; Avellini, Claudio; Crocè, Lory Saveria; Rosso, Natalia; Quadrifoglio, Franco; Cesaratto, Laura; Codarin, Erika; Bedogni, Giorgio; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Tell, Gianluca; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    APE1/Ref-1, normally localized in the nucleus, is a regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. Cytoplasmic localization has been observed in several tumors and correlates with a poor prognosis. Because no data are available on liver tumors, we investigated APE1/Ref-1 subcellular localization and its correlation with survival in 47 consecutive patients undergoing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection. APE1/Ref-1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in HCC and surrounding liver cirrhosis (SLC) and compared with normal liver tissue. Survival probability was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank test) and Cox regression. Cytoplasmic expression of APE1/Ref-1 was significantly higher in HCC than in SLC (P = 0.00001); normal liver showed only nuclear reactivity. Patients with poorly differentiated HCC showed a cytoplasmic expression three times higher than those with well-differentiated HCC (P = 0.03). Cytoplasmic localization was associated with a median survival time shorter than those with negative cytoplasmic reactivity (0.44 compared with 1.64 years, P = 0.003), and multivariable analysis confirmed that cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 localization is a predictor of survival. Cytoplasmic expression of APE1/Ref-1 is increased in HCC and is associated with a lower degree of differentiation and a shorter survival time, pointing to the use of the cytoplasmic localization of APE1/Ref-1 as a prognostic marker for HCC.

  18. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches.

  19. The limits of endowment effects in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Santos, Laurie R; Hood, Bruce M; Call, Josep

    2011-11-01

    The endowment effect describes the bias that people often value things that they possess more than things they do not possess. Thus, they are often reluctant to trade items in their possession for items of equivalent value. Some nonhuman primates appear to share this bias with humans, but it remains an open question whether they show endowment effects to the same extent as humans do. We investigated endowment effects in all four great ape species (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) by varying whether apes were endowed with food items (Experiment 1, N = 22) or tools that were instrumental in retrieving food (Experiment 2, N = 23). We first assessed apes' preferences for items of a pair and their willingness to trade items in their possession. We then endowed apes with one item of a pair and offered them to trade for the other item. Apes showed endowment effects for food, but not for tools. In Experiment 3, we endowed bonobos (N = 4) and orangutans (N = 5) with either one or 12 food items. Endowment effects did not differ between species and were not influenced by the number of endowed food items. Our findings suggest that endowment effects in great apes are restricted to immediate food gratification and remain unaffected by the quantity of food rewards. However, endowment effects do not seem to extend to other, nonconsumable possessions even when they are instrumental in retrieving food. In general, apes do not show endowment effects across a range of different commodities as humans typically do.

  20. Assessing endocranial variations in great apes and humans using 3D data from virtual endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Coudyzer, Walter; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Roualdès, Georges; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Modern humans are characterized by their large, complex, and specialized brain. Human brain evolution can be addressed through direct evidence provided by fossil hominid endocasts (i.e. paleoneurology), or through indirect evidence of extant species comparative neurology. Here we use the second approach, providing an extant comparative framework for hominid paleoneurological studies. We explore endocranial size and shape differences among great apes and humans, as well as between sexes. We virtually extracted 72 endocasts, sampling all extant great ape species and modern humans, and digitized 37 landmarks on each for 3D generalized Procrustes analysis. All species can be differentiated by their endocranial shape. Among great apes, endocranial shapes vary from short (orangutans) to long (gorillas), perhaps in relation to different facial orientations. Endocranial shape differences among African apes are partly allometric. Major endocranial traits distinguishing humans from great apes are endocranial globularity, reflecting neurological reorganization, and features linked to structural responses to posture and bipedal locomotion. Human endocasts are also characterized by posterior location of foramina rotunda relative to optic canals, which could be correlated to lesser subnasal prognathism compared to living great apes. Species with larger brains (gorillas and humans) display greater sexual dimorphism in endocranial size, while sexual dimorphism in endocranial shape is restricted to gorillas, differences between males and females being at least partly due to allometry. Our study of endocranial variations in extant great apes and humans provides a new comparative dataset for studies of fossil hominid endocasts.

  1. The DNA base excision repair protein Ape1/Ref-1 as a therapeutic and chemopreventive target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Kelley, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    With our growing understanding of the pathways involved in cell proliferation and signaling, targeted therapies, in the treatment of cancer are entering the clinical arena. New and emerging targets are proteins involved in DNA repair pathways. Inhibition of various proteins in the DNA repair pathways sensitizes cancer cells to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and/or radiation. We study the apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) and believe that its crucial function in DNA repair and reduction-oxidation or redox signaling make it an excellent target for sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Ape1/Ref-1 is an essential enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, Ape1/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. Ape1/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NFkappaB, HIF-1alpha, CREB, p53 and others. We will discuss what is known regarding the pharmacological targeting of the DNA repair activity, as well as the redox activity of Ape1/Ref-1, and explore the budding clinical utility of inhibition of either of these functions in cancer treatment. A brief discussion of the effect of polymorphisms in its DNA sequence is included because of Ape1/Ref-1's importance to maintenance and integrity of the genome. Experimental modification of Ape1/Ref-1 activity changes the response of cells and of organisms to DNA damaging agents, suggesting that Ape1/Ref-1 may also be a productive target of chemoprevention. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ape1/Ref-1's activities and explore the potential of this protein as a target in cancer treatment as well as its role in chemoprevention.

  2. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  3. APE1/Ref-1基因真核表达质粒的构建和鉴定%Construction and identification of the eukarotic expression vector of human APE1/Ref-1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永红; 王东; 李增鹏; 杨宇馨

    2007-01-01

    目的 构建含人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段的真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1+ APE1,以期进一步研究该基因对细胞DNA损伤的保护作用.方法 采用RT-PCR法定向克隆人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段,构建pGM-T Easy/APE1质粒,测序鉴定APE1/Ref-1基因cDNA序列正确后,将目的片断亚克隆至真核表达载体pcDNA3.1+上,构成pcDNA3.1+APE1表达质粒,并用Western blotting法检测转染人脐静脉内皮细胞APE1/Ref-1蛋白的表达水平.结果 经酶切及测序证实APE1/Ref-1基因真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1+ APE1构建成功,Western blotting法检测到转染pcDNA3.1+APE1后,细胞内APE1/Ref-1蛋白表达明显增加.结论 成功构建含人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段的真核表达质粒,为探讨APE1/Ref-1对细胞电离辐射损伤的保护作用奠定了基础.

  4. Ape1/Ref-1 induces glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) responsiveness by upregulating GDNF receptor alpha1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Hong-Beum; Acharya, Samudra; Sohn, Hong-Moon; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Chang, In-Youb; You, Ho Jin

    2009-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) dysregulation has been identified in several human tumors and in patients with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the function of Ape1/Ref-1 is unclear. We show here that Ape1/Ref-1 increases the expression of glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1), a key receptor for GDNF. Expression of Ape1/Ref-1 led to an increase in the GDNF responsiveness in human fibroblast. Ape1/Ref-1 induced GFRalpha1 transcription through enhanced binding of NF-kappaB complexes to the GFRalpha1 promoter. GFRalpha1 levels correlate proportionally with Ape1/Ref-1 in cancer cells. The knockdown of endogenous Ape1/Ref-1 in pancreatic cancer cells markedly suppressed GFRalpha1 expression and invasion in response to GNDF, while overexpression of GFRalpha1 restored invasion. In neuronal cells, the Ape1/Ref-1-mediated increase in GDNF responsiveness not only stimulated neurite outgrowth but also protected the cells from beta-amyloid peptide and oxidative stress. Our results show that Ape1/Ref-1 is a novel physiological regulator of GDNF responsiveness, and they also suggest that Ape1/Ref-1-induced GFRalpha1 expression may play important roles in pancreatic cancer progression and neuronal cell survival.

  5. Study of Relationship between APE/Ref-1 and Gynecologic Neoplasm%APE/Ref-1与妇科肿瘤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪瑞; 李英勇

    2010-01-01

    无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶(APE)又名氧化还原因子1(Ref-1),是一种多功能蛋白,除了修复AP 位点外,还保持很多转录因子的活性还原状态,对维持DNA的稳定和调节细胞因子的表达具有重要作用.目前国内外研究发现APE/Ref-1蛋白在细胞中的表达部位与妇科肿瘤的发生、发展及预后有关,而APE/Ref-1蛋白表达水平的改变与妇科肿瘤放疗的敏感性有关.

  6. Impact of APE1/Ref-1 redox inhibition on pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Jiang, Yanlin; Rajeshkumar, N V; Scandura, Glenda; Sinn, Anthony L; He, Ying; Shen, Changyu; Jones, David R; Pollok, Karen E; Ivan, Mircea; Maitra, Anirban; Kelley, Mark R

    2011-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is especially a deadly form of cancer with a survival rate less than 2%. Pancreatic cancers respond poorly to existing chemotherapeutic agents and radiation, and progress for the treatment of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. To address this unmet medical need, a better understanding of critical pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic tumor development, progression, and resistance to traditional therapy is therefore critical. Reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling systems are emerging as important targets in pancreatic cancer. AP endonuclease1/Redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is upregulated in human pancreatic cancer cells and modulation of its redox activity blocks the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic cancer-associated endothelial cells in vitro. Modulation of APE1/Ref-1 using a specific inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1's redox function, E3330, leads to a decrease in transcription factor activity for NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α in vitro. This study aims to further establish the redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 as a molecular target in pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 via E3330 results in tumor growth inhibition in cell lines and pancreatic cancer xenograft models in mice. Pharmacokinetic studies also show that E3330 attains more than10 μmol/L blood concentrations and is detectable in tumor xenografts. Through inhibition of APE1/Ref-1, the activity of NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α that are key transcriptional regulators involved in survival, invasion, and metastasis is blocked. These data indicate that E3330, inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1, has potential in pancreatic cancer and clinical investigation of APE1/Ref-1 molecular target is warranted.

  7. An Analysis of The Hairy Ape from the Perspective of Mythological Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丹秋

    2014-01-01

    This essay is about mythological criticism reflected in Eugene O’Neill’s play-The Hairy Ape. The Hairy Ape documents the downward spiral of a fireman who works on a ship during the period of industrial prosperity in capitalist society. In fact, his degeneration is the miniature of the whole people of that age. Mythological criticism, especially the Jungian psychology and his archetypal insights, will help to understand how the theme is conveyed.

  8. APE1/Ref-1与肿瘤的研究进展%Research progress of APE1/Ref-1 and tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海燕; 辛晓燕

    2012-01-01

    脱嘌呤脱嘧啶核酸内切酶1又称氧化还原因子-1,是一种双功能酶,不仅具有核酸内切酶活性,发挥DNA修复功能,而且具有氧化还原功能,调控多种重要转录因子的活性.目前研究发现APE1/Ref-1在人体多种肿瘤中表达且与肿瘤的发生、发展及预后相关.APE1/Ref-1可能成为极具潜力的肿瘤基因治疗的新靶点.本文就APE1/Ref-1的结构、功能及在肿瘤研究方面的进展作了一系列的回顾与总结.%Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 also known as redox factor - 1, is a bifunctional enzyme, which not only has the endonuclease activity, playing DNA repair function but also has a redox function, regulating a variety of important transcription factor activity. At present, studies have found that APE1/ Ref - 1 is expressed in a variety of human tumors and relates to tumor occurrence, development and prognosis. APE1 / Ref - 1 may be a potential no-vel target for gene therapy of cancer. This article tries to make a series of review and summary on the APE1/ Ref -1 structure, function and how it benefits tumor research progress.

  9. Mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 suppressed protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Choi, Sunga; Park, Kyoungsook; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2014-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an important pathological factor in cardiovascular diseases. The role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) on PKC-induced mitochondrial dysfunction has not been variously investigated. In this study, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species generation and also increased mitochondrial translocation of APE1/Ref-1. APE1/Ref-1 overexpression suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, gene silencing of APE1/Ref-1 increased the sensitivity of mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS)-fused APE1/Ref-1 more effectively suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. These results suggest that mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 is contributed to the protective role to protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  10. APE1/Ref-1 as an emerging therapeutic target for various human diseases: phytochemical modulation of its functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Shweta; Sarkar, Bibekananda; Cholia, Ravi P; Gautam, Nandini; Dhiman, Monisha; Mantha, Anil K

    2014-07-18

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which repairs oxidative base damage caused by endogenous and exogenous agents. APE1 acts as a reductive activator of many transcription factors (TFs) and has also been named redox effector factor 1, Ref-1. For example, APE1 activates activator protein-1, nuclear factor kappa B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, paired box gene 8, signal transducer activator of transcription 3 and p53, which are involved in apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and survival pathways. APE1/Ref-1 maintains cellular homeostasis (redox) via the activation of TFs that regulate various physiological processes and that crosstalk with redox balancing agents (for example, thioredoxin, catalase and superoxide dismutase) by controlling levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The efficiency of APE1/Ref-1's function(s) depends on pairwise interaction with participant protein(s), the functions regulated by APE1/Ref-1 include the BER pathway, TFs, energy metabolism, cytoskeletal elements and stress-dependent responses. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 acts as a 'hub-protein' that controls pathways that are important for cell survival. In this review, we will discuss APE1/Ref-1's versatile nature in various human etiologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases that have been linked with alterations in the expression, subcellular localization and activities of APE/Ref-1. APE1/Ref-1 can be targeted for therapeutic intervention using natural plant products that modulate the expression and functions of APE1/Ref-1. In addition, studies focusing on translational applications based on APE1/Ref-1-mediated therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  11. Synthetic lethal targeting of DNA double strand break repair deficient cells by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rebeka; McNeill, Daniel R.; Abbotts, Rachel; Mohammed, Mohammed Z.; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z.; Qutob, Haitham; Seedhouse, Claire; Laughton, Charles A.; Fischer, Peter M.; Patel, Poulam M.; Wilson, David M.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is an obligatory cytotoxic intermediate in DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) that is processed by human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is essential for BER and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have isolated novel small molecule inhibitors of APE1. In the current study we have investigated the ability of APE1 inhibitors to induce synthetic lethality in a panel of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair deficient and proficient cells; a) Chinese hamster (CH) cells: BRCA2 deficient (V-C8), ATM deficient (V-E5), wild type (V79) and BRCA2 revertant (V-C8(Rev1)). b) Human cancer cells: BRCA1 deficient (MDA-MB-436), BRCA1 proficient (MCF-7), BRCA2 deficient (CAPAN-1 and HeLa SilenciX cells), BRCA2 proficient (PANC1 and control SilenciX cells). We also tested synthetic lethality (SL) in CH ovary cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 (E8 cells) using ATM inhibitors and DNA-PKcs inhibitors (DSB inhibitors). APE1 inhibitors are synthetically lethal in BRCA and ATM deficient cells. APE1 inhibition resulted in accumulation of DNA DSBs and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Synthetic lethality was also demonstrated in CH cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 treated with ATM or DNA-PKcs inhibitors. We conclude that APE1 is a promising synthetic lethality target in cancer. PMID:22377908

  12. Danes commemorating Darwin: apes and evolution at the 1909 anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-10-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: on the one hand, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as 'radical', 'evangelical' and 'safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism prominent among naturalists played only a secondary role in the public arena. This article demonstrates the value of using newspapers as historical sources when looking for public images of Darwin, popular receptions of Darwinism and representations of science in general.

  13. Endothelial cell tumor growth is Ape/ref-1 dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K; Gordillo, Gayle M

    2015-09-01

    Tumor-forming endothelial cells have highly elevated levels of Nox-4 that release H2O2 into the nucleus, which is generally not compatible with cell survival. We sought to identify compensatory mechanisms that enable tumor-forming endothelial cells to survive and proliferate under these conditions. Ape-1/ref-1 (Apex-1) is a multifunctional protein that promotes DNA binding of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as AP-1, and repairs oxidative DNA damage. A validated mouse endothelial cell (EOMA) tumor model was used to demonstrate that Nox-4-derived H2O2 causes DNA oxidation that induces Apex-1 expression. Apex-1 functions as a chaperone to keep transcription factors in a reduced state. In EOMA cells Apex-1 enables AP-1 binding to the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (mcp-1) promoter and expression of that protein is required for endothelial cell tumor formation. Intraperitoneal injection of the small molecule inhibitor E3330, which specifically targets Apex-1 redox-sensitive functions, resulted in a 50% decrease in tumor volume compared with mice injected with vehicle control (n = 6 per group), indicating that endothelial cell tumor proliferation is dependent on Apex-1 expression. These are the first reported results to establish Nox-4 induction of Apex-1 as a mechanism promoting endothelial cell tumor formation.

  14. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  15. Functional assessment of population and tumor-associated APE1 protein variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Illuzzi

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the predominant AP site repair enzyme in mammals. APE1 also maintains 3'-5' exonuclease and 3'-repair activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its REF-1 function. Since complete or severe APE1 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality and cell death, it has been hypothesized that APE1 protein variants with slightly impaired function will contribute to disease etiology. Our data indicate that except for the endometrial cancer-associated APE1 variant R237C, the polymorphic variants Q51H, I64V and D148E, the rare population variants G241R, P311S and A317V, and the tumor-associated variant P112L exhibit normal thermodynamic stability of protein folding; abasic endonuclease, 3'-5' exonuclease and REF-1 activities; coordination during the early steps of base excision repair; and intracellular distribution when expressed exogenously in HeLa cells. The R237C mutant displayed reduced AP-DNA complex stability, 3'-5' exonuclease activity and 3'-damage processing. Re-sequencing of the exonic regions of APE1 uncovered no novel amino acid substitutions in the 60 cancer cell lines of the NCI-60 panel, or in HeLa or T98G cancer cell lines; only the common D148E and Q51H variants were observed. Our results indicate that APE1 missense mutations are seemingly rare and that the cancer-associated R237C variant may represent a reduced-function susceptibility allele.

  16. Cytoplasmic localization and redox cysteine residue of APE1/Ref-1 are associated with its anti-inflammatory activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Kim, Soo Jin; Choi, Sunga; Lee, Sang Do; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-11-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and transcriptional regulation of gene expression. APE1/Ref-1 is mainly localized in the nucleus, but cytoplasmic localization has also been reported. However, the functional role of cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 and its redox cysteine residue are still unknown. We investigated the role of cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions in endothelial cells. Endogenous APE1/Ref-1 was mainly observed in the nucleus, however, cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 was increased by TNF-α. Cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 expression was not blunted by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Transfection of an N-terminus deletion mutant APE1/Ref-1(29-318) inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression, indicating an anti-inflammatory role for APE1/Ref-1 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, redox mutant of APE1/Ref-1 (C65A/C93A) transfection led to increased TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression. Our findings suggest cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 localization and redox cysteine residues of APE1/Ref-1 are associated with its anti-inflammatory activity in endothelial cells.

  17. Size and scaling in the mandible of living and extinct apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravosa, M J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to fill a gap in our knowledge of dietary and allometric determinants of masticatory function and mandibular morphology in major catarrhine clades. To extend the implications of previous work on variation in mandibular form and function in other primates, a scaling analysis was performed on 20 extinct and 7 living non-cercopithecoid catarrhines or 'dental apes'. Results of allometric comparisons indicate that for a given jaw length, larger apes exhibit significantly more robust corpora and symphyses than smaller forms. This appears linked to size-related increases in dietary toughness and/or hardness, which in turn causes elevated mandibular loads and/or greater repetitive loading during unilateral mastication. Larger-bodied dental apes also display more curved symphyses, which also explains the positive allometry of symphysis width and height. In apes, proconsulids often evince more robust jaws while all hylobatids, Pan and Dryopithecus laietanus possess more gracile cross sections. In propliopithecids, Aegyptopithecus is always more robust than Propliopithecus. In proconsulids, Rangwapithecus and Micropithecus commonly exhibit more robust jaws whereas Dendropithecus and especially Simiolus are more gracile. Most of the larger taxa are folivorous and/or hard-object frugivorous pongids with relatively larger dentaries. Though apes have relatively wider corpora than cercopithecines due to greater axial twisting of the corpora during chewing, they are otherwise alike in robusticity levels. Smaller apes are similar to cercopithecines in evincing a relatively high degree of symphyseal curvature, while larger taxa are like colobines in having less curvature. Larger pongids resemble or even exceed colobine jaw proportions and thus appear to converge on colobines in terms of the mechanical properties of their diets.

  18. Anticancer clinical utility of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1), as a type of multifunctional protein, plays an essential role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, APE/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. APE/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA-binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression, such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NF-kappaB, HIF-1alpha, p53, and others. Based on the structures and functions of APE1/Ref-1, we will provide an overview of its activities and explore the budding clinical use of this protein as a target in cancer treatment, and propose that APE/Ref-1 has a great potential for application in clinical research.

  19. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes, and that a ......The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...

  20. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2014-01-01

    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other?

  1. APE1/Ref-1 enhances DNA binding activity of mutant p53 in a redox-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yanping; Dai, Nan; Li, Mengxia; Xiong, Chengjie; Zhang, Qinhong; Sui, Jiangdong; Qian, Chengyuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-02-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a dual function protein; in addition to its DNA repair activity, it can stimulate DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors as a reduction-oxidation (redox) factor. APE1/Ref-1 has been found to be a potent activator of wild-type p53 (wtp53) DNA binding in vitro and in vivo. Although p53 is mutated in most types of human cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), little is known about whether APE1/Ref-1 can regulate mutant p53 (mutp53). Herein, we reported the increased APE1/Ref-1 protein and accumulation of mutp53 in HCC by immunohistochemistry. Of note, it was observed that APE1/Ref-1 high-expression and mutp53 expression were associated with carcinogenesis and progression of HCC. To determine whether APE1/Ref-1 regulates DNA binding of mutp53, we performed electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HCC cell lines. In contrast to sequence-specific and DNA structure-dependent binding of wtp53, reduced mutp53 efficiently bound to nonlinear DNA, but not to linear DNA. Notably, overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 resulted in increased DNA binding activity of mutp53, while downregulation of APE1/Ref-1 caused a marked decrease of mutp53 DNA binding. In addition, APE1/Ref-1 could not potentiate the accumulation of p21 mRNA and protein in mutp53 cells. These data indicate that APE1/Ref-1 can stimulate mutp53 DNA binding in a redox-dependent manner.

  2. Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) in human ovarian cancer and indentification of the therapeutic potential of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Debing; Wang, Dong; Xin, Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Resistance to platinum is a major limitation for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In an effort to overcome the platinum resistance problem in ovarian cancer treatment, we explored the correlation between cisplatin resistance and the human AP endonuclease (APE1 or Ref-1). APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein that is not only an essential enzyme in base excision repair pathway, but also acts as a major redox-signaling factor that has a wide variety of important cellular functions including transcription factor regulation, oxidative signaling and cell cycle control. In this study, we examined APE1/Ref-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sections of ovarian cancers from 78 patients who were administered standard adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum post-operatively. Altered levels and subcellular APE1/Ref-1 expression was found in patients not responding to platinum-based chemotherapy comparing with those who responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. Meanwhile, we detected the APE1/Ref-1 expression in A2780 and CP70 cell lines which have different sensitivity to cisplatin. We found similar altered APE1/Ref-1 expression in them. We hypothesized that the APE1/Ref-1 expression is responsible in part for the cisplatin resistance. To answer this hypothesis, we decreased the APE1/Ref-1 level by silencing RNA targeting technology in A2780 and CP70 cell lines. The A2780 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had IC50 values ranging from 6.70 to 1.74 microM cisplatin compared with 15.81 microM for control A2780 cells. The CP70 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had 1.62-4.63-fold enhancement in cisplatin sensitivity. The apoptosis assays using TUNEL analysis showed that decreased APE1/Ref-1 level resulted in increased apoptosis levels in A2780 and CP70 cell lines compared with the control-treated cells. These data suggest that APE1/Ref-1 levels play an important role in the sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to apoptosis. In vitro studies revealed that it is possible to

  3. The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael; Williamson, David L.; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrea M.; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Kotoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Climate simulations by 16 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are compared on an aqua-planet, a water-covered Earth with prescribed sea surface temperature varying only in latitude. The idealised configuration is designed to expose differences in the circulation simulated by different models. Basic features of the aqua-planet climate are characterised by comparison with Earth. The models display a wide range of behaviour. The balanced component of the tropospheric mean flow, and mid-latitude eddy covariances subject to budget constraints, vary relatively little among the models. In contrast, differences in damping in the dynamical core strongly influence transient eddy amplitudes. Historical uncertainty in modelled lower stratospheric temperatures persists in APE.Aspects of the circulation generated more directly by interactions between the resolved fluid dynamics and parameterized moist processes vary greatly. The tropical Hadley circulation forms either a single or double inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at the equator, with large variations in mean precipitation. The equatorial wave spectrum shows a wide range of precipitation intensity and propagation characteristics. Kelvin mode-like eastward propagation with remarkably constant phase speed dominates in most models. Westward propagation, less dispersive than the equatorial Rossby modes, dominates in a few models or occurs within an eastward propagating envelope in others. The mean structure of the ITCZ is related to precipitation variability, consistent with previous studies.The aqua-planet global energy balance is unknown but the models produce a surprisingly large range of top of atmosphere global net flux, dominated by differences in shortwave reflection by clouds. A number of newly developed models, not optimised for Earth climate, contribute to this. Possible reasons for differences in the optimised models are discussed.The aqua-planet configuration is intended as one component of an

  4. High seroprevalence of enterovirus infections in apes and old world monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; McIntyre, Chloe L; Imai, Natsuko; Clasper, Lucy; Djoko, Cyrille F; LeBreton, Matthew; Vermeulen, Marion; Saville, Andrew; Mutapi, Francisca; Tamoufé, Ubald; Kiyang, John; Biblia, Tafon G; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Pépin, Jacques; Njouom, Richard; Njoum, Richard; Smura, Teemu; Fair, Joseph N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Roivainen, Merja; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates.

  5. Apes finding ants: Predator-prey dynamics in a chimpanzee habitat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Umaru, Buba; Allon, Oliver; Sommer, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Some chimpanzee populations prey upon army ants, usually with stick tools. However, how their prey's subterranean nesting and nomadic lifestyle influence the apes' harvesting success is still poorly understood. This is particularly true for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) at Gashaka/Nigeria, which consume army ants (Dorylus rubellus) with much higher frequency than at other sites. We assessed various harvesting and search options theoretically available to the apes. For this, we reconstructed annual consumption patterns from feces and compared the physical characteristics of exploited ant nests with those that were not targeted. Repeated exploitation of a discovered nest is viable only in the short term, as disturbed colonies soon moved to a new site. Moreover, monitoring previously occupied nest cavities is uneconomical, as ants hardly ever re-used them. Thus, the apes have to detect new nests regularly, although colony density is relatively low (1 colony/1.3 ha). Surprisingly, visual search cues seem to be of limited importance because the probability of a nest being exploited was independent of its conspicuousness (presence of excavated soil piles, concealing leaf-litter or vegetation). However, chimpanzees preferentially targeted nests in forests or at the base of food trees, that is, where the apes spend relatively more time and/or where ant colony density is highest. Taken together, our findings suggest that, instead of employing a search strategy based on visual cues or spatial memory, chimpanzee predation on army ants contains a considerable opportunistic element.

  6. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  7. Identification of plasma APE1/Ref-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic rats: implication of serological biomarker for an endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Choi, Sunga; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-06-14

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We investigated whether APE1/Ref-1 increased in plasma of endotoxemic rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce endotoxemia in rats. Administration of LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly induced plasma nitrite production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). A 37 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in cell-free plasma of LPS-treated rats using anti-APE1/Ref-1, which reached a maximum at 12 h after the LPS injection. The 37 kDa immunoreactive band was identified as rat APE1/Ref-1 by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant human APE1/Ref-1 protein (2-5 μg/ml for 18 h) inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, the level of plasma APE1/Ref-1 increased in LPS-induced endotoxemic rats, suggesting that plasma APE1/Ref-1 might serve as a serological biomarker for endotoxemia.

  8. Mammalian Base Excision Repair: Functional Partnership between PARP-1 and APE1 in AP-Site Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    Full Text Available The apurinic/apyrimidinic- (AP- site in genomic DNA arises through spontaneous base loss and base removal by DNA glycosylases and is considered an abundant DNA lesion in mammalian cells. The base excision repair (BER pathway repairs the AP-site lesion by excising and replacing the site with a normal nucleotide via template directed gap-filling DNA synthesis. The BER pathway is mediated by a specialized group of proteins, some of which can be found in multiprotein complexes in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Using a DNA polymerase (pol β immunoaffinity-capture technique to isolate such a complex, we identified five tightly associated and abundant BER factors in the complex: PARP-1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, PNKP, and Tdp1. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, however, was not present. Nevertheless, the complex was capable of BER activity, since repair was initiated by PARP-1's AP lyase strand incision activity. Addition of purified APE1 increased the BER activity of the pol β complex. Surprisingly, the pol β complex stimulated the strand incision activity of APE1. Our results suggested that PARP-1 was responsible for this effect, whereas other proteins in the complex had no effect on APE1 strand incision activity. Studies of purified PARP-1 and APE1 revealed that PARP-1 was able to stimulate APE1 strand incision activity. These results illustrate roles of PARP-1 in BER including a functional partnership with APE1.

  9. Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity with APX3330 blocks retinal angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Aihua; Gao, Hua; Kelley, Mark R; Qiao, Xiaoxi

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of APE1/Ref-1 in the retina and its potential as a therapeutic target for inhibiting retinal angiogenesis. APE1/Ref-1 expression was quantified by Western blot. The role of APE1/Ref-1 redox function in endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis was examined by treating retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs) with APX3330, a small molecule inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity. In vitro methods included a proliferation assay, a transwell migration assay, a Matrigel tube formation assay, and a Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) using the xCELLigence System. In vivo functional studies of APE1/Ref-1 were carried out by treating very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor knockout mice (Vldlr(-/-)) with intravitreal injection of APX3330, and subsequent measurement of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)-like neovascularization for one week. APE1/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the retina and in RVECs and pericytes in mice. APX3330 (1-10 μM) inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of RVECs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Vldlr(-/-) RVECs were more sensitive to APX3330 than wild-type RVECs. In Vldlr(-/-) mice, a single intravitreal injection of APX3330 at the onset of RAP-like neovascularization significantly reduced RAP-like neovascularization development. APE1/Ref-1 is expressed in retinal vascular cells. APX3330 inhibits RVEC angiogenesis in vitro and significantly reduces RAP-like neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-) mice. These data support the conclusion that APE1/Ref-1 redox function is required for retinal angiogenesis. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may have potential as a therapeutic target for treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration and other neovascular diseases.

  10. Functional characterization of a promoter polymorphism in APE1/Ref-1 that contributes to reduced lung cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Dan; Wang, Huibo; Wu, Wenting; Wang, Xiaotian; Lei, Yunping; Wang, Jiucun; Qian, Ji; Fan, Weiwei; Hu, Zhibin; Jin, Li; Shen, Hongbing; Huang, Wei; Wei, Qingyi; Lu, Daru

    2009-10-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein that possesses both DNA-repair and redox regulatory activities. Although it was originally identified as a DNA-repair enzyme, accumulating evidence supports a role of APE1/Ref-1 in tumor development. To investigate association between APE1/Ref-1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in Chinese populations, we first genotyped three variants of APE1/Ref-1 and found a -141 T-to-G variant (rs1760944) in the promoter associated with decreased risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.62 for GG; P=0.043]. Similar results were obtained in a follow-up replication study. Combined data from the two studies comprising a total of 1072 lung cancer patients and 1064 cancer-free control participants generated a more significant association (P=0.002). We observed lower APE1/Ref-1 mRNA levels in the presence of the protective G allele in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal lung tissues. The -141G-allele-promoter construct exhibited decreased luciferase reporter gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the -141G allele impaired the binding affinity of some transcription factor, accounting for lower APE1/Ref-1-promoter activity. Supershift assays further revealed that the protein of interest was octamer-binding transcription factor-1 (Oct-1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation reconfirmed binding of Oct-1 to the APE1/Ref-1 -141-promoter region. We also found that Oct-1 conferred attenuated transactivation capacity toward the -141G variant by exogenously introducing Oct-1. These data indicate that genetic variations in APE1/Ref-1 may modify susceptibility to lung cancer and provide new insights into an unexpected effect of APE1/Ref-1 on lung carcinogenesis.

  11. 大鼠耳蜗缺血再灌注后APE/Ref-1表达研究%Expression of APE/Ref-1 in the cochlear ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 钟诚; 李太军; 张学渊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlear following cochlear ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Twenty four healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely, the sham operation control group and the ischemia reperfusion group .There were 12 rats in each group. The expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlea was measured immunohistochemistry and western blot . Results In the ischemia reperfusion group, the content of APE/Ref-1 was increased significantly compared with those in the control group. In the normal SD rats, APE/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of spiral ganglion cells and also distributed in the area of spiral ligament and stria vascularis. In the ischemia reperfusion group, The expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlea was increased significantly in cochlear. Coclusion APE/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the spiral ganglion cells. And it was also observed the content of APE/Ref-1 was in-creased significantly In the ischemia reperfusion group. These results suggests that APE/Ref-1 is closely involved in the oxi-dative stress of ischemia reperfusion injury in the cochlear.%目的:观察APE/Ref-1在正常成年SD大鼠内耳蜗缺血再灌注后的表达变化。方法成年SD大鼠24只,随机分成2组(n=12),分别为假手术对照组、缺血再灌注组。各组动物于再灌注24h取出左侧耳蜗,每组随机4个耳蜗,石蜡包埋切片,行免疫组织化学观察APE/Ref-1表达分布。各组余下耳蜗组织进行均浆,进行免疫印记实验,测定匀浆中APE/Ref-1蛋白表达。结果与假手术对照组相比,缺血再灌注组APE/Ref-1蛋白表达显著增加(P<0.05)。在假手术组大鼠耳蜗中,APE/Ref-1主要表达在正常螺旋神经节区,细胞内定位在细胞浆和细胞核,螺旋韧带和血管纹也可以见到表达。缺血再灌注组APE/Ref-1在耳蜗这些部位的表达显著增加。结论正常大鼠内耳表达APE/Ref-1,主要

  12. Downregulation of APE1/Ref-1 is involved in the senescence of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun-Young; Jing, Kaipeng; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Seo, Kang-Sik; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Seok; Jung, Yeon-Joo; Hur, Gang-Min; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jong-Il

    2009-06-01

    The senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) causes disruption of tissue and organ maintenance, and is thus an obstacle to stem cell-based therapies for disease. Although some researchers have studied changes in the characteristics of hMSCs (decreases in differentiation ability and self-renewal), comparing young and old ages, the mechanisms of stem cell senescence have not yet been defined. In this study, we developed a growth curve for human bone marrow derived MSCs (hBMSCs) which changes into a hyperbolic state after passage number 7. Senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) staining of hBMSCs showed 10% in passage 9 and 45% in passage 11. We detected an increase in endogenous superoxide levels during senescence that correlated with senescence markers (SA beta-gal, hyperbolic growth curve). Interestingly, even though endogenous superoxide increased in a replicative senescence model, the expression of APE1/Ref-1, which is sensitive to intracellular redox state, decreased. These effects were confirmed in a stress-induced senescence model by exogenous treatment with H(2)O(2). This change is related to the p53 activity that negatively regulates APE1/Ref-1. p21 expression levels, which represent p53 activity, were transiently increased in passage 9, meaning that they correlated with the expression of APE1/Ref-1. Overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 suppressed superoxide production and decreased SA beta-gal in hBMSCs. In conclusion, intracellular superoxide accumulation appears to be the main cause of the senescence of hBMSCs, and overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 can rescue cells from the senescence phenotype. Maintaining characteristics of hBMSCs by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species production can contribute to tissue regeneration and to improved cell therapy.

  13. SY 17-1 DYNAMIC REGULATION OF REDOX REGULATING FACTOR APE1/REF-1 ON THE OXIDATIVE STRESS AND VASCULAR INFLAMMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 is essential for cellular survival and embryonic lethal in knockout mouse models. Heterozygous APE1/Ref-1 mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, reduced vascular NO levels, and are hypertensive. APE1/Ref-1 reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species production by negatively regulating the activity of the NADPH oxidase. APE1/Ref-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus; however, its subcellular localization is dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that APE1/Ref-1 is secreted in response to hyperacetylation at specific lysine residues. We investigated the functions of extracellular APE1/Ref-1 with respect to leading anti-inflammatory signaling in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells in response to acetylation. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, considerably suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells. During TSA-mediated acetylation in culture, a time-dependent increase in secreted APE1/Ref-1 was confirmed. Recombinant human APE1/Ref-1 with reducing activity induced a conformational change in TNFR1 by thiol-disulfide exchange. Following treatment with the neutralizing anti-APE1/Ref-1 antibody, inflammatory signals via the binding of TNF-α to TNFR1 were remarkably recovered. Furthermore, rhAPE1/Ref-1 inhibited IL-1β-induced VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells, and it inhibited iNOS or COX-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. These results strongly indicate that anti-inflammatory effects of secreted APE1/Ref-1 and its property of secreted APE1/Ref-1 may be useful as a therapeutic biomolecule in cardiovascular disease.

  14. APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Bret D.; Berman, Zachary; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Lin, Yunfeng; Chang, Timothy; Andres, Sara N.; Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Appel, C. Denise; London, Robert E.; Yan, Shan; Williams, R. Scott

    2016-12-27

    The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.

  15. Nuclear depletion of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is an indicator of energy disruption in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpee; Englander, Ella W

    2012-11-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein critical for cellular survival. Its involvement in adaptive survival responses includes key roles in redox sensing, transcriptional regulation, and repair of DNA damage via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Ape1 is abundant in most cell types and central in integrating the first BER step catalyzed by different DNA glycosylases. BER is the main process for removal of oxidative DNA lesions in postmitotic brain cells, and after ischemic brain injury preservation of Ape1 coincides with neuronal survival, while its loss has been associated with neuronal death. Here, we report that in cultured primary neurons, diminution of cellular ATP by either oligomycin or H(2)O(2) is accompanied by depletion of nuclear Ape1, while other BER proteins are unaffected and retain their nuclear localization under these conditions. Importantly, while H(2)O(2) induces γH2AX phosphorylation, indicative of chromatin rearrangements in response to DNA damage, oligomycin does not. Furthermore, despite comparable diminution of ATP content, H(2)O(2) and oligomycin differentially affect critical parameters of mitochondrial respiration that ultimately determine cellular ATP content. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in neurons, nuclear compartmentalization of Ape1 depends on ATP and loss of nuclear Ape1 reflects disruption of neuronal energy homeostasis. Energy crisis is a hallmark of stroke and other ischemic/hypoxic brain injuries. In vivo studies have shown that Ape1 deficit precedes neuronal loss in injured brain regions. Thus, our findings bring to light the possibility that energy failure-induced Ape1 depletion triggers neuronal death in ischemic brain injuries.

  16. Secreted APE1/Ref-1 inhibits TNF-α-stimulated endothelial inflammation via thiol-disulfide exchange in TNF receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Myoung Soo Park; Sunga Choi; Yu Ran Lee; Hee Kyoung Joo; Gun Kang; Cuk-Seong Kim; Soo Jin Kim; Sang Do Lee; Byeong Hwa Jeon

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein with redox activity and is proved to be secreted from stimulated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functions of extracellular APE1/Ref-1 with respect to leading anti-inflammatory signaling in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells in response to acetylation. Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells with an inhibitor of deacetylase that causes intracellular acetylation, considerably ...

  17. A review on protein-protein interaction network of APE1/Ref-1 and its associated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S; Dhiman, M; Tell, G; Mantha, A K

    2015-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a classic example of functionally variable protein. Besides its well-known role in (i) DNA repair of oxidative base damage, APE1 also plays a critical role in (ii) redox regulation of transcription factors controlling gene expression for cell survival pathways, for which it is also known as redox effector factor 1 (Ref-1), and recent evidences advocates for (iii) coordinated control of other non-canonical protein-protein interaction(s) responsible for significant biological functions in mammalian cells. The diverse functions of APE1 can be ascribed to its ability to interact with different protein partners, owing to the attainment of unfolded domains during evolution. Association of dysregulation of APE1 with various human pathologies, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration, is attributable to its multifunctional nature, and this makes APE1 a potential therapeutic target. This review covers the important aspects of APE1 in terms of its significant protein-protein interaction(s), and this knowledge is required to understand the onset and development of human pathologies and to design or improve the strategies to target such interactions for treatment and management of various human diseases.

  18. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rahola, Nil; Durand, Patrick; Magnus, Julie; Willaume, Eric; Renaud, François; Fontenille, Didier; Prugnolle, Franck

    2013-01-01

    During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  19. APE1 is dispensable for S-region cleavage but required for its repair in class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianliang; Husain, Afzal; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Maki

    2014-12-02

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for antibody diversification, namely somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). The deficiency of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) in CH12F3-2A B cells reduces CSR to ∼20% of wild-type cells, whereas the effect of APE1 loss on SHM has not been examined. Here we show that, although APE1's endonuclease activity is important for CSR, it is dispensable for SHM as well as IgH/c-myc translocation. Importantly, APE1 deficiency did not show any defect in AID-induced S-region break formation, but blocked both the recruitment of repair protein Ku80 to the S region and the synapse formation between Sμ and Sα. Knockdown of end-processing factors such as meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) and carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) further reduced the remaining CSR in Ape1-null CH12F3-2A cells. Together, our results show that APE1 is dispensable for SHM and AID-induced DNA breaks and may function as a DNA end-processing enzyme to facilitate the joining of broken ends during CSR.

