WorldWideScience

Sample records for apes

  1. Darwin's apes and "savages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Contreras, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Since his visit to Tierra del Fuego in the 1830s, Darwin had been fascinated by the "savages" that succeeded in surviving on such a "broken beach", and because they were certainly similar in behaviour to our ancestors. However, he was also fascinated by baboons' behaviour, according to Brehm's accounts: hamadryas baboons showed a strong altruism to the point of risking their own lives in order to save their infants from attack by dogs. In 1871, he mentions he would rather have descended from brave baboons than from "savages", considered egoistic. We study the two sources of these ideas and try to show how Darwin's comparative reflections on apes and "savages" made him the first evolutionist anthropologist. PMID:20338533

  2. Status of the apeNEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Boucaud, P; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Pietri, R; Renzo, F D; Errico, W; Fucci, A; Guagnelli, M; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; De Luca, S; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Petronzio, Roberto; Palombi, Filippo; Pleiter, D; Paschedag, N; Rapuano, F; De Riso, P; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01755-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  3. The apeNEXT project (Status report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Luca, S; De Pietri, R; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Paschedag, N; Pleiter, D; Pène, O; Rapuano, F; Renzo, F D; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  4. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    element linear transducer array. When imaging two closely spaced point targets, APES displays nearly the same resolution as the MV, and at the same time improved amplitude control. When imaging cysts in speckle, APES offers speckle statistics similar to that of the DAS, without the need for temporal...

  5. APE1/Ref-1: versatility in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-03-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Over the past decade and a half, knowledge of the biological functions, interactions, mechanisms of action, and regulation of the protein APE1/Ref-1 has grown exponentially. The multifunctional nature of APE1/Ref-1 is uncovering and has been extensively studied in the cellular response against oxidative stress. Recent evidence shows a biological role of APE1/Ref-1 can be modulated by the different post-translational modification. Because of APE1/Ref-1 importance to genomic stability and cell survival, APE1/Ref-1 is focused as the leading therapeutic target molecule for the oxidative stress condition or pathologic conditions such as cancer. This forum, dedicated to APE1/Ref-1, provides ample testimony that even though we have learned a great deal about APE1/Ref-1 over the past 15-plus years, our knowledge still constitutes the tip of the iceberg when it comes to understanding this versatile protein.

  6. Apes in the Anthropocene: flexibility and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R; Carvalho, Susana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Bobe, René; Byrne, Richard W; Dunbar, Robin I M; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; McGrew, William C; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Wilson, Michael L; Wood, Bernard; Wrangham, Richard W; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    We are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, and research into our closest living relatives, the great apes, must keep pace with the rate that our species is driving change. While a goal of many studies is to understand how great apes behave in natural contexts, the impact of human activities must increasingly be taken into account. This is both a challenge and an opportunity, which can importantly inform research in three diverse fields: cognition, human evolution, and conservation. No long-term great ape research site is wholly unaffected by human influence, but research at those that are especially affected by human activity is particularly important for ensuring that our great ape kin survive the Anthropocene. PMID:25766059

  7. Apes produce tools for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that some animal species are able to plan for the future. For example great apes save and exchange tools for future use. Here we raise the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use. Subjects only had access to a baited apparatus for a limited duration and therefore should use the time preceding this access to create the appropriate tools in order to get the rewards. The apes were tested in three conditions depending on the need for pre-prepared tools. Either eight tools, one tool or no tools were needed to retrieve the reward. The apes prepared tools in advance for future use and they produced them mainly in conditions when they were really needed. The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible. However, for the condition in which eight tools were needed, apes produced less than two tools per trial in advance. However, they used their chance to produce additional tools in the tool use phase-thus often obtaining most of the reward from the apparatus. Increased pressure to prepare more tools in advance did not have an effect on their performance. PMID:25236323

  8. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.;

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central....../eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost...