  20. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  1. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  2. Effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 on vinyl chloride-induced chromosome damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 genes on vinyl chloride(VC)-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes.Methods In this study,317 workers occupationally exposed to VC were recruited from a factory in Shandong Province,China.The micronucleus(MN)frequency in peripheral lymphocytes was used as an indicator of chromosomal damage.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and created restriction site

  3. Reconstruction of genomic rearrangements in great apes and gibbons by chromosome painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jauch, Anna; Wienberg, Johannes; Stanyon, Roscoe; Arnold, N; S. Tofanelli; ISHIDA, T.; Cremer, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The homology between hylobatid chromosomes and other primates has long remained elusive. We used chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of all human chromosome-specific DNA libraries to "paint" the chromosomes of primates and establish homologies between the human, great ape (chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan), and gibbon karyotypes (Hylobates lar species group, 2n = 44). The hybridization patterns unequivocally demonstrate the high degree of chromosomal homology and synteny of great ...

  4. Lineage-Specific Changes in Biomarkers in Great Apes and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Ronke

    Full Text Available Although human biomedical and physiological information is readily available, such information for great apes is limited. We analyzed clinical chemical biomarkers in serum samples from 277 wild- and captive-born great apes and from 312 healthy human volunteers as well as from 20 rhesus macaques. For each individual, we determined a maximum of 33 markers of heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and pancreas function, hemoglobin and lipid metabolism and one marker of inflammation. We identified biomarkers that show differences between humans and the great apes in their average level or activity. Using the rhesus macaques as an outgroup, we identified human-specific differences in the levels of bilirubin, cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase, and bonobo-specific differences in the level of apolipoprotein A-I. For the remaining twenty-nine biomarkers there was no evidence for lineage-specific differences. In fact, we find that many biomarkers show differences between individuals of the same species in different environments. Of the four lineage-specific biomarkers, only bilirubin showed no differences between wild- and captive-born great apes. We show that the major factor explaining the human-specific difference in bilirubin levels may be genetic. There are human-specific changes in the sequence of the promoter and the protein-coding sequence of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1, the enzyme that transforms bilirubin and toxic plant compounds into water-soluble, excretable metabolites. Experimental evidence that UGT1A1 is down-regulated in the human liver suggests that changes in the promoter may be responsible for the human-specific increase in bilirubin. We speculate that since cooking reduces toxic plant compounds, consumption of cooked foods, which is specific to humans, may have resulted in relaxed constraint on UGT1A1 which has in turn led to higher serum levels of bilirubin in humans.

  5. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  6. Fungal phosphate transporter serves as a receptor backbone for gibbon ape leukemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; van Zeijl, Marja; Johann, Stephen V

    1997-01-01

    Pit1, the receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), is proposed to be an integral membrane protein with five extracellular loops. Chimeras made between Pit1 homologs differing in permissivity for infection and between Pit1 and the related protein Pit2 have shown that the fourth extracellular...... in a functional GALV receptor. Therefore, the presence of a Pit1 loop 4-specific sequence is sufficient to confer receptor function for the mammalian retrovirus GALV on the fungal phosphate transporter Pho-4...

  7. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  8. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kormos

    Full Text Available The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1 takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2 identifies priority offset sites, (3 promotes aggregated offsets, and (4 integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  9. Dynamics of DNA methylation in recent human and great ape evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hernando-Herraez

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in regulatory processes such as cell differentiation during development, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and susceptibility to complex disease. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation changes between humans and their closest relatives are still poorly understood. We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ∼800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ∼170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution. We identified a significant positive relationship between the rate of coding variation and alterations of methylation at the promoter level, indicative of co-occurrence between evolution of protein sequence and gene regulation. In contrast, and supporting the idea that many phenotypic differences between humans and great apes are not due to amino acid differences, our analysis also identified 184 genes that are perfectly conserved at protein level between human and chimpanzee, yet show significant epigenetic differences between these two species. We conclude that epigenetic alterations are an important force during primate evolution and have been under-explored in evolutionary comparative genomics.

  10. Wolfgang Köhler's The Mentality of Apes and the animal psychology of his time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Gabriel; Sánchez, Natividad

    2014-10-28

    In 1913, the Anthropoid Station for psychological and physiological research in chimpanzees and other apes was founded by the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Berlin) near La Orotava, Tenerife. Eugene Teuber, its first director, began his work at the Station with several studies of anthropoid apes' natural behavior, particularly chimpanzee body language. In late 1913, the psychologist Wolfgang Köhler, the second and final director of the Station, arrived in Tenerife. During his stay in the Canary Islands, Köhler conducted a series of studies on intelligent behavior in chimpanzees that would become classics in the field of comparative psychology. Those experiments were at the core of his book Intelligenzprüfungen an Menschenaffen (The Mentality of Apes), published in 1921. This paper analyzes Köhler's experiments and notions of intelligent behavior in chimpanzees, emphasizing his distinctly descriptive approach to these issues. It also makes an effort to elucidate some of the theoretical ideas underpinning Köhler's work. The ultimate goal of this paper is to assess the historical significance of Köhler's book within the context of the animal psychology of his time.

  11. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J; Loubes, J-M; Descouens, D; Dumoncel, J; Thackeray, J F; Kahn, J-L; de Beer, F; Riberon, A; Hoffman, K; Balaresque, P; Gilissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  12. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Braga

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo,Gorilla and (Pan,Homo most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  13. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  14. Spatial organization of neurons in the frontal pole sets humans apart from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Katerina; Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Dan P; Park, Min S; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin; Travis, Katie; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Few morphological differences have been identified so far that distinguish the human brain from the brains of our closest relatives, the apes. Comparative analyses of the spatial organization of cortical neurons, including minicolumns, can aid our understanding of the functionally relevant aspects of microcircuitry. We measured horizontal spacing distance and gray-level ratio in layer III of 4 regions of human and ape cortex in all 6 living hominoid species: frontal pole (Brodmann area [BA] 10), and primary motor (BA 4), primary somatosensory (BA 3), and primary visual cortex (BA 17). Our results identified significant differences between humans and apes in the frontal pole (BA 10). Within the human brain, there were also significant differences between the frontal pole and 2 of the 3 regions studied (BA 3 and BA 17). Differences between BA 10 and BA 4 were present but did not reach significance. These findings in combination with earlier findings on BA 44 and BA 45 suggest that human brain evolution was likely characterized by an increase in the number and width of minicolumns and the space available for interconnectivity between neurons in the frontal lobe, especially the prefrontal cortex.

  15. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Simeonov

    Full Text Available APE1 is the major nuclease for excising abasic (AP sites and particular 3'-obstructive termini from DNA, and is an integral participant in the base excision repair (BER pathway. BER capacity plays a prominent role in dictating responsiveness to agents that generate oxidative or alkylation DNA damage, as well as certain chain-terminating nucleoside analogs and 5-fluorouracil. We describe within the development of a robust, 1536-well automated screening assay that employs a deoxyoligonucleotide substrate operating in the red-shifted fluorescence spectral region to identify APE1 endonuclease inhibitors. This AP site incision assay was used in a titration-based high-throughput screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280, a collection of well-characterized, drug-like molecules representing all major target classes. Prioritized hits were authenticated and characterized via two high-throughput screening assays -- a Thiazole Orange fluorophore-DNA displacement test and an E. coli endonuclease IV counterscreen -- and a conventional, gel-based radiotracer incision assay. The top, validated compounds, i.e. 6-hydroxy-DL-DOPA, Reactive Blue 2 and myricetin, were shown to inhibit AP site cleavage activity of whole cell protein extracts from HEK 293T and HeLa cell lines, and to enhance the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate. The studies herein report on the identification of novel, small molecule APE1-targeted bioactive inhibitor probes, which represent initial chemotypes towards the development of potential pharmaceuticals.

  16. GAPforAPE: an augmented browsing system to improve Web 2.0 accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Prandi, Catia; Muratori, Ludovico Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The Web 2.0 evolution has spread more interactive technologies which affected accessibility for users who navigate the Web by using assistive technologies. In particular, the partial download of new data, the continuous refreshing, and the massive use of scripting can represent significant barriers especially for people with visual impairments, who enjoy the Web by means of screen readers. On the other hand, such technologies can be an opportunity, because they can provide a new means of transcoding Web content, making the Web more accessible. In this article we present GAPforAPE, an augmented browsing system (based on Web browsers extensions) which offers a user's profiling system and transcodes Web content according to constrains declared by users: the same Web page is provided to any user, but GAPforAPE computes adequate customizations, by exploiting scripting technologies which usually affect Web pages accessibility. GAPforAPE imitates screen readers behavior: it applies a specific set of transcoding scripts devoted to a given Web site, when available, and a default set of transcoding operations otherwise. The continuous and quick evolution of the Web has shown that a crowdsourcing system is a desirable solution, letting the transcoding scripts evolve in the same way.

  17. Reconsidering great ape imitation and pantomime. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Anne E.

    2016-03-01

    Like previous commentators, I see Arbib's reconstruction of the mirror neuron system's contribution to language evolution [1] as valuable but in need of revision [2,3]. My concerns focus on his proposed behavioral pathway to language - complex imitation to pantomime to protosign - as it concerns great apes. Arbib portrays these abilities as unique to the human lineage, despite evidence that great apes are capable of all three. I suggest great ape findings worth reconsidering.

  18. GSTM1 and APE1 genotypes affect arsenic-induced oxidative stress: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamruzzaman Quazi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin, bladder and lung cancers. Generation of oxidative stress may contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative stress, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG was evaluated in a cohort of 97 women recruited from an arsenic-endemic region of Bangladesh in 2003. Arsenic exposure was measured in urine, toenails, and drinking water. Drinking water and urine samples were collected on three consecutive days. Susceptibility to oxidative stress was evaluated by genotyping relevant polymorphisms in glutathione-s transferase mu (GSTM1, human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1 genes using the Taqman method. Data were analyzed using random effects Tobit regression to account for repeated measures and 8-OHdG values below the detection limit. Results A consistent negative effect for APE1 was observed across water, toenail and urinary arsenic models. APE1 148 glu/glu + asp/glu genotype was associated with a decrease in logged 8-OHdG of 0.40 (95%CI -0.73, -0.07 compared to APE1 148 asp/asp. An association between total urinary arsenic and 8-OHdG was observed among women with the GSTM1 null genotype but not in women with GSTM1 positive. Among women with GSTM1 null, a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles of total urinary arsenic to the first quartile resulted in a 0.84 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.42, a 0.98 increase (95% CI 033, 1.66 and a 0.85 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.44 in logged 8-OHdG, respectively. No effects between 8-OHdG and toenail arsenic or drinking water arsenic were observed. Conclusion These results suggest the APE1 variant genotype decreases repair of 8-OHdG and that arsenic exposure is associated with oxidative stress in women who lack a functional GSTM1 detoxification enzyme.

  19. Reduced expression of DNA repair and redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 impairs human pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Zhou, Shaoyu; Sandusky, George E; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is virtually never cured. Understanding the chemoresistance intrinsic to this cancer will aid in developing new regimens. High expression of APE1/Ref-1, a DNA repair and redox signaling protein, is associated with resistance, poor outcome, and angiogenesis; little is known in pancreatic cancer. Immunostaining of adenocarcinoma shows greater APE1/Ref-1 expression than in normal pancreas tissue. A decrease in APE1/Ref-1 protein levels results in pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and altered cell cycle progression. Endogenous cell cycle inhibitors increase when APE1/ Ref-1 is reduced, demonstrating its importance to proliferation and growth of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliana, Farha M.; Nara, Hidetoshi [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Onoda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Fujii, Hodaka [Combined Program on Microbiology and Immunology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Department of Cancer Medical Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Department of Internal Medicine 1, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Asao, Hironobu, E-mail: asao-h@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-21 induces nuclear accumulation of Ape1/Ref-1 protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ape1/Ref-1 is indispensable in IL-21-induced cell proliferation and survival signal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ape1/Ref-1 is required for IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation. -- Abstract: IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  1. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems.

  2. Secreted APE1/Ref-1 inhibits TNF-α-stimulated endothelial inflammation via thiol-disulfide exchange in TNF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kang, Gun; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Kim, Soo Jin; Lee, Sang Do; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-03-11

    Apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein with redox activity and is proved to be secreted from stimulated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functions of extracellular APE1/Ref-1 with respect to leading anti-inflammatory signaling in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells in response to acetylation. Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells with an inhibitor of deacetylase that causes intracellular acetylation, considerably suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). During TSA-mediated acetylation in culture, a time-dependent increase in secreted APE1/Ref-1 was confirmed. The acetyl moiety of acetylated-APE1/Ref-1 was rapidly removed based on the removal kinetics. Additionally, recombinant human (rh) APE1/Ref-1 with reducing activity induced a conformational change in rh TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) by thiol-disulfide exchange. Following treatment with the neutralizing anti-APE1/Ref-1 antibody, inflammatory signals via the binding of TNF-α to TNFR1 were remarkably recovered, leading to up-regulation of reactive oxygen species generation and VCAM-1, in accordance with the activation of p66(shc) and p38 MAPK. These results strongly indicate that anti-inflammatory effects in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells by acetylation are tightly linked to secreted APE1/Ref-1, which inhibits TNF-α binding to TNFR1 by reductive conformational change, with suggestion as an endogenous inhibitor of vascular inflammation.

  3. APE/Ref-1在肿瘤治疗中的应用前景%Anticancer clinical utility of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1(APE/Ref-1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 王建

    2010-01-01

    脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)是碱基切除修复途径的关键酶,主要负责修复氧化剂和烷化剂造成的DNA损伤.同时APE/Ref-1还能通过氧化还原功能保持多种转录因子处于激活的还原状态,并通过调控其DNA结合活性参与肿瘤发生发展,这些因子包括AP-1(Fos/Jun)、NF-κB、HIF1α、p53等.本文综合近年来国外的众多文献,从APE/Ref-1的结构功能入手,回顾总结APE/Ref-1与肿瘤之间相关性及其临床研究进展,提示APE/Ref-1是非常有潜力的肿瘤治疗靶点,在临床应用中有良好的发展前景.

  4. APE/Ref-1在消化系统肿瘤中的研究进展%Advances in Study on APE/Ref-1 in Digestive System Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军民; 李琳; 李岩

    2013-01-01

    DNA碱基切除修复(BER)参与由各种原因导致的DNA损伤修复过程,是维持基因组DNA完整性的一个重要修复机制.脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)是BER过程的关键酶之一,具有DNA修复、氧化还原激活、基因表达调控等多种生物学功能,近年研究显示APE/Ref-1与胃癌、结直肠癌、胰腺癌的发生关系密切.本文就APE/Ref-1在消化系统肿瘤中的研究进展作一综述.%DNA base excision repair (BER) is involved in the repair process of DNA damage due to all kinds of causes.It plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA.Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) is a key enzyme for BER.It has various biological functions such as DNA repair,oxidoreduction activation and regulation of gene expression.Recent studies demonstrated that APE/Ref-1 had a close association with gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.This article reviewed the advances in study on APE/Ref-1 in digestive system tumor.

  5. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  6. Scapular shape of extant hominoids and the African ape/modern human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Spiewak, Ted A; Seitelman, Brielle; Gunz, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered early hominin fossil scapulae have bolstered investigations of scapular shape, which have long been used to interpret behavioral variation among primates. However, unexpected similarities between Pongo and Homo - particularly in scapular spine orientation - have raised questions about the functional utility of scapular morphology and its phylogenetic context in the hominin lineage. Not surprisingly, significant disagreement surrounds disparate morphological reconstructions of the modern human/African ape last common ancestor (LCA). Our study utilizes geometric morphometric (GM) approaches - two employing homologous, anatomical landmarks and a "spine-free" alternative using 98 sliding semilandmarks along the boundary of the subscapular fossa. The landmark-based "wireframe" GM analysis principally sorted groups by spine orientation: Homo and Pongo were similar to one another with more transversely-oriented spines as compared to Hylobates and the African apes. In contrast, Homo and Gorilla clustered together in our semilandmark analysis with superoinferiorly broad blades. Pan scapulae were similar, but had more mediolaterally compressed blades and laterally-positioned superior angles. Hylobates was superoinferiorly narrow, yet obliquely expanded relative to the vertebral border. Pongo scapulae were unique among hominoids in being nearly as broad as they were long. Previously documented 'convergence' of Homo and Pongo scapulae appears to be principally driven by similarities in spine orientation, rather than overall blade shape. Therefore, we contend that it is more parsimonious to reconstruct the African ape/Homo LCA scapula as being Gorilla-like, especially in light of similar characterizations of certain fossil hominin scapulae. Accordingly, the evolution of Pan (highly oblique spine and laterally-situated superior angle) and Homo (transversely-oriented spine) scapular morphology would have involved relatively minor shifts from this ancestral

  7. Great ape skeletal collections: making the most of scarce and irreplaceable resources in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam D; Marcus, Emily; Wood, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Information about primate genomes has re-emphasized the importance of the great apes (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo) as, for most purposes, the appropriate comparators when generating hypotheses about the most recent common ancestor of the hominins and panins, or the most recent common ancestor of the hominin clade. Great ape skeletal collections are thus an important and irreplaceable resource for researchers conducting these types of comparative analyses, yet the integrity of these collections is threatened by unnecessary use and their availability is threatened by financial pressures on the institutions in which the collections reside. We discuss the general history of great ape skeletal collections, and in order to get a better sense of the utility and potential of these important sources of data we assemble the equivalent of a biography of the Powell-Cotton Collection. We explore the history of how this collection of chimpanzee and gorilla skeletons was accumulated, how it came to be recognized as a potentially important source of comparative information, who has made use of it, and what types of data have been collected. We present a protocol for collecting information about each individual animal (e.g., which bones are preserved, their condition, etc.) and have made that information about the Powell-Cotton Collection freely available in an online relational database (Human Origins Database, www.humanoriginsdatabase.org). As an illustration of the practical application of these data, we developed a tabular summary of ontogenetic information about each individual (see Appendices A and B). Collections like the Powell-Cotton are irreplaceable sources of material regarding the hard-tissue evidence and recent history of the closest living relatives of modern humans. We end this contribution by suggesting ways that curators and the researchers who use and rely on these reference collections could work together to help preserve and protect them so that future generations

  8. Keeping track of time: evidence for episodic-like memory in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Haun, Daniel; Colmenares, Fernando; Call, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Episodic memory, as defined by Tulving, can be described in terms of behavioural elements (what, where and when information) but it is also accompanied by an awareness of one's past (chronesthesia) and a subjective conscious experience (autonoetic awareness). Recent experiments have shown that corvids and rodents recall the where, what and when of an event. This capability has been called episodic-like memory because it only fulfils the behavioural criteria for episodic memory. We tested seven chimpanzees, three orangutans and two bonobos of various ages by adapting two paradigms, originally developed by Clayton and colleagues to test scrub jays. In Experiment 1, subjects were fed preferred but perishable food (frozen juice) and less preferred but non-perishable food (grape). After the food items were hidden, subjects could choose one of them either after 5 min or 1 h. The frozen juice was still available after 5 min but melted after 1 h and became unobtainable. Apes chose the frozen juice significantly more after 5 min and the grape after 1 h. In Experiment 2, subjects faced two baiting events happening at different times, yet they formed an integrated memory for the location and time of the baiting event for particular food items. We also included a memory task that required no temporal encoding. Our results showed that apes remember in an integrated fashion what, where and when (i.e., how long ago) an event happened; that is, apes distinguished between different events in which the same food items were hidden in different places at different times. The temporal control of their choices was not dependent on the familiarity of the platforms where the food was hidden. Chimpanzees' and bonobos' performance in the temporal encoding task was age-dependent, following an inverted U-shaped distribution. The age had no effect on the performance of the subjects in the task that required no temporal encoding.

  9. Role of the XRCC1 - APE1 interaction in the maintenance of genetic stability; Etude du role de l' interaction entre XRCC1 et APE1 dans la stabilite genetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossou-Becker, M.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis is divided in four chapters: the first one concerns the genetic instability, the second one is devoted to the DNA repair, the third one is related to the XRCC1 and the chapter four concerns APE1. Then, are defined the objectives and the results. This work fits into the studies of repair mechanisms. The physical and functional characterisation of the interaction between XRCC1 and APE1 allowed to understand its involvement in the prevention of the genetic instability at the origin of cancer. (N.C.)

  10. Comparative psychology and the great apes - Their competence in learning, language, and numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of comparative studies conducted for the past three decades is presented. These studies have led to the establishment of the Language Research Center that provides facilities for research into questions of primate behavior and cognition. Several experiments conducted among chimpanzees are discussed and comparative analyses with the lesser apes, monkeys, and humans are offered. Among the primates, brain complexity varies widely and the evidence is strong that encephalization and enhanced brain complexity facilitate the learning of concepts, the transfer of learning to an advantage, and mediational and observational learning.

  11. Impact of cadmium on hOGG1 and APE1 as a function of the cellular p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Ingrit [Institut fuer Angewandte Biowissenschaften, Abteilung Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fachgebiet Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Faculty for Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3126 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 (Canada); Koenig, Charlotte; Richter, Constanze [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Jahnke, Gunnar [Institut fuer Angewandte Biowissenschaften, Abteilung Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fachgebiet Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Hartwig, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.hartwig@kit.edu [Institut fuer Angewandte Biowissenschaften, Abteilung Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fachgebiet Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 13355 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53, often called the guardian of the genome, is involved in important cellular processes, such as cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair. With respect to BER, p53 might physically interact with and affect the transcription of different BER proteins such as hOGG1, APE1 or Pol{beta}. In studies in HCT116 p53{sup -/-} cells previously published, activity and mRNA expression of hOGG1 were found to be significantly decreased, while down-regulation of APE1 mRNA and protein levels in response to genotoxic stress were only described in HCT116 p53{sup +/+} cells, but not in the isogenic p53 knockout cell line. The predominantly indirect genotoxic carcinogen cadmium inhibits the BER pathway and potentially interferes with zinc binding proteins such as p53. Therefore, this study was accomplished to investigate whether p53 is involved in the cadmium-induced inhibition of BER activity. To address this issue we applied a non-radioactive cleavage test system based on a Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. We present evidence that p53 is not essential for hOGG1 and APE1 gene expression as well as OGG and APE activity in unstressed HCT116 cells; however, it plays an important role in the cellular response to cadmium treatment. Here, a direct involvement of p53 was only observed with respect to APE1 gene expression contributing to an altered APE activity, while OGG activity was presumably affected indirectly due to a stronger accumulation of cadmium in HCT116 p53{sup +/+} cells. In summary, p53 indeed affects the BER pathway directly and indirectly in response to cadmium treatment.

  12. Comparing humans and nonhuman great apes in the broken cloth problem: Is their knowledge causal or perceptual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Seed, Amanda; Colmenares, Fernando; Call, Josep

    2015-11-01

    When presented with the broken cloth problem, both human children and nonhuman great apes prefer to pull a continuous cloth over a discontinuous cloth in order to obtain a desired object resting on top. This has been interpreted as evidence that they preferentially attend to the functionally relevant cues of the task (e.g., presence or absence of a gap along the cloth). However, there is controversy regarding whether great apes' behavior is underpinned by causal knowledge, involving abstract concepts (e.g., support, connection), or by perceptual knowledge, based on percepts (e.g., contact, continuity). We presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children with two versions of the broken cloth problem. The Real condition, made with paper strips, could be solved based on either perceptual cues or causal knowledge. The Painted condition, which looked very similar, could be solved only by attending to perceptual cues. All groups mastered the Real condition, in line with previous results. Older children (3- and 4-year-olds) performed significantly better in this condition than all other groups, but the performance of apes and children did not differ sharply, with 2-year-olds and apes obtaining similar results. In contrast, only 4-year-olds solved the Painted condition. We propose causal knowledge to explain the general good performance of apes and humans in the Real condition compared with the Painted condition. In addition, we suggest that symbolic knowledge might account for 4-year-olds' performance in the Painted condition. Our findings add to the growing literature supporting the idea that learning from arbitrary cues is not a good explanation for the performance of apes and humans on some kinds of physical task.

  13. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1(APE/Ref-1): a unique target for the prevention and treatment of human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun; Meyskens, Frank L

    2009-03-01

    Management of melanoma is a growing and challenging public health issue requiring novel and multidisciplinary approaches to achieve more efficient prevention and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this article is to show the critical role of APE/Ref-1 on melanomagenesis and progression. APE/Ref-1 serves as a redox-sensitive node of convergence of various signals as well as a DNA-repair enzyme, and its activation protects melanocytes and melanoma cells from chronic oxidative stress and promotes cell survival via mediation of downstream pathways. APE/Ref-1 is a strong candidate as a potential drug-treatable target for the prevention and treatment of human melanoma. Lead compounds exhibiting inhibitory effects on APE/Ref-1 are also reviewed. We anticipate potential clinical benefit in the future through inhibition of APE/Ref-1 and/or Ref-1-mediated signaling.

  14. Transcriptional Up-Regulation of APE1/Ref-1 in Hepatic Tumor: Role in Hepatocytes Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Di Maso

    Full Text Available Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most frequent neoplasm worldwide and the most serious complication of long-standing chronic liver diseases (CLD. Its development is associated with chronic inflammation and sustained oxidative stress. Deregulation of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1, a master regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress, has been associated with poor prognosis in several cancers including HCC.In the present study we investigated the APE1/Ref-1 mRNA levels in cirrhotic and HCC tissues obtained during HCC resection. The possible protective role of APE1/Ref-1 against oxidative stress and apoptosis was evaluated in vitro in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH over-expressing APE1/Ref-1.APE1/Ref-1 was up-regulated in HCC, regulation occurring at the transcriptional level. APE1/Ref-1 mRNA content increased with the progression of liver disease with the transcriptional up-regulation present in cirrhosis significantly increased in HCC. The up-regulation was higher in the less differentiated cancers. In vitro, over-expression of APE1/Ref-1 in normal hepatocytes conferred cell protection against oxidative stress and it was associated with BAX inhibition and escape from apoptosis.APE1/Ref-1 is up-regulated in HCC and this over-expression correlates with cancer aggressiveness. The up-regulation occurs at the transcriptional level and it is present in the earliest phases of hepatocarcinogenesis. The APE-1/Ref-1 over-expression is associated with hepatocyte survival and inhibits BAX activation and apoptosis. These data suggest a possible role of APE1/Ref-1 over-expression both in hepatocyte survival and HCC development calling attention to this molecule as a promising marker for HCC diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  16. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination.

  17. Retrospective Serology Study of Respiratory Virus Infections in Captive Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Buitendijk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orang-utans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.

  18. Rapid evolution of the cerebellum in humans and other great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2014-10-20

    Humans' unique cognitive abilities are usually attributed to a greatly expanded neocortex, which has been described as "the crowning achievement of evolution and the biological substrate of human mental prowess". The human cerebellum, however, contains four times more neurons than the neocortex and is attracting increasing attention for its wide range of cognitive functions. Using a method for detecting evolutionary rate changes along the branches of phylogenetic trees, we show that the cerebellum underwent rapid size increase throughout the evolution of apes, including humans, expanding significantly faster than predicted by the change in neocortex size. As a result, humans and other apes deviated significantly from the general evolutionary trend for neocortex and cerebellum to change in tandem, having significantly larger cerebella relative to neocortex size than other anthropoid primates. These results suggest that cerebellar specialization was a far more important component of human brain evolution than hitherto recognized and that technical intelligence was likely to have been at least as important as social intelligence in human cognitive evolution. Given the role of the cerebellum in sensory-motor control and in learning complex action sequences, cerebellar specialization is likely to have underpinned the evolution of humans' advanced technological capacities, which in turn may have been a preadaptation for language.

  19. Stress Analysis and Optimization of a Piaggio Ape Clutch Plate with different Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Sreedher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available clutch plate is one of the important part in the power transmission systems. Good design of clutch provides better engine performance. Clutch is device which is used to engage or disengage of gears and it transfers the rotary motion of one shaft to the other shaft when desired. In automobiles friction clutches are widely used in power transmission applications. To transmit maximum torque in friction clutches selection of the friction material is one of the important tasks. In this thesis a model of Piaggio Ape clutch plate has been generated in Pro-E Cre0-5 and then imported in ANSYS for power transmission applications. We have conducted structural analysis by varying the friction surfaces material and keeping base material aluminium same. By seeing the results, Comparison is done for both materials to validate better lining material for Piaggio Ape clutch plate by doing analysis on clutch with help of ANSYS software for find out which material is best for the lining of friction surfaces.

  20. The Expressions of APE/Ref-1 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Its Correlation with VEGF and MVD%卵巢上皮性癌中APE/Ref-1的表达及与 VEGF和MVD的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奎美; 纪新强; 徐平平

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)在卵巢上皮性癌中的表达特点及与血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和血管生成的关系.方法 应用免疫组化P-V6000二步法检测62例卵巢上皮性癌、30例卵巢良性肿瘤和20例正常卵巢组织中APE/Ref-1和VEGF的表达,采用血管内皮特异标记物CD34标记并计数微血管密度(MVD),最后分析APE/Ref-1与VEGF和MVD的关系.结果 良恶性卵巢肿瘤和正常卵巢组织中都有APE/Refo-1表达,但是定位有所不同:20例正常组织只在细胞核中表达;30例良性肿瘤和62例癌组织都存在细胞核表达,但良性肿瘤中4例存在胞质表达,癌组织中48例存在胞质表达,且胞质APE/Ref-1阳性表达的癌组织较无表达者VEGF阳性率显著增加(P<0.05),MVD也显著增加(P<0.05),且细胞核和细胞质中APE/Ref-1的表达都与临床分期关系密切.结论 卵巢癌中APE/Ref-1的胞质移位可能与卵巢癌的发生有关,并且与VEGF的高表达和血管生成关系密切.

  1. Expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma and their clinical significance%APE1、Bcl-2及 Bax在视网膜母细胞瘤中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李德全

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析APE1、Bcl-2及Bax在视网膜母细胞瘤( Rb)中的表达及临床意义。方法选取2011年9月至2013年11月经病理学检查确诊为Rb患者32例及正常视网膜组织16例作为研究对象,免疫组织化学及Western blot分析APE1、Bcl-2及Bax在Rb中及正常视网膜中的表达,比较其在分化及未分化型Rb中的表达。结果 APE1、Bax及Bcl-2在Rb中呈现出高表达,阳性率分别为90.63%、65.63%及68.75%,与正常组比差异均具有统计学意义(χ2=30.13,χ2=12.31,χ2=16.91, P <0.01),与Western blot结果一致;分化组与未分化组中APE1、Bax存在差异显著(χ2=4.99,χ2=7.85, P <0.05),Bcl-2无统计学差异(χ2=0.73, P >0.01)。结论 Rb的发生发展涉及多个基因及生物学过程,分析APE1、bcl-2及bax在Rb中的表达,对Rb的诊断与治疗有重要的参考价值。%Objective To analyze the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma (Rb) and to evaluate their clinical significance.Methods A total of 32 retinoblastoma patients were enrolled for this study from September 2011 to November 2013.Sixteen normal retinal tissues were collected as control.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma tumor tissues and normal retina.Their expres-sions in differentiated and undifferentiated Rb were also compared.Results APE1, Bax and Bcl-2 were highly expressed in retinoblastoma with positive rates being 90.63%, 65.63% and 68.75%, respectively, and were significantly higher than in normal retina tissues (χ2 =30.13 for APE1,χ2 =12.31 for Bax, andχ2 =16.91 for Bcl-2;P 0.01).Conclusion The development of Rb involves multiple genes and biological processes.Analysis of the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in Rb has important clinical value for the diagnosis and treat-ment of Rb.

  2. Antifungal miconazole induces cardiotoxicity via inhibition of APE/Ref-1-related pathway in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Lin, Hai Yue; Jung, Soohyun; Cho, Soo Min; Shin, Ho-Chul; Bae, Young Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Bokyung

    2012-04-01

    Effects of miconazole, an azole antifungal, have not been fully determined in cardiomyocytes. We therefore identified the transcriptome in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes responding to miconazole using DNA microarray analysis and selected a gene and investigated its role in cardiomyocytes. Miconazole dose-dependently increased the levels of superoxide (O(2)(-)) and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes; these increases were inhibited by treatment with antioxidants. The DNA microarray revealed that 4163 genes were upregulated and 4829 genes downregulated by more than threefold in miconazole-treated cardiomyocytes compared with the vehicle-treated control. Moreover, redox homeostasis-, oxidative stress-, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related categories of genes were strongly affected by miconazole treatment. Among genes overlapped in all these categories, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1), a redox-related gene, was prominent and was diminished in the miconazole-treated group. Changes in the O(2)(-) production and apoptosis induction in response to miconazole were inhibited in cardiomyocytes transfected with adenoviral APE/Ref-1. Overexpression of APE/Ref-1 reversed the reduction in beating frequency induced by miconazole. Our results demonstrate that miconazole may induce rat cardiotoxicity via a ROS-mediated pathway, which is initiated by the inhibition of APE/Ref-1 expression. This possible new adverse event in cardiomyocyte function caused by miconazole may provide a basis for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  3. Lineage-specific expansions of retroviral insertions within the genomes of African great apes but not humans and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Yohn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral infections of the germline have the potential to episodically alter gene function and genome structure during the course of evolution. Horizontal transmissions between species have been proposed, but little evidence exists for such events in the human/great ape lineage of evolution. Based on analysis of finished BAC chimpanzee genome sequence, we characterize a retroviral element (Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus 1 [PTERV1] that has become integrated in the germline of African great ape and Old World monkey species but is absent from humans and Asian ape genomes. We unambiguously map 287 retroviral integration sites and determine that approximately 95.8% of the insertions occur at non-orthologous regions between closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the endogenous retrovirus reveals that the gorilla and chimpanzee elements share a monophyletic origin with a subset of the Old World monkey retroviral elements, but that the average sequence divergence exceeds neutral expectation for a strictly nuclear inherited DNA molecule. Within the chimpanzee, there is a significant integration bias against genes, with only 14 of these insertions mapping within intronic regions. Six out of ten of these genes, for which there are expression data, show significant differences in transcript expression between human and chimpanzee. Our data are consistent with a retroviral infection that bombarded the genomes of chimpanzees and gorillas independently and concurrently, 3-4 million years ago. We speculate on the potential impact of such recent events on the evolution of humans and great apes.

  4. Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator (APES) prototype to be used in Prototype 1 of SEAMLESS-IF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donatelli, M.; Evert, van F.K.; Rutgers, B.; Trevisan, M.; Ewert, F.; Sorce, A.; Balderacchi, M.; Guardo, Di A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Meuter, E.C.; Adam, M.Y.O.; Smith, J.; Gottschalk, P.; Acutis, M.; Trevisiol, P.; Gentile, A.; Bellocchi, G.; Carlini, L.; Duru, M.; Cruz, P.; Gary, C.; Kansou, K.; Wery, J.; Dupraz, C.; Braudeau, E.; Martin, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator is a modular simulation system targeted at estimating the biophysical behaviour of agricultural production systems in response to the interaction of soil-weather and different options of agro-technical management. APES is currently meant to be

  5. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarath Baicharoen

    Full Text Available Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  6. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  7. Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard W

    2007-04-29

    Geographical cataloguing of traits, as used in human ethnography, has led to the description of 'culture' in some non-human great apes. Culture, in these terms, is detected as a pattern of local ignorance resulting from environmental constraints on knowledge transmission. However, in many cases, the geographical variations may alternatively be explained by ecology. Social transmission of information can reliably be identified in many other animal species, by experiment or distinctive patterns in distribution; but the excitement of detecting culture in great apes derives from the possibility of understanding the evolution of cumulative technological culture in humans. Given this interest, I argue that great ape research should concentrate on technically complex behaviour patterns that are ubiquitous within a local population; in these cases, a wholly non-social ontogeny is highly unlikely. From this perspective, cultural transmission has an important role in the elaborate feeding skills of all species of great ape, in conveying the 'gist' or organization of skills. In contrast, social learning is unlikely to be responsible for local stylistic differences, which are apt to reflect sensitive adaptations to ecology.

  8. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  9. Evidence for a midlife crisis in great apes consistent with the U-shape in human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    Recently, economists and behavioral scientists have studied the pattern of human well-being over the lifespan. In dozens of countries, and for a large range of well-being measures, including happiness and mental health, well-being is high in youth, falls to a nadir in midlife, and rises again in old age. The reasons for this U-shape are still unclear. Present theories emphasize sociological and economic forces. In this study we show that a similar U-shape exists in 508 great apes (two samples of chimpanzees and one sample of orangutans) whose well-being was assessed by raters familiar with the individual apes. This U-shaped pattern or "midlife crisis" emerges with or without use of parametric methods. Our results imply that human well-being's curved shape is not uniquely human and that, although it may be partly explained by aspects of human life and society, its origins may lie partly in the biology we share with great apes. These findings have implications across scientific and social-scientific disciplines, and may help to identify ways of enhancing human and ape well-being.

  10. A new APE1/Ref-1-dependent pathway leading to reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and activation of their DNA-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kozue; Hirao, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Ogura, Yuji; Sato, Iwao; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Wada, Tadashi; Handa, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    APE1/Ref-1 is thought to be a multifunctional protein involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) regulation and base excision DNA repair, and is required for early embryonic development in mice. APE1/Ref-1 has redox activity and AP endonuclease activity, and is able to enhance DNA-binding activity of several transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53, through reduction of their critical cysteine residues. However, it remains elusive exactly how APE1/Ref-1 carries out its essential functions in vivo. Here, we show that APE1/Ref-1 not only reduces target transcription factors directly but also facilitates their reduction by other reducing molecules such as glutathione or thioredoxin. The new activity of APE1/Ref-1, termed redox chaperone activity, is exerted at concentration significantly lower than that required for its redox activity and is neither dependent on its redox activity nor on its AP endonuclease activity. We also show evidence that redox chaperone activity of APE1/Ref-1 is critical to NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in human cells and is mediated through its physical association with target transcription factors. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may play multiple roles in an antioxidative stress response pathway through its different biochemical activities. These findings also provide new insight into the mechanism of intracellular redox regulation.

  11. Elevated expression of APE1/Ref-1 and its regulation on IL-6 and IL-8 in bone marrow stromal cells of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Yin; Li, Meng-Xia; Xiang, De-Bing; Mou, Jiang-Hong; Qing, Yi; Zeng, Lin-Li; Yang, Zhen-Zhou; Guan, Wei; Wang, Dong

    2010-10-01

    A number of growth factors secreted by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), including interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6/8), are important for the initiation and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). However, the mechanisms that regulate the production of IL-6/8 by BMSC have not yet been well characterized. Human dual functional protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is essential for cell survival and proliferation. Previous studies showed that APE1/Ref-1 was overexpressed in tumor cells, but few studies showed its expression in supportive cells in the tumor microenvironment. We first detected APE1/Ref-1 expression in BMSCs of normal, initial, and recurrent MM patients, and then explore the correlation between APE1/Ref-1 level and IL-6/8 secretion of BMSCs. A marked increase of APE1/Ref-1 expression and abnormal subcellular distribution were observed in MM BMSCs. APE1/Ref-1 overexpression was related to higher secretary level of IL-6/8 by MM BMSCs and the IL-6/8 secretion was blocked significantly by adenovirus-mediated APE1/Ref-1-specific (small interfering RNA) siRNA. Our results also demonstrated that APE1/Ref-1-specific siRNA significantly inhibited DNA binding activity of AP-1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), 2 important transcription factors in the regulation IL-6/8 secretion in MM BMSCs. The results provided by the present study indicate APE1/Ref-1, which plays a regulatory role in IL-6/8 production by BMSCs, may be a potential therapeutic target of MM.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum-like parasites infecting wild apes in southern Cameroon do not represent a recurrent source of human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Sesh A; Liu, Weimin; Keele, Brandon F; Learn, Gerald H; Bittinger, Kyle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Manske, Magnus; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Li, Yingying; Malenke, Jordan A; Delaporte, Eric; Laurent, Christian; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Bushman, Frederic D; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2013-04-23

    Wild-living chimpanzees and gorillas harbor a multitude of Plasmodium species, including six of the subgenus Laverania, one of which served as the progenitor of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the magnitude of this reservoir, it is unknown whether apes represent a source of human infections. Here, we used Plasmodium species-specific PCR, single-genome amplification, and 454 sequencing to screen humans from remote areas of southern Cameroon for ape Laverania infections. Among 1,402 blood samples, we found 1,000 to be Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) positive, all of which contained human parasites as determined by sequencing and/or restriction enzyme digestion. To exclude low-abundance infections, we subjected 514 of these samples to 454 sequencing, targeting a region of the mtDNA genome that distinguishes ape from human Laverania species. Using algorithms specifically developed to differentiate rare Plasmodium variants from 454-sequencing error, we identified single and mixed-species infections with P. falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, and/or Plasmodium ovale. However, none of the human samples contained ape Laverania parasites, including the gorilla precursor of P. falciparum. To characterize further the diversity of P. falciparum in Cameroon, we used single-genome amplification to amplify 3.4-kb mtDNA fragments from 229 infected humans. Phylogenetic analysis identified 62 new variants, all of which clustered with extant P. falciparum, providing further evidence that P. falciparum emerged following a single gorilla-to-human transmission. Thus, unlike Plasmodium knowlesi-infected macaques in southeast Asia, African apes harboring Laverania parasites do not seem to serve as a recurrent source of human malaria, a finding of import to ongoing control and eradication measures.

  13. Screening wild and semi-free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Allison, Andrew B; Edwards, Erin E; Bagal, Ujwal; Altizer, Sonia; Cranfield, Mike R; Glenn, Travis C; Liu, Hsi; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Mugisha, Lawrence; Muller, Martin N; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi-male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR-based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphilis and yaws), and papillomaviruses. Based on results from prior modeling and comparative research, we expected STD prevalence to be highest in females versus males and in sexually mature versus immature individuals. All samples were negative for Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, and papillomaviruses; however, a high percentage of wild chimpanzee urine and fecal samples showed evidence of trichomonads (protozoa). Analysis revealed that females were more likely than males to have positive urine-but not fecal-samples; however, there was no evidence of age (sexual maturity) differences in infection status. Sequence analysis of chimpanzee trichomonad samples revealed a close relationship to previously described trichomonads within the genus Tetratrichomonas. Phylogenetic comparisons to archived sequences from multiple vertebrate hosts suggests that many of the chimpanzee parasites from our study are likely transmitted via fecal-oral contact, but the transmission of some Tetratrichomonas sequence-types remains unknown and could include sexual contact. Our work emphasizes that only a fraction of infectious agents affecting wild apes are presently known to science, and that further work on great

  14. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes.

  15. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology.

  16. Human-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains within great ape populations in Central Africa (Gabon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, M; Dischinger, J; Türck, M; Verrier, D; Oedenkoven, M; Ngoubangoye, B; Le Flohic, G; Drexler, J F; Bierbaum, G; Gonzalez, J-P

    2013-11-01

    The risk of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is well-known. However, most studies regarding the distribution of (clinically relevant) S. aureus among humans and animals took place in the western hemisphere and only limited data are available from (Central) Africa. In this context, recent studies focused on S. aureus strains in humans and primates, but the question of whether humans and monkeys share related S. aureus strains or may interchange strains remained largely unsolved. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution and spread of human-like S. aureus strains among great apes living in captivity. Therefore, a primate facility at the International Centre for Medical Research of Franceville (Gabon) was screened. We detected among the primates a common human S. aureus strain, belonging to the spa-type t148. It was isolated from three different individuals of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), of which one individual showed a large necrotizing wound. This animal died, most probably of a staphylococcal sepsis. Additionally, we discovered the t148 type among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were settled in the immediate neighbourhood of the infected gorillas. A detailed analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that the gorilla and chimpanzee isolates represented two closely related strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human-associated S. aureus strain causing disease in great apes. The simultaneous detection in gorillas and chimpanzees indicated an interspecies transmission of this S. aureus strain. Our results recommend that protection of wild animals must not only be based on habitat conservation, but also on the assessment of the risk of contact with human pathogens.

  17. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.

    2013-03-22

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  18. APE/Ref-1蛋白与脑缺血/再灌注神经元损伤%APE/Ref-1 protein and ischemia/reperfusion injury of neurons in the brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 李智文

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and the aftermath of reperfusion form a hypoxic/hyperoxic sequence of events that can trigger DNA damage in neurons of central nervous system.Neuronal apoptosis will happen without immediate DNA repair.APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involoved in DNA base excision repair pathway and in redox reguiation of DNA-binding activity of AP-1 family members.which may play an important role in protection of postischemic neuronal damage.

  19. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Farha M; Nara, Hidetoshi; Onoda, Tadashi; Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin; Fujii, Hodaka; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Asao, Hironobu

    2012-04-13

    IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  20. Trans-complementation by human apurinic endonuclease (Ape) of hypersensitivity to DNA damage and spontaneous mutator phenotype in apn1-yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D M; Bennett, R A; Marquis, J C; Ansari, P; Demple, B

    1995-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites in DNA are potentially lethal and mutagenic. 'Class II' AP endonucleases initiate the repair of these and other DNA lesions. In yeast, the predominant enzyme of this type is Apn1, and its elimination sensitizes the cells to killing by simple alkylating agents or oxidants, and raises the rate of spontaneous mutation. We investigated the ability of the major human class II AP endonuclease, Ape, which is structurally unrelated to Apn1, to replace the yeast enzyme in vivo. Confocal immunomicroscopy studies indicate that approximately 25% of the Ape expressed in yeast is present in the nucleus. High-level Ape expression corresponding to approximately 7000 molecules per nucleus, equal to the normal Apn1 copy number, restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate to near wild-type levels in Apn1-deficient (apn1-) yeast. Ape expression in apn1- yeast provided little protection against H2O2 challenges, consistent with the weak 3'-repair diesterase activity of the human enzyme. Ape expression at approximately 2000 molecules per nucleus reduced the spontaneous mutation rate of apn1- yeast to that seen for wild-type cells. Because Ape has a powerful AP endonuclease but weak 3'-diesterase activity, these findings indicate that endogenously generated AP sites can drive spontaneous mutagenesis. Images PMID:8559661

  1. Personality in the behaviour of great apes: temporal stability, cross-situational consistency and coherence in response

    OpenAIRE

    Uher, Jana; Asendorpf, Jens B; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach, the present study complements ethological behaviour measurements with basic theoretical concepts, methods and approaches of the personality psychological trait paradigm. Its adoptability and usefulness for animal studies are tested exemplarily on a sample of 20 zoo-housed great apes (five of each of the following species): bonobos, Pan paniscus; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus; gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla; and orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Da...

  2. Reduced Nuclease Activity of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE1) Variants on Nucleosomes: IDENTIFICATION OF ACCESS RESIDUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John M; Mao, Peng; McNeill, Daniel R; Wilson, David M

    2015-08-21

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are generated at high frequency in genomic DNA via spontaneous hydrolytic, damage-induced or enzyme-mediated base release. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) is the predominant mammalian enzyme responsible for initiating removal of mutagenic and cytotoxic abasic lesions as part of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. We have examined here the ability of wild-type (WT) and a collection of variant/mutant APE1 proteins to cleave at an AP site within a nucleosome core particle. Our studies indicate that, in comparison to the WT protein and other variant/mutant enzymes, the incision activity of the tumor-associated variant R237C and the rare population variant G241R are uniquely hypersensitive to nucleosome complexes in the vicinity of the AP site. This defect appears to stem from an abnormal interaction of R237C and G241R with abasic DNA substrates, but is not simply due to a DNA binding defect, as the site-specific APE1 mutant Y128A, which displays markedly reduced AP-DNA complex stability, did not exhibit a similar hypersensitivity to nucleosome structures. Notably, this incision defect of R237C and G241R was observed on a pre-assembled DNA glycosylase·AP-DNA complex as well. Our results suggest that the BER enzyme, APE1, has acquired distinct surface residues that permit efficient processing of AP sites within the context of protein-DNA complexes independent of classic chromatin remodeling mechanisms.

  3. 极化域空域联合的 APES 波束形成%Spatial-Polarization Adaptive Beamforming Based on APES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迅; 李会勇; 魏晨; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步提高极化敏感阵列的滤波性能、得到更为稳定的波束图,将常规的幅度相位估计算法扩展到极化域空域联合的自适应波束形成中,提出了一种新的波束形成算法 SPAPES(Spatial-Polari-zation Amplitude and Phase Estimation)。首先,给出了算法的信号模型。然后,对所提出算法的滤波原理作了理论推导,得到了最优权向量的表达式。最后,通过仿真实验验证了算法的有效性。计算机仿真结果表明,在强期望信号功率、低采样快拍数的情况下,所提算法都可以很好地在空间极化联合域中抑制干扰,同时该算法还具有对相干信号的解相干能力。%To improve the filtering performance of the polarization sensitive array and the stability of the beam pattern,in this paper,the normal APES is extended to spatial-polarization adaptive beamforming algo-rithm,and a novel beamforming algorithm,called SPAPES,is proposed.The system model and basic idea of the algorithm are given.Then,the filtering theory of the proposed algorithm is derived theoretically,and the expression of the optimal weight vector is obtained.Finally,computer simulation verifies that the pro-posed algorithm is effective,and the results show that the proposed method,on the condition of high desired signal power and less snapshot number,has good interference suppression ability.The proposed algorithm also has the decorrelation ability for coherent signal.

  4. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks.

  5. Endogenous Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Identified in a Rodent (Melomys burtoni subsp.) from Wallacea (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Niccolò; Michaux, Johan; Morand, Serge; Aplin, Ken; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Löber, Ulrike; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fitriana, Yuli; Semiadi, Gono; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV) most likely originated from a cross-species transmission of an ancestral retrovirus into koalas and gibbons via one or more intermediate as-yet-unknown hosts. A virus highly similar to GALV has been identified in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni) after extensive screening of Australian wildlife. GALV-like viruses have also been discovered in several Southeast Asian species, although screening has not been extensive and viruses discovered to date are only distantly related to GALV. We therefore screened 26 Southeast Asian rodent species for KoRV- and GALV-like sequences, using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, in the attempt to identify potential GALV and KoRV hosts. Only the individuals belonging to a newly discovered subspecies of Melomys burtoni from Indonesia were positive, yielding an endogenous provirus very closely related to a strain of GALV. The sequence of the critical receptor domain for GALV infection in the Indonesian M. burtoni subsp. was consistent with the susceptibility of the species to GALV infection. The second record of a GALV in M. burtoni provides further evidence that M. burtoni, and potentially other lineages within the widespread subfamily Murinae, may play a role in the spread of GALV-like viruses. The discovery of a GALV in the most western part of the Australo-Papuan distribution of M. burtoni, specifically in a transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Wallacea), may be relevant to the cross-species transmission to gibbons in Southeast Asia and broadens the known distribution of GALVs in wild rodents. IMPORTANCE Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and the koala retrovirus (KoRV) are very closely related, yet their hosts neither are closely related nor overlap geographically. Direct cross-species infection between koalas and gibbons is unlikely. Therefore, GALV and KoRV may have arisen via a cross-species transfer from an intermediate

  6. 三元共聚物阻垢剂AA-APES-HPA的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春风; 朱婉宁; 洪李玲

    2016-01-01

    以烯丙基聚氧乙烯醚(APEG)、氨基磺酸、尿素为原料合成了烯丙基聚乙氧基磺酸铵(APES)。以丙烯酸、丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPA)、以及自制单体烯丙基聚乙氧基磺酸铵(APES)为单体,采用自由基聚合法合成了三元共聚物阻垢剂AA-APES-HPA,并利用红外光谱对聚合物进行表征。分析了引发剂用量、反应温度、反应时间对共聚物阻垢性能的影响,确定了最佳合成条件,即引发剂用量为2%,反应温度为90℃,反应时间达到3h。在此条件下,其阻垢率最高。

  7. The evolution of African great ape subtelomeric heterochromatin and the fusion of human chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Mario; Catacchio, Claudia R; Sajjadian, Saba; Vives, Laura; Sudmant, Peter H; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Graves, Tina A; Wilson, Richard K; Eichler, Evan E

    2012-06-01

    Chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes differ from human chromosomes by the presence of large blocks of subterminal heterochromatin thought to be composed primarily of arrays of tandem satellite sequence. We explore their sequence composition and organization and show a complex organization composed of specific sets of segmental duplications that have hyperexpanded in concert with the formation of subterminal satellites. These regions are highly copy number polymorphic between and within species, and copy number differences involving hundreds of copies can be accurately estimated by assaying read-depth of next-generation sequencing data sets. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses suggest that the structures have arisen largely independently in the two lineages with the exception of a few seed sequences present in the common ancestor of humans and African apes. We propose a model where an ancestral human-chimpanzee pericentric inversion and the ancestral chromosome 2 fusion both predisposed and protected the chimpanzee and human genomes, respectively, to the formation of subtelomeric heterochromatin. Our findings highlight the complex interplay between duplicated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements that rapidly alter the cytogenetic landscape in a short period of evolutionary time.

  8. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  9. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  10. Proteomic study of amyloid beta (25-35) peptide exposure to neuronal cells: Impact on APE1/Ref-1's protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Anil K; Dhiman, Monisha; Taglialatela, Giulio; Perez-Polo, Regino J; Mitra, Sankar

    2012-06-01

    The genotoxic, extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) protein and subsequent neuronal cell death are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway for repairing oxidized and alkylated bases and single-strand breaks (SSBs) in DNA. APE1/Ref-1 is also involved in the redox activation of several trans-acting factors (TFs) in various cell types, but little is known about its role in neuronal functions. There is emerging evidence for APE1/Ref-1's role in neuronal cells vulnerable in AD and other neurodegenerative disorders, as reflected in its nuclear accumulation in AD brains. An increase in APE1/Ref-1 has been shown to enhance neuronal survival after oxidative stress. To address whether APE1/Ref-1 level or its association with other proteins is responsible for this protective effect, we used 2-D proteomic analyses and identified cytoskeleton elements (i.e., tropomodulin 3, tropomyosin alpha-3 chain), enzymes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., pyruvate kinase M2, N-acetyl transferase, sulfotransferase 1c), proteins involved in stress response (i.e., leucine-rich and death domain, anti-NGF30), and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotien-H (hnRNP-H) as being associated with APE1/Ref-1 in Aβ(25-35)-treated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines, two common neuronal precursor lines used in Aβ neurotoxicity studies. Because the levels of some of these proteins are affected in the brains of AD patients, our study suggests a neuroprotective role for APE1/Ref-1 via its association with those proteins and modulating their cellular functions during Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  11. APE1/Ref-1 promotes the effect of angiotensin II on Ca2+ -activated K+ channel in human endothelial cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Sun; Ko, Eun A; Jung, In Duk; Son, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Nari; Park, So Youn; Hong, Ki Whan; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Han, Jin

    2008-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on whole-cell large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) currents was investigated in control and Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1)-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ang II blocked the BK(Ca) current in a dose-dependent fashion, and this inhibition was greater in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs than in control HUVECs (half-inhibition values of 102.81+/-9.54 nM and 11.34+/-0.39 nM in control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs, respectively). Pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or knock down of NADPH oxidase (p22 phox) using siRNA increased the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) currents, similar to the effect of APE1/Ref-1 overexpression. In addition, application of Ang II increased the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in the control HUVECs but not in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. Furthermore, direct application of hydrogen peroxide increased BK(Ca) channel activity. Finally, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) current was blocked by an antagonist of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in both control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. From these results, we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channel function is NADPH oxidase-dependent and may be promoted by APE1/Ref-1.

  12. Processing of abasic DNA clusters in hApeI-silenced primary fibroblasts exposed to low doses of X-irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prolay Das; Paula Bennett; Betsy M Sutherland

    2011-03-01

    Clustered damage in DNA includes two or more closely spaced oxidized bases, strand breaks or abasic sites that are induced by high- or low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation, and these have been found to be repair-resistant and potentially mutagenic. In the present study we found that abasic clustered damages are also induced in primary human fibroblast cells by low-LET X-rays even at very low doses. In response to the induction of the abasic sites, primary fibroblasts irradiated by low doses of X-rays in the range 10–100 cGy showed dose-dependent up-regulation of the DNA repair enzyme, ApeI. We found that the abasic clusters in primary fibroblasts were more lethal to cells when hApeI enzyme expression was down-regulated by transfecting primary fibroblasts with hApeI siRNA as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Endonuclease activity of hApeI was found to be directly proportional to hApeI gene-silencing efficiency. The DNA repair profile showed that processing of abasic clusters was delayed in hApeI-siRNA-silenced fibroblasts, which challenges the survival of the cells even at very low doses of X-rays. Thus, the present study is the first to attempt to understand the induction of cluster DNA damage at very low doses of low-LET radiation in primary human fibroblasts and their processing by DNA repair enzyme ApeI and their relation with the survival of the cells.

  13. 人胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药细胞株 APE1/Ref-1表达升高%Gemcitabine-resistant Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line Overexpresses APE1/Ref-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳; 熊光苏; 吴叔明

    2015-01-01

    背景:吉西他滨是中晚期胰腺癌的主要化疗药物,但由于胰腺癌对吉西他滨存在高度先天性和获得性耐药,吉西他滨不能明显改善胰腺癌患者的预后。目的:探讨 DNA 损伤修复及其碱基切除修复途径中的关键酶人脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶1/氧化还原因子-1(APE1/ Ref-1)表达与胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药之间的关系。方法:应用前期研究建立的人胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药细胞株 SW1990-0.5(耐药指数9.32)及其亲本细胞株 SW1990,以彗星实验评估两者经吉西他滨作用后的 DNA 损伤程度,real-time PCR 和蛋白质印迹法检测 APE1/ Ref-1 mRNA 和蛋白表达。结果:经吉西他滨作用24 h,SW1990-0.5和 SW1990细胞的彗星实验 OTM 值分别为0.32±0.13和26.96±6.83,相对于SW1990细胞,SW1990-0.5细胞的 APE1/ Ref-1 mRNA 表达量为2.48±0.49,两者 APE1/ Ref-1蛋白相对表达量分别为1.57±0.08和0.84±0.06,组间差异均有统计学意义(P 均<0.05)。结论:DNA 损伤修复可能与胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药相关,APE1/ Ref-1表达上调可能是通过修复 DNA 损伤参与胰腺癌对吉西他滨耐药。%Background:Gemcitabine is the main drug for chemotherapy of advanced pancreatic cancer,however,the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients has not been changed obviously because of the high innate and acquired resistance of cancer cells to gemcitabine. Aims:To investigate the correlation of DNA repair and expression of human APE1 / Ref-1(apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 / redox factor-1),the key enzyme in base excision repair pathway,with the resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine. Methods:A gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990-0. 5 with a resistance index of 9. 32 and its parental cell line SW1990 were treated with gemcitabine. DNA injury was assessed by comet assay. Expressions of APE1 / Ref-1 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western

  14. Expression of multifunctional gene APE/ref-1 in astrocytic tumor and its prognostic significance%多功能基因APE/ref-1在人脑星形细胞肿瘤中的表达及与预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华亮; 李增鹏; 牟江洪; 张沁宏; 向德兵; 王东

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨多功能基因APE/ref-1在人脑星形细胞肿瘤中的表达特点及其与患者生存期的关系.方法:收集158例各级脑星形细胞肿瘤临床病理资料并随访,石蜡标本制作组织芯片,利用免疫组化方法检测APE/ref-1蛋白的表达.结果:APE/ref-1在正常脑组织表达于胶质细胞核,在91%(143/158)的肿瘤中以胞核/胞质联合表达为主,少数可仅表达于胞核或胞质(各为5及10例,分别占3%和6%).APE/ref-1胞核阳性分度与胞质染色强度之间存在着负相关,r=-0.447,P=0.0010.其中,核表达阳性分度与肿瘤进展相关,即Ⅲ、Ⅳ级肿瘤的APE/ref-1核表达阳性分度显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ级,并与肿瘤复发有关,而APE/ref-1胞质表达与肿瘤分级和复发无关.生存资料分析显示,APE/ref-1核高表达组患者的生存率显著低于相应的APE/ref-1核低表达组,P=0.009 6.结论:多功能基因APE/ref-1与肿瘤发生和进展有关,APE/ref-1核表达可作为判断脑星形细胞肿瘤预后的指标之一;由APE/ref-1介导的DNA碱基切除修复能力的提高,以及细胞增殖相关转录因子的激活可能与星形细胞肿瘤的侵袭性表型密切相关.

  15. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox antagonist E3330 inhibits the growth of tumor endothelium and endothelial progenitor cells: therapeutic implications in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gang-Ming; Karikari, Collins; Kabe, Yasuaki; Handa, Hiroshi; Anders, Robert A; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-04-01

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape-1/Ref-1) is a multi-functional protein, involved in DNA repair and the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain acts as a cytoprotective element in normal endothelial cells, mitigating the deleterious effects of apoptotic stimuli through induction of survival signals. We explored the role of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain in the maintenance of tumor-associated endothelium, and of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which contribute to tumor angiogenesis. We demonstrate that E3330, a small molecule inhibitor of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain, blocks the in vitro growth of pancreatic cancer-associated endothelial cells (PCECs) and EPCs, which is recapitulated by stable expression of a dominant-negative redox domain mutant. Further, E3330 blocks the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into CD31(+) endothelial progeny. Exposure of PCECs to E3330 results in a reduction of H-ras expression and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, as well as decreased DNA-binding activity of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1alpha. E3330 also reduces secreted and intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor expression by pancreatic cancer cells, while concomitantly downregulating the cognate receptor Flk-1/KDR on PCECs. Inhibition of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain with E3330 or comparable angiogenesis inhibitors might be a potent therapeutic strategy in solid tumors.

  16. Extracellularly secreted APE1/Ref-1 triggers apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells via RAGE binding, which is mediated through acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ran; Kim, Ki Mo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Choi, Sunga

    2015-09-15

    The present study evaluated the mechanism of apoptosis caused by post-translational modification, hyperacetylation in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We previously showed that trichostatin A (TSA) induced secretion of acetylated apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ac-APE1/Ref-1). This is the first report showing that Ac-APE1/Ref-1 initiates apoptosis in TNBC cells by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The functional significance of secreted Ac-APE1/Ref-1 was studied by induction of intracellular hyperacetylation through co-treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and TSA in MDA-MB-231 cells. In response to hyperacetylation, secretion of Ac-APE1/Ref-1 in vesicles was observed, resulting in significantly decreased cell viability and induction of apoptosis with increased expression of RAGE. The hyperacetylation-induced apoptosis was similar in two other TNBC cell lines: BT-459 and MDA-MB-468. Therefore, hyperacetylation may be a therapeutic target for treatment of TNBCs. This study introduces a novel paradigm whereby post-translational modification induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells resistant to standard chemotherapeutic agents through secretion of auto- or paracrine molecules such as Ac-APE1/Ref-1.

  17. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Bugnyar, Thomas; Call, Josep

    2012-11-01

    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom. Although it has been proposed that this is the result of convergent evolution, little is known about whether this is limited to behavior or also includes the underlying cognitive mechanisms. We compared several species of apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and corvids (carrion crows and common ravens) using exactly the same paradigm: a support task with elements from the classical patterned-string tasks. Corvids proved able to solve at least an easy pattern, whereas apes outperformed corvids with respect to the complexity of the patterns solved, the relative number of subjects solving each problem, and the speed to reach criterion. We addressed the question of whether subjects based their choices purely on perceptual cues or on a more abstract understanding of the problem. This was done by using a perceptually very similar but causally different condition where instead of paper strips there were strip shapes painted on a platform. Corvids' performance did not differ between conditions, whereas apes were able to solve the real but not the painted task. This shows that apes were not basing their choices just on spatial or arbitrary perceptual cues. Instead, and unlike corvids, they must have had some causal knowledge of the task.

  18. Aminated polyethersulfone-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-APES) composite membranes with controlled silver ion release for antibacterial and water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Salman; Shao, Godlisten N; Imran, S M; Park, Sung Soo; Abbas, Nadir; Tahir, M Suleman; Hussain, Manwar; Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Hee Taik

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports the antibacterial disinfection properties of a series of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) immobilized membranes. Initially, polyethersulfone (PES) was functionalized through the introduction of amino groups to form aminated polyethersulfone (NH2-PES, APES). AgNPs were then coordinately immobilized on the surface of the APES composite membrane to form AgNPs-APES. The properties of the obtained membrane were examined by FT-IR, XPS, XRD, TGA, ICP-OES and SEM-EDAX analyses. These structural characterizations revealed that AgNPs ranging from 5 to 40 nm were immobilized on the surface of the polymer membrane. Antibacterial tests of the samples showed that the AgNPs-APES exhibited higher activity than the AgNPs-PES un-functionalized membrane. Generally, the AgNPs-APES 1 cm × 3 cm strip revealed a four times longer life than the un-functionalized AgNPs polymer membranes. The evaluation of the Ag(+) leaching properties of the obtained samples indicated that approximately 30% of the AgNPs could be retained, even after 12 days of operation. Further analysis indicated that silver ion release can be sustained for approximately 25 days. The present study provides a systematic and novel approach to synthesize water treatment membranes with controlled and improved silver (Ag(+)) release to enhance the lifetime of the membranes.

  19. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavini Kumari; Prolay Das; Rekha Kumari

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  20. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  1. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  2. Response facilitation in the four great apes: is there a role for empathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Contagious yawning is a form of response facilitation found in humans and other primates in which observing a model yawning enhances the chance that the observer will also yawn. Because contagious yawning seems to be more easily triggered when models are conspecifics or have a strong social bond with the observer, it has been proposed that contagious yawning is linked to empathy. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to analyze whether individuals' responses differ when they observe models yawning or performing different involuntary (i.e., nose wiping, scratching) and voluntary (i.e., hand closing, wrist shaking) actions that are not linked to empathy. In this study, we tested the four great ape species with two different setups by exposing them to a human experimenter repeatedly performing these actions online, and video-recorded conspecifics repeatedly performing these actions on a screen. We examined which behaviors were subject to response facilitation, whether response facilitation was triggered by both human models and video-recorded conspecifics, and whether all species showed evidence of response facilitation. Our results showed that chimpanzees yawned significantly more when and shortly after watching videos of conspecifics (but not humans) yawning than in control conditions, and they did not do so as a response to increased levels of anxiety. For all other behaviors, no species produced more target actions when being exposed to either model than under control conditions. Moreover, the individuals that were more "reactive" when watching yawning videos were not more reactive when exposed to other actions. Since, at least in chimpanzees, (1) subjects only showed response facilitation when they were exposed to yawning and (2) only if models were conspecifics, it appears that contagious yawning is triggered by unique mechanisms and might be linked to empathy.

  3. APE1/Ref-1 siRNA inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by cultured bone marrow stromal cells isolated from multiple myeloma patients%APE1/Ref-1 siRNA抑制多发性骨髓瘤骨髓基质细胞IL-6及IL-8分泌的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家印; 王阁; 王东; 李梦侠; 向德兵; 杨镇洲; 杨宇馨; 李增鹏; 曾林立; 仲召阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 体外通过APE1/Ref-1 siRNA敲低多发性骨髓瘤骨髓基质细胞(bone marrow stromal cells,BMSCs)APE1/Ref-1的表达,观察BMSCs的增殖及分泌细胞因子IL-6、IL-8的变化,初步探讨BMSCs APE1/Ref-1表达的功能特点.方法 通过免疫细胞化学染色法定量榆测35例初治、11例复发/难治多发性骨髓瘤患者及10例正常人BMSCsAPE1/Ref-1的表达特点及其差异,经Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染BMSCs后,流式细胞仪检测BMSCs细胞周期的变化;ELISA法检测BMSCs分泌IL-6、IL-8的水平变化情况.结果 多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs的APE1/Ref-1蛋白阳性表达率显著高于正常BMSCs APE1/Ref-1蛋白阳性表达率(P<0.05),且多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs的APE1/Ref-1呈细胞核及核浆共间表达方式.Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染敲低多发性骨髓瘤及正常BMSCs APE1/Ref-1的表达量呈进行性减少(P<0.01),同时发现APE1/Ref-1 siRNA对多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs抑制作用更明显.Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染BMSCs后对正常人及骨髓瘤患者BMSCs分泌细胞因子IL-6、IL-8的量有显著的抑制作用,特别是感染72 h后,骨髓瘤患者及正常人的BMSCs分泌IL-6[初治患者(246.29±46.51)pg/ml,复发/难治患者(365.09±75.25)pg/ml]、IL-8[初治患者(118.77±18.08)pg/ml,复发/难治患者(188.71±33.76)pg/ml]的量最低,与其他时段比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 多发性骨髓瘤BMscs APE1/Ref-1的表达特点不同于正常BMSCs,可能导致其功能差异;APE1/Ref-1 siRNA敲低了MM BMSCsAPE1/Ref-1的表达,同时明显抑制了其IL-6、IL-8的分泌,减少了对骨髓瘤细胞的促增殖和凋亡作用.

  4. The relationships among jaw-muscle fiber architecture, jaw morphology, and feeding behavior in extant apes and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    The jaw-closing muscles are responsible for generating many of the forces and movements associated with feeding. Muscle physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA) and fiber length are two architectural parameters that heavily influence muscle function. While there have been numerous comparative studies of hominoid and hominin craniodental and mandibular morphology, little is known about hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture. We present novel data on masseter and temporalis internal muscle architecture for small- and large-bodied hominoids. Hominoid scaling patterns are evaluated and compared with representative New- (Cebus) and Old-World (Macaca) monkeys. Variation in hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture is related to both absolute size and allometry. PCSAs scale close to isometry relative to jaw length in anthropoids, but likely with positive allometry in hominoids. Thus, large-bodied apes may be capable of generating both absolutely and relatively greater muscle forces compared with smaller-bodied apes and monkeys. Compared with extant apes, modern humans exhibit a reduction in masseter PCSA relative to condyle-M1 length but retain relatively long fibers, suggesting humans may have sacrificed relative masseter muscle force during chewing without appreciably altering muscle excursion/contraction velocity. Lastly, craniometric estimates of PCSAs underestimate hominoid masseter and temporalis PCSAs by more than 50% in gorillas, and overestimate masseter PCSA by as much as 30% in humans. These findings underscore the difficulty of accurately estimating jaw-muscle fiber architecture from craniometric measures and suggest models of fossil hominin and hominoid bite forces will be improved by incorporating architectural data in estimating jaw-muscle forces.

  5. 'Hurrah for the missing link!': A history of apes, ancestors and a crucial piece of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the idea of a ‘missing link’ connecting humans with the rest of the animal kingdom was eagerly embraced by professional scientists and popularizers. After the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859, many tied the idea and subsequent search for a crucial...... piece of evidence to Darwin and his formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection. This article demonstrates that the expression was widely used and that the framework for discussions about human’s relation to the apes and gaps in the fossil record were well in place and widely debated...

  6. Comparative morphology of the hominin and African ape hyoid bone, a possible marker of the evolution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Clegg, Margaret; Martelli, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterized and used to interpret the morphology and affi nities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones. Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the midline). A different pattern is usually found in the African ape hyoids, which have much greater maximum lengths. In humans, the hyoid body is also much more anteroposteriorly shallow in proportion to its height and width, and this is true for all age classes. The Dikika australopithecine hyoid body proportions are chimpanzeelike. A discriminant function analysis, using a larger subadult sample from the three extant species than that reported by Alemseged et al. (2006), confirms this finding. The Kebara hyoid dimensions (body alone, and articulated body and greater horns) are almost all within the observed range for human hyoids. Discriminant functions clearly distinguish human from African ape hyoids and classify the Kebara 2 hyoid as human (confirming the finding of Arensburg et al. 1989). Our virtual dissection of a chimpanzee air sac system shows its subhyoid extension into the dorsal hyoid body. Following Alemseged et al. (2006), the expanded bulla characteristic of the African ape and australopithecine hyoid body is therefore interpreted as refl ecting the presence of such a laryngeal air sac extension. Its absence in the human, Neanderthal, and H. heidelbergensis (Atapuerca SH) hyoids implicates the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene. If

  7. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. METHODS: We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  8. Developing and Testing the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Astoul, Anthony; Mason, Eric; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew; Shridhar, Kunal; Varghese, Blesson; Varshney, Naman

    2013-01-01

    An automated, real-time, multiple sensor data source relying and globally applicable earthquake loss model and visualiser is desirable for post-event earthquake analysis. To achieve this there is a need to support rapid data ingestion, loss estimation and integration of data from multiple data sources and rapid visualisation at multiple geographic levels. In this paper, the design and development of the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) system for real-time estimation and visualisation of insured losses incurred due to earthquakes is presented. A model for estimating ground up and net of facultative losses due to earthquakes in near real-time is implemented. Since post-event data is often available immediately from multiple disparate sources, a geo-browser is employed to facilitate the visualisation and integration of earthquake hazard, exposure and loss data. The feasibility of APE-ELEV is demonstrated using a test case earthquake that occurred in Tohoku, Japan (201...

  9. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    allowed genetically vulnerable populations to negotiate new ways of being fit. The extended synthesis allows for the possibility that great apes were agents long before they were human and that this agency enabled them to fit their environments to their own needs. This article summarises features of the extended synthesis that seem most relevant to archaeology. Some of the topics it discusses may seem abstruse and perhaps unnecessary because they amount to an acknowledgement of socio-natural complexities archaeologists have understood for decades. However, they are extremely significant in study-domains where biology and archaeology intersect. Archaeologists can no longer uncritically accept the conclusions drawn by molecular geneticists because the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology is under reconstruction.

  10. 过氧化氢对PC12细胞中硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1基因表达的影响%Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the expression of thioredoxin and APE/ref-1 in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢振华; 刘长振; 王爱民; 马春

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察过氧化氢(H2O2)对硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1基因表达的影响,探讨H2O2预处理对神经细胞具有适应性保护的分子机制.方法 以PC12细胞作为神经细胞模型,以200和400 μmol/L浓度的H2O2处理PC12细胞,用MTT法检测细胞的损伤程度,以Western blot方法测定硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达水平.结果 200 μmol/L H2O2促进PC12细胞的硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达,400 μmol/L H2O2也促进PC12细胞的APE/Ref-1表达,但使PC12细胞的硫氧还蛋白表达显著降低.结论 促进硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达可能是低浓度H2O2预处理对神经细胞具有适应性保护的分子机制.

  11. Effects on survival of shRNA mediated APE/Ref1 gene silencing in rat spiral ganglion cells in oxidative stress%shRNA沉默APE/Ref1对体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞过氧化氢损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 钟诚; 李太军; 向召兰; 张学渊

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过转染pGenesil-APE/Ref1-shRNA抑制体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞(spiral ganglion cell,SGC)中无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1,APE/Ref1)的表达,观察SGC在过氧化氢(H2O2)所致氧化应激环境中的活性及凋亡情况,探讨APE/Ref1在SGC抗氧化损伤过程中的作用.方法 体外培养大鼠SGC,加入pGenesil-APE/Ref1-shRNA转染72 h,更换培养基后加入不同浓度的H2O2 (0、10、25、50、100、300μmol/L)干预1h,更换正常培养基后继续培养24h.通过免疫印迹、分光光度检测法、原位缺口末端标记法(TUNEL)、四甲基偶氮唑蓝法(MTT)分别检测SGC APE/Refl、磷酸化组蛋白H2AX的表达、caspase3活性、细胞活性以及凋亡情况.结果 pGenesil-APE/Ref1-shRNA能明显抑制APE/Ref1的表达,H2O2损伤浓度在50 ~ 300 μmol/L时,与对照组相比,pGenesil-APE/Ref1-shRNA组磷酸化组蛋白H2AX表达增加,caspase 3活性增加,细胞凋亡率增高,细胞活性降低,差异具有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).结论 pGenesil-APE/Ref1-shRNA抑制APE/Refl表达后,大鼠体外培养SGC抗氧化损伤能力降低;APE/Ref1可能通过DNA修复功能,实现对SGC的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of reducing APE/Refl expression in the cultures of rat spiral ganglion cells with oxidative damage induced by H2O2.Methods Primary cultured rat spiral ganglion cells were infected with small interfering RNA to APE/Refl (Apel siRNA) for 72 h,followed by treating with H2O2(0,10,25,50,100 and 300 μmol/L) for 1 h,and then cultured in normal medium for 24 h.Western blot were used to detect the level of APE/Refl protein and phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX in the infected cells.The caspase3 activation was tested by spectrophotometric method.The cell viability was determined by MTT and the apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick

  12. Differences in between-reinforcer value modulate the selective-value effect in great apes (Pan troglodytes, P. Paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Amaro, Alejandro; Peretó, Mar; Call, Josep

    2016-02-01

    We investigated how apes allocated their choices between 2 food options that varied in terms of their quantity and quality. Experiment 1 tested whether subjects preferred an AB option over an A option, where the A item is preferred to the B item (e.g., apple + carrot vs. apple). Additionally, we tested whether the length of the intertrial interval (ITI) affected subjects' choices. Five orangutans, 4 gorillas, 7 bonobos, and 10 chimpanzees received 3 types of trials: preference (A vs. B), quantity (AA vs. A), and mixed (AB vs. A where A is the preferred food). We used 3 food items that substantially differed in terms of preference (carrots, apples, and pellets). Subjects showed no overall preference for the mixed option (AB) compared with the single option (A), even though they showed clear preferences during both the preference and quantity trials. The intertrial length had no effect on choice behavior. Experiment 2 further explored apes' choices by using 3 highly preferred food items (bananas, grapes, and pellets) in 6 orangutans, 4 gorillas, 8 bonobos, and 18 chimpanzees. Unlike the results of Experiment 1, apes generally chose the mixed option. Our results indicated that apes did not show a general "selective-value" effect but chose depending on the relative value of the food items involved. Subjects were more likely to select the mixed over the single option when (a) the mixed option was composed of items that were closer in value and (b) they were compared against the less valuable item forming the mixed option.

  13. Evaluating effects of tannins on extent and rate of in vitro gas and CH4, production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Stringano, E.; Leenaars, J.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Laar-van Schuppen, van S.; Plant, J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate effects of tannins on extent and rate of gas and CH4 production using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). In this study three condensed tannins (CT; quebracho, grape seed, green tea tannins) and four hydrolysable tannins (HT; tara, valonea,

  14. 吉西他滨对人肺癌A549细胞株CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1mRNA和蛋白表达的影响%Effects of Gemcitabine on Expression of CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1 mRNA and Protein in Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东; 周曙光; 刘玥; 李晓栋; 王姗姗; 唐小龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究人肺癌A549细胞株在吉西他滨化疗时CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1基因表达的变化,并探讨其在肺癌化疗耐药中所起的作用.[方法]不同浓度吉西他滨0、10、20、40及60 μmol/L作用人肺癌A549细胞株24 h,分别以RT-PCR 及Western blot方法测定用药后CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的mRNA及蛋白表达情况. [结果]吉西他滨作用人肺癌A549细胞株24 h后,CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的mRNA及蛋白表达水平均明显上升,并与吉西他滨的浓度呈正相关(CN-Ⅱ RT-PCR:r=0.687,P=0.009;Western blot:r=0.594,P=0.021;APE/Ref-1 RT-PCR:r=0.669,P=0.010;Western blot:r=0.562,P=0.029). [结论]CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1在肺癌化疗时表达明显增强,可能与化疗耐药性的产生有关,并提示针对CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的靶向干预可能有助于提高肺癌的化疗敏感性.

  15. Research on Expression and Its Significance of APE/Ref-1 in Gastric Cancer by Tissue Micro-array%采用组织芯片技术研究APE/Ref-1在胃癌中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳红; 郭丽娟; 赵治国

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测APE/Ref-1在胃癌中的表达及意义.方法 收集60例胃癌和27例癌旁5 cm胃黏膜,用组织芯片(tissue micro-array)和免疫组织化学法检测APE/Ref-1基因的表达,并分析APE/Ref-1与胃癌临床病理指标之间的关系.结果 APE/Ref-1在胃癌和正常胃黏膜组织中呈胞核、胞质或核质共表达.在胃癌组织中,胞核阳性率为91.7%,胞质阳性率为21.7%,核质阳性率为20%;在胃正常黏膜组织中,胞核阳性率为92.6%,胞质阳性率为78%,核质阳性率为63%.胃癌和胃正常黏膜组织相比,胞核阳性率变化不明显(P>0.05),但胞质阳性率和核质阳性率均有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 APE/Ref-1在胃黏膜组织中普遍表达,以胞核表达为主.APE/Ref-1在胃癌胞质表达水平的降低可能在胃癌的发生、发展中起重要作用.

  16. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toder, R; Xia, Y; Bausch, E

    1998-09-01

    Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

  17. Gene polymorphisms of the DNA Repairing Genes APE1 and XRCC1 among Smoking Lung Cancer Egyptians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezk Ahmed Abd-ellateef Elbaz, Salim Abd-elhady Habib, Maha Ebraheem Esmael Ebraheem, Gamal Kamel EL-Ebidy, Lamiaa Mohamed Mahmoud Ramadan and Ahmed Settin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thus a major public health problem. DNA base damage or losses caused by endogenous and exogenous agents occur constantly at a high frequency in human cells. The removal or repair of damaged bases is an important mechanism in protecting the integrity of the genome. APE1 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and XRCC1 (X-ray cross-complementing group1 are DNA repair proteins that play important roles in the base excision repair (BER pathway. The focus of this work is limited to the association between polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes, (APE1 Asp148Glu (2197 T→G and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (28152 G→A genotypes, cigarette smoking and lung cancer. This study has included 131 cases affected with lung cancers include; 33cases with small cell carcinoma (25.2% and 98 cases with non-small cell carcinoma (74.8%. They were recruited from oncology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt; in the period between April 2008 to March 2010. For comparison, a negative control group including 150 healthy individuals randomly selected from blood donors. Controls were selected by random sampling cancer-free individuals without a past history of cancer, who visited Mansoura University hospitals and provided peripheral blood between April 2008 and March 2010. DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood using generation DNA purification capture column kit (Gentra system, USA and genotyping for APE1 Glu148Asp and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms was performed by a PCR--CTPP (PCR with confronting two-pair primers method. The collected data were organized and statistically analyzed using SPSS statistical computer package version 10 software. we observed that, There were no significant differences in the frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu (2197 T→G polymorphism of all genotypes and alleles in all lung cancer cases compared to all healthy controls. Also, there were no significant differences in the

  18. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A

    2016-12-31

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias.

  19. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. METHODS: Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus. RESULTS: Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages. CONCLUSION: Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  20. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  2. APE/Ref-1基因重组腺病毒的构建表达和鉴定%Construction of recombinant adenovirus carrying apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 魏运军; 张学渊; 邓凤莲; 卓贤露

    2006-01-01

    目的 构建表达氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)基因的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒,为进一步研究APE/Ref-1在耳蜗螺旋神经节氧化损伤病理过程中的作用机制提供实验基础.方法 应用RT-PCR 技术从大鼠脑组织总RNA克隆出APE/Ref-1 基因, 将APE/Ref-1 基因定向克隆到穿梭质粒pAdTrack-CMV上,经与腺病毒骨架质粒pAdEasy-1 在大肠埃希菌BJ5183内同源重组后,转染293 细胞进行包装,并反复感染293细胞进行扩增.对其进行安全性、滴度以及活性等检测.采用Western blot 对APE/Ref-1蛋白表达进行检测和鉴定.结果 克隆出大鼠APE/Ref-1基因,经测序证实结果正确;得到高滴度的重组腺病毒,提取病毒DNA证实含目的基因.结论 成功构建了表达APE/Ref-1 的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒.为进一步研究APE/Ref-1在耳蜗螺旋神经节的氧化损伤过程中作用机制奠定了实验基础.