  9. Apes save tools for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Call, Josep

    2006-05-19

    Planning for future needs, not just current ones, is one of the most formidable human cognitive achievements. Whether this skill is a uniquely human adaptation is a controversial issue. In a study we conducted, bonobos and orangutans selected, transported, and saved appropriate tools above baseline levels to use them 1 hour later (experiment 1). Experiment 2 extended these results to a 14-hour delay between collecting and using the tools. Experiment 3 showed that seeing the apparatus during tool selection was not necessary to succeed. These findings suggest that the precursor skills for planning for the future evolved in great apes before 14 million years ago, when all extant great ape species shared a common ancestor. PMID:16709782

  10. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  11. Unilateral ureteral obstruction induces DNA repair by APE1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Maria Diget; Norregaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Marie Louise V;

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction is associated with oxidative stress and fibrosis development of the kidney parenchyma. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease I (APE1) is an essential DNA repair enzyme for repair of oxidative DNA lesions and regulates several transcription factors. The aim of this study was to...... inner medulla (IM). In contrast, APE1 protein level was not regulated in IM and ISOM and only slightly increased in cortex. APE1 DNA repair activity was not significantly changed. A different pattern of regulation was observed after 7 days UUO with APE1 mRNA increase in cortex but not in ISOM and IM....... APE1 protein level in cortex, ISOM and IM increased significantly. Importantly, we observed a significant increase in APE1 DNA repair activity in cortex and IM. To confirm our model we investigated HO-1, collagen I, fibronectin I, and α-SMA levels. In vitro we found the transcriptional regulatory...

  12. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  13. The cognitive underpinnings of flexible tool use in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates perform poorly in trap tasks, a benchmark test of causal knowledge in nonhuman animals. However, recent evidence suggests that when the confound of tool use is avoided, great apes' performance improves dramatically. In the present study, we examined the cognitive underpinnings of tool use that contribute to apes' poor performance in trap tasks. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo abelii) with different versions of a maze-like multilevel trap task. We manipulated whether the apes had to use their fingers or a stick to negotiate a reward through the maze. Furthermore, we varied whether the apes obtained visual information about the functionality of the traps (i.e., blockage of free passage) or only arbitrary color stimuli indicating the location of the traps. We found that (a) apes in the finger-maze task outperformed apes in the tool-use-maze task (and partially planned their moves multiple steps ahead), and (b) tool-using apes failed to learn to avoid the traps and performed similar to apes that did not obtain functional information about the traps. Follow-up experiments with apes that already learned to avoid the traps showed that tool use or the color cues per se did not pose a problem for experienced apes. These results suggest that simultaneously monitoring 2 spatial relations (the tool-reward and reward-surface relation) might overstrain apes' cognitive system. Thus, trap tasks involving tool use might constitute a dual task loading on the same cognitive resources; a candidate for these shared resources is the attentional system. PMID:25545978

  14. How great is great ape foresight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Corballis, Michael C; Collier-Baker, Emma

    2009-09-01

    Osvath and Osvath (Anim Cogn 11: 661-674, 2008) report innovative studies with two chimpanzees and one orangutan that suggest some capacity to select and keep a tool for use about an hour later. This is a welcome contribution to a small, but rapidly growing, field. Here we point out some of the weaknesses in the current data and caution the interpretation the authors advance. It is not clear to what extent the apes really engaged in any foresight in these studies. PMID:19565281

  15. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  16. Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bearzi, M.; Stanford, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Dolphins and African apes are distantly related mammalian taxa that exhibit striking convergences in their socioecology. In both cetaceans and African apes, two or more closely related species sometimes occur in sympatry. However, detailed reviews of the ways in which sympatric associations of dolph