  3. 亚低温对大鼠短暂性全脑缺血后APE/Ref-1表达、神经元凋亡的影响%Effects of Hypothermia on apoptosis and the expression of APE/Ref-1 following transient forebrain ischemia in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 雷惠新; 张旭; 李智文; 张志坚

    2012-01-01

    To explore the neuroprotective mechanism of mild hypothermia by studying the effects of mild hypothermia on the expression of APE/Ref - 1 and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 subregion after transient global cerebral ischemia in rats. [Methods] A model of transient global cerebral ischemia was made by lOmin of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and hypotension in rat. Expression of the APE/Ref - 1 protein was detected by immunohisto-chemical analysis. Apoptosis after global ischemia was observed with TUNEL. [Results] Immunohisto - chemistry showed the nuclear expression of APE/Ref - 1 in the control brains. Nuclear decreasing immunoreactivity of APE/Ref - 1 started at 1st day and became significantly at 2nd day and the TUNEL positive neurons were observed at 2nd day and became significant at 3rd day in the hippocampal CA1 subregion after transient global ischemia in normothermic group. Mild hypothermic ischemic group was less decreased in nuclear immunoreactivity of APE/Ref- 1 (P <0. 01) and less quantitv of apoptotic neurons(P<0.01) than those of normothermic group . Double staining with APE/Ref- 1 and TUNEL clearly showed that the neurons which lost APE/Ref- 1 immunoreactivity became TUNEL positive. [Conclusions] The mild hypothermia had remarkable neuroprotection action. The inhibition of APE/Ref - 1 reduction and ischemic neuronal apoptosis were assumed to be a neuroprotective mechanism of mild hypothermia.%[目的]通过大鼠短暂全脑缺血模型来探讨亚低温对大鼠脑缺血后APE/Ref-1(apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1,无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1)蛋白表达及缺血性神经元凋亡的影响,揭示亚低温的部分神经保护机制.[方法]采用“双侧颈总动脉夹闭+低血压法”建立大鼠短暂性全脑缺血模型.实验动物分假手术组、手术后常温存活1d、2d、3d组及手术后亚低温存活1d、2d、3d组.用免疫组化方法检测各组APE/Ref-1蛋白的

  4. 尤瑞克林对大鼠局灶性脑缺血再灌注损伤后APE/Ref-1表达的影响%Effect of Urinary kallikrein on the expression of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1(APE/Ref-1) in cerebral tissue of rats subjected to cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王言理; 陈晓兵; 许锁; 刘克喜; 石远峰

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Urinary kallikrein on the expression of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) in rats which were subjected to reperfusion after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for two hours. To explore the protective mechanism of Urinary kallikrein against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury.Methods 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups with 18 mice each group: control group (Con group), ischemic/reperfusion group (Model group), ischemic/reperfusion plus Urinary kallikrein group (URK group). Six rats from each group randomly selected were respectively subjected to the detection of APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA1 region of hippocampus by immunohistochernistry, the detection of cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining and the detection of the expression of protein APE/Ref-1 in hippocampus by Western blot.ResultsCompared with Con group, the levels of protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 in hippocampus significantly decreased (P<0.05), with the APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA3 region of hippocampus significantly lower (P<0.05), Urinary kallikreincan increase the protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 and the APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA1 region of hippocampus, but lower than that of Con group, Urinary kallikrein can decrease thecerebral infarct volume induced by the reperfusion after middle cerebral occlusion (MCAO).ConclusionUrinary kallikreincan increase the protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, that may be the other protective mechanism of Urinary kallikrein against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury.%目的:探讨尤瑞克林对大鼠局造性脑缺血再灌注损伤(I/R)后无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)表达的影响,进一步探讨尤瑞克林脑保护作用的机制。方法健康成年雄性SD大鼠54只,采用随机数字表法分为3组:空白对照组(Con组)(n=18),

  5. Expression and significance of APE1/Ref-1 in gastric carcinoma%APEl/Ref-l在胃癌组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云娣; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of APE1/Ref-1 protein in gastric carcinoma. Methods The expression of APE1/Ref-1 protein was detected by EnVision immunohistochemical method in tissues-microarry in 99 cases of gastric carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis(grop A,72 cases) and without(group B, 27 cases). Results The positive expression rate of APE1/Ref-1 in gastric carcinoma tissues was 63. 64%, which was higher in group A than that in group B(73.61% vs. 37.01%) (P<0. 05). Conclusion APE1/Ref-1 may participate in the invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma through enhancing DNA base excision repair.%目的 探讨脱嘌呤脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子(APEl/Ref-l)蛋白在胃癌组织中的表达及意义.方法 利用组织芯片技术和免疫组化EnVision法检测APEl/Ref-l蛋白在99例胃癌组织中的表达.其中,无淋巴结转移者27例,有淋巴结转移者72例.结果 APEl/Ref-l在胃癌中的阳性表达率为63.64%.其在无淋巴结转移者为37.01%,明显低于有淋巴结转移者的73.61%(P<0.05).结论 APEl/Ref-l可能通过对增强胃癌组织DNA碱基损伤的修复而参与了胃癌的浸润及转移的机制.

  6. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

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    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes.

  7. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation.

  8. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

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    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  9. The future of future-oriented cognition in non-humans: theory and the empirical case of the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Martin-Ordas, Gema

    2014-11-05

    One of the most contested areas in the field of animal cognition is non-human future-oriented cognition. We critically examine key underlying assumptions in the debate, which is mainly preoccupied with certain dichotomous positions, the most prevalent being whether or not 'real' future orientation is uniquely human. We argue that future orientation is a theoretical construct threatening to lead research astray. Cognitive operations occur in the present moment and can be influenced only by prior causation and the environment, at the same time that most appear directed towards future outcomes. Regarding the current debate, future orientation becomes a question of where on various continua cognition becomes 'truly' future-oriented. We question both the assumption that episodic cognition is the most important process in future-oriented cognition and the assumption that future-oriented cognition is uniquely human. We review the studies on future-oriented cognition in the great apes to find little doubt that our closest relatives possess such ability. We conclude by urging that future-oriented cognition not be viewed as expression of some select set of skills. Instead, research into future-oriented cognition should be approached more like research into social and physical cognition.

  10. The ethics of killing human/great-ape chimeras for their organs: a reply to Shaw et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically examine David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, and Guido de Wert's arguments in favour of the procurement of human organs from human/nonhuman-primate chimeras, specifically from great-ape/human chimeras. My main claim is that their arguments fail and are in need of substantial revision. To prove this I first introduce the topic, and then reconstruct Shaw et al.'s position and arguments. Next, I show that Shaw et al.: (1) failed to properly apply the subsidiarity and proportionality principles; (2) neglected species overlapping cases in their ethical assessment; (3) ignored the ethics literature on borderline persons; and (4) misunderstood McMahan's two-tiered moral theory. These mistakes render an important part of their conclusions either false or problematic to the point that they would no longer endorse them. Finally I will briefly mention a possible multipolar solution to the human organ shortage problem that would reduce the need for chimeras' organs.

  11. The receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine leukemia virus are not downregulated in productively infected cells

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    Eiden Maribeth V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last several decades it has been noted, using a variety of different methods, that cells infected by a specific gammaretrovirus are resistant to infection by other retroviruses that employ the same receptor; a phenomenon termed receptor interference. Receptor masking is thought to provide an earlier means of blocking superinfection, whereas receptor down regulation is generally considered to occur in chronically infected cells. Results We used replication-competent GFP-expressing viruses containing either an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV or the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV envelope. We also constructed similar viruses containing fluorescence-labeled Gag proteins for the detection of viral particles. Using this repertoire of reagents together with a wide range of antibodies, we were able to determine the presence and availability of viral receptors, and detect viral envelope proteins and particles presence on the cell surface of chronically infected cells. Conclusions A-MLV or GALV receptors remain on the surface of chronically infected cells and are detectable by respective antibodies, indicating that these receptors are not downregulated in these infected cells as previously proposed. We were also able to detect viral envelope proteins on the infected cell surface and infected cells are unable to bind soluble A-MLV or GALV envelopes indicating that receptor binding sites are masked by endogenously expressed A-MLV or GALV viral envelope. However, receptor masking does not completely prevent A-MLV or GALV superinfection.

  12. High energy conformers of M(+)(APE)(H2O)(0-1)Ar(0-1) clusters revealed by combined IR-PD and DFT-MD anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, V; Nicely, A L; Sieffert, N; Gaigeot, M-P; Lisy, J M

    2014-07-14

    IR-PD vibrational spectroscopy and DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations are combined in order to unravel the structures of M(+)(APE)(H2O)0-1 ionic clusters (M = Na, K), where APE (2-amino-1-phenyl ethanol) is commonly used as an analogue for the noradrenaline neurotransmitter. The strength of the synergy between experiments and simulations presented here is that DFT-MD provides anharmonic vibrational spectra that unambiguously help assign the ionic clusters structures. Depending on the interacting cation, we have found that the lowest energy conformers of K(+)(APE)(H2O)0-1 clusters are formed, while the lowest energy conformers of Na(+)(APE)(H2O)0-1 clusters can only be observed through water loss channel (i.e. without argon tagged to the clusters). Trapping of higher energy conformers is observed when the argon loss channel is recorded in the experiment. This has been rationalized by transition state energies. The dynamical anharmonic vibrational spectra unambiguously provide the prominent OH stretch due to the OH···NH2 H-bond, within 10 cm(-1) of the experiment, hence reproducing the 240-300 cm(-1) red-shift (depending on the interacting cation) from bare neutral APE. When this H-bond is not present, the dynamical anharmonic spectra provide the water O-H stretches as well as the rotational motion of the water molecule at finite temperature, as observed in the experiment.

  13. Reconstructing the demographic history of the human lineage using whole-genome sequences from human and three great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuichiro; Imanishi, Tadashi; Satta, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The demographic history of human would provide helpful information for identifying the evolutionary events that shaped the humanity but remains controversial even in the genomic era. To settle the controversies, we inferred the speciation times (T) and ancestral population sizes (N) in the lineage leading to human and great apes based on whole-genome alignment. A coalescence simulation determined the sizes of alignment blocks and intervals between them required to obtain recombination-free blocks with a high frequency. This simulation revealed that the size of the block strongly affects the parameter inference, indicating that recombination is an important factor for achieving optimum parameter inference. From the whole genome alignments (1.9 giga-bases) of human (H), chimpanzee (C), gorilla (G), and orangutan, 100-bp alignment blocks separated by ≥5-kb intervals were sampled and subjected to estimate τ = μT and θ = 4μgN using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, where μ is the mutation rate and g is the generation time. Although the estimated τ(HC) differed across chromosomes, τ(HC) and τ(HCG) were strongly correlated across chromosomes, indicating that variation in τ is subject to variation in μ, rather than T, and thus, all chromosomes share a single speciation time. Subsequently, we estimated Ts of the human lineage from chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to be 6.0-7.6, 7.6-9.7, and 15-19 Ma, respectively, assuming variable μ across lineages and chromosomes. These speciation times were consistent with the fossil records. We conclude that the speciation times in our recombination-free analysis would be conclusive and the speciation between human and chimpanzee was a single event.

  14. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) redox function negatively regulates NRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Wu, Xue; Devlin, Cecilia M; Logsdon, Derek P; Jiang, Yanlin; Luo, Meihua; He, Ying; Yu, Zhangsheng; Tong, Yan; Lipking, Kelsey P; Maitra, Anirban; Rajeshkumar, N V; Scandura, Glenda; Kelley, Mark R; Ivan, Mircea

    2015-01-30

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) (henceforth referred to as Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that in addition to its base excision DNA repair activity exerts redox control of multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), STAT3, activator protein-1 (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and tumor protein 53 (p53). In recent years, Ref-1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, particularly in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Although a significant amount of research has centered on Ref-1, no wide-ranging approach had been performed on the effects of Ref-1 inhibition and transcription factor activity perturbation. Starting with a broader approach, we identified a previously unsuspected effect on the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2), a critical regulator of cellular defenses against oxidative stress. Based on genetic and small molecule inhibitor-based methodologies, we demonstrated that repression of Ref-1 potently activates NRF2 and its downstream targets in a dose-dependent fashion, and that the redox, rather than the DNA repair function of Ref-1 is critical for this effect. Intriguingly, our results also indicate that this pathway does not involve reactive oxygen species. The link between Ref-1 and NRF2 appears to be present in all cells tested in vitro, noncancerous and cancerous, including patient-derived tumor samples. In particular, we focused on understanding the implications of the novel interaction between these two pathways in primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor cells and provide the first evidence that this mechanism has implications for overcoming the resistance against experimental drugs targeting Ref-1 activity, with clear translational implications.

  15. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

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    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  16. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  17. Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail.

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    Tiffany M Lucas

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env. We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in

  18. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  19. Looking for structure: Is the two-word stage of language development in apes and human children the same or different?

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    Mark Patkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously published corpora of two-word utterances by three chimpanzees and three human children were compared to determine whether, as has been claimed, apes possess the same basic syntactic and semantic capacities as 2-year old children. Some similarities were observed in the type of semantic relations expressed by the two groups; however, marked contrasts were also uncovered. With respect to the major syntactic mechanism displayed in two-word child language, namely word order, statistically significant differences were found in all three comparisons that were tested. These results indicate that chimpanzees do not exhibit the linguistic capacities of 2-year old children.

  20. Evolutionary pattern of mutation in the factor IX genes of great apes: How does it compare to the pattern of recent germline mutation in patients with hemophilia B?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grouse, L.H.; Ketterling, R.P.; Sommer, S.S. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Most mutations causing hemophilia B have arisen within the past 150 years. By correcting for multiple biases, the underlying rates of spontaneous germline mutation have been estimated in the factor IX gene. From these rates, an underlying pattern of mutation has emerged. To determine if this pattern compares to a underlying pattern found in the great apes, sequence changes were determined in intronic regions of the factor IX gene. The following species were studied: Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmacus (orangutan) and Homo sapiens. Intronic sequences at least 200 bp from a splice junction were randomly chosen, amplified by cross-species PCR, and sequenced. These regions are expected to be subject to little if any selective pressure. Early diverged species of Old World monkeys were also studied to help determine the direction of mutational changes. A total of 62 sequence changes were observed. Initial data suggest that the average pattern since evolution of the great apes has a paucity of transitions at CpG dinucleotides and an excess of microinsertions to microdeletions when compared to the pattern observed in humans during the past 150 years (p<.05). A larger study is in progress to confirm these results.

  1. Estimate of the lower-limb-specific muscle parameters during bipedal walking for humans, apes and early hominids with the implications for the evolution of body proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijie

    2007-01-01

    Modern human has different body proportion from early hominids and great apes. Comparing with others, in general, modern human adults have relatively long lower limb and heavier body weight. Since the lower limbs provide support to the whole body and play an important role in walking, it is proposed that the ratio of the lower limb to the whole body for modern human could be beneficial to bipedal walking. This study tried to estimate the muscle parameters of the lower limb in walking for the subjects with various body proportions. Using a simplified musculoskeletal model, some muscle parameters of the lower limb, e.g. muscle force, stress, work and power, were estimated for modern human adult, child, AL 288-1 (the fossil specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million years old) and apes. The results show that with the body proportion modern human adult spends less muscle work and power in walking than other subjects. The results imply that using the cost of transport (i.e. the muscle work of the lower limb per unit of displacement) as the criteria, the early hominids, if their body proportions were structurally similar to AL 288-1, could evolve towards what modern human adult looks like, in order to save energy during bipedal walking.

  2. Human ribosomal protein S3 interacts with DNA base excision repair proteins hAPE/Ref-1 and hOGG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vijay; Wang, Mu; Deutsch, Walter A

    2004-11-09

    The human ribosomal protein S3 (hS3) possesses associated activities that suggest alternative roles beyond its participation in protein translation. For example, it is capable of cleaving apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) DNA via a beta-elimination reaction, an activity that is missing in partially purified extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum group-D fibroblasts. In a recent study, we showed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) that hS3 also has a very high apparent binding affinity for 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and AP sites in DNA. Using the same SPR technology, it is shown here that hS3 positively interacts with the human base excision repair (BER) enzymes N-glycosylase/AP lyase OGG1 and APE/Ref-1. Using a DNA substrate that allows for the detection of 8-oxoG repair, we also show that hOGG1 N-glycosylase activity becomes increasingly more robust in the presence of hS3. Human S3 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with both hOGG1 and APE/Ref-1, indicating that these proteins physically interact with one another. These results raise the possibility that hS3 not only functions as a ribosomal protein but, in addition, may influence repair activities at sites of DNA damage.

  3. DNA repair and redox activities and inhibitors of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1): a comparative analysis and their scope and limitations toward anticancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Cholia, Ravi P; Mantha, Anil K; Kumar, Raj

    2014-12-26

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA repair and activation of transcription factors through its redox function. The evolutionarily conserved C- and N-termini are involved in these functions independently. It is also reported that the activity of APE1/Ref-1 abruptly increases several-fold in various human cancers. The control over the outcomes of these two functions is emerging as a new strategy to combine enhanced DNA damage and chemotherapy in order to tackle the major hurdle of increased cancer cell growth and proliferation. Studies have targeted these two domains individually for the design and development of inhibitors for APE1/Ref-1. Here, we have made, for the first time, an attempt at a comparative analysis of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors that target both DNA repair and redox activities simultaneously. We further discuss their scope and limitations with respect to the development of potential anticancer agents.

  4. A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasi, A.; Blom, A.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Kpanou, J.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The st

  5. Apes are intuitive statisticians.

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    Rakoczy, Hannes; Clüver, Annette; Saucke, Liane; Stoffregen, Nicole; Gräbener, Alice; Migura, Judith; Call, Josep

    2014-04-01

    Inductive learning and reasoning, as we use it both in everyday life and in science, is characterized by flexible inferences based on statistical information: inferences from populations to samples and vice versa. Many forms of such statistical reasoning have been found to develop late in human ontogeny, depending on formal education and language, and to be fragile even in adults. New revolutionary research, however, suggests that even preverbal human infants make use of intuitive statistics. Here, we conducted the first investigation of such intuitive statistical reasoning with non-human primates. In a series of 7 experiments, Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas and Orangutans drew flexible statistical inferences from populations to samples. These inferences, furthermore, were truly based on statistical information regarding the relative frequency distributions in a population, and not on absolute frequencies. Intuitive statistics in its most basic form is thus an evolutionarily more ancient rather than a uniquely human capacity.

  6. A partial skeleton of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the mosaic evolution of crown-hominoid positional behaviors.

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    David M Alba

    Full Text Available The extinct dryopithecine Hispanopithecus (Primates: Hominidae, from the Late Miocene of Europe, is the oldest fossil great ape displaying an orthograde body plan coupled with unambiguous suspensory adaptations. On the basis of hand morphology, Hispanopithecus laietanus has been considered to primitively retain adaptations to above-branch quadrupedalism-thus displaying a locomotor repertoire unknown among extant or fossil hominoids, which has been considered unlikely by some researchers. Here we describe a partial skeleton of H. laietanus from the Vallesian (MN9 locality of Can Feu 1 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula, with an estimated age of 10.0-9.7 Ma. It includes dentognathic and postcranial remains of a single, female adult individual, with an estimated body mass of 22-25 kg. The postcranial remains of the rib cage, shoulder girdle and forelimb show a mixture of monkey-like and modern-hominoid-like features. In turn, the proximal morphology of the ulna-most completely preserved in the Can Feu skeleton than among previously-available remains-indicates the possession of an elbow complex suitable for preserving stability along the full range of flexion/extension and enabling a broad range of pronation/supination. Such features, suitable for suspensory behaviors, are however combined with an olecranon morphology that is functionally related to quadrupedalism. Overall, when all the available postcranial evidence for H. laietanus is considered, it emerges that this taxon displayed a locomotor repertoire currently unknown among other apes (extant or extinct alike, uniquely combining suspensory-related features with primitively-retained adaptations to above-branch palmigrady. Despite phylogenetic uncertainties, Hispanopithecus is invariably considered an extinct member of the great-ape-and-human clade. Therefore, the combination of quadrupedal and suspensory adaptations in this Miocene crown hominoid clearly evidences the mosaic nature

  7. The crucial role of particle surface reactivity in respirable quartz-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species formation and APE/Ref-1 induction in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberzettl Petra

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent inflammation and associated excessive oxidative stress have been crucially implicated in quartz-induced pulmonary diseases, including fibrosis and cancer. We have investigated the significance of the particle surface reactivity of respirable quartz dust in relation to the in vivo generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS and the associated induction of oxidative stress responses in the lung. Therefore, rats were intratracheally instilled with 2 mg quartz (DQ12 or quartz whose surface was modified by either polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO or aluminium lactate (AL. Seven days after instillation, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was analysed for markers of inflammation (total/differential cell counts, levels of pulmonary oxidants (H2O2, nitrite, antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, as well as for markers of lung tissue damage, e.g. total protein, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. Lung homogenates as well as sections were investigated regarding the induction of the oxidative DNA-lesion/oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG using HPLC/ECD analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Homogenates and sections were also investigated for the expression of the bifunctional apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1 by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Significantly increased levels of H2O2 and nitrite were observed in rats treated with non-coated quartz, when compared to rats that were treated with either saline or the surface-modified quartz preparations. In the BALF, there was a strong correlation between the number of macrophages and ROS, as well as total cells and RNS. Although enhanced oxidant generation in non-coated DQ12-treated rats was paralleled with an increased total antioxidant capacity in the BALF, these animals also showed significantly enhanced lung tissue damage. Remarkably however, elevated ROS levels were

  8. Very Efficient Spin Polarization Analysis (VESPA): New Exchange Scattering-based Setup for Spin-resolved ARPES at APE-NFFA Beamline at Elettra

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Chiara; Vobornik, Ivana; Das, Pranab K; Benedetti, Davide; Salvador, Federico; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Complete Photoemission Experiments, enabling to measure the full quantum set of the photoelectron final state, are in high demand for the study of materials and nanostructures whose properties are determined by strong electron and spin correlations. We report here on the implementation of the new spin polarimeter VESPA (Very Efficient Spin Polarization Analysis) at the APE-NFFA Beamline at Elettra that is based on the exchange coupling between the photoelectron spin and a ferromagnetic surface in a reflectometry setup. The system was designed to be integrated with a dedicated Scienta-Omicron DA30 electron energy analyser allowing for two simultaneous reflectometry measurements, along perpendicular axes, that, after magnetization switching of the two targets allow to perform the 3D vectorial reconstruction of the spin polarization while operating the DA30 in high resolution mode. VESPA represents the very first installation for spin-resolved ARPES (SP-ARPES) at the Elettra synchrotron in Trieste, and is being ...

  9. Does the use of the dynamic system approach really help fill in the gap between human and non human primate language ? Commentary to S. Shanker and B. J. King " the Emergence of a New Paradigm in Ape Language Research"

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The highly recommended transposition of the dynamic system approach for tackling the question of apes’ linguistic abilities has clearly not led to a demonstration that these primates have acquired language. Fundamental differences related to functional modalities – namely, use of the declarative and the form of engagement between mother and infant –can be observed in the way humans and apes use their communicatory systems.

  10. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallente-Samonte Rhea U.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.

  11. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  12. An Interpretation of The Hairy Ape from Foucault' s Concept of Heterotopia%空间理论视域下的《毛猿》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和军

    2012-01-01

    主要采用福柯的空间理论来观照奥尔尼的经典剧作《毛猿》,通过对剧中的五个主要空间:船舱、五马路、监狱、世界产联和动物园的分析,揭示了其隐喻的空间与权力的关系以及如何利用空间使权力的实施达到最优化状态。%This paper attempts to interpret Eugene 0' Neill' s The Hairy Ape, a classic play that is basically a rant against the ruling classes, from Michel Foucault' s concept of heterotopia. An analysis of five major spaces existent in the play, namely, the cabin, the streets, the prison, and the Industrial Workers of the World, unveils the relationship between spaces and power and reveals how to manipulate spaces to optimize the actualization of power.

  13. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV and koala retrovirus (KoRV, two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.

  14. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined.

  15. Study of down-regulation of Ape1/Ref-1 expression by genistein is associated with mitigating the effect of radiation%三羟异黄酮下调Ape1/Ref-1对放射性肺炎防护作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏蕾; 罗维; 李娟; 王阁; 杨镇洲; 王东

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate lethal effect of genistein, GEN) reduced apurinic/ apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/ redox factor - 1 (Apel/ Ref - 1) expression after irradiation to provide theoretical evidence for treating radiation pneumonitis. Methods Sixty C57BL/ 6J female mice were assigned randomly to control group (recevied sham- irradiation, A group) 、irradition alone group(B group)、Genistein + IR group (C group)and Amifostine + IR group (D group). All rats of A group recevied sham - irradiation, All rats of B, C and D groups received a single dose of 8MV - X line radiation with 12 Gy at approximately 0.5 Gy/min by the linear accelerator to the whole lung. Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24h, 16h or 8h before irradiation in C group, amifostine (100 mg/ kg) was administered 30min before irradiation in D group. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 7 weeks after the irradiation, lung tissues and venous blood were extracted to observe the pathological changes collagen fiber deposition of lung tissue by HE and Massion staining.The reactive oxygen species ( ROS) level in cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. We also used western blot analysis to analyze the APE1 expression. A EMSA assay was used to measure the level of NF - KB in vivo and in vitro. A ELISA assay was used to measure the level of TGF - betal, IL - 1 beta, TNF - alpha and IL - 6 in blood serum and BALF. Results Pulmonary capillary/ cellulose effusion after irradiation was damped in rats receiving genistein during the phase of pneumonitis. The inhibitory effect of genistein in combination with irradiation was more significant with a significant elevation of the intracellular ROS level on A549 cells. Genistein treatment also decreased the expression of Apel/ Ref- 1 protein levels and NF- KB protein levels and the levels of the inflammatory cytokines TGF- betal,IL- 1beta, TNF - alpha and IL - 6 in serum and BALF. Conclusions Genistein may decrease the expression of radiation - induced Ape1

  16. The expression of APE/Ref-1 at early stage of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats%大鼠局灶性脑缺血再灌注早期非嘌呤非嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 万琪; 王洪典; 张光运; 刘勇红; 徐若华

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨大鼠大脑中动脉阻塞再灌注(MCAO/R)后,DNA修复酶非嘌呤非嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子~1(APE/Ref-1)的表达变化及其意义.方法采用免疫组织化学方法检测APE/Ref-1在缺血再灌注早期损伤脑组织中的变化.结果自再灌注2 h起,损伤侧APE/Ref-1表达阳性细胞数较相应的假手术对照组和正常组显著下降(P<0.01),至48h各手术组间APE/Ref-1表达并无明显差异(P>0.05),72 h时损伤区域APE/Ref-1表达较其他手术组减少(P<0.01);2~48h,损伤侧及损伤对侧相应区域部分APE/Ref-1的表达出现于胞质,72h时损伤对侧恢复为胞核表达,且无细胞减少.结论局灶性大鼠脑缺血再灌注早期,DNA修复酶APE/Ref-1在损伤区域的表达水平降低,并出现该蛋白的胞质滞留现象,说明再灌注早期DNA修复功能下降可能促进缺血再灌注区域细胞的损伤.

  17. Clinical Significance of Brain Natriuretic Peptide(BNP),Cadiac TroponinⅠ(cTnⅠ),and D-dimer Detection in the Acute Pulmonary Embolism(APE)%血浆脑钠肽、肌钙蛋白Ⅰ联合D-二聚体检测对急性肺栓塞患者的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical significance of BNP, cTnⅠ and D-dimer detection in patients with APE.Method:76 patients with APE were divided into the massive APE group of 36 cases and the non massive APE group of 40 cases according to the embolization area, then the levels of BNP,cTnⅠ and D-dimer, right heart function and mortality of two groups were contrasted.Result:The levels of BNP and cTnⅠ in the massive APE group were significantly higher than the non massive APE group,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).The incidence of right heart function failure and the fatality rate in the massive APE group was respectively 69.4% and 22.2%, significantly higher than 15.0% and 2.5% in the non massive PE group,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05)。大面积APE患者患右心功能不全发生率及病死率分别为69.4%与22.2%,均显著高于非大面积APE组的15.0%与2.5%,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:通过对APE患者血浆BNP、cTnⅠ水平的检测可对患者进行危险分层及预后评估,D-二聚体水平的检测可作为诊断APE的排除指标。

  18. 氧化还原因子1对体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节氧化损伤的保护作用%Adenovirus-mediated APE/Ref-1 expression protects rat spiral ganglion cells from oxidative damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 张学渊; 袁伟; 魏运军; 钟诚

    2008-01-01

    Objective To address the question if apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) involved in preventing spiral ganglion cells oxidative damage after oxidative stress. Methods Primary cultured rat spiral ganglion cells were infected with the adenovirus containing APE/Ref-1 for 48 h, then treated with H2O2 (0, 10,25,50,100,300 μmol/L)for 1 h, and finally changed back into normal medium. Western blot were used to detect the level of APE/Ref-1 protein in the infected cells to ensure APE/Ref-1 over expression as a result of adenovirus infection. The cell viability was determined by MTF and the apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results Western blot showed that infection of adenovirus resulted in APE/Ref-1 over expression in the spiral ganglion cells. Over expression of APE/Ref-1 significantly improved cell viability in cultures treated with different concentration H2O2 from 50 to 300 μmol/L However, the apoptosis of cells was significantly inhibited. Conclusions Overe xpression of APE/Ref-1 could protect spiral ganglion cells from oxidative damage.%目的 观察表达无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(apurinic/apyrimidimicendonuclase/redox factor 1,APE/Ref-1)的重组腺病毒感染对H2O2所致体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞氧化损伤的保护作用.方法 体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞,APE/Ref-1腺病毒表达载体感染48 h后,加入不同浓度H2O2(0、10、25、50、100及300 μmol/L)干预1 h,更换正常培养液后继续培养24 h,通过蛋白免疫印迹分析、四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法、原位缺口末端标记法(TUNEL)分别检测感染后螺旋神经节细胞APE/Ref-1蛋白表达、细胞活力以及凋亡情况.结果 通过腺病毒感染实现了APE/Ref-1基因在体外培养耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞的过表达,H2O2浓度为50~300 μmol/L时,APE/Ref-1组同对照组比较,细胞活

  19. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  20. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, Jan; Rádrová, Jana; Skalický, Tomáš; Jirků, Milan; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mihalca, Andrei D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Petrželková, Klára J; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Tsetse and tabanid flies transmit several Trypanosoma species, some of which are human and livestock pathogens of major medical and socioeconomic impact in Africa. Recent advances in molecular techniques and phylogenetic analyses have revealed a growing diversity of previously unidentified tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes potentially pathogenic to livestock and/or other domestic animals as well as wildlife, including African great apes. To map the distribution, prevalence and co-occurrence of known and novel trypanosome species, we analyzed tsetse and tabanid flies collected in the primary forested part of the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, which hosts a broad spectrum of wildlife including primates and is virtually devoid of domestic animals. Altogether, 564 tsetse flies and 81 tabanid flies were individually screened for the presence of trypanosomes using 18S rRNA-specific nested PCR. Herein, we demonstrate that wildlife animals are parasitized by a surprisingly wide range of trypanosome species that in some cases may circulate via these insect vectors. While one-third of the examined tsetse flies harbored trypanosomes either from the Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma simiae complex, or one of the three new members of the genus Trypanosoma (strains 'Bai', 'Ngbanda' and 'Didon'), more than half of the tabanid flies exclusively carried T. theileri. To establish the putative vertebrate hosts of the novel trypanosome species, we further analyzed the provenance of blood meals of tsetse flies. DNA individually isolated from 1033 specimens of Glossina spp. and subjected to high-throughput library-based screening proved that most of the examined tsetse flies engorged on wild ruminants (buffalo, sitatunga, bongo), humans and suids. Moreover, they also fed (albeit more rarely) on other vertebrates, thus providing indirect but convincing evidence that trypanosomes can be transmitted via these vectors among a wide range of

  1. The expression and correlation research of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 in cervical carcinoma%APE/Ref-1和Trx1在宫颈癌中的表达及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明霞; 杨整哉; 曲群; 段钊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression level of oxidation reduction factor-1 (APE/Ref-1)and thi-oredoxin 1 (Trx1 )in cervical cancer,To analysis the relationship between them and clinical pathology. Methods This experiment used Immunohistochemistry S-P method to detect the expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 in 9 normal cervical tissue cases,20 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 38 cervical cancer cases.And the results were analysed with relevant statistical methods.Results APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 had weak expression in normal cervical tissue (22.2%,12.5%),moderate expression in CIN (65.0%,55.0%)and strong positive expression in cervical cancer (84.2%,89.4%),respectively;The ex-pression of APE/Ref-1 was associated with the clinical stage,pathological classification of cervical cancer, while the expression of Trx1 was associated with the pathological classification and lymph nodes metastasis of cervical cancer.The expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 protein were positively related in cervical cancer,and the difference was statistically significant (γ=0.557,P =0.000).Conclusion The expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 protein were positively correlated in cervical cancer ,which may suggest that both of proteins may be involved in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer.%目的:探讨宫颈癌中氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)和硫氧还蛋白1(Trx1)的表达及其与宫颈癌相关临床参数的关系。方法采用免疫组化 S-P法检测9例正常宫颈组织、20例宫颈上皮内瘤样病变(CIN)、38例宫颈癌中 APE/Ref-1和Trx1的表达水平,分析各自表达水平与宫颈癌相关临床参数的关系。结果在正常宫颈组织中 APE/Ref-1和Trx1均呈低表达,分别为22.2%、12.5%;在宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)中均呈中等量表达,分别为65.0%、55.0%;在宫颈癌组织中均呈高表达,分别为84.2%、89.4%;APE/Ref-1的表达与宫颈癌的临床分

  2. Association of genetic polymorphism of the DNA base excision repair gene (APE-1 Asp/148 Glu) and HPV type (16/18) with the risk of cervix cancer in north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekari, Mohammad; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Tamandani, Dor Mohammad Kordi; Malekzadeh, Keyanoosh; Kaur, Pushpinder; Suri, Vanita

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a combined world wide incidence of almost half a million new cases. Reduced DNA repair capacity (DRC) can render a high risk of developing many types of cancer; including cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute the genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Smoking experience and use of oral contraceptives have been confirmed to be risk factors for cervical cancer. The purpose of the present study was, therefore to investigate APE-1 genotypes (Asp/Asp, Asp/Glu, Glu/Glu) with different histological subtypes in cases compared with controls. It has been observed that Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes that combined we observed statistically significant with protective effect for developing of cervix cancer (OR-0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83, p-0.006). The combined Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes who were using oral contraceptives were shown to be statistically significant with reduced risk of cervical cancer (OR-0.22 95% CI- 0.11-0.47, p-0.0002). It has been suggested that significantly correlation between HPV 16 and users of oral contraceptives in certain APE-1 genotypes with reduced risk in developing cervix cancer. In conclusion we observed statistical significant association with reduced risk of cervix cancer in APE-1 with different genotypes, though, on the other hand, in association between HPV type 18 and those having SCC, highly increased risk of cervical cancer was observed.

  3. Non-uniform Array Vector-APES Beamforming Algorithm Based on Vector-Hydrophone%基于矢量水听器的非均匀阵列A PES波束形成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超然; 程锦房; 肖大为

    2016-01-01

    Since conventional amplitude and phase estimation (APES ) algorithm cannot be applied to a non‐uniform array ,a vector APES(VAPES) based on vector‐hydrophone is proposed .The phase differ‐ence between acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity received by vector‐hydrophone is irrelative to the locations of sensors ,thus the pressure and velocity channel can be used as two sub‐arrays ,and ap‐plied to non‐uniform array .The array gain and its stability are analyzed .The simulations indicate that compared to conventional APES algorithm ,the method can be applied to non‐uniform array ,and its array gain is higher ;compared to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) algorithm ,the method is more robust ,can handle the coherent situation ,and abtain more accrate signal power .The practical data verifies the validity of VAPES .%针对传统幅度与相位估计(Amplitude and phase estimation ,APES )算法难以应用于非均匀阵列的问题,研究了基于矢量水听器的A PES算法。利用矢量水听器能够同时共点测量声压和质点振速的特点,将矢量水听器的声压和解析振速通道作为两个子阵,两路子阵之间只存在一个相位差,且与阵元位置无关,使得A PES算法能够应用于任意形状的阵列。推导和分析了矢量A PES算法的阵增益及其稳健性。分析和仿真表明:该方法相比于传统A PES算法,具有更高的阵增益,且能适用于非均匀阵列;相比于最小方差无失真响应(Minimum variance distortionless response ,MVDR)算法,具有更好的稳健性,能解决相干问题及能够获得更准确的信号功率,并用实测数据验证了算法的有效性。

  4. Relation of Apurinic/apyrimidinic Endonuclease Redox Factor 1 Expression and Neuronal Apoptosis after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats%大鼠脑缺血后APE/Ref-1蛋白表达对神经元凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 李智文; 张志坚; 许国英

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨脑缺血后无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)蛋白表达变化与神经元凋亡之间的关系. 方法采用双侧颈总动脉阻断+全身低血压法建立大鼠脑缺血模型.动物分假手术组、手术后存活1,2,3 d组.用免疫组织化学方法分析各组APE/Ref-1蛋白的表达;用TUNEL染色观察脑缺血后海马CA1区神经元凋亡的情况. 结果免疫组织化学显示假手术组神经元广泛表达APE/Ref-1蛋白.在脑缺血10 min后第1天海马CA1区APE/Ref-1阳性细胞开始减少,第2天明显减少.该区TUNEL阳性细胞在缺血第2天出现,第3天表现明显.APE/Ref-1和TUNEL双重染色提示丧失了APE/Ref-1免疫活性的细胞转变为TUNEL阳性细胞. 结论短暂性脑缺血后海马CA1区神经元表达APE/Ref-1蛋白减少,这种变化早于神经元凋亡,提示APE/Ref-1蛋白减少和DNA修复功能下降可能与短暂性脑缺血后发生神经元凋亡有关.

  5. A Legacy of Low-Impact Logging does not Elevate Prevalence of Potentially Pathogenic Protozoa in Free-Ranging Gorillas and Chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: Logging and Parasitism in African Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Deutsch, J. Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Salzer, Johanna S.; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa. PMID:20238141

  6. A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas R; Morgan, David; Deutsch, J Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Salzer, Johanna S; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1, OGG1, APE1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes, ionizing radiation exposure and chromosomal DNA damage in interventional cardiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia, E-mail: andreas@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Foffa, Ilenia [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Sant' Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa (Italy); Manfredi, Samantha; Botto, Nicoletta [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Cioppa, Angelo [Clinica Cardiologica ' Montevergine' , Mercogliano (Italy); Picano, Eugenio [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Clinica Cardiologica ' Montevergine' , Mercogliano (Italy)

    2009-06-18

    Interventional cardiologists working in high-volume cardiac catheterization laboratory are exposed to significant occupational radiation risks. Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes are thought to modify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on DNA damage, the main initiating event in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between XRCC1 (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln), OGG1 (Ser326Cys), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) SNPs and chromosomal DNA damage. We enrolled 77 subjects: 40 interventional cardiologists (27 male, 41.3 {+-} 9.4 years and 13 female, 37.8 {+-} 8.4 years) and 37 clinical cardiologists (26 male, 39.4 {+-} 9.5 years and 11 female, 35.0 {+-} 9.8 years) without radiation exposure as the control group. Micronucleus (MN) assay was performed as biomarker of chromosomal DNA damage and an early predictor of cancer. MN frequency was significantly higher in interventional cardiologists than in clinical physicians (19.7 {+-} 7.8 per mille vs. 13.5 {+-} 6.3 per mille , p = 0.0003). Within the exposed group, individuals carrying a XRCC3 Met241 allele had higher frequency than homozygous XRCC3 Thr241 (21.2 {+-} 7.8 per mille vs. 16.6 {+-} 7.1 per mille , p = 0.03). Individuals with two or more risk alleles showed a higher MN frequency when compared to subjects with one or no risk allele (18.4 {+-} 6.6 per mille vs. 14.4 {+-} 6.1 per mille , p = 0.02). An interactive effect was found between smoking, exposure >10 years and the presence of the two or more risk alleles on the MN frequency (F = 6.3, p = 0.02). XRCC3 241Met alleles, particularly in combination with multiple risk alleles of DNA repair genes, contribute to chromosomal DNA damage levels in interventional cardiologists.

  8. 从《毛猿》看现代人的非地方生存困境%A Study on Modern Men′s Non-Place Existence in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世存; 王丽

    2014-01-01

    Place theory is a new tendency in contemporary eco-criticism movement.Read from the perspec-tive of place theory,it can be found that there contain deep thinking on place and reflections on non-place existence in Eugene O′Neil′s play The Hairy Ape.The protagonist Yank goes through a painful journey of place deprivation and place seeking,only to find that he is a hairy ape in a cage.The image of cage symboli-zes modern men′s dilemma of non-existence,while the image of the hairy ape is an expressionistic externali-zation of modern men′s loss of identity and alienation of human nature.The tragic end of Yank shows that on-ly by cherishing nature at heart can men have a place on earth,cling to the original roots of human beings and have a sense of place no matter where they are.%地方理论是当代生态批评运动中的一个新动向。从地方理论视角解读奥尼尔剧作《毛猿》,可发现其中蕴含着深刻的地方思想和对非地方生存的反思。主人公扬克经历了地方丧失和地方寻觅的痛苦过程后,却发现自己是身处牢笼的毛猿。笼子意象象征现代人非地方生存的困境,而毛猿意象则是人的身份失落、人性异化的表现主义式的外现。扬克悲剧性的结局说明,人们只有心怀自然,才会不忘大地,不忘人类真正的根,才会不管身在何处,心在地方。

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S.H. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  10. La erosión y sus implicaciones en la morfología de la micro cuenca del Igarapé Apeú, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Santos Odete Cardoso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas de los canales que componen la micro cuenca del canal Apeú, ubicada en el nordeste del estado del Pará, en tierras de los municipios de Castanhal (70%, Inhangapí (10% y Santa Isabel do Pará (20%, son muy aprovechadas por los ribereños y pequeños campesinos. Por eso, en esta investigación se muestra que la erosión acelerada por las actividades antrópicas contribuye a los cambios de la morfología de los canales fluviales que componen la microcuenca. Para medir la erosión en pendiente se empleó la metodología de las estacas; para la erosión marginal en los canales se utilizó la metodología de los Pinos y de las Estacas. Los análisis fisicoquímicas de los sedimentos de los barrancos y del fondo de los canales fueron determinados por las técnicas descriptas por Guimarães et al. (1970, EMBRAPA (1997 y Silva (1999. Laprofundidad de los canales se midió usando el molinete en vado, en el momento de las mediciones de los caudales en las secciones transversales de los canales. De acuerdo con los resultados, la pérdida de suelo por la erosión de la pendiente llegó a 74,02 m en el periodo de octubre de 2002 a julio de 2003. El canal Apeú, el principal de la microcuenca, en la hacienda Morro Verde abandonó su lecho normal por espacio de 50 metros, a causa de los sedimentos provenientes de surcos, zanjas y barrancos formados en el interior de la hacienda mencionada. En ese mismo canal, en el periodo menos lluvioso, en la villa agrícola de Macapazinho, en la mitad del lecho, el nivel de las aguas alcanzó 0,5 m; en el periodo lluvioso llegó a 3,0 m. En los canales predomina la carga del lecho.