  17. Urinary APE1/Ref-1: A Potential Bladder Cancer Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Song, Ki Hak; Na, Yong Gil; Chang, Seok Jong; Lim, Jae Sung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urothelial cancers with still noticeable incidence rate. Early detection of BCa is highly correlated with successful therapeutic outcomes. We previously showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) was expressed at an increased level in the serum of BCa patients when compared to the level in healthy controls. In this study, we investigated whether urinary APE1/Ref-1 was also elevated in patients with BCa. In this case-control study, voided urine was collected from 277 subjects including 169 BCa patients and 108 non-BCa controls. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). APE1/Ref-1 levels were significantly elevated in BCa patients relative to levels in non-BCa controls and were correlated with tumor grade and stage. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels were also higher in patients with recurrence history of BCa. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of APE1/Ref-1 showed an area under the curve of 0.83, indicating the reliability and validity of this biomarker. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was determined to be 82% and 80% at a cut-off value of 0.376 ng/100 μL for detection of APE1/Ref-1 in urine. In conclusion, urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels measured from noninvasively obtained body fluids would be clinically applicable for diagnosis of BCa.

  18. Apes have culture but may not know that they do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud eGruber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence that some ape behaviours can be transmitted socially and that this can lead to group-specific traditions. However, many consider animal traditions, including those in great apes, to be fundamentally different from human cultures, largely because of lack of evidence for cumulative processes and normative conformity, but perhaps also because current research on ape culture is usually restricted to behavioural comparisons. Here, we propose to analyse ape culture not only at the surface behavioural level but also at the underlying cognitive level. To this end, we integrate empirical findings in apes with theoretical frameworks developed in developmental psychology regarding the representation of tools and the development of metarepresentational abilities, to characterise the differences between ape and human cultures at the cognitive level. Current data are consistent with the notion of apes possessing mental representations of tools that can be accessed through re-representations: apes may reorganise their knowledge of tools in the form of categories or functional schemes. However, we find no evidence for metarepresentations of cultural knowledge: apes may not understand that they or others hold beliefs about their cultures. The resulting Jourdain Hypothesis, based on Molière’s character, argues that apes express their cultures without knowing that they are cultural beings because of cognitive limitations in their ability to represent knowledge, a determining feature of modern human cultures, allowing representing and modifying the current norms of the group. Differences in metarepresentational processes may thus explain fundamental differences between human and other animals’ cultures, notably limitations in cumulative behaviour and normative conformity. Future empirical work should focus on how animals mentally represent their cultural knowledge to conclusively determine the ways by which humans are unique in their

  19. Were Australopithecines Ape-Human Intermediates or Just Apes? A Test of Both Hypotheses Using the "Lucy" Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Mainstream scientists often claim that australopithecines such as the specimen nicknamed "Lucy" exhibit anatomy intermediate between that of apes and that of humans and use this as evidence that humans evolved from australopithecines, which evolved from apes. On the other hand, creationists reject evolution and claim that australopithecines are…

  20. APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey;

    2015-01-01

    The domain of lightweight cryptography focuses on cryptographic algorithms for extremely constrained devices. It is very costly to avoid nonce reuse in such environments, because this requires either a hardware source of randomness, or non-volatile memory to store a counter. At the same time, a lot....... To decrypt, APE processes the ciphertext blocks in reverse order, and uses inverse permutation calls. APE therefore requires a permutation that is both efficient for forward and inverse calls. We instantiate APE with the permutations of three recent lightweight hash function designs: Quark, Photon...

  1. Going Ape as an Approach to Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Aditi; Fishel, Melissa L.; Kelley, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    The DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway repairs alkylation and oxidative DNA damage caused by endogenous and exogenous agents, including chemotherapeutic agents. Upon removal of the damaged base AP endonuclease 1 (Ape1), a critical component of the pathway cleaves the abasic site to facilitate repair. Ape1 is a multifunctional protein which plays a role not only in DNA repair but it also functions as a reduction–oxidation factor, known as Ref-1 in the literature, to increase the DNA bindin...

  2. What's Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes' imitation skills, a "best case scenario" of non-human apes' imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object-object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes-including imitation-specific training-further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species' dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors. PMID:27399786

  3. Drug-resistant human Staphylococcus aureus in sanctuary apes pose a threat to endangered wild ape populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Mugisha, Lawrence; Peck, Bruce; Becker, Karsten; Gillespie, Thomas R; Peters, Georg; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2012-12-01

    Reintroduction of sanctuary apes to natural habitat is considered an important tool for conservation; however, reintroduction has the potential to endanger resident wild apes through the introduction of human pathogens. We found a high prevalence of drug-resistant, human-associated lineages of Staphylococcus aureus in sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from Zambia and Uganda. This pathogen is associated with skin and soft tissue diseases and severe invasive infections (i.e. pneumonia and septicemia). Colonization by this bacterium is difficult to clear due to frequent recolonization. In addition to its pathogenic potential, human-related S. aureus can serve as an indicator organism for the transmission of other potential pathogens like pneumococci or mycobacteria. Plans to reintroduce sanctuary apes should be reevaluated in light of the high risk of introducing human-adapted S. aureus into wild ape populations where treatment is impossible. PMID:22907634

  4. Language comprehension in ape and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Murphy, J; Sevcik, R A; Brakke, K E; Williams, S L; Rumbaugh, D M

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations of the linguistic capacities of apes have focused on the ape's ability to produce words, and there has been little concern for comprehension. By contrast, it is increasingly recognized that comprehension precedes production in the language development of normal human children, and it may indeed guide production. It has been demonstrated that some species can process speech sounds categorically in a manner similar to that observed in humans. Consequently, it should be possible for such species to comprehend language if they have the cognitive capacity to understand word-referent relations and syntactic structure. Popular theories of human language acquisition suggest that the ability to process syntactic information is unique to humans and reflects a novel biological adaptation not seen in other animals. The current report addresses this issue through systematic experimental comparisons of the language comprehension skills of a 2-year-old child and an 8 year-old bonobo (Pan paniscus) who was raised in a language environment similar to that in which children are raised but specifically modified to be appropriate for an ape. Both subjects (child and bonobo) were exposed to spoken English and lexigrams from infancy, and neither was trained to comprehend speech. A common caretaker participated in the rearing of both subjects. All language acquisition was through observational learning. Without prior training, subjects were asked to respond to the same 660 novel sentences. All responses were videotaped and scored for accuracy of comprehension of the English language. The results indicated that both subjects comprehended novel requests and simple syntactic devices. The bonobo decoded the syntactic device of word recursion with higher accuracy than the child; however, the child tended to do better than the bonobo on the conjunctive, a structure that places a greater burden on short-term memory. Both subjects performed as well on sentences that

  5. Are apes essentialists? Scope and limits of psychological essentialism in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, Trix; Hrubesch, Christine; Call, Josep; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    Human reasoning is characterized by psychological essentialism (Gelman in The essential child: origins of essentialism in everyday thought. Oxford University Press, New York, 2003): when reasoning about objects, we distinguish between deep essential properties defining the object's kind and identity, and merely superficial features that can be changed without altering the object's identity. To date, it is unclear whether psychological essentialism is based on the acquisition of linguistic means (such as kind terms) and therefore uniquely human, or whether it is a more fundamental cognitive capacity which might be present also in the absence of language. In the present study, we addressed this question by testing whether, and if so, under which circumstances non-human apes also rely on psychological essentialism to identify objects. For this purpose, we adapted classical verbal transformation scenarios used in research on psychological essentialism (Keil in Concepts, kinds, and cognitive development. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1989) and implemented them in two nonverbal tasks: first, a box task, typically used to test object individuation (Experiment 1), and second, an object choice task, typically used to test object discrimination, object preferences and logical inferences (Experiments 2-4). Taken together, the results of the four experiments suggest that under suitable circumstances (when memory and other task demands are minimized), great apes engage in basic forms of essentialist reasoning. Psychological essentialism is thus possible also in the absence of language. PMID:27142417