  11. On the Robustness of the APES Algorithm in the Parameter Estimation of MIMO Radars%APES算法在MIMO雷达参数估计中的稳健性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏威; 何子述

    2008-01-01

    多输入多输出(MIMO,Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)雷达用多个发射天线同时发射多个独立信号照射目标,并使用多个接收天线接收目标回波信号.本文研究了MIMO雷达中参数估计的稳健性问题.本文应用幅度相位估计(APES,Amplitude and Phase EStimation)技术,利用目标的方位角最大似然估计值,得到了衰落向量的APES估计算法.考虑到方位角估计的不准确性,借鉴稳健的Capon波束形成器的设计思想,本文推导了衰落向量的稳健的APES估计算法.仿真实验表明,衰落向量的APES算法与稳健的APES算法性能十分接近.因此,衰落向量的APES估计算法是稳健的.

  12. Feature of Ref-1/APE expression and its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density in colorectal cancer%大肠癌Ref-1/APE的表达特点及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟江洪; 肖华亮; 向德兵; 张沁宏; 李增鹏; 王东

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨大肠癌氧化还原因子-1(redox factor-1,Ref-1),又称脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶(apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease,APE),在大肠癌的表达特点及其与血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)和血管密度的关系.方法应用免疫组化S-P法检测110例大肠癌和40例非癌区大肠组织中Ref-1/APE和VEGF的表达,采用血管内皮特异标记物CD31标记并计数肿瘤微血管密度(microvessel density,MVD),最后分析Ref-1/APE与VEGF和MVD的关系.结果所有大肠癌和非癌区大肠组织都有Ref-1/APE表达,但是其在细胞内的定位有所不同.40例非癌区大肠组织细胞核都有Ref-1/APE表达,仅5例有胞质表达(5/40,12.5%);而110例大肠癌中有79例(79/110,71.81%)细胞质有Ref-1/APE表达,比例显著高于非癌区大肠组织(P<0.01).而且细胞质Ref-1/APE阳性表达的大肠癌较无细胞质表达者VEGF阳性率显著增加(P<0.05),MVD也显著增高(P<0.05).结论大肠癌Ref-1/APE移位于细胞质的异常表达可能涉及大肠癌的发生,并且可能与VEGF表达和肿瘤血管生成有关.

  13. Optimization of gene transfer into primitive human hematopoietic cells of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood using low-dose cytokines and comparison of a gibbon ape leukemia virus versus an RD114-pseudotyped retroviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, Johannes C M; Liu, B L; Goldman, A I; Buckley, S M; Chrudimsky, K S

    2002-07-20

    Primitive human hematopoietic cells in granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) are more difficult to transduce compared to cells from umbilical cord blood. Based on the hypothesis that MPB cells may require different stimulation for efficient retroviral infection, we compared several culture conditions known to induce cycling of primitive hematopoietic cells. MPB-derived CD34(+) cells were stimulated in the presence or absence of the murine fetal liver cell line AFT024 in trans-wells with G-CSF, stem cell factor (SCF), and thrombopoietin (TPO) (G/S/T; 100 ng/ml) or Flt3-L, SCF, interleukin (IL)-7, and TPO (F/S/7/T; 10-20 ng/ml), and transduced using a GaLV-pseudotyped retroviral vector expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). Compared to cultures without stroma, the presence of AFT024 increased the number of transduced colony-forming cells (CFC) by 3.5-fold (with G/S/T), long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) by 4.6-fold (with F/S/7/T), and nonobese diabetic/severe immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID)-repopulating cells (SRC) by 6.8-fold (with F/S/7/T). Similar numbers of long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) and SRC could be transduced using AFT024-conditioned medium (AFT-CM) or a defined medium that had been supplemented with factors identified in AFT-CM. Finally, using our best condition based on transduction with the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV)-pseudotyped vector, we demonstrate a 33-fold higher level of gene transfer (p optimized protocol with low doses of cytokines, and transduction with an RD114 compared to a GaLV-pseudotyped retroviral vector, the overall number of transduced cells in NOD/SCID mice could be improved 144-fold, with a gene-transfer efficiency in SRC of 16.3% (13.3-19.9; n = 6).

  14. Of language knowledge, apes, and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenneberg, E H

    1971-03-01

    Man's language ability is due to a more general, deep-seated cognitive ability characteristic of the species. It is argued that man's ability for mathematical thinking is a product of the same species-specific form of cerebration as language. The basis for mathematical constructs seems to be contained in the basis for language constructs; apparently, for every mathematical notion there is a homologous one in the sphere of language, the former always being more restricted and well defined than the latter. Mathematical ability may therefore be regarded as a special case of the more general ability that also generates language, and this point is further emphasized by certain similarities in the formal structure of mathematics (arithmetic in particular) and language. Taking advantage of the commonalities between language and arithmetic, it is possible to use the latter to illustrate important general characteristics of the former. The insights gained are relevant to biology at large, and to comparative zoology and neurology in particular. The zoologist who wishes to compare animal communication with language must know what the nature of language is-how (or whether) one might analyze it into components. He must know what might constitute a primitive or simple language. It is shown that the irreducible elements of the two systems under study (language and arithmetic) are processes (i.e., processes of "relating," or simply "relations") and that these processes combine into interrated systems. The systems have ontogenetic histories that might, perhaps, furnish a criterion for the notion of simplicity. We do not yet know what might be a homologous phylogenetic "cousin" of the basic human ability under consideration; howerver, we should expect it to be "homeomorphic" to the human system if it is derived from a common ancestral ability. Homeomorphic mapping is therefore the most reliable criterion so far for phylogenetic relatedness. By characterizing language and arithmetic simultaneously (in order to get at their common biological foundations) it is also possible to sharpen up the questions that the student of language should put to the neurophysiologist. The quest for innovation or differences in brain processes and functions now appears to be the primary one, whereas a description of structural changes in the human brain would be of interest only insofar as this would elucidate how brain functions might have become modified by them.

  15. 不转即刻APE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    APE下载回来用电脑听自不必说,如何把它放在家里的卡啦0K上、汽车里呢?刻盘.对,不过刻盘前需要转换的话就麻烦了。打开Burrrn(下载地址http://WWWburrrn.net/page_id=6).

  16. Adaptive Processing Experiment (APE) Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    FI LTE.R -R 9 0R L• k k.9 0Ms EPPMR PHASE AMPL,I (t) ( r)GR•S ) (Zi) ( flt3 POWfER) (DEGRFES) (Ob) tF(IpE A0TfR bFt-Iý- E. AF tLk EIJN• AFTER , ---,,1...t.In I ,4P -. 3/ ,a?-.•O*O9 -34,57 o1o)110O 0 .- . 614 . - " 13,𔃼h a w, 3b " 3 v5• S -01 ,19 -tgo (19.52 TUTAI 87 ,, ,21 .11 6,, .71 -34,,74SNET PF...38,95 a08 *t0 70,o so0 󈧽 -sob D8• -Sq,74 -37,5q 007 614 € 75,t) .7n ,76 .,tok) -.36,03 -37a01 ’nh o16 80,0 .76 o0P- u,. , () -32, 1,2• -36,79 aO b

  17. Standard Formats for Atomic Data: the APED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R K; Brickhouse, N S; Liedahl, D A; Raymond, J C

    2001-06-05

    Standardized formats for atomic data used in calculating emission from a collisionally-ionized plasma are described. The formats use the astronomical-standard FITS format, and are extendible to other purposes, such as photoionization data. The formats emphasize storing references to the original data source and keeping the data in as-received form, to aid in checking against the original literature.

  18. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF APE, HIF-1α, AND VEGF IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA%子宫内膜癌组织APE、HIF-1α和VEGF表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发红; 纪新强; 吴景丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶(APE)、低氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)和血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在子宫内膜癌中的表达及其意义,并探讨APE与HIF-1α、VEGF蛋白表达之间的关系.方法 应用免疫组织化学方法检测APE、HIF-1α和VEGF在44例子宫内膜癌、22例子宫内膜不典型增生及18例正常子宫内膜组织中的表达情况.结果 APE、HIF-1α和VEGF在正常子宫内膜、子宫内膜不典型增生及子宫内膜癌组织中表达的阳性率比较,差异均有显著性(χ2=8.371~18.589,P<0.05).APE在各种子宫内膜组织细胞内的定位有所不同,正常子宫内膜组织APE表达于细胞核内,子宫内膜不典型增生组织中6例(42.86%)细胞质中有APE表达,子宫内膜癌组织中24例(70.59%)细胞质有APE表达,APE在3种组织细胞内定位差异有显著性(χ2=12.701,P<0.05).而且细胞质中有APE表达的子宫内膜癌较无表达者VEGF阳性率显著增加(χ2=3.973,P< 0.05).APE蛋白在子宫内膜癌组织细胞质中的阳性表达率与肿瘤的分化程度及病理分期有关(χ2=11.059、9.969,P<0.01、0.05).子宫内膜癌组织APE及HIF-1α的表达均与VEGF的表达有相关性(r=0.626、0.469,P<0.01),且APE与HIF-1α的表达也有相关性(r=0.612,P<0.01).结论 子宫内膜癌组织中APE、HIF-1α和VEGF蛋白参与子宫内膜癌的发生发展,APE蛋白与HIF-1α可能通过上调VEGF蛋白的表达,促进肿瘤的血管生成而促进子宫内膜癌的发生.

  19. Malles pédagogiques itinérantes « les grands singes et leur habitat »: parcours et premières évaluations de l’impact du projet en Ouganda et au Gabon Educative kits « great apes and their habitat » : itinerary and impact evaluation of the project in Uganda and in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Nambogwe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Un programme de sensibilisation sur les grands singes et les forêts tropicales a été conçu en partenariat entre le « Projet pour la conservation des Grands Singes », le Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, l’UNESCO et la Coopération Française. Il s’appuie sur la circulation de malles pédagogiques d’un volume d’environ 1m3 contenant des outils ludiques et didactiques présentés par des animateurs locaux. Après une année de circulation de la malle dans les écoles à proximité des zones où vivent les grands singes en Ouganda et au Gabon, près de 15 000 enfants ont pris part à ce programme. Reçue dans 52 écoles primaires et secondaires en Ouganda, sur un parcours de 1 500 km organisé par le Wildlife Club of Uganda, la malle pédagogique et les animations associées ont permis selon une première étude d’impact d’accroître la motivation des enfants à protéger les grands singes et leur habitat. Au Gabon, le projet, sous l’impulsion du RAPAC, s’est appuyé sur neuf partenaires impliqués dans l’éducation environnementale et a pu être accueilli dans 66 écoles du pays dont certaines situées dans une concession forestière. Dans certaines localités, des données sur la consommation de viande de grands singes ont été collectées. Les sites atteints étaient répartis sur un circuit de 1 500 km. Les perspectives sont d’élargir le programme à d’autres pays de l’aire de répartition des grands singes en y associant des enquêtes socio-économiques et des études d’impact.  The Association « Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes » in partnership with MNHN, UNESCO and France Cooperation designed Great Apes kits. The showcases contain a set of entertaining and educative tools and activities explaining forests, ecosystems and great apes presented by national educators. The two first kits have moved in Uganda and Gabon in areas located where great apes occur. 15,000 kids from remote

  20. Determinación de la utilidad de la relación APE l/t (Antígeno Prostático Específico libre sobre el total en pacientes con sospecha de cáncer de próstata estudiados por biopsia ecográfica endorrectal Utility of Free/Total Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Ratio in prostatic cancer studied with endorectal ultrasound biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Marangoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los marcadores tumorales son importantes al momento de decidir la realización de biopsias para el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la exactitud diagnóstica del APE libre como marcador tumoral en casos de pacientes con sospecha de cáncer prostático en su relación con el APE total (APEL/T y determinar un valor de corte ajustado. Material y Método: En total, fueron evaluados 248 pacientes de entre 38 y 88 años de edad, en un período comprendido entre noviembre de 2001 y junio de 2007, con un análisis del APE libre, identificación de la presencia de un área hipoecogénica como ayuda diagnóstica y un análisis anatomopatológico para confirmación pospunción prostática endorrectal, realizado en forma prospectiva. Resultados: La identificación de pacientes con cáncer de próstata a través de la sospecha por el APE libre es relativa pero puede ser potenciada con otros hallazgos. Un 23,3% de pacientes con APEL/T por debajo de 0,20 presentaron biopsias positivas, pero, con un valor de 0,14, el porcentaje fue del 60%. Discusión: La identificación de pacientes para ser estudiados mediante Biopsia Prostática Endorrectal (BPE es un problema de la práctica diaria en los consultorios de Urología. Debido a que la BPE es un procedimiento diagnóstico medianamente invasivo y no exento de morbilidad, es que se debería ajustar su indicación. La relación APEL/T debe ser considerada en este contexto con mayor importancia. Conclusión: La identificación de valores alterados de la relación APE L/T con un valor de corte ajustado a 0,14 puede ayudar en el diagnóstico presuntivo de cáncer de próstata y a la elección de pacientes para biopsia a fin de ahorrar biopsias innecesarias.Introduction: The tumor markers are important to decide to perform biopsies in the prostate cancer diagnosis. The goal of this article is to evaluate the diagnosis precision of FPSA (Free Prostatic Specific

  1. 巨猿、化石人和智人牙齿的波动不对称:人类进化中压力源变化的意义%Fluctuating Dental Asymmetry in Great Apes, Fossil Hominins, and Modern Humans: Implications for Changing Stressors during Human Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frederick; Gordon G. Gallup, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined by random, stress-induced deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, is an indication of the inability to buffer against developmental disturbances, such as poor early nutrition. One method of measuring FA involves comparing individual tooth sizes on opposing sides of the mouth. In this study tooth measurements were compiled for 296 individuals from 10 species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), modern humans (Homo sapiens), and a number of fossil hominins. The orangutan sample had significantly lower levels of dental FA than the gorilla, chimpanzee, Homo erectus, neandertal, or modern human samples. In contrast, the human and neandertal samples had significantly higher dental FA levels than any of the great ape samples. Some explanations relating to relaxed selection pressures are suggested.%波动不对称(FA)是压力的随机性引发双侧完美对称偏离的现象,这是个体无力免受发展中不利因素(如早期营养不良)侵害的一个标志.比较个体口腔两侧牙齿的大小是一种测量FA的方法.本研究汇集了10个物种共296名个体的牙齿测量结果,测量对象包括黑猩猩(学名Pan troglodytes)、猩猩(学名Pongo pygmaeus)、大猩猩(学名Gorilla gorilla)、智人(学名Homo sapiens),以及许多化石人.分析发现,猩猩样本牙齿的FA水平要显著低于大猩猩、黑猩猩、直立人、尼安德特人和智人样本的FA水平.而与之相反的是,智人与尼安德特人样本的牙齿FA水平要显著高于其它任何一种巨猿样本的FA水平.该文提出了有关缓和的选择压力的解释.

  2. 揭开 APE 格式的面纱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许粤辉

    2004-01-01

    在常用的电脑音乐格式中,APE格式可能是我们最少用到的。那么,这种格式有何特点,如何使用呢?本文将向大家阐述APE音乐格式的基础、制作和播放的相关知识。

  3. Foobor2000无法播放APE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    我的电脑以前可以正常播放APE,自从重新安装系统并重新安装Foobar2000 1.1版之后便无法播放APE格式的音乐,而MP3格式音乐可以正常播放。请问这该如何解决?

  4. Foobar2000无法播放APE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    我的电脑以前可以正常播放APE,自从重新安装系统并重新安装Foobar2000 1.1版之后便无法播放APE格式的音乐,而mp3格式音乐可以正常播放。请问这该如何解决?

  5. The thinking ape: the enigma of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Chalmers, David; Kahneman, Daniel; Santos, Laurie; Schiff, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    What is the origin and nature of consciousness? If consciousness is common to humans and animals alike, what are the defining traits of human consciousness? Moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, Nobel laureate psychologist Daniel Kahneman, philosopher David Chalmers, expert in primate cognition Laurie Santos, and physician-scientist Nicholas Schiff discuss what it means to be conscious and examine the human capacities displayed in cognitive, aesthetic, and ethical behaviors, with a focus on the place and function of the mind within nature. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred October 10, 2012, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  6. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  7. Tracking and Inferring Spatial Rotation by Children and Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Barth; Sanae; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Finding hidden objects in space is a fundamental ability that has received considerable research attention from both a developmental and a comparative perspective. Tracking the rotational displacements of containers and hidden objects is a particularly challenging task. This study investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children and…

  8. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals.

  9. and Great Ape (Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes Mandibles: Possible Ontogenetic Strategies and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Boughner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While mandible proportions do not appear to constrain permanent molar initiation times, how adequate space is created in the corpus for these teeth in a timely way is not well understood. This question is important for explaining how primate tooth and jaw development and evolution are coordinated. Landmark and linear measurement data were used to characterize mandible shape, growth trajectory, and growth rate between two genera, Papio and Pan, with contrasting permanent molar initiation schedules and mandible proportions. 3D geometric morphometric and 2D bivariate analyses showed genus-level differences in mandible morphology from birth that were amplified by different postnatal growth trajectories. Different corpus proportions and regional variation in corpus growth rates helped create space in a timely way for the molars. Regional corpus growth rates may evolve alongside permanent molar morphology and developmental timing to modify space available in the corpus for these teeth.

  10. Overcoming Drug Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref 1 Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    immunofluorescent images of non- inflamed or non-inflamed human prostates representing non-diseased controls, BPH specimens, or prostate cancer... BPH , and cancer) that exhibited 30 leukocytes per 20x section. Three 20x fields per prostate section were averaged for each data point, and all...metastases We have acquired the first 12 specimens of human prostate cancer metastases from our human pathology core, as described in the proposal

  11. Overcoming Drug Resistant Prostate Cancer with APE1/Ref-1 Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    immunofluorescent images of non- inflamed or non-inflamed human prostates representing non-diseased controls, BPH specimens, or prostate cancer... BPH , and cancer) that exhibited 30 leukocytes per 20x section. Three 20x fields per prostate section were averaged for each data point, and all...metastases We have acquired the first 12 specimens of human prostate cancer metastases from our human pathology core, as described in the proposal

  12. Brains and Music, Whales and Apes, Hearing and Learning...and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about whalesongs, hearing, musical brains, and a number of other topics explored over the past 35 years. Previous research is reviewed briefly, and more attention is given to recent efforts with an emphasis on collaborative research conducted with many wonderful colleagues. First is a brief account of the Institute for Music…

  13. Upregulation of APE/ref-1 in recurrence stage I, non small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Woong; Kang, Shin Kwang; Choi, Songyi; Lee, Choong Sik; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lim, Seung Pyung

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related death, still lacks reliable biomarkers. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in the base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidative stress or alkylating compounds, as well as in the regulation of multiple transcription factors. To validate apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 as a biomarker for prediction of lung cancer recurrence, we studied 42 patients who received curative resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. They were divided into 2 groups based on recurrence, and compared by immunohistochemistry staining of paraffin-embedded tissues and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant difference between the cytoplasm and nucleus in patients who had a recurrence compared to those with nonrecurrent adenocarcinoma. In Western blot analysis, the recurrent adenocarcinoma group showed increased expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 in cytoplasm, nucleus, and in total. This indicates that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 is unregulated in recurrent stage I adenocarcinoma. For clinical application as a prognostic marker for non-small-cell lung cancer, further investigation into the role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 in carcinogenesis is needed in an expanded prospective study.

  14. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Neaux

    Full Text Available The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla. Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees.

  15. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  16. APE转刻老唱片 老唱片变身APE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍山

    2011-01-01

    传统的CD小唱盘音质没得说,时髦的APE数字音乐携带最方便,音质也毫不落后。但是,APE和CD暂时无法相互取代。因为,它们目前还各有市场。所以,生活中常常会出现对两种格式的音乐进行相互转换的需求。

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) and implications for african ape biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranajit; Hergenrother, Scott D; Soto-Calderón, Iván D; Dew, J Larry; Anthony, Nicola M; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The Western and Eastern species of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) began diverging in the mid-Pleistocene, but in a complex pattern with ongoing gene flow following their initial split. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 1 Eastern and 1 Western gorilla to provide the most accurate date for their mitochondrial divergence, and to analyze patterns of nucleotide substitutions. The most recent common ancestor of these genomes existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. We in turn use this date as a calibration to reanalyze sequences from the Eastern lowland and mountain gorilla subspecies to estimate their mitochondrial divergence at approximately 380000 years ago. These dates help frame a hypothesis whereby populations became isolated nearly 2 million years ago with restricted maternal gene flow, followed by ongoing male migration until the recent past. This process of divergence with prolonged hybridization occurred against the backdrop of the African Pleistocene, characterized by intense fluctuations in temperature and aridity, while at the same time experiencing tectonic uplifting and consequent shifts in the drainage of major river systems. Interestingly, this same pattern of introgression following divergence and discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear loci is seen in fossil hominins from Eurasia, suggesting that such processes may be common in hominids and that living gorillas may provide a useful model for understanding isolation and migration in our extinct relatives.

  18. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests and human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee abundance, in spite of anti-poaching interventions. We caution against the pitfalls of missing and confounded co-variables in model-based estimation approaches and highlight the importance of spatial scale in the response of different species to landscape processes. We stress the importance of a stratified design-based approach to monitoring species status in response to conservation interventions and advocate a holistic framework for landscape-scale monitoring that includes smaller-scale targeted research and punctual assessment of threats.

  19. Infection of great apes and a zoo keeper with the same Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, O.W.; Werf, van de T.S.; Rietkerk, F.; Eger, A.; Soolingen, D.; Loo, v.d. K.; Zanden, v.d. A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    An animal keeper was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) after bi-annual screening for latent TB infection in zoo employees. In the same period, several bonobos of the zoo were suffering from TB as well. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from both the animal keeper and the bonobos appear

  20. Effects of meteorology, astronomical variables, location and human disturbance on the singing apes: Hylobates albibarbis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    Gibbons are characterized by their species-specific calls. The frequency of singing is known to be affected by rainfall, with singing occurring less in the wet season. I investigate the hypothesis that gibbon singing is also affected by the natural light-dark cycle, and by the changing light intensity and air quality resulting from the smoke haze which blankets the Indonesian island of Borneo on a yearly basis. I compare three singing variables-onset of singing, average duration of singing bout and number of female great calls produced during the dry season of 2006 when there was no smoke haze (June-August) and when there was smoke haze present (September-November). I present evidence which indicates that the changes in singing behavior are affected by changes in rainfall and smoke intensity but not by other meteorological factors (i.e. wind and light intensity) or changing astronomical cues (light intensity, month, time of sunrise, time of moonrise, nocturnal illumination index, day length and night length). The possible long-term effects of this on gibbon behavior and territoriality are discussed. The need to carry out more research on the long-term effects of the smoke haze on wildlife behavior and possible solutions to the problem are discussed.

  1. Connecting the GPE and APE Curricula for Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.

    2011-01-01

    Many physical educators today face the challenge of including students with mild and moderate disabilities in their general physical education (GPE) programs. While most GPE teachers are willing to modify their instructional methods and activities to accommodate students with disabilities, this may not be enough to adequately address the students'…

  2. Why don't we ask? A complementary method for assessing the status of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Species conservation is difficult. Threats to species are typically high and immediate. Effective solutions for counteracting these threats, however, require synthesis of high quality evidence, appropriately targeted activities, typically costly implementation, and rapid re-evaluation and adaptation. Conservation management can be ineffective if there is insufficient understanding of the complex ecological, political, socio-cultural, and economic factors that underlie conservation threats. When information about these factors is incomplete, conservation managers may be unaware of the most urgent threats or unable to envision all consequences of potential management strategies. Conservation research aims to address the gap between what is known and what knowledge is needed for effective conservation. Such research, however, generally addresses a subset of the factors that underlie conservation threats, producing a limited, simplistic, and often biased view of complex, real world situations. A combination of approaches is required to provide the complete picture necessary to engage in effective conservation. Orangutan conservation (Pongo spp. offers an example: standard conservation assessments employ survey methods that focus on ecological variables, but do not usually address the socio-cultural factors that underlie threats. Here, we evaluate a complementary survey method based on interviews of nearly 7,000 people in 687 villages in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We address areas of potential methodological weakness in such surveys, including sampling and questionnaire design, respondent biases, statistical analyses, and sensitivity of resultant inferences. We show that interview-based surveys can provide cost-effective and statistically robust methods to better understand poorly known populations of species that are relatively easily identified by local people. Such surveys provide reasonably reliable estimates of relative presence and relative encounter rates of such species, as well as quantifying the main factors that threaten them. We recommend more extensive use of carefully designed and implemented interview surveys, in conjunction with more traditional field methods.

  3. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals.

  4. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests and human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee abundance, in spite of anti-poaching interventions. We caution against the pitfalls of missing and confounded co-variables in model-based estimation approaches and highlight the importance of spatial scale in the response of different species to landscape processes. We stress the importance of a stratified design-based approach to monitoring species status in response to conservation interventions and advocate a holistic framework for landscape-scale monitoring that includes smaller-scale targeted research and punctual assessment of threats.

  5. A comparative study of tooth root morphology in the great apes, modern man and early hominids

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, S A

    1984-01-01

    This thesis sets out to document and analyse some aspects of the metric and morphological variation of tooth roots within the Hominoidea. Samples of the extant species Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Homo sapiens formed the basis of this study, but fossil hominid specimens from the East African Plio/Pleistocene sites of Koobi Fora, Laetoli, Olduvai and Peninj were also included. The maximum of 182 root, crown and jaw measurements were taken for each s...

  6. Ape & Banana: A new user experience for collecting bio-based disposables at festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, S.; Karana, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the implementation of a bio-plastic material (PLA) for disposables at the Lowlands Music Festival. The main aim of the study is to develop a system which motivates Lowlands festival visitors to litter their PLA disposables effectively. In the paper, littering behavior o

  7. Apes' and Children's Understanding of Cooperative and Competitive Motives in a Communicative Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus") (Study 1) and 18- and 24-month-old human children (Study 2) participated in a novel communicative task. A human experimenter (E) hid food or a toy in one of two opaque containers before gesturing towards the reward's location in one of two ways. In the Informing condition, she attempted…

  8. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt...

  9. ETHICS OF LIABILITY K.-O.APELY IN THE LANDSCAPES OF CONTRACTUALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to analyse comprehensively the work of the famous German philosopher K-O. Apel through the light of the urgent needs for a comprehensive study of modern contractualism and the development of new variants of philosophical anthropology. In this context to reveal April’s thesis that the main background for the possibility of understanding between people is the ideal communicative community and its attempts to discourse ethics, new, practical content. Methodology. In order to make a sequential analysis of the basic components and principles of ethical responsibility in K-O. Apel’s view of counteractualism the author uses genealogical, hermeneutic and comparative methods that allow to reconstruct Apel’s philosophy as the ethics of global responsibility and solidarity of communicative interaction under the conditions of global environmental and social crisis and the urgent need of vital combination of social contract idea, fairness and responsibility. Scientific novelty. The purpose of the article is clearly defined and productive methodological principles consistently enabled the author to find out that Apel perceives the source of social agreement in rational desire of each participant to obey voluntarily the relevant rules and procedures. And a true freedom and responsibility are based on the correlation of the rights and duties; respect them, which is more significant for the enforcement of their conventional or forced recognition. It is also investigated the attempt of K.-O. Apel to enable such an agreement and understanding between people, which would take into account the following important human virtues and aspirations, respect, justice and solidarity. And above all they are important as being the social and existential foundations for a new philosophical and anthropological discourse. It is consistently proved that in the context of substantial interest of justification was established the algorithms of universal values of modern philosophical anthropology, which will become the core of Apel’s responsible person. Excluding the ethical component of this or that agreement, the essence of democratic behaviour changes to rational behaviour of the participants and to the law validity of agreements belongs only the effectiveness in achieving the best interests of their members. It was reconstructed the memories of K.-O. Apel and Y. Habermas about the need and methodological importance of significance of epistemological (or methodological solipsism of modern philosophy and its replacement by the concepts of "understanding", "agreement", "communication" within which even a single person can know and understand the world. Conclusions. An important feature of the latest philosophical theories, which include communication philosophy of K.-O. Apel is their organic belonging to the realm of discussion about the search of moral foundations of modern society where basic ethical guidelines and values must leave and eventually leave the sphere of private life, indicating that real attempts to overcome the fragmentation and dispersion of responsibility of the individual. It was exactly K.-O. Apel who stresses that collective irresponsibility should be replaced by collective responsibility.

  10. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  11. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel DeMiguel; David M Alba; Salvador Moyà-Solà

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithe...

  12. Gigantopithecus blacki: a giant ape from the Pleistocene of Asia revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Harrison, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Gigantopithecus blacki is the largest hominoid that ever lived. The consensus view is that it is a specialized pongine and late-surviving member of the Sivapithecus-Indopithecus lineage. It is known primarily from Early and Middle Pleistocene cave sites in southern China, dating from 2.0 Ma to almost 300 ka. The cause of its extinction in the late Middle Pleistocene is unknown, but ecological change or the arrival of Homo erectus may have been contributing factors. Gigantopithecus is highly specialized in its dentognathic anatomy, with a unique combination of features that distinguish it from all other hominoids. Based on the size of its dentition and mandible, a reasonable estimate of its body mass would be 200-300 kg. There was a progressive increase in dental size from the Early Pleistocene to the Middle Pleistocene, and possibly a shift towards greater complexity of the cheek teeth. Gigantopithecus exhibits a relatively high degree of sexual dimorphism, implying a high level of male-male competition, but the relatively small canines in both sexes suggest that these teeth were not important in agonistic behaviors. The species inhabited a subtropical monsoon forest with a closed canopy and dense understory. Foraging was focused on the forest floor and its diet included a broad range of C3 plants, including fruits, leaves and stems, and possibly tubers. The cheek teeth and jaws were adapted for processing a wide variety of bulky, fibrous, and abrasive food items, but the small incisors indicate that incisal preparation was not an important part of its feeding repertoire.

  13. Systematic morphology and evolutionary anatomy of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the lesser apes, gibbons (hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Whatton, James F

    2008-08-01

    We examined the morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) on 20 sides of 10 gibbons (Hylobatidae) of three genera, and we have inferred the evolution of the anatomy of the primate ACNS. We report the following. (1) Several trivial intraspecific and interspecific variations are present in gibbons, but the general arrangement of the ACNS in gibbons is consistent. (2) Although the parasympathetic vagal cardiac nervous system is extremely consistent, the sympathetic cardiac nervous system, such as the composition of the sympathetic ganglia and the range of origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves, exhibit topographical differences among primates. (3) The vertebral ganglion, seldom observed in the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), was consistently present in gibbons as well as in humans. (4) There are fewer thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion in humans than in gibbons and in gibbons than in Old World monkeys. (5) The superior cardiac nerve originating from the superior cervical ganglion, rarely observed in Old World monkeys but commonly observed in humans, was present in 13 of 20 sides (65%), mostly on the left. Accordingly, the ACNS morphology exhibits evolutionary changes within the primate lineage. These evolutionary differences between Old World monkeys, gibbons, and humans are most parsimoniously interpreted as resulting from regular changes in the lineages leading from their common ancestor to the extant species that we dissected. They include the reduction in the number of thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion and the expansion of the range of the cardiac nervous origin.

  14. Why Brains Are Not Computers, Why Behaviorism Is Not Satanism, and Why Dolphins Are Not Aquatic Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Modern psychology has, to all intents and purposes, become synonymous with cognitive psychology, with an emphasis on the idea that the brain is a form of computer, whose job is to take in sensory input, process information, and produce motor output. This places the brain at a remove from both the body and environment and denies the intimate connection that exists between them. As a result, a great injustice is done to both human and nonhuman animals: On the one hand, we fail to recognize the distinctive nature of nonhuman cognition, and on the other hand, we continue to promote a somewhat misleading view of human psychological capacities. Here, I suggest a more mutualistic, embodied, enactive view might allow us to ask more interesting questions about how animals of all kinds come to know their worlds, in ways that avoid the (inevitable) anthropocentric baggage of the cognitivist viewpoint.

  15. The Tolerance of All-Optical Switching Based on Cascaded Second-Order Nonlinearity in PPLN APE Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on solving the couple mode equation numerically, the characterization of the signal power on the gate power was analyzed. And the relationship of the tolerance of the grating period and the bulk temperature on the interaction length was analyzed.

  16. The Alienation and Dehumanization in The Hairy Ape%《毛猿》中的异化与非人化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月宾

    2010-01-01

    是尤金·奥尼尔十分重要的表现主义戏剧之一,具有极为深刻的社会内容.通过对司炉工所代表的工人阶级和资产阶级的探讨,剧作家揭示了现代人异化和非人化的主题,展示了工人阶级在资本主义大环境下的悲惨生活.本文旨在运用马克思的异化理论加以分析,以期深入探讨的异化与非人化的主题.

  17. Intruders: New Neighbors in "Dawn of the Planet of the Apes" and "The Hundred-Foot Journey"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts over territory are about the power to establish dominant cultures in territories and are often accompanied by cultural claims to legitimacy by each side. The cultural claims, or ideologies, are often expressed in terms of "homeland" dwellers versus "intruders." Two recent movies, "Dawn of the Planet of the…

  18. apeNET+: a 3D toroidal network enabling petaFLOPS scale Lattice QCD simulations on commodity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Paolucci, P. S.; Petronzio, R.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Simula, F.; Tantalo, N.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    Many scientific computations need multi-node parallelism for matching up both space (memory) and time (speed) ever-increasing requirements. The use of GPUs as accelerators introduces yet another level of complexity for the programmer and may potentially result in large overheads due to the complex memory hierarchy. Additionally, top-notch problems may easily employ more than a Petaflops of sustained computing power, requiring thousands of GPUs orchestrated with some parallel programming model. Here we describe APEnet+, the new generation of our interconnect, which scales up to tens of thousands of nodes with linear cost, thus improving the price/performance ratio on large clusters. The project target is the development of the Apelink+ host adapter featuring a low latency, high bandwidth direct network, state-of-the-art wire speeds on the links and a PCIe X8 gen2 host interface. It features hardware support for the RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking. A Linux kernel driver, a set of low-level RDMA APIs and an OpenMPI library driver are available, allowing for painless porting of standard applications. Finally, we give an insight of future work and intended developments.

  19. SAGA advances in ShApes, Geometry, and Algebra : results from the Marie Curie initial training network

    CERN Document Server

    Muntingh, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book summarizes research carried out in workshops of the SAGA project, an Initial Training Network exploring the interplay of Shapes, Algebra, Geometry and Algorithms. Written by a combination of young and experienced researchers, the book introduces new ideas in an established context. Among the central topics are approximate and sparse implicitization and surface parametrization; algebraic tools for geometric computing; algebraic geometry for computer aided design applications and problems with industrial applications. Readers will encounter new methods for the (approximate) transition between the implicit and parametric representation; new algebraic tools for geometric computing; new applications of isogeometric analysis, and will gain insight into the emerging research field situated between algebraic geometry and computer aided geometric design.

  20. Comparative mapping of a gorilla-derived alpha satellite DNA clone on great ape and human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, A; Miller, D A; Shridhar, V; Rocchi, M; Miller, O J; Ward, D C

    1991-11-01

    We have isolated an alpha satellite DNA clone, pG3.9, from gorilla DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes under high stringency conditions revealed that pG3.9 identifies homologous sequences at the centromeric region of ten gorilla chromosomes, and, with few exceptions, also recognizes the homologous chromosomes in human. A pG3.9-like alphoid DNA is present on a larger number of orangutan chromosomes, but, in contrast, is present on only two chromosomes in the chimpanzee. These results show that the chromosomal subsets of related alpha satellite DNA sequences may undergo different patterns of evolution.

  1. Foundations of cumulative culture in apes: improved foraging efficiency through relinquishing and combining witnessed behaviours in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah J.; Vale, Gillian L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Whiten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one. Only a single chimpanzee in control groups, who had not witnessed a knowledgeable model, discovered this. Individuals who switched were later able to combine components of their two learned techniques to produce a more efficient solution than their extensively used, original foraging method. These results suggest that, although chimpanzees show a considerable degree of conservatism, they also have an ability to combine independent behaviours to produce efficient compound action sequences; one of the foundational abilities (or candidate mechanisms) for human cumulative culture. PMID:27775061

  2. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Silke R; Ozel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-08-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO(2) and bicarbonate but also under normal growth conditions. Subcultivation resulted in beta-hemolytic activity and gamma phage susceptibility in some subclones, suggesting differences in gene regulation compared to classic B. anthracis. The isolates from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon showed slight differences in their biochemical characteristics and MICs of different antibiotics but were identical in all molecular features and sequences analyzed. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of both the toxin and the capsule plasmid, with sizes corresponding to the B. anthracis virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Protective antigen was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant. The isolates possessed variants of the Ba813 marker and the SG-749 fragment differing from that of classic B. anthracis strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a close relationship of our atypical isolates with both classic B. anthracis strains and two uncommonly virulent Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group.

  3. Sympatric Apes in Sacred Forests: Shared Space and Habitat Use by Humans and Endangered Javan Gibbons (Hylobates moloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Reisland

    Full Text Available In this research, we use a combination of ethnographic observation and GIS analysis to explore the use of space by humans and gibbons (Hylobates moloch to determine areas of potential space competition in the sacred forest and nature reserve Cagar Alam Leuweung Sancang in West Java, Indonesia. More specifically, we test whether gibbons respond to the presence of humans in a manner consistent with predator-avoidance and predicted that the gibbon study subjects would avoid areas visited by humans (Risk-Disturbance Hypothesis. Data were collected August 2010-June 2011. We collected GPS locations and behavioral data on both the humans (6,652 hours and the gibbons (1,253 hours in the forest using 10 minute instantaneous sampling. Results indicate that humans preferentially assemble at the most sacred spot in the forest (Cikajayaan waterfall. Two gibbon groups' home ranges encompassed most of the sacred areas. Group B avoided areas of high human use, as high human use areas and high gibbon use areas did not overlap. Group C, though, continued to use areas that were heavily visited by humans. We thus found partial support for the Risk-Disturbance Hypothesis, although the variation in gibbon response to human disturbance indicates behavioral flexibility. We suggest that understanding the effects of shared space on wildlife is necessary for informing conservation policy in human-visited forests.

  4. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Fredsted, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed o...

  5. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  6. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  7. Facial anatomy of Victoriapithecus and its relevance to the ancestral cranial morphology of Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefit, B R; McCrossin, M L

    1993-11-01

    Recently discovered craniofacial fossils of the middle Miocene cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus are described. The frontal, zygomatic, maxilla, and premaxilla anatomy differ from the previously proposed colobine-like ancestral cercopithecoid morphotype in several significant respects. This morphotype was based on the assumption that features held in common by subordinate hominoid and cercopithecoid morphotypes (Colobinae and Hylobatidae) are primitive for Old World monkeys. Cranial similarities between Victoriapithecus, which represents the sister-group of both colobine and cercopithecine monkeys, and the shorter-snouted Cercopithecinae (Macaca and Cercopithecus) indicate that the last common ancestor of Old World monkeys possessed the following features: a narrow interorbital septum, moderately long snout, moderately long and anteriorly tapering premaxilla, large procumbent upper central incisors set anterior to and with longer roots than lateral incisors, moderately tall face below the orbits, teardrop-shaped nasal aperture of low height and moderate width, and probably long and narrow nasal bones. The Victoriapithecus cranium is also characterized by features not present in modern cercopithecids. These include a deep malar region of the zygomatic and the presence of a frontal trigon due to the occurrence of temporal lines that merge with supraorbital costae close to the midline of each orbit and converge anterior to bregma. These features are interpreted as primitive retentions from the basal catarrhine condition as indicated by the occurrence of these features among primitive catarrhines (Aegyptopithecus) and Miocene hominoids (Afropithecus).

  8. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredsted Tina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed on the basis of the human sequence and are often non-functional in distantly related primate species. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop markers that simultaneously detect Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences and also work across many species. Results A novel method for sex identification in primates is described using a triple primer PCR reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis of the sex-chromosomal isoforms of the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein gene (UTX/UTY. By comparing genomic data from several mammals we identified the UTX/UTY locus as the best candidate for a universal primate sexing marker. Using data from several species we identified a XY-conserved region, a Y conserved region and an X conserved region. This enabled the design of a triple primer PCR setup that amplifies X and Y products of different length in a single PCR reaction. Conclusion This simple PCR amplification of X and Y fragments is useful for sexing DNA samples from all species of primates. Furthermore, since the amplified fragments are very short the method can be applied to fragmented DNA extracted from non-invasive samples.

  9. Collagen fiber orientation in the femoral necks of apes and humans: do their histological structures reflect differences in locomotor loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmey, J K; Lovejoy, C O

    2002-08-01

    Human hip joint anatomy differs substantially from that in other primates. Humans modulate pelvic tilt during walking with a highly developed abductor apparatus, but other primates (such as chimpanzees) clearly lack such an apparatus (they exhibit a Trendelenburg gait during bipedal progression). Because the primate femoral neck is cantilevered whenever it supports body mass, it must be consistently subjected to substantial bending at the neck/shaft interface during stance phase in quadrupedal or bipedal locomotion. It has been argued, however, that the powerful abduction during the single support phase in humans results in almost entirely compressive stress on the human femoral neck. We examined collagen fiber orientation in human and chimpanzee femoral neck cortices using circularly polarized light, which has been shown to be a strong correlate of bone loading patterns. Chimpanzee superior femoral neck cortex was shown to be largely nonbirefringent (dark), but the inferior cortex was strongly birefringent. Human femoral necks showed strong birefringence both superiorly and inferiorly. These results are consistent with loading patterns suggested from anatomical structure, and provide corroborative evidence of bone's ability to preferentially orient collagen fibers during extracellular matrix deposition.

  10. Gclust Server: 60060 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 60060 Ape_APE_0560 Cluster Sequences - 483 hypothetical protein 2 1.00e-80 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.45 0.0 Show 60...060 Cluster ID 60060 Sequence ID Ape_APE_0560 Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequ

  11. Gclust Server: 19945 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19945 Ape_APE_0184.1 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(84) 418 putative MFS trans...porter 5 1.00e-19 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.67 9.68 0.0 Show 19945 Cluster ID 19945 Sequence ID Ape_APE_0184.1 Link to c

  12. Gclust Server: 181855 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 181855 Ape_APE_0697 Cluster Sequences - 142 hypothetical protein 1 1.00e-70 0.0 0.0... 0.0 0.0 3.23 0.0 Show 181855 Cluster ID 181855 Sequence ID Ape_APE_0697 Link to cluster sequences Cluster S

  13. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  14. Fallen angels or risen apes? A tale of the intricate complexities of imbalanced immune responses in the pathogenesis and progression of immune-mediated and viral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Omusiro Ondondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive immune responses directed against foreign pathogens, self-antigens or commensal microflora can cause cancer establishment and progression if the execution of tight immuno-regulatory mechanisms fails. On the other hand, induction of potent tumour antigen-specific immune responses together with stimulation of the innate immune system is a pre-requisite for effective antitumour immunity, and if suppressed by the strong immuno-regulatory mechanisms can lead to cancer progression. Therefore, it is crucial that the inevitable co-existence of these fundamental, yet conflicting roles of immune-regulatory cells is carefully streamlined as imbalances can be detrimental to the host. Infection with chronic persistent viruses is characterised by severe immune dysfunction resulting in T cell exhaustion and sometimes deletion of antigen-specific T cells. More often this is due to increased immuno-regulatory processes which are triggered to down-regulate immune responses and limit immunopathology. However, such heightened levels of immune disruption cause a concomitant loss of tumour immune-surveillance and create a permissive microenvironment for cancer establishment and progression, as demonstrated by increased incidences of cancer in immunosuppressed hosts. Paradoxically, while some cancers arise as a consequence of increased immuno-regulatory mechanisms that inhibit protective immune responses and impinge on tumour surveillance, other cancers arise due to impaired immuno-regulatory mechanisms and failure to limit pathogenic inflammatory responses. This intricate complexity, where immuno-regulatory cells can be beneficial in certain immune settings but detrimental in other settings underscores the need for carefully formulated interventions to equilibrate the balance between immuno-stimulatory and immuno-regulatory processes.

  15. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, Silke R.; Özel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Fabian H Leendertz; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO2 and bicarbonate but also under normal grow...

  16. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Silke R.; Özel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO2 and bicarbonate but also under normal growth conditions. Subcultivation resulted in beta-hemolytic activity and gamma phage susceptibility in some subclones, suggesting differences in gene regulation compared to classic B. anthracis. The isolates from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon showed slight differences in their biochemical characteristics and MICs of different antibiotics but were identical in all molecular features and sequences analyzed. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of both the toxin and the capsule plasmid, with sizes corresponding to the B. anthracis virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Protective antigen was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant. The isolates possessed variants of the Ba813 marker and the SG-749 fragment differing from that of classic B. anthracis strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a close relationship of our atypical isolates with both classic B. anthracis strains and two uncommonly virulent Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group. PMID:16855222

  17. The ontogeny of great ape gesture - not a simple story. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Although there is an increasing number of studies investigating gestural communication in primates other than humans in both natural and captive settings [1], very little is known about how they acquire their gestures. Different mechanisms have been proposed, including genetic transmission [2], social learning [3], or ontogenetic ritualization [4]. This latter mechanism is central to Arbib's paper [5], because he uses dyadic brain modeling - that is "modeling the brains of two creatures as they interact with each other, so that the action of one affects the perception of the other and so the cycle of interactions continues, with both brains changing in the process" - to explain how gestures might emerge in ontogeny from previously non-communicative behaviors over the course of repeated and increasingly abbreviated and thus ritualized interactions. The aim of my comment is to discuss the current evidence from primate gesture research with regard the different mechanisms proposed for gesture acquisition and how this might confirm or challenge Arbib's approach.

  18. Changes in the primate trade in indonesian wildlife markets over a 25-year period: Fewer apes and langurs, more macaques, and slow lorises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna; Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-12-29

    Indonesia has amongst the highest primate species richness, and many species are included on the country's protected species list, partially to prevent over-exploitation. Nevertheless traders continue to sell primates in open wildlife markets especially on the islands of Java and Bali. We surveyed 13 wildlife markets in 2012-2014 and combined our results with previous surveys from 1990-2009 into a 122-survey dataset with 2,424 records of 17 species. These data showed that the diversity of species in trade decreased over time, shifting from rare rainforest-dwelling primates traded alongside more widespread species that are not confined to forest to the latter type only. In the 1990s and early 2000s orangutans, gibbons and langurs were commonly traded alongside macaques and slow lorises but in the last decade macaques and slow lorises comprised the bulk of the trade. In 2012-2014 we monitored six wildlife markets in Jakarta, Bandung and Garut (all on Java), and Denpasar (Bali). During 51 surveys we recorded 1,272 primates of eight species. Traders offered long-tailed macaque (total 1,007 individuals) and three species of slow loris (228 individuals) in five of the six markets, whereas they traded ebony langurs (18 individuals), and pig-tailed macaques (14 individuals) mostly in Jakarta. Pramuka and Jatinegara markets, both in Jakarta, stood out as important hubs for the primate trade, with a clear shift in importance over time from the former to the latter. Slow lorises, orangutans, gibbons and some langurs are protected under Indonesian law, which prohibits all trade in them; of these protected species, only the slow lorises remained common in trade throughout the 25-year period. Trade in non-protected macaques and langurs is subject to strict regulations-which market traders did not follow-making all the market trade in primates that we observed illegal. Trade poses a substantial threat to Indonesian primates, and without enforcement, the sheer volume of trade may mean that species of Least Concern or Near Threatened may rapidly decline. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated.

  20. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  1. The Rudiments of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  2. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar V

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  3. The Diagnostic Dilemma of Pathological Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Lai, Justine K.; Langenbucher, James W.; Schneider, Melanie; Yehuda, Rachel; Donald W Pfaff

    2010-01-01

    Appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use includes the use of a range of pharmacologically distinct substances and concurrent investment in outward appearance or achievement, dietary control, and frequent exercise. A number of existing reviews and conceptual papers have defined pathological forms of APED use within the APED class of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and using the framework of AAS dependence. We review published data on APED use including human studies of AAS user...

  4. B. Othanel Smith, Douglas McGregor, and the Philosophical Analysis of the Discourse of Institutional Democracy in Education: An Essay with Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Michael A.

    This collection of documents concerns the Analytical Philosophy of Education (APE) and its history. APE was the dominant approach to philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s; it is no longer fashionable. The main paper included in this collection sketches the history of APE and attempts to show its relevance to the idea of…

  5. Gclust Server: 122221 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 122221 Ape_APE_1728 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(17) 517 ABC transporter, su...bstrate binding protein 1 1.00e-99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.23 0.0 Show 122221 Cluster ID 122221 Sequence ID Ape_AP

  6. [Antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibody as a marker of antiphospholipid syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelnik, Cécile Marie; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Lambert, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Antibody to phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) are observed in thrombotic or obstetric manifestations suggestive of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPE seem to be markers of thrombotic risk independent of conventional antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). aPE assays are not standardized. There is no therapeutic recommendation for isolated aPE patients with thrombotic or obstetric events. Prospective studies have to be carried to better define the therapeutic management of these patients. Value of aPE in APS criteria is still not established.

  7. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Steven M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. Results In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands ≥ 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. Conclusion Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by more than a few percent. The data suggest that interspecific cross-hybridization will not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data from multispecies microarrays, provided that the species' DNA sequences differ by > 20% (mean of 5b differences per 25b oligo. Recovery of DNA sequence data from multiple, distantly-related species on a single multiplex gene chip should be a practical, highly-parallel method for investigating genomic biodiversity.

  8. 迷失的自我--试论《毛猿》中的身份危机%The Lost Self--On the Identity Crisis in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买玉红

    2006-01-01

    是美国剧作家尤金·奥尼尔的一部重要作品.在这部作品中,通过对主人公扬克的形象刻画,作者指出了人在社会中的所属这一主题,同时也深刻揭露了资本主义社会中下层人物的悲惨境遇.本文试图借助于拉康的镜像理论及弗洛伊德的心理分析来进一步阐述的主题及主人公的悲剧根源.

  9. 文化视阈中的猿猴形象及其嬗变根由论略%On Images of Apes and Monkeys and the Reasons of Image Evolution in Cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘騻

    2013-01-01

    拟取“历时性”与“共时性”交融互撮的论证方式,从猴祖神话谱系中的人猿关系、变动不居的文学形象、人猿共融的生态图景以及形象演变缘由窥要四个雏度,就文化视阈中的人猿关系、猿猴形象及英形象嬗变根由进行检视和论析.基本的论旨是:在未获得科学破解和学理厘清前,人猿关系既亲且疏、难以言说、甚为尴尬,文化视阈中的猿猴形象也相应地呈现出了一种变幻不定的情势.如此的情态,随着时代的演进,文明的进步和科技的发展而逐渐走向了终结.

  10. 无家可归,无根可寻——论表现主义手法在《毛猿》中的运用%Homeless and Rootless——On Expressionism in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱秀金

    2010-01-01

    是尤金·奥尼尔的表现主义力作,也是奥尼尔中期创作的实验悲剧代表作之一.文章通过分析该剧中所使用的视觉效果、象征手法、内心独白、面具等多种表现主义手法,来探讨现代人无家可归、无根可寻的悲剧命运.

  11. Efeitos da adrenomodulina no tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar induzida por microesferas em ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Angie Paola Lagos [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that pulmonary vasoconstriction drives many of the haemodynamic disorders found in acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Because adrenomedullin induces pulmonary vasodilation and increases myocardial inotropism, the use of this peptide could minimize the pulmonary hypertension secondary to APE and improve cardiac output. This study examined the effects of adrenomodullin in a sheep model of APE. Under ketamine/midazolam anaesthesia, variables were recorded in nonemboli...

  12. Decisive role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/Ref-1 in initiation of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2010-11-01

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) is involved in the base excision repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites induced by oxidative DNA damage. APE/Ref-1 was decreased by kainic acid (KA) injury in a time-dependent manner at the level of proteins, not transcripts. We investigated whether alteration of APE/Ref-1 amounts would influence hippocampal cell fate, survival or death, after KA injury. Overexpression of APE/Ref-1 using adenovirus and restoration of APE small peptides significantly reduced KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Both silencing of APE/Ref-1 by siRNA and inhibition of endonuclease by an antibody significantly increased caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cell death triggered from the early time after exposure to KA. These findings suggest that cell death is initiated by reducing APE/Ref-1 protein and inhibiting its repair function in spite of enough protein amounts. In conclusion, APE/Ref-1 may be a regulator of cell death initiation, and APE small peptides could provide molecular mechanism-based therapies for neuroprotection in progressive excitotoxic neuronal damage.

  13. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

  14. Neurons efficiently repair glutamate-induced oxidative DNA damage by a process involving CREB-mediated up-regulation of apurinic endonuclease 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Tadokoro, Takashi; Keijzers, Guido

    2010-01-01

    damage after glutamate treatment, suggesting that APE1 is a key repair protein for glutamate-induced DNA damage. A cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) binding sequence is present in the Ape1 gene (encodes APE1 protein) promoter and treatment of neurons with a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase......-mediated DNA damage that is then rapidly repaired by a mechanism involving Ca(2+)-induced, CREB-mediated APE1 expression. Our findings reveal a previously unknown ability of neurons to efficiently repair oxidative DNA lesions after transient activation of glutamate receptors....

  15. Toward homochiral protocells in noncatalytic peptide systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization (APED) model of Plasson et al. has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the evolution of homochirality on prebiotic Earth. The dynamics of the APED model in two-dimensional spatially-extended systems is investigated for various realistic reaction parameters. It is found that the APED system allows for the formation of isolated homochiral proto-domains surrounded by a racemate. A diffusive slowdown of the APED network such as induced through tidal motion or evaporating pools and lagoons leads to the stabilization of homochiral bounded structures as expected in the first self-assembled protocells.

  16. Isolation of a small molecule inhibitor of DNA base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Smart, Fiona; Shrimpton, Paul; Parsons, Jason L; Gardiner, Laurence; Houlbrook, Sue; Talbot, Denis C; Hammonds, Timothy; Freemont, Paul A; Sternberg, Michael J E; Dianov, Grigory L; Hickson, Ian D

    2005-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity, and is essential for the protection of cells against the toxic effects of several classes of DNA damaging agents. Moreover, APE1 overexpression has been linked to radio- and chemo-resistance in human tumors. Using a newly developed high-throughput screen, several chemical inhibitors of APE1 have been isolated. Amongst these, CRT0044876 was identified as a potent and selective APE1 inhibitor. CRT0044876 inhibits the AP endonuclease, 3'-phosphodiesterase and 3'-phosphatase activities of APE1 at low micromolar concentrations, and is a specific inhibitor of the exonuclease III family of enzymes to which APE1 belongs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, CRT0044876 potentiates the cytotoxicity of several DNA base-targeting compounds. This enhancement of cytotoxicity is associated with an accumulation of unrepaired AP sites. In silico modeling studies suggest that CRT0044876 binds to the active site of APE1. These studies provide both a novel reagent for probing APE1 function in human cells, and a rational basis for the development of APE1-targeting drugs for antitumor therapy.

  17. 磺酸盐封端聚醚及其聚合物的阻垢应用%Sulfate-capped polyether and their copolymers applied as inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符嫦娥; 仓理; 陈健

    2011-01-01

    Amidosulfonic acid has been used as sulfonating agent for synthesizing macro-monomer polyether sulfate (APES) ,and APES and AA have been used as monomer for synthesizing block copolymer AA-b-APES in aqueous solutions. APES and AA-b-APES are characterized by bromine value,hydroxyl value,element analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis and FT-IR. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the application of AA-b -APES significantly decreases the size of calcium phosphate solid granules. The research indicates that the sulfonating rate of APES is approximately 90% and calcium phosphate inhibiting rate is 92% ,when the dosage of AA-b-APES is 6 mg/L. Therefore, AA-b-APES is a kind of non-phosphorus scale inhibitor for inhibiting calcium phosphate scale, superior to commercial scale inhibitors.%以氨基磺酸为磺化剂合成了具有聚乙烯氧基长链的大分子单体聚醚磺酸盐(APES),并以APES和丙烯酸(AA)为单体水相合成了嵌段共聚物AA-b-APES.通过红外光谱、溴值、羟值、元素分析和热重分析对APES和AA-b-APES进行了表征.透射电镜表明,AA-b-APES减小了磷酸钙固体颗粒尺寸.研究表明,APES的磺化率约为90%,AA-b-APES在6mg/L时的阻磷酸钙垢率为92%,是一种优于商业阻垢剂的阻磷酸钙垢的无磷阻垢剂.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gao, MM

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE.

  19. D-dimer testing for safe exclusion and risk stratification in patients with acute pulmonary embolism in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe exclusion and risk stratification are currently recommended for the initial management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. The aim of this study was to assess the safe exclusion and risk stratification value of D-dimer (DD for APE when tested at the beginning of admission. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese APE patients and controls were recruited from January 2010 to December 2012. All measurements of serum indexes were made in duplicate and blinded to the patients′ status. All the 40 patients with the first episode of APE were confirmed by multi-detector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. The plasma prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and DD levels were measured within 24 h of admission. We used the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine the differences between groups and drew receiver operator characteristic curve to evaluate the indexes′ value in the APE screening. Results: The PT and DD in the APE group were significantly higher than those in the disease control group (P 1820 μg/L as cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was 82.5%, 75.2%, 56.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The patients with APE showed significant higher DD levels compared with disease controls, suggesting a negative qualitative DD test result can safely and efficiently exclude APE in primary care.

  20. Occurrence of Highly-Substituted Ethoxy-Carboxylates in Runoff Waters Near an Aircraft Deicing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports documenting the occurrence of the metabolites of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are common. However, few data show the occurrence of the oxidative metabolite of the APEs, the carboxylates, and especially those with substitution greater than the 5 ethoxymer. An important reason for this has...

  1. Elusive Rivalry? Conceptions of the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2010-01-01

    What is analytical philosophy of education (APE)? And what has been its place in the history of the subject over the past 50 years? In a recent essay in "Ethics and Education" (Vol. 2, No. 2, October 2007) on 'Rival conceptions of the philosophy of education', Paul Standish described a number of features of APE. Relying on both historical and…

  2. The APENEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Calvayrac, F; Della Morte, M; De Pietri, R; De Riso, P; Carlo, F D; Renzo, F D; Errico, W; Frezzotti, R; Gensch, Ulrich; Giorgino, T; Guagnelli, M; Hervé, N; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Lukyanov, M; Magazzù, G; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Mori, L; Palombi, Filippo; Paschedag, N; Pène, O; Petronzio, Roberto; Pleiter, D; Rapuano, F; Rossetti, D; Sartori, L; Simma, H; Schifano, F; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P

    2002-01-01

    APENEXT is a new generation APE processor, optimized for LGT simulations. The project follows the basic ideas of previous APE machines and develops simple and cheap parallel systems with multi T-Flops processing power. This paper describes the main features of this new development.

  3. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  4. Gr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Blažek

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The-Greek word   (Archilochos, Aristophanes, Plato, Aristoteles, Dor. ní&anos: "ape", ní-&wv, -wvoi; "little ape" (Pindaros does not have any convincible Indo-European etymology. The old comparison with Lat. foedus "beastly, foul" etc. is obviously improbable and the word is rather bor­rowed from an unknown source.

  5. Theater Warfare Programs at AFIT: An Instructional Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    procedure files APEGO , MIGO, or LIGO (these are discussed in Chapter IV). Thus, converting the programs to operate on a different computer will only involve...routine XX -94- TABLE IIX TWXRUN Files File Description AGGO, AGGOB AG execution proc APEGO APE execution proc APESEG APE segmentation proc ARGO AR batch

  6. Enzymatic resolution of ibuprofen in an organic solvent under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dantong; Yue, Hong; Chen, Ge; Jiang, Liyan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound has been successfully adopted to improve the biocatalytic properties of APE1547 (a novel esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1) in the resolution of ibuprofen. After optimizing the conditions (ultrasound power, 200 W; temperature, 35 °C), the best biocatalytic performance of APE1547 (enzyme activity, 5.39 µmol/H/mg; E value, 130.8) was obtained. Compared with the conventional reaction in an orbital shaker, the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced about 90-fold, and the enantioselectivity was enhanced about fourfold after an ultrasound. The results of scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that the activation effect of ultrasound on APE1547 originated mainly in the morphological change of the enzyme powder. Both lower particle size and conformational change of APE1547 under ultrasound might be helpful to enhance the enantioselectivity. In addition, APE1547 kept its best performance under the low-power ultrasound for at least five reaction cycles.

  7. GROWTH MODULATING PROPERTIES OF POLYPHENOLIC APPLE POMACE EXTRACT ON FOOD ASSOCIATED MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Beermann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriostatic effects of plant derived polyphenols are generally proposed for food protection against microbial spoiling. This study aimed at characterizing distinct growth modification and cell-lytic properties of an apple pomace extract (APE containing short-chain and long-chain PP on food spoiling and fermenting starter bacteria. APE contained 6.76 wt % PP, 0.46 wt % glucose, 1.69 wt % fructose, 1.26 wt % starch, 3.8 wt % sorbitol, and 0.64 wt % nitrogen with a pH-value of 4.1. APE caused growth modification of prominent bacterial food spoilers, yeasts, moulds and food fermenting starter bacteria was analyzed turbidometry (180° light absorption measurement at 600 nm wavelength. Cell-lytic activity of APE was measured by a SYTOX® Green fluorescence cell viability assay. APE 1.5 w/w % reduced the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative food spoiling bacteria in dose-dependent manner up to 35.00%. Bacillus subtilis growth was reduced up to 10.53% comparable to 1.01 µg/ mL ampicillin or 0.144 mg/ mL sulfamethoxazol. In contrast, the growth of several fermenting starter bacteria increased at 1.5 w/w % APE up to 167.65% whereas expansion of yeasts and moulds were unaffected. Neither specific cell-lytic activities of APE could be examined on gram-positive and gram-negative food spoiler nor food fermenting starter bacteria. This study indicates that APE is a bacteriostatic but not a cell-lytic agent against food spoiling bacteria. Instead, the growth of specific lactic acid bacteria was supported by APE. Therefore, APE might stabilize explicit food fermentation processes.

  8. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced by ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-mediated DNA damage. Rac1 and NAPDH oxidase (Nox1 are important contributors of ROS generation following infection and associated with gastrointestinal epithelial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if APE1 regulates the function of Rac1 and Nox1 during oxidative stress. Gastric or colonic epithelial cells (wild-type or with suppressed APE1 were infected with Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enterica and assessed for Rac1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production. Rac1 and APE1 interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay (PLA in cell lines or in biopsy specimens. Significantly greater levels of ROS were produced by APE1-deficient human gastric and colonic cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells compared to control cells after infection with either gastric or enteric pathogens. H. pylori activated Rac1 and Nox1 in all cell types, but activation was higher in APE1 suppressed cells. APE1 overexpression decreased H. pylori-induced ROS generation, Rac1 activation, and Nox1 expression. We determined that the effects of APE1 were mediated through its N-terminal lysine residues interacting with Rac1, leading to inhibition of Nox1 expression and ROS generation. APE1 is a negative regulator of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal epithelium during bacterial infection by modulating Rac1 and Nox1. Our results implicate APE1 in novel molecular interactions that regulate early stress responses elicited by microbial infections.

  9. Preventive treatment of alveolar pulmonary edema of cardiogenic origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gideon Charach; Michael Shochat; Alexander Rabinovich; Oded Ayzenberg; Jacob George; Lior Charach; Pavel Rabinovich

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of preventive treatment (PT) on alveolar pulmonary edema (APE) of cardiogenic origin using a monitor based on principles of internal thoracic impedance (ITI) measurements. Methods We conducted blinded clinical trials on patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and monitored whether the condition would progress to APE. ITI was measured noninvasively by the Edema Guard Monitor (EGM, model RS-207) every 30 min. The measurement threshold for the diagnosis of APE was fixed at > 12% decrease in ITI from baseline as described in our methodology. The patients were divided into one group that received standard treatment after the appearance of clinical signs of APE without considering the prediction of APE by EGM devise (Group 1), and another group of asymptomatic patients in whom development of APE was predicted by using only EGM measurements (Group 2). The latter participants' PT consisted of furosemide, intravenous nitroglycerine and supplemental oxygen. Results One-hundred and fifty patients with acute STEMI were enrolled into this study. Group 1 included 100 patients (53% males, age 64.1 ± 12.6 years). Treatment was started after the clinical appearance of overt signs of APE. Group 2 included 50 patients (54% males, age 65.2 ± 11.9 years) who received PT based on EGM measurements. Group 2 had significantly fewer cases of APE (n = 4, 8%) than Group 1 (n = 100, 100%) (P > 0.001). While APE was lethal in six (6%) Group 1 patients, PT resulted in prompt resolution of APE in all four (8%) Group 2 patients. Conclusion ITI is a useful modality for early diagnosis and PT of pulmonary edema of cardiogenic origin.

  10. 欧盟非食品类商品快速通报系统(R APE X)2014年上半年玩具技术性贸易措施研究%Study on Technical Trade Barriers Measures on Toy in Rapid Alert System for Non-food DangerousProducts(RAPEX) during the First Half of 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘醒; 许兵

    2014-01-01

    Rapid alert system for non food dangerous products (RAPEX) is one of the important ways for the EU to prevent or restrict the marketing or use of products posing a serious risk to the health and safety of consumers - with the exception of food, pharmaceutical and medical devices. This study focuses on the research of toy announced in RAPEX on the first half of 2014 to find a solution to the key factors of technical trade barriers in the toy trade between China and Europe, and puts forward some countermeasures, providing reference to carry out measures of the trade technical barriers in the future.%欧盟非食品类商品快速通报系统(RAPEX)是欧盟公布进入其境内除食品和药品外的产品存在问题的重要途径之一。本次研究报告重点对2014年上半年玩具的(RAPEX)通报情况进行研究,旨在找到解决玩具对欧贸易技术性贸易壁垒的关键因素并提出对策,为今后开展其它技术性贸易措施的应对提供参考。

  11. Human-animal relationships in zoo-housed orangutans (P. abelii) and gorillas (G. g. gorilla): the effects of familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua J

    2014-10-01

    I examined human-animal relationships (HARs) in zoo-housed orangutans (Pongo abelii) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to see if they followed patterns similar to conspecific relationships in great apes and humans. Familiarity and social relationships guide humans' and great apes' behaviors with conspecifics. Inter-individual relationships, based on shared social history, and "generalized" relationships, based on a history of interactions with relevant classes of individuals, guide behavior with familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics, respectively. I examined whether both familiarity and social relationships similarly guides great apes' cross-species interactions with humans. I used repeated measures MANOVA to compare hourly rates and average durations of ape-initiated human-directed behaviors (HDBs) between familiar and unfamiliar humans and between great ape species. HDB patterns were consistent with familiarity-based HAR predictions, indicating more negative relationships with unfamiliar humans and more positive relationships with familiar humans. Findings for unfamiliar humans are consistent with negative effects of humans on apes' behavior reported in traditional visitor effect studies (VES). However, findings for familiar humans may be overlooked in VES due to pooling across levels of human familiarity or failure to consider humans other than primarily unfamiliar visitors. Additionally, species differences in apes' HDBs suggest that data pooling across species, common in many zoo studies, may mask important differences. These findings have important methodological implications for studies of human-animal interaction as well as for captive animal wellbeing.

  12. Altered endoribonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 variants identified in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the major mammalian enzyme in the DNA base excision repair pathway and cleaves the DNA phosphodiester backbone immediately 5' to abasic sites. APE1 also has 3'-5' DNA exonuclease and 3' DNA phosphodiesterase activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its redox regulatory function. The human APE1 has recently been shown to endonucleolytically cleave single-stranded regions of RNA. Towards understanding the biological significance of the endoribonuclease activity of APE1, we examined eight different amino acid substitution variants of APE1 previously identified in the human population. Our study shows that six APE1 variants, D148E, Q51H, I64V, G241R, R237A, and G306A, exhibit a 76-85% reduction in endoribonuclease activity against a specific coding region of the c-myc RNA, yet fully retain the ability to cleave apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA. We found that two APE1 variants, L104R and E126D, exhibit a unique RNase inhibitor-resistant endoribonuclease activity, where the proteins cleave c-myc RNA 3' of specific single-stranded guanosine residues. Expression of L104R and E126D APE1 variants in bacterial Origami cells leads to a 60-80% reduction in colony formation and a 1.5-fold increase in cell doubling time, whereas the other variants, which exhibit diminished endoribonuclease activity, had no effect. These data indicate that two human APE1 variants exhibit a unique endoribonuclease activity, which correlates with their ability to induce cytotoxicity or slow down growth in bacterial cells and supports the notion of their biological functionality.

  13. Altered endoribonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 variants identified in the human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Cheol; Ma, Conan; Li, Wai-Ming; Chohan, Manbir; Wilson, David M; Lee, Chow H

    2014-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is the major mammalian enzyme in the DNA base excision repair pathway and cleaves the DNA phosphodiester backbone immediately 5' to abasic sites. APE1 also has 3'-5' DNA exonuclease and 3' DNA phosphodiesterase activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its redox regulatory function. The human APE1 has recently been shown to endonucleolytically cleave single-stranded regions of RNA. Towards understanding the biological significance of the endoribonuclease activity of APE1, we examined eight different amino acid substitution variants of APE1 previously identified in the human population. Our study shows that six APE1 variants, D148E, Q51H, I64V, G241R, R237A, and G306A, exhibit a 76-85% reduction in endoribonuclease activity against a specific coding region of the c-myc RNA, yet fully retain the ability to cleave apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA. We found that two APE1 variants, L104R and E126D, exhibit a unique RNase inhibitor-resistant endoribonuclease activity, where the proteins cleave c-myc RNA 3' of specific single-stranded guanosine residues. Expression of L104R and E126D APE1 variants in bacterial Origami cells leads to a 60-80% reduction in colony formation and a 1.5-fold increase in cell doubling time, whereas the other variants, which exhibit diminished endoribonuclease activity, had no effect. These data indicate that two human APE1 variants exhibit a unique endoribonuclease activity, which correlates with their ability to induce cytotoxicity or slow down growth in bacterial cells and supports the notion of their biological functionality.

  14. MicroRNA-134 as a potential plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE remains a diagnostic challenge due to a variable clinical presentation and the lack of a reliable screening tool. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression in a wide range of pathophysiologic processes. Circulating miRNAs are emerging biomarkers in heart failure, type 2 diabetes and other disease states; however, using plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of APE is still unknown. Methods Thirty-two APE patients, 32 healthy controls, and 22 non-APE patients (reported dyspnea, chest pain, or cough were enrolled in this study. The TaqMan miRNA microarray was used to identify dysregulated miRNAs in the plasma of APE patients. The TaqMan-based miRNA quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to validate the dysregulated miRNAs. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the miRNA identified as the candidate biomarker. Results Plasma miRNA-134 (miR-134 level was significantly higher in the APE patients than in the healthy controls or non-APE patients. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-134 was a specific diagnostic predictor of APE with an area under the curve of 0.833 (95% confidence interval, 0.737 to 0.929; P Conclusions Our findings indicated that plasma miR-134 could be an important biomarker for the diagnosis of APE. Because of this finding, large-scale investigations are urgently needed to pave the way from basic research to clinical utilization.

  15. Genetic and biochemical characterization of human AP endonuclease 1 mutants deficient in nucleotide incision repair activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Gelin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is a key DNA repair enzyme involved in both base excision repair (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR pathways. In the BER pathway, APE1 cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases. In the NIR pathway, APE1 incises DNA 5' to a number of oxidatively damaged bases. At present, physiological relevance of the NIR pathway is fairly well established in E. coli, but has yet to be elucidated in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We identified amino acid residues in the APE1 protein that affect its function in either the BER or NIR pathway. Biochemical characterization of APE1 carrying single K98A, R185A, D308A and double K98A/R185A amino acid substitutions revealed that all mutants exhibited greatly reduced NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities, but were capable of performing BER functions to some extent. Expression of the APE1 mutants deficient in the NIR and exonuclease activities reduced the sensitivity of AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli xth nfo strain to an alkylating agent, methylmethanesulfonate, suggesting that our APE1 mutants are able to repair AP sites. Finally, the human NIR pathway was fully reconstituted in vitro using the purified APE1, human flap endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase I proteins, thus establishing the minimal set of proteins required for a functional NIR pathway in human cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data further substantiate the role of NIR as a distinct and separable function of APE1 that is essential for processing of potentially lethal oxidative DNA lesions.

  16. Combination of aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheets, native dental pulp extracellular matrix and treated dentin matrix as substrates for tooth root regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Jinlong; Yang, Bo; Li, Lei; Luo, Xiangyou; Zhang, Xuexin; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    In tissue engineering, scaffold materials provide effective structural support to promote the repair of damaged tissues or organs through simulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments for stem cells. This study hypothesized that simulating the ECM microenvironments of periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complexes would contribute to the regeneration of tooth root. Here, aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheet (APES), treated dentin matrix (TDM) and native dental pulp extracellular matrix (DPEM) were fabricated and combined into APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM for periodontium and dental pulp regeneration, respectively. This study firstly examined the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of both APES and DPEM in vitro, and further investigated the degradation of APES and revascularization of DPEM in vivo. Then, the potency of APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM in odontogenic induction was evaluated via co-culture with dental stem cells. Finally, we verified the periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complex regeneration in the jaw of miniature swine. Results showed that APES possessed aligned fiber orientation which guided cell proliferation while DPEM preserved the intrinsic fiber structure and ECM proteins. Importantly, both APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM facilitated the odontogenic differentiation of dental stem cells in vitro. Seeded with stem cells, the sandwich composites (APES/TDM/DPEM) generated tooth root-like tissues after being transplanted in porcine jaws for 12 w. In dental pulp/dentin complex-like tissues, columnar odontoblasts-like layer arranged along the interface between newly-formed predentin matrix and dental pulp-like tissues in which blood vessels could be found; in periodontium complex-like tissues, cellular cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues were generated on the TDM surface. Thus, above results suggest that APES and DPEM exhibiting appropriate physicochemical properties and well biocompatibilities, in accompany with TDM, could

  17. Comparison of two prognostic models for acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-ElRahim Ibrahim Youssef

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: (1 There is an agreement to great extent in risk stratification of APE patients by PESI and ESC prognostic models, where mortality rate is increased among high risk classes of both models, (2 ESC prognostic model is more accurate than PESI model in mortality prediction of APE patients especially in the high risk class, (3 echocardiographic evidence of RVD and elevated plasma BNP can help to identify APE patients at increased risk of adverse short-term outcome and (4 integration of RVD assessment by echocardiography and BNP to clinical findings improves the prognostic value of ESC model.

  18. Molecular Basis for Stereospecific Hydrolysis of Ethyl Mandelate by Thermophilic Esterase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-yan; TAO Jin; ZHENG Liang-yu; CAO Shu-gui

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific hydrolysis of mandelate can be effectively catalyzed by hyperthermophilic acylpeptide esterase APE 1547(Aeropyrum pernix esterase 1547).APE 1547 used in this reaction showed a remarkable stereodiscrimination in favour of R-mandelic acid(99% e.e.) with an enantiomeric ratio E>200.The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental results.It can be inferred that the R-substrate adopted a binding mode productive of the reaction due to the formation of the hydrogen bond at the active site of APE 1547.

  19. The effect of worksite physical activity intervention on physical capacity, health, and productivity: A 1-year randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Blangsted, Anne K.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of two contrasting physical activity worksite interventions versus a reference intervention (REF) on various health outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted with specific resistance training (SRT), all-round physical exercise (APE...... uptake (APE) increased approximately 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Worksite intervention with both SRT as well as APE is recommended, since these activities compared with REF resulted in clinically relevant reductions of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome-related risk factors as well as musculoskeletal pain...... symptoms, in combination with minor increases in physical capacity....

  20. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  1. GROWTH MODULATING PROPERTIES OF POLYPHENOLIC APPLE POMACE EXTRACT ON FOOD ASSOCIATED MICROORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Beermann; Nadine Gruschwitz; Katharina Walkowski; Annekathrin Göpel

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriostatic effects of plant derived polyphenols are generally proposed for food protection against microbial spoiling. This study aimed at characterizing distinct growth modification and cell-lytic properties of an apple pomace extract (APE) containing short-chain and long-chain PP on food spoiling and fermenting starter bacteria. APE contained 6.76 wt % PP, 0.46 wt % glucose, 1.69 wt % fructose, 1.26 wt % starch, 3.8 wt % sorbitol, and 0.64 wt % nitrogen with a pH-value of 4.1. APE cause...

  2. Application of Argan plant extract as green corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 mol/L HCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Afia; R. Salghi; L. Bammou; Lh. Bazzi; B. Hammouti; L. Bazzi

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Argan plant extract (APE) on the corrosion of the steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using gravimetric,electrochemical polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Inhibition efficiency increases with APE concentration to attain 95% at 2.5 g/L.We note good agreement between gravimetric and electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization and EIS).Effect of temperature is also made in the 298-328 K range.Polarization measurements show also that APE act as a mixed inhibitor.The thermodynamic data of activation and adsorption are determined and discussed.

  3. A new analytical potential energy surface for the singlet state of He{sub 2}H{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Jingjuan; Zhang Qinggang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264011 (China); Wang Lizhi [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264011 (China)

    2012-03-07

    The analytic potential energy surface (APES) for the exchange reaction of HeH{sup +} (X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) + He at the lowest singlet state 1{sup 1}A{sup /} has been built. The APES is expressed as Aguado-Paniagua function based on the many-body expansion. Using the adaptive non-linear least-squares algorithm, the APES is fitted from 15 682 ab initio energy points calculated with the multireference configuration interaction calculation with a large d-aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. To testify the new APES, we calculate the integral cross sections for He + H{sup +}He (v= 0, 1, 2, j= 0) {yields} HeH{sup +}+ He by means of quasi-classical trajectory and compare them with the previous result in literature.

  4. Pop / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Shakedown "You Think You Know", Moloko "Statues", Erlend Oye "Unrest", Guano Apes "Walking On A Thin Line", The Raveonettes "Whip It On", Singer Vinger "Ärq ei lääq", Son of Clay "Face Takes Shape"

  5. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Stability, Transition and Flow Control in High-Speed Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    discrete spectrum, 2A# i =-ID ApeX dp + Ap#e" dp) + Z Resn (ApeP-). (2.28) 2ir 4 +A,exp + (;28 The three-dimensional character of the perturbations...where the right-hand side is evaluated at p = p.. Taking into account that E1357 = 0, one can derive from (2.37) Resn (ApeP") = eP n" (c 2 E 12 5 7...These residues have the form Resn (AP ePt) = An(y; pn, ,/ )e t (3.32) with [E37 ]- An = [alzi + a3z3 + a5 Z5 +a 7z 7 ] x L Op (Pn) (3.33) where a., a3

  6. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  7. Simian crease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative meaning (the word "simian" refers to a monkey or ape). The crease is usually just referred ... Single palmar crease; Transverse palmar crease; Palmar crease Images Single palmar crease References Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. ...

  8. Enhancement and Noise Statistics Estimation for Non-Stationary Voiced Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    is not assumed stationary, instead the fundamental frequency can vary linearly within each frame. The linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) filter and the amplitude and phase estimation (APES) filter are derived in this framework and compared to the harmonic versions of the same filters. It is shown...... through simulations on synthetic and speech signals, that the chirp versions of the filters perform better than their harmonic counterparts in terms of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal reduction factor. For synthetic signals, the output SNR for the harmonic chirp APES based filter...... is increased 3 dB compared to the harmonic APES based filter at an input SNR of 10 dB, and at the same time the signal reduction factor is decreased. For speech signals, the increase is 1.5 dB along with a decrease in the signal reduction factor of 0.7. As an implicit part of the APES filter, a noise...

  9. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung You

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian, a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs, and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29, the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs. In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression

  10. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  11. Sperm of rosy barb (Puntius conchonius) as an in vitro assay system of nonylphenol cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qin; ZHANG Shi-cui; HU Jia-hui; XU Yu-yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nonylphenol (NP) is the final degradation product of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEs), which are widely present in plastics, papers, pulp, detergents,pesticides, herbicides, paints and cosmetics. It is estimated that annual global production of APEs is about 500000 t, 60% of which eventually ends up in aquatic ecosystems primarily via wastewater (Sol?et al., 2000). NP is resistant to biodegradation and persistent in the environment (Arukwe et al., 2000).

  12. 怎样说“一群……”?(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ant:A colony or An army of ants Ape[猿]:A shrewdness of apes Baboons[狒狒]:A troop of baboons Bear:A sleuth or sloth of bears Bee:A swarm,grist or hive of bees Bird:A flock,flight,congregation or volery of birds Buffalo:A herd of buffalo Cat:A clowder or clutter of cats Cattle:A herd or drove of cattle

  13. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  14. Enhanced lysosomal activity by overexpressed aminopeptidase Y in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jihee; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains vacuoles corresponding to lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Lysosomes are dynamic (not silent) organelles in which enzymes can be easily integrated or released when exposed to stressful conditions. Changes in lysosomal enzymes have been observed due to oxidative stress, resulting in an increased function of lysosomes. The protein profiles from H2O2- and NH4Cl-treated lysosomes showed different expression patterns, observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The aminopeptidase Y protein (APE3) that conspicuously enhanced antimicrobial activity than other proteins was selected for further studies. The S. cerevisiae APE3 gene was isolated and inserted into pYES2.0 expression vector. The GFP gene was inserted downstream to the APE3 gene for confirmation of APE3 targeting to lysosomes, and S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP. The APE3 did not enter in lysosomes and formed an inclusion body at 30 °C, but it inserted to lysosomes as shown by the merger of GFP with lysosomes at 28 °C. Antimicrobial activity of the cloned S. cerevisiae increased about 5 to 10 % against eight strains, compared to normal cells, and galactose induction is increased more two folds than that of normal cells. Therefore, S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP, accumulating a large amount of APE3, resulting in increased lysosomal activity. Increase in endogenous levels of lysosomes and their activity following genetic modification can lead to its use in applications such as antimicrobial agents and apoptosis-inducing materials for cancer cells, and consequently, it may also be possible to use the organelles for improving in vitro functions.