  6. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  7. A new approach for monitoring ebolavirus in wild great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E Reed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Africa is a "hotspot" for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs of global and local importance, and a current outbreak of ebolavirus is affecting multiple countries simultaneously. Ebolavirus is suspected to have caused recent declines in resident great apes. While ebolavirus vaccines have been proposed as an intervention to protect apes, their effectiveness would be improved if we could diagnostically confirm Ebola virus disease (EVD as the cause of die-offs, establish ebolavirus geographical distribution, identify immunologically naïve populations, and determine whether apes survive virus exposure.Here we report the first successful noninvasive detection of antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV from wild ape feces. Using this method, we have been able to identify gorillas with antibodies to EBOV with an overall prevalence rate reaching 10% on average, demonstrating that EBOV exposure or infection is not uniformly lethal in this species. Furthermore, evidence of antibodies was identified in gorillas thought previously to be unexposed to EBOV (protected from exposure by rivers as topological barriers of transmission.Our new approach will contribute to a strategy to protect apes from future EBOV infections by early detection of increased incidence of exposure, by identifying immunologically naïve at-risk populations as potential targets for vaccination, and by providing a means to track vaccine efficacy if such intervention is deemed appropriate. Finally, since human EVD is linked to contact with infected wildlife carcasses, efforts aimed at identifying great ape outbreaks could have a profound impact on public health in local communities, where EBOV causes case-fatality rates of up to 88%.

  8. Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Bania, Amanda;

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable scientific debate. Here, we examined handedness for coordinated bimanual actions in a sample of 777 great apes including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans. We found population...

  9. Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Irani, Kaikobad [Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jeon, Byeong Hwa, E-mail: bhjeon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Trichostatin A (TSA) increased APE1/Ref-1 secretion in HEK293 cells. •Lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R) was not secreted by TSA. •TSA induced cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. •APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation. -- Abstract: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 μM). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.

  10. Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Irani, Kaikobad; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 μM). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.

  11. The role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Yang, Sun; Misner, Bobbye J; Liu-Smith, Feng; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a third of the estimated cancer-caused deaths worldwide. To deeply understand the mechanisms controlling HCC progression is of primary importance to develop new approaches for treatment. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox effector factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) has been uncovered elevated in various types of cancer, including HCC. Additionally, HCC progression is always correlated with elevated copper (Cu). Our previous data demonstrated that Cu treatment initiated APE/Ref-1 expression and its downstream targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that APE/Ref-1 may be involved in HCC progression through mediating the effect of Cu to its signaling cascades. Following different treatments, human HCC cell line (Hep3B) and immortalized non-malignant hepatocyte cell line (THLE3) were analyzed to explore the role of APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway. Unstained human tissue microarrays (TMA) were subjected to IHC analysis to study the relationship between APE/Ref-1 expression and clinic features. APE/Ref-1 was upregulated in HCC cells consistent with the strong expression of APE/Ref-1 in HCC tissue microarray. Greater cytoplasmic accumulation of APE/Ref-1 was found in poorly differentiated and more aggressive tumors. Also we provide evidence to show that APE/Ref-1 signaling pathway stimulates cellular proliferation, enhances anti-apoptosis, and facilitates metastasis through experimental knockdown of APE/Ref-1 using siRNA in Hep3B cells or overexpressing APE/Ref-1 in THLE3 cells. These results define a novel role of APE/Ref-1 in HCC progression as being an important mediating and potentiating molecule, and also provide a basis for further investigations utilizing appropriate APE/Ref-1 inhibitors in combination with chemo-drugs for HCC treatment.

  12. Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R Alan; Gnerre, Sante; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Huddleston, John; Meyer, Thomas J; Herrero, Javier; Roos, Christian; Aken, Bronwen; Anaclerio, Fabio; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Baker, Carl; Barrell, Daniel; Batzer, Mark A; Beal, Kathryn; Blancher, Antoine; Bohrson, Craig L; Brameier, Markus; Campbell, Michael S; Capozzi, Oronzo; Casola, Claudio; Chiatante, Giorgia; Cree, Andrew; Damert, Annette; de Jong, Pieter J; Dumas, Laura; Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos; Flicek, Paul; Fuchs, Nina V; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Hahn, Matthew W; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hubley, Robert; Ianc, Bianca; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Jablonski, Nina G; Johnstone, Laurel M; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Konkel, Miriam K; Kostka, Dennis; Lazar, Nathan H; Lee, Sandra L; Lewis, Lora R; Liu, Yue; Locke, Devin P; Mallick, Swapan; Mendez, Fernando L; Muffato, Matthieu; Nazareth, Lynne V; Nevonen, Kimberly A; O'Bleness, Majesta; Ochis, Cornelia; Odom, Duncan T; Pollard, Katherine S; Quilez, Javier; Reich, David; Rocchi, Mariano; Schumann, Gerald G; Searle, Stephen; Sikela, James M; Skollar, Gabriella; Smit, Arian; Sonmez, Kemal; ten Hallers, Boudewijn; Terhune, Elizabeth; Thomas, Gregg W C; Ullmer, Brygg; Ventura, Mario; Walker, Jerilyn A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Walter, Lutz; Ward, Michelle C; Wheelan, Sarah J; Whelan, Christopher W; White, Simon; Wilhelm, Larry J; Woerner, August E; Yandell, Mark; Zhu, Baoli; Hammer, Michael F; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; Fulton, Lucinda; Fronick, Catrina; Muzny, Donna M; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wilson, Richard K; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-09-11

    Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation ∼5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat.

  13. Food neophobia and social learning opportunities in great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Erik; Saint Jalme, Michel; Bomsel, Marie-claude; Krief, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Finding food resources and maintaining a balanced diet are major concerns for all animals. A compromise between neophobia and neophilia is hypothesised to enable animals to enlarge their diet while limiting the risk of poisoning. However, little is known about how primates respond to novel food items and whether their use is socially transmitted. By comparing how four different species of great apes respond to novel food items, we investigated how differences in physiology (digestive tract si...

  14. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26828200

  15. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ontogeny of body size variation in African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Shea, B T

    1996-01-01

    Size variation in African apes (Gorilla gorilla [gorilla], Pan paniscus [pygmy chimpanzee], and Pan troglodytes ["common" chimpanzee]) is substantial, both within and between species. We investigate the possible evolutionary significance of this variation through an analysis of the ontogeny of size variation in this group. In addition, we highlight possible areas of future endocrinological research, and evaluate recently proposed alternative models that attempt to account for ontogenetic variation in apes. The present study shows that intergeneric variation in size is largely a consequence of differences among species in the rate of body weight growth. Interspecific size variation in Pan is a product of both rate and duration differences in growth. The ontogenetic bases of sexual dimorphism vary in this group. Dimorphism is largely a result of sex differences in the duration of body weight growth in gorillas and pygmy chimpanzees, but results from differences in the rate of growth in common chimpanzees. Ontogenetic analyses largely confirm earlier interpretations, but with better data and methods. The great degree of ontogenetic variation within and among these species, especially in the timing and magnitude of "pubertal" growth spurts, implies that studies of endocrine growth control in African apes could be a productive line of future research. We also suggest that ontogenetic variation can be understood with respect to ecological risks. Growth rates seem to be negatively correlated with ecological risk in African apes, suggesting links between ontogenetic patterns and social and ecological variables. High growth rates in gorillas compared to Pan are most consistent with this model. Variation between chimpanzees and pygmy chimpanzees (especially females) also seem to fit predictions of this model. PMID:8928723

  17. Chromosomes and the origins of Apes and Australopithecines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaline, Jean; DURAND, Alain; Marchand, Didier; Dambricourt Malassé, Anne; Deshayes, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of molecular data suggests that the higher apes (Gorilla, Pan) and humankind (Homo) are closely related and that they diverged from the common ancestor through two speciation events situated very closely together in time. Examination of the chromosomal formulas of the living species reveals a paradox on the distribution of mutated chromosomes which can only be re-solved by a model of trichotomic diversification. This new model of divergence from the common ancestor is characterized...