  15. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Ascorbic Acid, Ultraviolet C Rays, and Glucose but not Hyperthermia Are Elicitors of Human β-Defensin 1 mRNA in Normal Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Cruz Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hosts’ innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs. Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA, and ultraviolet C rays (UVC as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, cathelicidin (CAMP, and interferon-γ (IFNG genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK. The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C and hyperthermia (39°C are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections.

  17. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice.

  18. Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Rangaswamy; Chakraborty, Anirban; Miriyala, Sumitra; Hazra, Tapas K.; Izumi, Tadahide

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein. Decrease of APE1 in cells by inducible shRNA knockdown or by conditional gene knockout caused apoptosis. Here we succeeded in establishing a unique mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) line expressing APE1 at a level far lower than those achieved with shRNA knockdown. The cells, named MEFla (MEFlowAPE1), were hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed little activity for repairing AP-sites and MMS induced DNA damage. While these results were consistent with the essential role of APE1 in repair of AP sites, the MEFla cells grew normally and the basal activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in MEFla was lower than that in the wild-type MEF (MEFwt), indicating the low DNA damage stress in MEFla under the normal growth condition. Oxidative phosphorylation activity in MEFla was lower than in MEFwt, while the glycolysis rates in MEFla were higher than in MEFwt. In addition, we observed decreased intracellular oxidative stress in MEFla. These results suggest that cells with low APE1 reversibly suppress mitochondrial respiration and thereby reduce DNA damage stress and increases the cell viability. PMID:25645679

  19. [Plant lectins and embryonic tissue factors as probes for studying the mechanisms of neural induction in amphibians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlov, A T; Gorgoliuk, N A

    1992-01-01

    Using various experimental techniques, we have demonstrated that animal pole ectoderm (APE) of Rana temporaria embryos at the stage of early gastrula is a good target tissue for testing the neuralizing (N) factors. In this respect R. temporaria APE is comparable with APE of some other amphibian species. We found that concanavalin A (con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and embryonic brain-derived neuralizing factor (EBDNF; a factor extracted from the chick embryonic brain and partially purified) have a pronounced N-effect on the APE of R. temporaria. In order to analyse possible mechanisms of N-action of these factors, we have cultured APE explants for 3 or 18 h in the medium containing various concentrations of con A, PHA of EBDNF. All these factors could produce neuralization in 50% explants. However, the optimal concentration and time of exposure were different. This is an evidence for different mechanisms of reception and transmission of a N-signal in each particular case. It appears that the APE consists of several cell subpopulations which differ in their threshold sensitivity to the N-effect of studied agents.

  20. Ascorbic Acid, Ultraviolet C Rays, and Glucose but not Hyperthermia Are Elicitors of Human β-Defensin 1 mRNA in Normal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Díaz, Luis Antonio; Flores Miramontes, María Guadalupe; Allen, Kirk; Gonzalez Ávila, Marisela; Prado Montes de Oca, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Hosts' innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs). Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA), and ultraviolet C rays (UVC) as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA) on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), cathelicidin (CAMP), and interferon-γ (IFNG) genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK). The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C) and hyperthermia (39°C) are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections. PMID:25815330

  1. Sputum biomarkers and the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G Liou

    Full Text Available Lung function, acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE, and weight are the best clinical predictors of survival in cystic fibrosis (CF; however, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Biomarkers of current disease state predictive of future outcomes might identify mechanisms and provide treatment targets, trial endpoints and objective clinical monitoring tools. Such CF-specific biomarkers have previously been elusive. Using observational and validation cohorts comprising 97 non-transplanted consecutively-recruited adult CF patients at the Intermountain Adult CF Center, University of Utah, we identified biomarkers informative of current disease and predictive of future clinical outcomes. Patients represented the majority of sputum producers. They were recruited March 2004-April 2007 and followed through May 2011. Sputum biomarker concentrations were measured and clinical outcomes meticulously recorded for a median 5.9 (interquartile range 5.0 to 6.6 years to study associations between biomarkers and future APE and time-to-lung transplantation or death. After multivariate modeling, only high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1, mean=5.84 [log ng/ml], standard deviation [SD] =1.75 predicted time-to-first APE (hazard ratio [HR] per log-unit HMGB-1=1.56, p-value=0.005, number of future APE within 5 years (0.338 APE per log-unit HMGB-1, p<0.001 by quasi-Poisson regression and time-to-lung transplantation or death (HR=1.59, p=0.02. At APE onset, sputum granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, mean 4.8 [log pg/ml], SD=1.26 was significantly associated with APE-associated declines in lung function (-10.8 FEV(1% points per log-unit GM-CSF, p<0.001 by linear regression. Evaluation of validation cohorts produced similar results that passed tests of mutual consistency. In CF sputum, high HMGB-1 predicts incidence and recurrence of APE and survival, plausibly because it mediates long-term airway inflammation. High APE-associated GM

  2. The Diabatic Heating and the Generation of Available Potential Energy: Results from NCEP Reanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; WU Guoxiong; GUO Yufu

    2005-01-01

    In the existing studies on the atmospheric energy cycle, the attention to the generation of available potential energy (APE) is restricted to its global mean value. The geographical distributions of the generation of APE and its mechanism of formation are investigated by using the three-dimensional NCEP/NCAR diabatic heating reanalysis in this study. The results show that the contributions from sensible heating and net radiation to the generation of zonal and time-mean APE (Gz) are mainly located in high and middle latitudes with an opposite sign, while the latent heating shows a dominant effect on Gz mainly in the tropics and high latitudes where the contributions from the middle and upper tropospheres are also contrary to that from the low troposphere. In high latitudes, the Gz is much stronger for the Winter Hemisphere than for the Summer Hemisphere, and this is consistent with the asymmetrical feature shown by the reservoir of zonal and time-mean APE in two hemispheres, which suggests that the generation of APE plays a fundamental role in maintaining the APE in the global atmospheric energy cycle. The same contributions to the generation of stationary eddy APE (GSE) from the different regions related to the maintenance of longitudinal temperature contrast are likely arisen by different physics. Specifically, the positive contributions to GSE from the latent heating in the western tropical Pacific and from the sensible heating over land are dominated by the heating at warm regions, whereas those from the latent heating in the eastern tropical Pacific and from the sensitive heating over the oceans are dominated by the cooling at cold regions. Thus, our findings provide an observational estimate of the generation of eddy APE to identify the regional contributions in the climate simulations because it might be correct for the wrong reasons in the general circulation model (GCM). The largest positive contributions to the generation of transient eddy APE (GTE) are

  3. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  4. Total sequence decomposition distinguishes functional modules, "molegos" in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Werner

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total sequence decomposition, using the web-based MASIA tool, identifies areas of conservation in aligned protein sequences. By structurally annotating these motifs, the sequence can be parsed into individual building blocks, molecular legos ("molegos", that can eventually be related to function. Here, the approach is applied to the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE DNA repair proteins, essential enzymes that have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The APEs, DNase-1 and inositol 5'-polyphosphate phosphatases (IPP form a superfamily that catalyze metal ion based phosphorolysis, but recognize different substrates. Results MASIA decomposition of APE yielded 12 sequence motifs, 10 of which are also structurally conserved within the family and are designated as molegos. The 12 motifs include all the residues known to be essential for DNA cleavage by APE. Five of these molegos are sequentially and structurally conserved in DNase-1 and the IPP family. Correcting the sequence alignment to match the residues at the ends of two of the molegos that are absolutely conserved in each of the three families greatly improved the local structural alignment of APEs, DNase-1 and synaptojanin. Comparing substrate/product binding of molegos common to DNase-1 showed that those distinctive for APEs are not directly involved in cleavage, but establish protein-DNA interactions 3' to the abasic site. These additional bonds enhance both specific binding to damaged DNA and the processivity of APE1. Conclusion A modular approach can improve structurally predictive alignments of homologous proteins with low sequence identity and reveal residues peripheral to the traditional "active site" that control the specificity of enzymatic activity.

  5. Sex determination in miocene catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    Canines of fossil hominoids and primitive catarrhines from several early, middle, and late Miocene sites were analyzed according to the shape indices described in Kelley (1995) and compared to those of males and females of extant great apes. In bivariate plots of the fossil canines utilizing the indices, 90% of the upper canines and 85% of the lower canines fell within or just outside the exclusively male or exclusively female territories delimited by the extant great apes. The remainder fell in the male-female overlap zones. Sex assignments based on these distributions were nearly 100% concordant with classifications according to canine height, suggesting a high degree of accuracy. There were various taxon-specific shifts in bivariate space among fossil genera, reflecting subtle differences in canine shape between taxa within the overall pattern of similarity to extant great apes as a whole. In many cases these shifts are matched by particular extant-ape species and subspecies, while other fossil taxa have no exact analogue for canine shape among the extant great apes. However, the pattern of spatial segregation of canines identified as either male or female at each of the sites largely mirrors that of males and females within the extant-ape sample, indicating that Miocene catarrhines shared with extant great apes a common pattern of shape differences between male and female canines, regardless of taxon-specific morphologies. These observations demonstrate that the canines of fossil catarrhines can be sexed with a high degree of confidence based solely on intrinsic features of shape. This will permit more reliable characterizations of morphological sexual dimorphism among fossil species. It is also argued that canine shape is a more reliable indicator of sex in fossil taxa than are canine/molar size ratios.

  6. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads.

  7. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E; Johnson, Jeremiah G; DiRita, Victor J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J; Gaynor, Erin C

    2016-10-21

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target.

  8. Characterization of family IV UDG from Aeropyrum pernix and its application in hot-start PCR by family B DNA polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Peng Liu

    Full Text Available Recombinant uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG from Aeropyrum pernix (A. pernix was expressed in E. coli. The biochemical characteristics of A. pernix UDG (ApeUDG were studied using oligonucleotides carrying a deoxyuracil (dU base. The optimal temperature range and pH value for dU removal by ApeUDG were 55-65°C and pH 9.0, respectively. The removal of dU was inhibited by the divalent ions of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Mn, as well as a high concentration of NaCl. The opposite base in the complementary strand affected the dU removal by ApeUDG as follows: U/C≈U/G>U/T≈U/AP≈U/->U/U≈U/I>U/A. The phosphorothioate around dU strongly inhibited dU removal by ApeUDG. Based on the above biochemical characteristics and the conservation of amino acid residues, ApeUDG was determined to belong to the IV UDG family. ApeUDG increased the yield of PCR by Pfu DNA polymerase via the removal of dU in amplified DNA. Using the dU-carrying oligonucleotide as an inhibitor and ApeUDG as an activator of Pfu DNA polymerase, the yield of undesired DNA fragments, such as primer-dimer, was significantly decreased, and the yield of the PCR target fragment was increased. This strategy, which aims to amplify the target gene with high specificity and yield, can be applied to all family B DNA polymerases.

  9. The association between platelet CD36 expression and risk of acute pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty surgery%血小板CD36与膝关节置换术后发生急性肺栓塞的相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃巍; 郭青; 左康康; 廉凯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association between platelet CD36 and acute pulmonary embolism( APE) in pa-tients after total knee arthroplasty ( TKA ) . Methods A total of 50 patients with APE and 150 non-APE patients simuleaneously were included, and baseline data were compared in this study. Results Age, anticoagulant use, to-tal cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterin (LDL-C) and D dimer (D-D) in pa-tients with APE had statistical differences compared with non-APE patients ( P<0. 05 ) , and the platelet CD36 ex-pression in patients with APE was higher than non-APE patients ( P<0. 05 ) . In Logistic regression analysis, age, anticoagulants use, D-D and platelet CD36 were close associated with APE. ROC curve analysis results showed that higher platelet CD36 expression had well diagnostic value for APE with patients of the area under the curve of 0. 821 (95%CI:0. 749~0. 892, P<0. 001), the sensitivity and specificity was 81. 6% and 71. 5%,respectively. Con-clusions The expression of platelet CD36 is high in APE patients, and higher CD36 expression in platelet is risk factors of APE after undergoing TKA, platelet CD36 has certain clinical value for preventing APE after TKA.%目的:探讨血小板CD36的表达与行全膝关节置换术( TKA)患者术后发生急性肺栓塞( APE)的关系。方法选取50例TKA术后发生APE患者和同期150例TKA术后未发生APE和血栓患者进行基本资料比较。结果两组患者年龄、抗凝剂使用、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、甘油三酯(TG)以及D-二聚体(D-D)比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。血小板CD36在APE患者中明显高表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。在Logistic回归分析中,年龄、抗凝剂的使用、D-D以及血小板CD36的异常表达与APE发生密切相关。 ROC曲线分析结果显示,血小板CD36的高表达在对于TKA术后发生APE具有较好的诊断价值,曲线下面积为0.821(95% CI 0.749~0

  10. Three types of abdominoperineal excision procedures for the rectal cancer based on anatomic landmarks classification%基于解剖边界划分的三种直肠癌腹会阴联合切除术式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶颖江; 申占龙; 王杉

    2014-01-01

    对于肿瘤位置过低、肿瘤明显外侵和骨盆过于狭小的患者,腹会阴联合切除术(APE)依然是主要术式。APE腹部操作已明确应遵循全直肠系膜切除术( TME )原则,但会阴操作原则尚未达成共识,其重要原因在于会阴部操作缺乏明确的解剖边界,以至于难以实现标准化。2014年,瑞典外科学家Holm教授基于会阴区筋膜、神经和血管组成的解剖边界,提出了直肠癌APE的术式分类新概念,将APE分为3类,即括约肌间APE、肛提肌外APE和坐骨肛管间APE。此新概念的提出,使APE术式分类更明确,解剖界标更清晰,更利于推广和标准化。本文结合文献和笔者的诊治经验,对这3种术式分别加以介绍和讨论。%Abdominoperineal excision (APE) procedure is still the main approach to low rectal cancer patients with short distance from the anal verge, obvious invasion of adjacent organs and narrow pelvis. Although the principle of TME (total mesorectal excision) needs to be obeyed in the abdominal phase of APE procedure, it does not reach the consensus for the perineal phase. The important reason is the lack of definite anatomic landmarks in the perineal phase, thus the standardization of the procedure remains hard. In 2014, Swedish surgeon, professor Holm, proposed the new conception to classify the APE procedure into three types, which were intersphincteric APE, the extralavator APE and the ischioanal APE, based on the anatomic landmarks with perineal fascias, nervous and blood vessels. In this paper, we combine the review of literatures and our experiences of treatment to introduce and discuss these three types of APE procedures. This new concep is based on anatomic landmarks which makes the category of APE procedure more definitive, the anatomic dissection more clear and the standardization and adoption of APE procedure much easier.

  11. Biochemical characterization of RNase HⅡ from Aeropyrum pernix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingli Hou; Yufen Liu; Zheng Lu; Xipeng Liu; Jianhua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aeropyrum pernix contains one homolog of ribonuclease H (RNase H),A.pernix RNase HⅡ (Ape-RNase HⅡ).Activity characterization showed that Ape-RNase HⅡ exhibited the highest activity in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+, 1 mM Co2+, or 10mM Mg2+, respectively;however,its cleavage efficiencies at different cleavage sites for Mn2+ and Mg2+ were different.Ape-RNase HⅡ cleaved 12-bp RNA/DNA substrates at multiple sites and the optimum pH value was 11.0.Moreover,16-bp DNAr4-DNA/DNA and 13-bp DNA-r1-DNA/DNA chimeric substrates were cleaved at DNA-RNA junction.ApeRNase HⅡ was thermostable and the stabilization was enhanced with increased salt concentration.This work is believed to be the first in vitro functional study of ApeRNase HⅡ and the results should contribute to the analysis of RNase H of other archaeal species.

  12. AT101 exerts a synergetic efficacy in gastric cancer patients with 5-FU based treatment through promoting apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Duan, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Xin, Xiaojie; Sun, Lei; Gao, Ming; Li, Qing; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer remains a disease with a high mortality rate despite of multiple therapeutic strategies. So far, it is very important to develop new treatment approaches to improve current therapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) involves in DNA base excision repair (BER) during DNA damage pathway. APE1 was found to be associated with poor overall survival with gastric cancer patients. In the in vitro experiment, we tested APE1 inhibitor-AT101 could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and further induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy through p53-dependent pathway. Downregulation of APE1 by AT101 has ability to suppress gastric cancer cell migration and renewal through inhibition of CD133, Nanog and LC3expression. Based on findings that Her-2 positive expression cases has poor prognosis from our dataset and TCGA database, we investigated the role of AT101 in synergetic efficacy with 5-FU treatment in Her-2 overexpression gastric cancer in vivo, indicating that AT101 is able to enhance 5-FU in the shrinkage of xenograft mice tumor and induction of cell apoptosis. In summary, the data obtained from our study showed APE1 is guided as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. AT101 could be regarded as a potent inhibitor to promote chemotherapeutic sensitivity in patients with gastric cancer.

  13. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenming; SUN Jianhua; ZHAO Sixiong; LI Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China (11-13 June 2008). The results show that kinetic energy (KE) generation and a dvection were the most important KE sources, while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks. There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs. The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV. Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance, as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex (vortex B). The conversion from available potential energy (APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection. Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects.The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection; in this case, vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released, while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  14. Increase in functional groups for POSS by introducing branched phenylglycidylether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 胡立江; 孙德智

    2004-01-01

    In the selected experimental conditions, firstly, the branched products with functional groups, N-(2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APES-PGE, containing one hydroxyl group) and N- [ di (2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) ] (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane ( APES-PGE2, containing two hydroxyl groups), were synthesized by reacting 1 mole of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APES) with 2 mole of phenylglycidylether (PGE). Then the hydrolytic condensation of APES-PGE and APES-PGE2 was performed by dissolving 1 g of the corresponding silane in 1.5 ml tetrahydrofuran (THF), adding water and eventually a catalyst ( molar ratios: [ H2O ]/Si = 3, [ NaOH ]/Si = 0.05 ), and heating at 50 ℃ for 24 h, allowing continuous evaporation of volatiles. The final products with branches containing hydroxyl groups were polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). The products from two reactions were characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques,gel partition chromatography (GPC), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS). Additionally, a narrow mass distribution of multifunctionalized POSS was shown by UV-MALDI-TOF MS and assignments of the MS peaks.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  16. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-10-22

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  17. Denaturing Effects of Urea and Guanidine Hydrochloride on Hyperthermophilic Esterase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The changes in the activity and the conformation of the hyperthermophilic esterase derived from aerobic thermophilic Aeropyrumpernix K1 (APE1547) were studied during denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)and urea. The denaturation course of APE1547 was followed by the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence methods. An increase in the denaturant concentration in the denatured system can significantly enhance the inactivation and unfolding of APE1547. The enzyme can be completely inactivated with a urea concentration of 2. 7 mol/L or a GdnHCl concentration of 7.5 mol/L. The fluorescence emission maximum of the enzyme protein red shifts in magnitude to a maximum value(355 nm) when the concentration of GdnHCl is 5.1 mol/L. The experimental results indicate that APE1547 has a high resistance to urea. Unfolding of APE1547 in GdnHCl(4.2-6.0 mol/L) was shown to be an irreversible process. The present results indicate that the ion pairs in this protein may be a key factor for the stability of this esterase.

  18. Understanding mixing efficiency in the oceans: Do the nonlinearities of the equation of state matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Tailleux, Remi

    2009-01-01

    There exist two central measures of turbulent mixing in turbulent stratified fluids, both caused by molecular diffusion: 1) the dissipation rate D(APE) of available potential energy (APE); 2) the turbulent rate of change Wr,turbulent of background potential energy GPEr. So far, these two quantities have often been regarded as the same energy conversion, namely the irreversible conversion of APE into GPEr, owing to D(APE)=Wr,turbulent holding exactly for a Boussinesq fluid with a linear equation of state. It was recently pointed out, however, that this equality no longer holds for a thermally-stratified compressible fluid, the ratio \\xi=Wr,turbulent/D(APE) being then lower than unity and sometimes even negative for water/seawater. In this paper, the behavior of the ratio \\xi is examined for different stratifications having the same buoyancy frequency N(z), but different vertical profiles of the parameter \\Upsilon = \\alpha P/(\\rho C_p), where \\alpha is the thermal expansion, P the hydrostatic pressure, \\rho the...

  19. AT101 exerts a synergetic efficacy in gastric cancer patients with 5-FU based treatment through promoting apoptosis and autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Duan, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Xin, Xiaojie; Sun, Lei; Gao, Ming; Li, Qing; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a disease with a high mortality rate despite of multiple therapeutic strategies. So far, it is very important to develop new treatment approaches to improve current therapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) involves in DNA base excision repair (BER) during DNA damage pathway. APE1 was found to be associated with poor overall survival with gastric cancer patients. In the in vitro experiment, we tested APE1 inhibitor-AT101 could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and further induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy through p53-dependent pathway. Downregulation of APE1 by AT101 has ability to suppress gastric cancer cell migration and renewal through inhibition of CD133, Nanog and LC3expression. Based on findings that Her-2 positive expression cases has poor prognosis from our dataset and TCGA database, we investigated the role of AT101 in synergetic efficacy with 5-FU treatment in Her-2 overexpression gastric cancer in vivo, indicating that AT101 is able to enhance 5-FU in the shrinkage of xenograft mice tumor and induction of cell apoptosis. In summary, the data obtained from our study showed APE1 is guided as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. AT101 could be regarded as a potent inhibitor to promote chemotherapeutic sensitivity in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27144437

  20. Proton exchange in Y-cut $LiNbO_{3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneva, M; Pashtrapanska, M; Nedkov, I

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, planar waveguides in Y-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ were obtained using modified proton exchange (PE) conditions of: PE and subsequent annealing (APE), PE in buffered melts (BMPE), APE followed by PE (APE+PE), and PE in vapours (VPE). Benzoic acid was used as the proton source in the PE, BMPE, and (APE+PE) experiments. Cinnamic acid was used for obtaining VPE-waveguides. The main aim was to prevent surface damage of Y-cut crystals due to the strains introduced by proton exchange. The investigations performed showed that the surface etching is probably due to lattice deformation anisotropy leading to higher strains in PE Y-cut samples. Most encouraging results were observed, when an optimized (APE+PE)- procedure was used for waveguide formation. This method is very attractive for the fast preparation of deep high-index and low-loss waveguides in Y-cut LiNbO/sub 3/. This procedure allows passive and active elements to be produced in one and the same Y-cut substrate of LiNbO/sub 3/. Similar preliminary ...

  1. Main energy paths and energy cascade processes of the two types of persistent heavy rainfall events over the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Sun, Jianhua; Fu, Shenming

    2017-02-01

    Two types of persistent heavy rainfall events (PHREs) over the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basin were determined in a recent statistical study: type A, whose precipitation is mainly located to the south of the Yangtze River; and type B, whose precipitation is mainly located to the north of the river. The present study investigated these two PHRE types using a newly derived set of energy equations to show the scale interaction and main energy paths contributing to the persistence of the precipitation. The main results were as follows. The available potential energy (APE) and kinetic energy (KE) associated with both PHRE types generally increased upward in the troposphere, with the energy of the type-A PHREs stronger than that of the type-B PHREs (except for in the middle troposphere). There were two main common and universal energy paths of the two PHRE types: (1) the baroclinic energy conversion from APE to KE was the dominant energy source for the evolution of large-scale background circulations; and (2) the downscaled energy cascade processes of KE and APE were vital for sustaining the eddy flow, which directly caused the PHREs. The significant differences between the two PHRE types mainly appeared in the lower troposphere, where the baroclinic energy conversion associated with the eddy flow in type-A PHREs was from KE to APE, which reduced the intensity of the precipitation-related eddy flow; whereas, the conversion in type-B PHREs was from APE to KE, which enhanced the eddy flow.

  2. Chest sonography: a useful tool to differentiate acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema from acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldati Gino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnosis between acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS may often be difficult. We evaluated the ability of chest sonography in the identification of characteristic pleuropulmonary signs useful in the diagnosis of ALI/ARDS and APE. Methods Chest sonography was performed on admission to the intensive care unit in 58 consecutive patients affected by ALI/ARDS or by acute pulmonary edema (APE. Results Ultrasound examination was focalised on finding in the two groups the presence of: 1 alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS 2 pleural lines abnormalities 3 absence or reduction of "gliding" sign 4 "spared areas" 5 consolidations 6 pleural effusion 7 "lung pulse". AIS was found in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 100% of patients with APE (p = ns. Pleural line abnormalities were observed in 100% of patients with ALI/ARDS and in 25% of patients with APE (p All signs, except the presence of AIS, presented a statistically significant difference in presentation between the two syndromes resulting specific for the ultrasonographic characterization of ALI/ARDS. Conclusion Pleuroparenchimal patterns in ALI/ARDS do find a characterization through ultrasonographic lung scan. In the critically ill the ultrasound demonstration of a dyshomogeneous AIS with spared areas, pleural line modifications and lung consolidations is strongly predictive, in an early phase, of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  3. Protective Effect of Polyphenols Extract of Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf on Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingrong Ju

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of polyphenols extract of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf (APE on high cholesterol diet fed rats (HCD. APE was orally administrated by gavage at doses of 10, 40 and 200 mg total phenolics/kg body weight of rats once a day for 28 days. At the end of four weeks, serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and markers of oxidative stress viz., malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in the serum and liver of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. The results showed that administration of APE was significantly effective in decreasing the serum levels of TC, LDL-C and MDA, increasing the serum level of HDL-C and antioxidant capacity. In addition, oral gavage of APE could also increase the antioxidant capacity, CAT and GSH-Px activities in liver. These results suggested that APE exerted a high hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities, which might be characterized by a protective effect on cardiovascular health in vivo.

  4. Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Grundy, Richard; Auer, Dorothee T.; Walker, David; Lakhani, Ravi; Scott, Ian S.; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 and low PTEN remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas. PMID:25026297

  5. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R; Mullikin, James C; Meader, Stephen J; Ponting, Chris P; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-06-28

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other.

  6. Autofocus Correction of Azimuth Phase Error and Residual Range Cell Migration in Spotlight SAR Polar Format Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Zhaoda

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are often blurred by phase perturbations induced by uncompensated sensor motion and /or unknown propagation effects caused by turbulent media. To get refocused images, autofocus proves to be useful post-processing technique applied to estimate and compensate the unknown phase errors. However, a severe drawback of the conventional autofocus algorithms is that they are only capable of removing one-dimensional azimuth phase errors (APE). As the resolution becomes finer, residual range cell migration (RCM), which makes the defocus inherently two-dimensional, becomes a new challenge. In this paper, correction of APE and residual RCM are presented in the framework of polar format algorithm (PFA). First, an insight into the underlying mathematical mechanism of polar reformatting is presented. Then based on this new formulation, the effect of polar reformatting on the uncompensated APE and residual RCM is investigated in detail. By using the derived analytical relationship betwee...

  7. Normalization of diagnosis and therapy in acute pulmonary thromboembolism%急性肺血栓栓塞症的规范化诊断和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄岚; 周音频

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性肺栓塞(acute pulmonary embolism,APE)是由内源性或外源性栓子(气体、羊水、脂肪等)堵塞肺动脉而引起肺循环障碍的病理生理综合征.APE在西方国家是常见疾病,住院患者APE的发生率为0.4%,美国每年新发APE人数超过60万[1-2];APE在我国也并不少见,占尸检总数的4%~11%[3].但由于其临床表现和常规检查缺乏特异性,APE的误诊和漏诊率高达80%,据估计每年仅约40~53/10万人确诊APE [4-5].

  8. Evaluation of the right ventricular regional systolic function in patients with acute pulmonary embolism by two dimensional speckle tracking imaging%斑点追踪技术评价急性肺栓塞患者右心室局部收缩功能的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 李奕莹; 徐琨; 许建萍; 杨永生; 刘晓芳; 柴丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe changes of the right ventricular (RV) myocardial strain and the time to peak strain (ST) before and after anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) by two dimension speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI).Methods A total of 25 patients with APE along with 30 age-matched and gender-matched normal subjects (as control group) were examined by echocardiography.And basal,mid,apical segments of right ventrieular wall and septum (6-segments) longitudinal peak systolic strain (PSS) and the time to peak strain (ST) were analyzed by 2D-STI.The mean and standard deviation (STsD) of 6-segmental ST were calculated.Results ①Compared with control group cases,PSS of 6-segments were significantly impaired in patients with APE (P <0.05).②The PSS of 6-segments in APE patients after treatment were significantly higher than that of before treatment (P <0.05).The PSS of apical segment of the right ventricular wall and interventricular septum in APE patients after treatment showed no significant difference with the control group (P >0.05).The PSS of other segments in APE patients were significantly lower than that of control group (all P <0.05).③The STsD of APE patients before and after treatment were significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions The PSS of 6-segments of RV were decreased in patients with APE and STsD were increased.After treatment,the PSS of APE patients were returned.However,the PSS in APE patients were not returned to normal.Two-dimension STI can objectively assess the curative effect of APE patients after treatment.%目的 观察急性肺栓塞(acute pulmonary embolism,APE)患者抗凝、溶栓治疗前后右室心肌应变、应变达峰时间的特点,探讨二维斑点追踪技术在APE患者疗效评价中的价值.方法 急性肺栓塞患者25例,正常对照组30例为研究对象,应用二维斑点追踪技术测量并记录右室侧壁及室间隔的基

  9. Quantification de révolution morphologique du crâne des Hominidés et hétérochronies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaline, Jean; David, Bruno; Magniez-Jannin, Françoise; Malassé, Anne Dambricourt; Marchand, Didier; Courant, Frédéric; Millet, Jean-Jacques

    1998-02-01

    Comparisons of adult skulls of various species of great apes, fossil hominids and modern humans in the sagittal, Francfort and ortho-sagittal planes reveal a series of three separate organisation plans: 'Great Ape', 'Australopithecine' and 'Homo', the latter including primitive men ( Homo ergaster-erectus-neandertalensis) and modern humans ( Homo sapiens). Morphological changes between these plans are quantified for the first time here by vector fields. This study confirms the existence of cranio-facial contraction, which occurs as a series of leaps. The juvenile morphology of the great ape skull is broadly preserved in adult Homo sapiens, suggesting that numerous heterochronies have occurred in mosaic during ontogeny (hypermorphosis, hypomorphosis, post-displacements).

  10. Mesoscale generation of available potential energy in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Ruminski, M. G.; Starr, D. OC.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of available potential energy (APE) was evaluated in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone containing intense convective activity. Mesoscale rawinsonde data from AVE-SESAME '79 was employed. Parametrization techniques were used for latent and sensible heating components, and variations for the Kuo scheme provided convective latent heat release. Radiative transfer models were used to obtain estimates of infrared and solar processes. The results indicated that solar heating was greater than IR cooling near midday. An extensive low-level cloud deck was the most radiatively active area. Negative generation of APE occurred during most of the period for the SESAME domain as a whole. The leading contributor was convective latent heating located primarily in regions of negative efficiency. Infrared cooling was the only component to consistently produce positive generation. Sensible heating provided an important sink of APE in the low levels during the afternoon.

  11. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R.; Mullikin, James C.; Meader, Stephen J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E.; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E.; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours1–4, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other. PMID:22722832

  12. Spatio-Temporal Audio Enhancement Based on IAA Noise Covariance Matrix Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    to an amplitude and phase estimation (APES) based filter. For a fixed number of samples, the performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by using the IAA method, whereas if the filter size is fixed and the number of samples in the APES based filter is increased, the APES based filter performs......A method for estimating the noise covariance matrix in a mul- tichannel setup is proposed. The method is based on the iter- ative adaptive approach (IAA), which only needs short seg- ments of data to estimate the covariance matrix. Therefore, the method can be used for fast varying signals....... The method is based on an assumption of the desired signal being harmonic, which is used for estimating the noise covariance matrix from the covariance matrix of the observed signal. The noise co- variance estimate is used in the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) filter and compared...

  13. The teacherʼs competences in adapted physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Ješina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The education of students with special educational needs (SEN in Europe has undergone in the past 20 years, reshaped and the situation in various European countries is significantly different. Teaching students with SEN is governed by the laws that define the SVP, appropriate training and support services. In the following text focuses on the differences in the services and of adapted physical education (APE for pupils with SEN in selected countries of the partners of the project EUSAPA (European Standards in Adapted Physical Activities. Current information on the area of applied physical education and support services in European countries can be found on the website of EUFAPA at www.eufapa.eu. In addition, the text introducing the outputs of the project, particularly functional EUSAPA map of APE and the definition of knowledge, competences and skills necessary for the APE in Europe. These outputs are drawn up in accordance with the preceding important projects AEHESIS and EIPET.

  14. The dart-throwing motion of the wrist: is it unique to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J; Orr, Caley M; Marzke, Mary W

    2006-11-01

    Kinematic analysis has shown a near-stationary proximal carpal row during the dart-thrower's motion, which is believed to provide a stable platform for the generation of force and accuracy during certain power and precision grip activities. This finding is consistent with evidence in the human hand of adaptations that enabled effective manipulation of stones, cylindric wood, and bone tools for throwing and clubbing. There are at least two possible explanations for the observed human proximal carpal row kinematics. One is that it is retained from a previous common ancestor with great apes and previously adapted to some form of foraging or locomotor behavior involving the hands, but was recruited for tool use after we diverged from the apes. The second is that it evolved after our divergence from apes, in synchrony with adaptations in the human hand to the manipulation of tools, and central to the development of the human's unique ability to aim and accelerate tools and weapons.

  15. Syncope as a presentation of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altınsoy B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bülent Altınsoy, Fatma Erboy, Hakan Tanrıverdi, Fırat Uygur, Tacettin Örnek, Figen Atalay, Meltem Tor Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey Purpose: Syncope is an atypical presentation for acute pulmonary embolism (APE. There are conflicting data concerning syncope and prognosis of APE. Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive patients aged 22–96 years (median, 68 years with APE were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results: Prevalence of syncope was 13% (n=23 at the time of presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher rate of central embolism (83% vs 43%, respectively, P=0.002, right ventricular dysfunction (91% vs 68%, P=0.021, and troponin positivity (80% vs 39%, P=0.001 but not 30-day mortality (13% vs 10%, P=0.716. Multivariate analysis showed that central localization (odds ratio: 9.08 and cardiac troponin positivity (odds ratio: 4.67 were the independent correlates of the presence of syncope in the patients with APE. Frequency of cardiopulmonary disease was lower, and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was shorter in patients with syncope (P=0.138 and 0.118, respectively, although not significant. Conclusion: Syncope most likely represents an intermediate condition between massive APE and hypotension. In APE patients with syncope, the prognosis seems to depend on the underlying pathology, the patient’s age, comorbidities and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission, and the use of thrombolytic therapy. Keywords: syncope, prognosis, pulmonary embolism, mortality rate, compression sonography, right ventricular dysfunction

  16. On electrochemical devices using alkaline polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, L. [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) enable a compact assembly of fuel cells and electrolyzers, thereby increasing the space-specific conversion efficiency and avoiding electrolyte leakage. The most widely used SPE in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and chloro-alkali electrolyzers is Nafion. However, this strongly acidic polyelectrolyte allows only noble metals to be used as the catalysts in the electrochemical devices, which poses a problem in terms of price and resource limits. In principle, alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) should be used to eliminate the dependence on noble metal catalysts. The general structure of alkaline polymer electrolytes is a positively charged polymer, notably, a polymer chain attached with fixed cations such as quaternary ammonia group, and dissociated anion, OH-, to act as the charge carrier. This presentation described the challenges of developing APEs in terms of the chemical stability of quaternary ammonia group, the mobility of OH-, and high ionic concentration. The authors have been working on developing high-performance APEs since 2001. The most recent APEs were quaternary ammonia polysulfone (QAPS), which were found to be suitable for fuel cell and electrolyzer applications. The ionic conductivity was high and the crosslinked membrane had excellent mechanical strength, enabling operation at 90 degrees C. Non-precious metal catalysts were used in the APEs. For APE-based fuel cells (APEFC), chromium decorated nickel was used as the anode catalyst for hydrogen oxidation, and silver was used as the cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction. The preliminary performance of such an APEFC with non-Pt catalysts was found to be much better than that of traditional water electrolyzers using KOH solutions. 2 refs.

  17. Effect of multifunctional protein YB-1 on the AP site cleavage by AP endonuclease 1 and tyrosyl phosphodiesterase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov L. P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites which represent one of the most abundantly generated DNA lesions in the cell are generally repaired by base excision repair (BER pathway. Multifunctional protein YB-1 is known to participate in cellular response to genotoxic stress and was shown to interact with several components of BER – DNA glycosylases NTH1, NEIL2, DNA polymerase and DNA ligase III. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate the influence of YB-1 on one of the major BER enzymes, responsible for AP site cleavage, AP endonuclease APE1, and on tyrosyl phosphodiesterase Tdp1, participating in APE1 independent pathway of AP site repair. Aim. Effect of multifunctional protein YB-1 on the AP site cleavage by the activities of APE1 and Tdp1 was studied. Methods. Gel-mobility shift assays and enzyme activity tests. Results. YB-1 was shown to inhibit the cleavage of AP site located in single-stranded DNA by both APE1 and Tdp1. Stimulation of APE1 activity on protruding double-stranded DNA in the presence of YB-1 was observed, whereas no effect on Tdp1-mediated cleavage of AP site in double-stranded DNA was found. Conclusions. YB-1 can modulate the repair of AP sites in DNA by both positively stimulating APE1 during the classic BER of AP sites and avoiding a possible generation of doublestrand breaks, arising from the cleavage of single-stranded portion of DNA substrate already used by different DNA-processing pathway

  18. The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Michael S; Simpson, Scott W; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we described several features of the carpometacarpal joints in extant large-bodied apes that are likely adaptations to the functional demands of vertical climbing and suspension. We observed that all hominids, including modern humans and the 4.4-million-year-old hominid Ardipithecus ramidus, lacked these features. Here, we assess the uniqueness of these features in a large sample of monkey, ape, and human hands. These new data provide additional insights into the functional adaptations and evolution of the anthropoid hand. Our survey highlights a series of anatomical adaptations that restrict motion between the second and third metacarpals (MC2 and MC3) and their associated carpals in extant apes, achieved via joint reorganization and novel energy dissipation mechanisms. Their hamate-MC4 and -MC5 joint surface morphologies suggest limited mobility, at least in Pan. Gibbons and spider monkeys have several characters (angled MC3, complex capitate-MC3 joint topography, variably present capitate-MC3 ligaments) that suggest functional convergence in response to suspensory locomotion. Baboons have carpometacarpal morphology suggesting flexion/extension at these joints beyond that observed in most other Old World monkeys, probably as an energy dissipating mechanism minimizing collision forces during terrestrial locomotion. All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of our ancestral locomotor repertoire. Furthermore, the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle-walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms. The most parsimonious explanation of the structural similarity of these carpometacarpal specializations in great apes is that they evolved independently.

  19. Il pianeta delle scimmie: una discussione critica delle nozioni di “neuromania” e “darwinite” in Raymond Tallis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Barzaghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Planet of the Apes: A Critical Examination of Raymond Tallis’ Idea of “Neuromania” and “Darwinitis” - This paper presents a critical examination of Raymond Tallis’ Aping Mankind. Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity. The main themes are summarized and briefly discussed. Tallis presents some of the most extreme reductionist interpretations of contemporary neurosciences, and labels them “neuromania” and “darwinitis”. He proposes instead a non-reductionist philosophical naturalism, one that, according to him, is able to value the latest scientific achievements, without reducing the importance of other humanistic branches of knowledge.

  20. Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan M Cotter

    Full Text Available The field of evolutionary medicine examines the possibility that some diseases are the result of trade-offs made in human evolution. Spinal fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fracture in humans, but are not observed in apes, even in cases of severe osteopenia. In humans, the development of osteoporosis is influenced by peak bone mass and strength in early adulthood as well as age-related bone loss. Here, we examine the structural differences in the vertebral bodies (the portion of the vertebra most commonly involved in osteoporosis-related fractures between humans and apes before age-related bone loss occurs. Vertebrae from young adult humans and chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons (T8 vertebrae, n = 8-14 per species, male and female, humans: 20-40 years of age were examined to determine bone strength (using finite element models, bone morphology (external shape, and trabecular microarchitecture (micro-computed tomography. The vertebrae of young adult humans are not as strong as those from apes after accounting for body mass (p<0.01. Human vertebrae are larger in size (volume, cross-sectional area, height than in apes with a similar body mass. Young adult human vertebrae have significantly lower trabecular bone volume fraction (0.26±0.04 in humans and 0.37±0.07 in apes, mean ± SD, p<0.01 and thinner vertebral shells than apes (after accounting for body mass, p<0.01. Since human vertebrae are more porous and weaker than those in apes in young adulthood (after accounting for bone mass, even modest amounts of age-related bone loss may lead to vertebral fracture in humans, while in apes, larger amounts of bone loss would be required before a vertebral fracture becomes likely. We present arguments that differences in vertebral bone size and shape associated with reduced bone strength in humans is linked to evolutionary adaptations associated with bipedalism.

  1. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Ephemeridae Tr. - trace, less 10- emptrar - Heptageniidae than 0.001 gms/0n{. 11 - Odonata s- Corixidae 1? - Plecoptera t - Hydropsychidae 4-D 0 kA0 U7...CLJ4SS ORDER FAM4ILY GENUS & SPEIES I Heoptoyia sp. Odonata ILestidae Lestes ape Libeliulidae I Libellula sp. Lepidopt era Pyralididae Cataclysta sp

  2. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest a

  3. Books in Action: Armed Services Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    6.00 for a mint copy. Only sixteen titles are listed at more than $20 for a mint copy: Stoker’s Dracula ($35); Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes and...Gashouse Gang E-25 STOKER, BRAM. Dracula 851 STOKER, BRAM. Dracula (Reprint) 682 STOKI.EY, JAMES. Science Remakes the World T-9 STONE, EZRA, and WELDON

  4. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  5. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05189-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apings (Normaliz... 46 1.3 1 ( EX344558 ) GQ03102.SP6.1_B12 GQ031 - Xylem Scrapings...2. 46 1.3 1 ( AC129250 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-356P3, WORKING DRAF... 46 1.3 1 ( EX344913 ) GQ03102.SP6_B12 GQ031 - Xylem Scr

  7. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gilad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor (OR genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surveying randomly chosen subsets of 100 OR genes from each species. We find that apes, Old World monkeys and one New World monkey, the howler monkey, have a significantly higher proportion of OR pseudogenes than do other New World monkeys or the lemur (a prosimian. Strikingly, the howler monkey is also the only New World monkey to possess full trichromatic vision, along with Old World monkeys and apes. Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred concomitant with the acquisition of full trichromatic color vision in primates.

  8. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China(11-13 June 2008).The results show that kinetic energy(KE) generation and advection were the most important KE sources,while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks.There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs.The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV.Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance,as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex(vortex B).The conversion from available potential energy(APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection.Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects. The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection;in this case,vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released,while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  9. Orangutan call communication and the puzzle of speech evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis E Lameira, A.

    2013-01-01

    Speech is a human hallmark. However, its evolution is little understood. It remains largely unknown which features of the call communication of our closest relatives – great apes – may have constituted speech evolutionary feedstock. In this study, I investigate the extent to which speech building bl

  10. Electrocardiographic differentiation between acute coronary syndrome and acute pulmonary embolism associated with inverted T waves in precordial leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhong-qun; WANG Chong-quan; HE Chao-rong; WANG Zhi-xiao; MAO Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Inverted T waves in precordial leads are often seen in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this study was to analyze the electrocardiogram (ECG) difference between APE and ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads. Methods The ECG difference among 62 patients with APE and 125 patients with ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads were compared. Results Compared with ACS, Patients with APE were more frequently associated with incomplete or complete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, the sum of the depth of inverted T waves in leads V1 and V2 not less than in lead V3 and V4 (inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4), and inverted T waves in leads V1 and Ⅲ. Conclusions Complete or incomplete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, inverted T waves in leads V1 and III, and inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4 are useful criteria for predicting APE.

  11. Not yet human: implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Phillip Atiba; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Williams, Melissa J; Jackson, Matthew Christian

    2008-02-01

    Historical representations explicitly depicting Blacks as apelike have largely disappeared in the United States, yet a mental association between Blacks and apes remains. Here, the authors demonstrate that U.S. citizens implicitly associate Blacks and apes. In a series of laboratory studies, the authors reveal how this association influences study participants' basic cognitive processes and significantly alters their judgments in criminal justice contexts. Specifically, this Black-ape association alters visual perception and attention, and it increases endorsement of violence against Black suspects. In an archival study of actual criminal cases, the authors show that news articles written about Blacks who are convicted of capital crimes are more likely to contain ape-relevant language than news articles written about White convicts. Moreover, those who are implicitly portrayed as more apelike in these articles are more likely to be executed by the state than those who are not. The authors argue that examining the subtle persistence of specific historical representations such as these may not only enhance contemporary research on dehumanization, stereotyping, and implicit processes but also highlight common forms of discrimination that previously have gone unrecognized.

  12. Remote Video Supervision in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke; Bishop, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Supervision for beginning adapted physical education (APE) teachers and inservice general physical education teachers who are learning to work with students with disabilities poses a number of challenges. The purpose of this article is to describe a project aimed at developing a remote video system that could be used by a university supervisor to…

  13. Primate Conservation--An Evaluation of Two Different Educational Programs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Brigitte; Braunbeck, Thomas; Randler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all primate species are globally threatened. Conservation approaches need to focus on local people and users of resources from the habitats of the apes. Students worldwide should become aware of the context and relationships in school, and they should change their usage and behaviour as the ultimate goals. This study explored the…

  14. Doctoral Sojourn Experiences of Adapted Physical Education Students from Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explain Asian international doctoral students' sojourn experiences into Adapted Physical Education (APE) programs at two universities. The participants were six doctoral students from Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. This case study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data…

  15. Iidamast ja Aadamast ehk "Ahvide planeet" / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud Pierre Boulle'i raamatu ainetel "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Autor võrdleb seda 1968.a. filmiga ning Ain Kaalepi näidendiga "Iidamast ja Aadamast"

  16. Kuidas Helena Bonham Carter ahviks muutus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Kuidas tehti näitlejatele ahvide grimmi. Lähemalt Helena Bonham Carteri grimmist

  17. African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2011-12-23

    Exclusion allows the detection of hidden food when confronted with the choice between an empty and a potentially baited food location. However, exclusion may be based on avoidance of the empty location without drawing inferences about the presence of the food in the baited location. So far, such inferences have been demonstrated in the great apes only: after seeing an experimenter eating one of two food types, which both had been hidden previously in two boxes, the apes were able to choose the box that still contained the other food type. African grey parrots are capable of exclusion, and we here assessed if they are capable of inference by exclusion. In our task, two different but equally preferred food items were hidden in full view of the birds under two opaque cups. Then, an experimenter secretly removed one food type and showed it to the bird. Similarly to the apes, one out of seven parrots significantly preferred the baited cup; control conditions rule out that its choice was based on associative learning or the use of olfactory cues. Thus, we conclude that-like the apes-some grey parrots are able to infer the location of a hidden food reward.

  18. Annual Report on Electronics Research at The University of Texas at Austin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-15

    5066 (1968). 6. I.V. Hertel and W. Stoll, J. Phys. B7, 583 (1974). 7. D.F. Register, S. Trajmar, S.W. Jensen, and R.T. Poe , Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 749...Patterson APE, Os 45433 ATYBN Mro. D. Folen, Code 2627 Dr. William 0. Mehuron Washinqton. DC 20373 Office of Reaach, Devrlopenet,Dr. Allan Schell iset I

  19. Editorial: Causal cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaisdell, A.P.; Beckers, T.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including one on psychological approaches to causal discovery in humans, one on the representational and reasoning capacities that underlie causal cognition in rats and one on the generality of knowledge of Great Ape.

  20. Plaadid / Heili Vaus-Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaus-Tamm, Heili, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Keith Jarret/Gary Peacock/Jack DeJohnette "Up for it", Wladislaw Szpilman "The original recordings of the pianist", Emanuel Ax "Haydn Piano Sonatas", Ravi Coltrane "Mad 6", Guano Apes "Walking On A Thin Line", Will Young "From Now On", Janis Joplin "The Essential"

  1. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its variability in different climates of Europe: A comparison of eight crop growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Taru; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Angulo, Carlos;

    2011-01-01

    and WOFOST furnished high total above-ground biomass estimates, whereas CROPSYST, DSSAT and FASSET provided low total above-ground estimates. Consequently, DSSAT and FASSET produced very high harvest index values, followed by HERMES and WOFOST. APES and DAISY, on the other hand, returned low harvest index...

  2. Tablet Technology to Monitor Physical Education IEP Goals and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavay, Barry; Sakai, Joyce; Ortiz, Cris; Roth, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that all children who are eligible for special education services receive an individualized education program (IEP). Adapted physical education (APE) professionals who teach physical education to children with disabilities are challenged with how to best collect and monitor student…

  3. Going the whole orang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted...

  4. Asymmetric pulmonary edema after scorpion sting: a case report Edema pulmonar assimétrico após picada de escorpião: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy was referred with acute asymmetric pulmonary edema (APE four-hour after scorpion sting to Emergency department. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were: dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Chest x-ray revealed APE predominantly on the right hemithorax. The patient was treated with oxygen, intravenous frusemide and digoxin and discharged on the sixth hospital day in a good condition. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of asymmetric pulmonary edema after severe scorpion envenomation within few hours immediately after the sting.Menino de 12 anos foi internado no Pronto Socorro, com edema pulmonar assimétrico agudo (APE, quatro horas após picada de escorpião. À admissão, as principais manifestações clínicas foram: dispnéa, taquipnéa e taquicardia. Raio X do pulmão revelou APE predominantemente no hemitórax direito. O paciente foi tratado com oxigênio, frusemida intravenosa e digoxina e teve alta no sexto dia de internação, em boas condições. Este relato de caso enfatiza a ocorrência de edema pulmonar assimétrico algumas horas após a picada.

  5. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  6. Effect of repeated exposures and sociality on novel food acceptance and consumption by orangutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, M.E.; Lameira, A.R.; Wich, S.A.; de Vries, H.; Wahyudi, R.; Shumaker, R.W.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of rehabilitant great apes have been released into the wild, and thousands await release. However, survival rates after release can be as low as 20 %. Several factors influence individuals’ survival rates, one of which is the capacity to obtain an adequate diet once released. Released indiv

  7. Effect of repeated exposures and sociality on novel food acceptance and consumption by orangutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, Madeleine E.; Lameira, Adriano R.; Wich, Serge A.; de Vries, Han; Wahyudi, Rachmad; Shumaker, Robert W.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of rehabilitant great apes have been released into the wild, and thousands await release. However, survival rates after release can be as low as 20 %. Several factors influence individuals' survival rates, one of which is the capacity to obtain an adequate diet once released. Released indiv

  8. Plaadid / Veiko Pesur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesur, Veiko

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Destruction "Thrash Anthems", Big Bang "Essential Selection", Metropolitan Jazz Affair "Bird Of Spring", Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemiline Naiskoor "Nagu puhas mõte", guano Apes "the Best Of", Moby "Go ئ The Very Best Of Moby Remixed"

  9. Two-Year-Old Children but Not Domestic Dogs Understand Communicative Intentions without Language, Gestures, or Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not…

  10. Video Editing: A Service-Learning Assignment in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Yao, Wei-Ru

    2016-01-01

    For most physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, the constraints surrounding the undergraduate curriculum (e.g., number of credit hours, dual content certificates such as health and physical education, content knowledge) limit PETE programs to offering only one course in adapted physical education (APE) with the expectation that this…

  11. Testing UV-filtered ("fat-link") clover fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Hölbling, C; Capitani, Stefano; Durr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We investigate filtered clover fermions, built from fat gauge links, both in one-loop perturbation theory and in numerical simulations. We use a variety of filtering recipes (APE, HYP, EXP, HEX), some of which are suitable for a HMC with dynamical fermions. A generic filtering together with a (fat-link) clover term yields fermions with much reduced chiral symmetry breaking.

  12. Technology adoption and the impact on average productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zeng, D.; Zilberman, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a framework is developed to analyze how the specifications of new technologies and the heterogeneity of micro-units of production affect the input use, the adoption pattern, and the productivity of inputs. It shows that asset-productivity-enhancing (APE) technologies tend to be adopte

  13. Multilingual, like Franz Kafka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the social and cultural dimensions of individual multilingualism by focusing on a semi-autobiographical essay written in 1917 by an author who is usually read as a monolingual German writer but who was, in fact, multilingual and multicultural: Franz Kafka. The story is about an ape who, in order to survive his capture by the…

  14. The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and her Lovert : on the evolution of the human reproductive strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2003-01-01

    Human reproductive strategy differs from that of most other mammals, including Apes such as the closely related chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). For example, humans, although basically polygamic, exhibit a strong tendency to (serial) monogamy and-very rare for a mammal-pro

  15. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains.

  16. Department of Defense Base Closure and Realignment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Fayetteville, Arkansas Fort Smith, Arkansas Pacific Grove, California Macon, Georgia Terre Haute, Indiana Hutchinson, Kansas Monroe, Louisiana New Bedford...the body of this report. 233 Table 1. - ASE CLOSURE AND R&EALIGNMENT RECAP Bumox lam 8mmm Rqm (4m5US& M~ 10 ~MOM ed pomm ") Cbmuk APE. L Phlk Naval Hmp

  17. Usefulness of permutation entropy as an anesthetic depth indicator in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2015-04-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) as a complexity measure has been introduced to monitor anesthetic depth for adult. However, PE has not yet been evaluated for its clinical applicability as an indicator of anesthetic depth in children. Therefore, in order to investigate the validity of PE, we compared PE with BIS using pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling in children. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was obtained from BIS monitor during sevoflurane deepening and lightening protocol. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Etsevo) and BIS were measured simultaneously. PE was calculated from the processed EEG with the scale ranging from 0 to 100. NONMEM software was used to investigate the PD relationship between Etsevo with BIS and PE. Adjusted PE (APE) values were decreased as anesthesia deepened. APE and BIS showed significant linear correlation (P Emax model which describes the relationship between Etsevo and APE/BIS (E o : 78, E max : 17.6, C e50 : 2.5 vol%; γ: 13.1, k eo : 0.47 min(-1) for APE; E o : 89.4; E max : 15.7; C e50 : 2.2 vol%; γ: 6.6, keo: 0.52 min(-1) for BIS). PE seems to be a useful indicator of anesthetic depth, which is comparable to BIS in children.

  18. Análisis de las competencias profesionales en las jefaturas de la Administración pública española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel López Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el grado de importancia que otorgan los funcionarios de la Administración Pública Española (APE a un conjunto de veinte competencias profesionales así como comparar el nivel competencial autoevaluado por sus jefaturas con el de la población de directivos de referencia. Para ello se ha trabajado con una muestra de 613 empleados públicos de la APE compuesta por puestos base y jefaturas y se ha aplicado una metodología de encuestas para la recogida y análisis de datos. Los resultados obtenidos indican, en primer lugar, que las competencias más relevantes para ambos colectivos son la confianza y seguridad en sí mismo, la comunicación y el trabajo en equipo. En segundo lugar, el nivel de relevancia otorgado por los puestos base es, en muchos casos, superior al nivel otorgado por las jefaturas. Finalmente, las jefaturas de la APE muestran un nivel competencial autoevaluado muy por debajo del de la población de directivos de referencia. Este conjunto de resultados aporta información valiosa para la creación de un sistema de gestión integral de los recursos humanos por competencias en la APE.

  19. Integrating gene synthesis and microfluidic protein analysis for rapid protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Matthew C; Petrova, Ekaterina; Correia, Bruno E; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2016-04-20

    The capability to rapidly design proteins with novel functions will have a significant impact on medicine, biotechnology and synthetic biology. Synthetic genes are becoming a commodity, but integrated approaches have yet to be developed that take full advantage of gene synthesis. We developed a solid-phase gene synthesis method based on asymmetric primer extension (APE) and coupled this process directly to high-throughput, on-chip protein expression, purification and characterization (via mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions, MITOMI). By completely circumventing molecular cloning and cell-based steps, APE-MITOMI reduces the time between protein design and quantitative characterization to 3-4 days. With APE-MITOMI we synthesized and characterized over 400 zinc-finger (ZF) transcription factors (TF), showing that although ZF TFs can be readily engineered to recognize a particular DNA sequence, engineering the precise binding energy landscape remains challenging. We also found that it is possible to engineer ZF-DNA affinity precisely and independently of sequence specificity and that in silico modeling can explain some of the observed affinity differences. APE-MITOMI is a generic approach that should facilitate fundamental studies in protein biophysics, and protein design/engineering.

  20. Kreative Nord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Nielsen, Christian; Kanstrup, Anne Marie;

    afspejles i regeringens vækstplan for de kreative og innovative brancher. Et andet område, som ofte er blevet sammenholdt med de kreative og innovative erhverv, er turisme. Indenfor dette område finder vi det tidligere ApeX-initiativ, hvor forskere fra Aalborg Universitet og regionen været særligt synlige...

  1. First hominoid from the Miocene of Ethiopia and the evolution of the catarrhine elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B G; Fleagle, J G; Kappelman, J; Swisher, C C

    1998-03-01

    The first known fossil ape from the early-middle Miocene of Fejej, Ethiopia, is described here. The specimen, FJ-18SB-68, is a partial ulna from a locality dated by 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic methods to a minimum age of 16.18 MYA. Compared to a variety of extant and fossil ulnae, FJ-18SB-68 is most similar to Turkanapithecus, Proconsul, and Pliopithecus, and appears to have been an arboreal quadruped with substantial forearm rotational mobility. Among the extant ulnae, canonical variates analysis successfully discriminates platyrrhines from catarrhines and within the latter, cercopithecoids from hominoids. Basal catarrhines (e.g., Aegyptopithecus) are platyrrhine-like in their morphology. Two basic trends appear to evolve from this generalized template: one with less mobile and more habitually pronated forearms, as seen in living and fossil cercopithecoids (including Victoriapithecus and Paracolobus), and another with greater forearm rotational mobility in fossil and modern hominoids. Primitive Miocene apes, including Proconsul, Turkanapithecus, and FJ-18SB-68, share with extant hominoids a more laterally positioned and laterally facing radial notch and an incipient trochlear keel. This morphology, along with a large insertion area for m. brachialis, suggests a departure from the more habitually pronated hand posture of monkeys and may indicate greater climbing abilities in these arboreally quadrupedal apes. Later Miocene apes, such as Oreopithecus and Dryopithecus share additional morphological features with hominoids, indicating considerable suspensory and climbing capabilities.

  2. Special Education Terminology Every Physical Education Teacher Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Lytle, Rebecca; Arndt, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    An initial step to demonstrate commitment and professional behaviors is to be knowledgeable in the terminology used by special education colleagues, and to share with them common terminology used in physical education settings. Adapted physical education (APE) and general physical education (GPE) teachers need to know terminology used by…

  3. Madonna : Ray of light. Princessa / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1998-01-01

    Plaadiarvustused. : Princessa. Yngvie Malmsteen : Facing the animal. Usher : My way. Cornershop : When I was born for the 7th time. Haddaway : Lets do it now. Black Grape : Stupid stupid stupid. Guano Apes : Proud like a God. Propellerheads : Decksandrumsandrockandroll. Delinquent Habits : Here come the horns. Two : Voyeurs. Eri esitajad : I know what you did last summer. Eri esitajad

  4. Inactivation of Apc perturbs mammary development, but only directly results in acanthoma in the context of Tcf-1 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, RCJ; Hay, T; Meniel, [No Value; Naughton, C; Anderson, TJ; Shibata, H; Ito, M; Clevers, H; Noda, T; Sansom, OJ; Mason, JO; Clarke, AR

    2002-01-01

    Apc (adenomatous polyposis colt) encodes a tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in the majority of colorectal cancers. Recent evidence has also implicated Apc mutations in the aetiology of breast tumours. Ape is a component of the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway, of which one target is T

  5. Fluctuations of a fluid inside a pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Zatovsky, AV

    1997-01-01

    The correlation theory of the thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of compressible viscous fluids within a spherical pore has been developed. The fluctuation motions ape described by the linearized Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations, containing spontaneous viscous stresses and heat fluxes. The e

  6. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely extoll

  7. Repetitively Pulsed Backward-Wave Oscillator Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-31

    and the FE phase by applying a’ Y pulsed electric field , Fig. 1. Sawyer-Tower circuit for displaying (4) partial reversal of P. inside the P-E...at temper- a pulsed electric field to switch the material atures up to the Curie temperature. Tests on into the PE or APE phase. With this combina- a

  8. Effect of non-uniform mean flow field on acoustic propagation problems in computational aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...

  9. Energy and generating mechanism of a subsurface, cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    Computation of available potential energy (APE) of a recently observed cold core, subsurface eddy (centered at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E) in the Bay of Bengal revealed that the energy maxima associated with the eddy was of the order of 1...

  10. A comparison of facial expression properties in five hylobatid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheider, Linda; Liebal, Katja; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne; Waller, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about facial communication of lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) and how their facial expressions (and use of) relate to social organization. We investigated facial expressions (defined as combinations of facial movements) in social interactions of mated pairs in five different hylobat

  11. 信念%BELIEVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dena Dilaconi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Believe in what Nakes you feel good and what hakes you happy. Believe in the dreams you've always wanted to come true, and give then every chance to. If you ape villing to take the opportunities you are given and utilize the abilities you have, you viii constantly fill your lite vith special moments and unforgettable times.

  12. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Divergent Spatial Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can…

  13. Personality in learning and education : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeRaad, B; Schouwenburg, HC

    1996-01-01

    The literature relevant to the combined area of personality and education and learning is summarized, covering almost a century of research and theorizing. Different topics considered important from the aspect of education and learning or from the aspect of personality ape represented. For personali

  14. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  15. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  16. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jürgen

    2011-02-21

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  17. Shock and Awe Pedagogy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Lujan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Galen of Pergamon (130-200 A.D.) was an accomplished showman and scientist who made enormous advancements in the understanding of the heart, nervous system, and mechanics of breathing. These advancements were often achieved during impressive public "performances" of vivisection on Barbary apes and other living animals. These "shock…

  18. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS IN TWO CAPTIVE MANDRILLS (MANDRILLUS SPHINX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Higbie, Christine T; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Haynes, April; Bennett, Suzanne; Klocke, Emily; Carpenter, James W

    2016-06-01

    Endometriosis has been reported in humans, great apes, and Old World monkeys. Although cases are noted anecdotally in Mandrillus spp., and a previously reported case was noted on postmortem examination, to the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of case management have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper describes the medical and surgical management of endometriosis in two mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

  19. Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer. In the...

  20. Mass-tag labeling reveals site-specific and endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Avital; Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Yount, Jacob S; Hang, Howard C

    2016-04-19

    Fatty acylation of cysteine residues provides spatial and temporal control of protein function in cells and regulates important biological pathways in eukaryotes. Although recent methods have improved the detection and proteomic analysis of cysteine fatty (S-fatty) acylated proteins, understanding how specific sites and quantitative levels of this posttranslational modification modulate cellular pathways are still challenging. To analyze the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation in cells, we developed a mass-tag labeling method based on hydroxylamine-sensitivity of thioesters and selective maleimide-modification of cysteines, termed acyl-PEG exchange (APE). We demonstrate that APE enables sensitive detection of protein S-acylation levels and is broadly applicable to different classes of S-palmitoylated membrane proteins. Using APE, we show that endogenous interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 is S-fatty acylated on three cysteine residues and site-specific modification of highly conserved cysteines are crucial for the antiviral activity of this IFN-stimulated immune effector. APE therefore provides a general and sensitive method for analyzing the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation and should facilitate quantitative studies of this regulated and dynamic lipid modification in biological systems.

  1. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  2. Communicating with Hispanic Parents of Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columna, Luis; Senne, Terry A.; Lytle, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The culture of the United States has become increasingly diverse. Teachers, including physical education (PE) and adapted physical education (APE) teachers, often struggle to find ways to communicate with non-English-speaking children and their families. Consequently, some families of children with disabilities are unfamiliar with the benefits and…

  3. Limits of Precision for Human Eye Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    APE (Watt & Andrews, 1981) or a staircase method similar to PEST (Taylor & Creelman , 1967) were used. The results from these different methods of...Freeman StCyr, G.J. & Fender, D.H. (1969) The interplay of drifts and flicks in binocular fixation. Vision Res. 9, 245-265 Taylor, M.M. & Creelman , C.D

  4. Role of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in assessing the prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism%心肌型脂肪酸结合蛋白在急性肺栓塞预后中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾公; 郑泽琪; 王梦洪; 彭景添; 颜琼; 肖坚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the role of heart - type fatty acid - binding protein ( H - FABP) in assessing the prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (APE).Methods The levels of plasma H - FABP, cTnI and D - dimer were determined in 72 patients with APE and 30 healthy controls.The associations between the biomarkers and severe complications were determined by Logistic regression model.Results The levels of D - dimer in the patients with APE were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P < 0.01).The incidence of severe complications was higher in the H FABP positive group of APE than in the H - FABP negative group (66.7% vs 3.5%, P < 0.05).By Logistic regression analysis, elevated H -FABP was associated with a 50.44 -fold increase in the death or complication risk (95% CI 7.40 ~ 342.38, P < 0.001).Conclusion The H - FABP might be a useful biomarker for prediction prognosis of patients with APE.%目的 探讨心肌型脂肪酸结合蛋白(H-FABP)在急性肺栓塞(APE)预后中的作用.方法 检测72例确诊为急性肺栓塞(APE)患者及对照组30例健康受试者血浆H-FABP、心肌肌钙蛋白I(cTnI)、D-二聚体水平.应用Logistic回归模型分析各生化标志物与APE预后的关系.结果 APE组血浆D-二聚体水平较对照组明显增高(P<0.01).APE组中H-FABP阳性组30 d内不良事件发生率高于H-FABP阴性组(66.7% vs 3.5%,P<0.05).Logistic回归分析显示,H-FABP为APE预后的独立危险因素,H-FABP阳性者发生不良事件的危险性是H-FABP阴性者的50.44倍(95%CI 7.40~342.38,P<0.001).结论 H-FABP阳性APE者预后较差,H-FABP可用于APE的危险分层.

  5. CT volumetry of artificial pulmonary nodules using an ex vivo lung phantom: Influence of exposure parameters and iterative reconstruction on reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpütz, Mark O., E-mail: Mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Av de Magellan, 33600 Pessac (France); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wroblewski, Jacek, E-mail: JacekWr@gmx.net [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dinkel, Julien, E-mail: jdinkel@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika, E-mail: Monika.eichinger@thoraxklinik-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data based iterative reconstruction (IR) on the measurement variability of computer-aided nodule volumetry on chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: N = 7 porcine lung explants were inflated in a dedicated ex vivo phantom and prepared with n = 162 artificial nodules. MDCT was performed eight consecutive times (combinations of 120 and 80 kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12 mA s), and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR. Nodule volume and diameter were measured semi-automatically with dedicated software. The absolute percentage measurement error (APE) was computed in relation to the 120 kV 120 mA s acquisition. Noise was recorded for each nodule in every dataset. Results: Mean nodule volume and diameter were 0.32 ± 0.15 ml and 12.0 ± 2.6 mm, respectively. Although IR reduced noise by 24.9% on average compared to FBP (p < 0.007), APE with IR was equal to or slightly higher than with FBP. Mean APE for volume increased significantly below a volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI) of 1.0 mGy: for 120 kV 12 mA s APE was 3.8 ± 6.2% (FBP) vs. 4.0 ± 5.2% (IR) (p < 0.007); for 80 kV 12 mA s APE was 8.0 ± 13.0% vs. 9.3 ± 15.8% (n.s.), respectively. Correlating APE with image noise revealed that at identical noise APE was higher with IR than with FBP (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Computer-aided volumetry is robust in a wide range of exposure settings, and reproducibility is reduced at a CTDI below 1.0 mGy only, but the error rate remains clinically irrelevant. Noise reduction by IR is not detrimental for measurement error in the setting of semi-automatic nodule volumetry on chest MDCT.

  6. Diagnostic reproducibility of the elongated styloid process Reprodutibilidade diagnóstica do alongamento do processo estilóide

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    Gulnara Scaf

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the reproducibility related to the presence and to the measurements of elongated styloid process (ESP, based on panoramic radiographs and the prevalence of ESP. Experimental design: one hundred sixty six panoramic radiographs were used, from edentulous patients from the Radiology Clinic files, at Araraquara Dental School, Unesp, during a four-year period. One hundred and twenty one were female and 45 were male. Two calibrated observers evaluated the radiographs. A caliper was used to measure, in mm, the ESP from the base of the temporal bone to the tip of the structure. The ESP was considered present when the measurements were 30mm or more. Kappa statistics (k and intra-class correlation coefficient (r , were applied to estimate the reproducibility. The results showed that related to the presence of ESP, the interobserver agreement was k =0.85. Related to the measurements of ESP, the interobserver agreement was r =0.52. The prevalence of ESP was estimated in 12.6%. ESP distribution in females was similar to that for males. In conclusion, we found a greater level of agreement when observers evaluated the presence of ESP than when they did the measurement of ESP. The prevalence of ESP was 12.6%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade relacionada à presença e às medidas do alongamento e a prevalência do processo estilóide (APE, utilizando radiografias panorâmicas. Foram utilizadas cento e sessenta e seis radiografias, do arquivo da Clínica de Radiologia, da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Unesp, de pacientes desdentados, atendidos num período de quatro anos. Cento e vinte um pacientes eram do gênero feminino e quarenta e cinco do masculino. Dois examinadores calibrados avaliaram as radiografias. Foi utilizado um paquímetro para medir, em mm, o APE da base do osso temporal à extremidade da estrutura. O APE foi considerado presente quando as medidas ultrapassaram 30 mm. A

  7. Evolutionary genomic remodelling of the human 4q subtelomere (4q35.2

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    Riva Paola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain insights into the functionality of the human 4q35.2 domain harbouring the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD locus, we investigated in African apes genomic and chromatin organisations, and the nuclear topology of orthologous regions. Results A basic block consisting of short D4Z4 arrays (10–15 repeats, 4q35.2 specific sequences, and approximately 35 kb of interspersed repeats from different LINE subfamilies was repeated at least twice in the gorilla 4qter. This genomic organisation has undergone evolutionary remodelling, leading to the single representation of both the D4Z4 array and LINE block in chimpanzee, and the loss of the LINE block in humans. The genomic remodelling has had an impact on 4qter chromatin organisation, but not its interphase nuclear topology. In comparison with humans, African apes show very low or undetectable levels of FRG1 and FRG2 histone 4 acetylation and gene transcription, although histone deacetylase inhibition restores gene transcription to levels comparable with those of human cells, thus indicating that the 4qter region is capable of acquiring a more open chromatin structure. Conversely, as in humans, the 4qter region in African apes has a very peripheral nuclear localisation. Conclusion The 4q subtelomere has undergone substantial genomic changes during evolution that have had an impact on chromatin condensation and the region's transcriptional regulation. Consequently, the 4qter genes in African apes and humans seem to be subjected to a different strategy of regulation in which LINE and D4Z4 sequences may play a pivotal role. However, the effect of peripheral nuclear anchoring of 4qter on these regulation mechanisms is still unclear. The observed differences in the regulation of 4qter gene expression between African apes and humans suggest that the human 4q35.2 locus has acquired a novel functional relevance.

  8. Space use selectivity by chimpanzees and gorillas in an indoor-outdoor enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S R; Calcutt, S; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between physical environments and nonhuman primate behavior is a key element for effective care and management in a range of settings. The physical features of the captive environment, including not only gross useable space but also environmental complexity, can have a significant influence on primate behavior and ultimately, animal welfare. But despite this connection, there remains relatively little conclusive data on how captive primates, especially great apes, use the spaces provided to them, especially in modern, indoor-outdoor enclosures that have become more prevalent in recent years. In this study, we used four years of detailed data on where 23 great apes (chimpanzees and gorillas) positioned themselves within a modern, indoor-outdoor zoo enclosure to determine not only how the apes utilized their space but also how access to outdoor areas affected their spatial selectivity. We found that both species used relatively little of their available space: chimpanzees and gorillas spent half their time in only 3.2 and 1.5% of their useable three-dimensional space, respectively. Chimpanzees utilized the outdoor space more than gorillas, but access to the outdoors did not affect space selectivity in the indoor area for either species. Although both species of ape were highly selective in their space use, consideration should be given to the importance of providing the choice to locate in a variety of spaces, including outdoor areas. These data represent an extremely detailed account of space selectivity by great apes in an indoor-outdoor environment and have substantial implications for future facility design and captive primate management.

  9. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

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    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  10. 恶性肿瘤并发急性肺栓塞的诊疗探讨%Diagnosis and treatment of the malignant tumor complicated with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史菲; 张向霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨恶性肿瘤并发急性肺栓塞患者的诊断及治疗特点.方法 回顾性分析我院26例恶性肿瘤并发急性肺栓塞患者的临床表现、诊断方法及治疗转归.结果 恶性肿瘤并发急性肺栓塞的临床表现不典型,CTPA和核素肺灌注-通气扫描检查是首选的确诊方法,积极的溶栓和/或抗凝治疗可降低病死率.结论 恶性肿瘤并发急性肺栓塞病死率高,易发生误诊.临床医生需加强警惕以预防肺栓塞发生,对于疑似病例应尽早进行积极的诊断与治疗.%Objective To discuss thc characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in malignant tumor complicated with acute pulmonary embolism(APE). Methods TTo analyze retrospectively the clinical features,diagnostic approach and treatment outcomes of 26 cases with malignant tumor complicated with APE. Results The clinical features of the patients with malignant tumor complicated with APE were nonspecific. CTPA and the ventilation/perfusion scan were the first choice of its final diagnosis. Active thrombolytic and/or anticoagulant therapy was effective to decrease the mortality. Conclusion The fatality rate of malignant tumor complicated with APE has very high mortality and tends to be misdiagnosed. Clinicians should be extra alert to prevent APE, and the suspect cases should be given correct diagnosis and aggressive treatment as early as possible.

  11. A cross-species study of gesture and its role in symbolic development: Implications for the gestural theory of language evolution

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    Kristen eGillespie-Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffolded the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child’s symbols were spoken words; the apes’ symbols were lexigrams, noniconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in which gestural representation of a referent preceded symbolic representation of the same referent appeared in all three species (but was statistically significant only for the child. Nonetheless, across species, the ratio of symbol to gesture increased significantly with age. But even though their symbol production increased, the apes continued to communicate more frequently by gesture than by symbol. In contrast, by15-18 months of age, the child used symbols more frequently than gestures. This ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol, present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape, provides support for the role of gesture in language evolution. In all three species, the overwhelming majority of gestures were communicative (paired with eye-contact, vocalization, and/or persistence. However, vocalization was rare for the apes, but accompanied the majority of the child’s communicative gestures. This finding suggests the co-evolution of speech and gesture after the evolutionary divergence of the hominid line. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. This finding suggests that multimodal expression of communicative intent was also strengthened after hominids diverged from apes.

  12. Morphology of the thoracolumbar spine of the middle Miocene hominoid Nacholapithecus kerioi from northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Shimizu, Daisuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Tomo; Ishida, Hidemi

    2015-11-01

    A new caudal thoracic and a new lumbar vertebra of Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene hominoid from northern Kenya, are reported. The caudal thoracic vertebral body of N. kerioi has a rounded median ventral keel and its lateral sides are moderately concave. The lumbar vertebral body has an obvious median ventral keel. Based on a comparison of vertebral body cranial articular surface size between the caudal thoracic vertebrae in the present study and one discussed in a previous study (KNM-BG 35250BO, a diaphragmatic vertebra), N. kerioi has at least two post-diaphragmatic vertebrae (rib-bearing lumbar-type thoracic vertebrae), unlike extant hominoids. It also has thick, rounded, and moderately long metapophyses on the lumbar vertebra that project dorsolaterally. The spinous process bases of its caudal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae originate caudally between the postzygapophyses, as described previously in the KNM-BG 35250 holotype specimen. In other words, the postzygapophyses of N. kerioi do not project below the caudal border of the spinous processes, similar to those of extant great apes, and unlike small apes and monkeys, which have more caudally projecting postzygapophyses. Nacholapithecus kerioi has a craniocaudally expanded spinous process in relation to vertebral body length, also similar to extant great apes. Both these spinous process features of N. kerioi differ from those of Proconsul nyanzae. The caudal thoracic vertebra of N. kerioi has a caudally-directed spinous process, whose tip is tear-drop shaped. These features resemble those of extant apes. The morphology of the spinous process tips presumably helps vertebral stability by closely stacking adjacent spinous process tips as seen in extant hominoids. The morphology of the spinous process and postzygapophyses limits the intervertebral space and contributes to the stability of the functional lumbar region as seen in extant great apes, suggesting that antipronograde activity was included

  13. 多发性创伤患者发生急性肺水肿危险因素及治疗策略分析%Risk Factors and Therapy Strategies of Acute Pulmonary Edema in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一芸; 康焰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors and therapy strategies of acute pulmonary edema (APE) in critically ill patients with multiple trauma.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis with the clinical date of all the critically ill patients with multiple trauma treated in General ICU from Jan.2009 to Jan.2012.We compared the clinical characteristics of the patients with or without onset of APE.The patients with APE were divided into young group (≤55 yr.) or elderly group (>55 yr.),then the clinical data were analyzed between the two groups,includingthe level of hemoglobin (Hb),mean arterial pressure (MAP),central venous pressure (CVP),serum albumin (Alb),as well as complications,liquid balance during 1 week,3 d,1 d before the onset of APE.Results Among the 284 patients with multiple trauma,APE was detected in 47 patients (16.5%) for 68 times,29 (61.7%)in young group and 18 (38.3%) in elderly group.The ratio of acute renal failure (ARF) and systematic infection were significantly higher in the patients with APE (P<0.05).Hb,MAP,CVP,Alb and the ratio of ARF,severe infection,extremity lost were not statistically different (P>0.05) between young and elderly group,while the ratio of primary heart disease was significantly higher in elderly group (P<0.05).The net balance of liquid during 1 week,3 d and 1 d before the onset of APE was significantly higher in young group (P<0.05).Conclusion Mutiple Trauma patients with ARF are prone to encounter APE on the exist of infection and overburden of liquid; young patients tend to develop APE followed by liquid overburden,while elderly patients tend to develop APE because of poor primary heart condition even with more cautious fluid infusion.%目的 通过回顾性分析多发性创伤患者发生急性肺水肿(acute pulmonary edema,APE)的危险因素,为以后的临床实践提供一定参考.方法 对2009年1月至2012年1月间我院综合ICU收治的多发性创伤患者进行回顾性分析,比较未

  14. Comparative primate neurobiology and the evolution of brain language systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-10-01

    Human brain specializations supporting language can be identified by comparing human with non-human primate brains. Comparisons with chimpanzees are critical in this endeavor. Human brains are much larger than non-human primate brains, but human language capabilities cannot be entirely explained by brain size. Human brain specializations that potentially support our capacity for language include firstly, wider cortical minicolumns in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas compared with great apes; secondly, leftward asymmetries in Broca's area volume and Wernicke's area minicolumn width that are not found in great apes; and thirdly, arcuate fasciculus projections beyond Wernicke's area to a region of expanded association cortex in the middle and inferior temporal cortex involved in processing word meaning.

  15. Sampling Trace-Level Organics with Polymeric Tubings. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    linked high density ( XLPE ) 0.43 0.64 0.95 0.16 20 6.3 polyethylene liner in ethyl vinyl acetate shell 0.57 0.64 0.95 0.16 20 6.3 polyethylene liner...60 80 a. Nitrobenzene e. CLB 1.2 I1.2 1 *LOPE 0 LOPE o XLPE WE 1.0 A PE lii=in EVA shell 1.04 A FE lining in EVA shell APE rn linked In EVA shell APE...no loss of analyte for a ene ( XLPE ), and PE cross-linked to an ethyl vinyl given tubing and time. acetate (EVA) shell, it was true for three analytes

  16. The Pleistocene eruptive history of Mount St. Helens, Washington, from 300,000 to 12,800 years before present: Chapter 28 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Evarts, Russell C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of recent geologic mapping and radiometric dating that add considerable detail to our understanding of the eruptive history of Mount St. Helens before its latest, or Spirit Lake, stage. New data and reevaluation of earlier work indicate at least two eruptive periods during the earliest, or Ape Canyon, stage, possibly separated by a long hiatus: one about 300-250 ka and a second about 160–35 ka. Volcanism during this stage included eruption of biotite- and quartz-bearing dacite domes and pyroclastic flows in the area west of and beneath the present-day edifice, accompanied by the deposition of set C tephras. Ape Canyon-stage rocks are compositionally similar to younger Mount St. Helens dacite.

  17. A randomized controlled intervention trial to relieve and prevent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jørgensen, Marie B; Blangsted, Anne Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different workplace interventions on long-term compliance, muscle strength gains, and neck/shoulder pain in office workers. METHODS: A 1-yr randomized controlled intervention trial was done with three groups: specific...... in maximal muscle strength, and changes in intensity of neck/shoulder pain (scale 0-9) in those with and without pain at baseline. RESULTS: Regular participation was achieved by 54%, 31%, and 16% of those of the participants who answered the questionnaire in SRT (78%), APE (81%), and REF (80%), respectively......, during the first half of the intervention period, and decreased to 35%, 28% and 9%, respectively, during the second half. Shoulder elevation strength increased 9-11% in SRT and APE (P pain at baseline decreased the intensity of neck pain through SRT, from 5.0 +/- 0...

  18. Evolutionary relationships of wild hominids recapitulated by gut microbial communities.

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    Howard Ochman

    Full Text Available Multiple factors over the lifetime of an individual, including diet, geography, and physiologic state, will influence the microbial communities within the primate gut. To determine the source of variation in the composition of the microbiota within and among species, we investigated the distal gut microbial communities harbored by great apes, as present in fecal samples recovered within their native ranges. We found that the branching order of host-species phylogenies based on the composition of these microbial communities is completely congruent with the known relationships of the hosts. Although the gut is initially and continuously seeded by bacteria that are acquired from external sources, we establish that over evolutionary timescales, the composition of the gut microbiota among great ape species is phylogenetically conserved and has diverged in a manner consistent with vertical inheritance.

  19. MSCT对急性肺动脉栓塞的诊断价值和GT影像学表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯启龙

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究MSCT对急性肺动脉栓塞(APE)的诊断价值和CT影像学表现.方法:收集临床APE病例15例,用美国GE公司QX/i多层螺旋CT机扫描,分析此类病例CT影像学表现及其对APE的诊断价值.结果:MSCT影像学资料能有效显示APE患者肺动脉栓塞累及的范围和肺动脉栓塞间接征象.结论:MSCT能方便、准确和无创的诊断亚段以上APE,可以作为诊断APE的首选方法.

  20. Deterministic Aided STAP for Target Detection in Heterogeneous Situations

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    J.-F. Degurse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical space-time adaptive processing (STAP detectors are strongly limited when facing highly heterogeneous environments. Indeed, in this case, representative target free data are no longer available. Single dataset algorithms, such as the MLED algorithm, have proved their efficiency in overcoming this problem by only working on primary data. These methods are based on the APES algorithm which removes the useful signal from the covariance matrix. However, a small part of the clutter signal is also removed from the covariance matrix in this operation. Consequently, a degradation of clutter rejection performance is observed. We propose two algorithms that use deterministic aided STAP to overcome this issue of the single dataset APES method. The results on realistic simulated data and real data show that these methods outperform traditional single dataset methods in detection and in clutter rejection.