  18. Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes

    OpenAIRE

    Larremore, Daniel B.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Liu, Weimin; Proto, William R.; Clauset, Aaron; Loy, Dorothy E.; Speede, Sheri; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Rayner, Julian C.; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2015-01-01

    Antigens encoded by the var gene family are major virulence factors of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, exhibiting enormous intra- and interstrain diversity. Here we use network analysis to show that var architecture and mosaicism are conserved at multiple levels across the Laverania subgenus, based on var-like sequences from eight single-species and three multi-species Plasmodium infections of wild-living or sanctuary African apes. Using select whole-genome amplification, we...

  19. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  20. apeNEXT: A multi-TFlops Computer for Simulations in Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Carlo, F D; De Pietri, R; Renzo, F D; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Lukyanov, M; De Luca, S; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Pleiter, D; Paschedag, N; Rapuano, F; Sartori, L; Schifano, F; Simma, H; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P; Boucaud, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We present the APE (Array Processor Experiment) project for the development of dedicated parallel computers for numerical simulations in lattice gauge theories. While APEmille is a production machine in today's physics simulations at various sites in Europe, a new machine, apeNEXT, is currently being developed to provide multi-Tflops computing performance. Like previous APE machines, the new supercomputer is largely custom designed and specifically optimized for simulations of Lattice QCD.

  1. An Analysis of The Hairy Ape from the Perspective of Trauma Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-hui

    2015-01-01

    The Hairy Ape is a representative play of Eugene O’Neill that distinguishes collective trauma of mechanization and ma⁃terialism in the 20th century of America. Till now, there have not been any thesis discussing The Hairy Ape from the perspective of trauma theory. And the studies of other works on trauma theory is also not many. Based on trauma theory, this thesis makes a decoding in The Hairy Ape.

  2. Effect of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu Polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 Expression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that genetic variation in base excision repair (BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. Thus, we evaluated the influence of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 expression in normal and tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer. The results indicate a downregulation of OGG1 and an upregulation of XRCC1 expression in tumor tissue. Regarding the anatomical location of APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1, a decrease in gene expression was observed among patients with cancer in the rectum. In patients with or without some degree of tumor invasion, a significant downregulation in OGG1 was observed in tumor tissue. Interestingly, when taking into account the tumor stage, patients with more advanced grades (III and IV showed a significant repression for APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1. XRCC1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in tumor samples and were correlated with all clinical and histopathological data. Concerning the polymorphism T2197G, GG genotype carriers exhibited a significantly reduced expression of genes of the BER repair system (APE1, XRCC1 and PARP1. In summary, our data show that patients with colorectal cancer present expression changes in several BER genes, suggesting a role for APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 and APE1 polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. APE1/Ref-1 regulates STAT3 transcriptional activity and APE1/Ref-1-STAT3 dual-targeting effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Angelo A; Jiang, Yanlin; Luo, Meihua; Reed, April M; Shahda, Safi; He, Ying; Maitra, Anirban; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a largely incurable disease, and increasing evidence supports strategies targeting multiple molecular mediators of critical functions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Intracellular redox state modulates the activity of various signal transduction pathways and biological processes, including cell survival, drug resistance and responsiveness to microenvironmental factors. Recently, it has been shown that the transcription factor STAT3 is under redox control, but the mechanisms involved in its regulation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by the redox function of the APE1/Ref-1 endonuclease, using overexpression and redox-specific mutational strategies, and gene knockdown. Also, pharmacological blockade of APE1/Ref-1 by the redox-selective inhibitor E3330 abrogates STAT3 DNA binding. Since APE1/Ref-1 also exerts redox control on other cancer-associated transcription factors, we assessed the impact of dual-targeting of STAT3 signaling and APE1/Ref-1 redox on pancreatic cancer cell functions. We observed that disruption of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity synergizes with STAT3 blockade to potently inhibit the proliferation and viability of human PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we show that STAT3-APE1/Ref-1 dual targeting promotes marked tumor cell apoptosis, with engagement of caspase-3 signaling, which are significantly increased in comparison to the effects triggered by single target blockade. Also, we show that STAT3-APE1/Ref-1 dual blockade results in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration. Overall, this work demonstrates that the transcriptional activity of STAT3 is directly regulated by the redox function of APE1/Ref-1, and that concurrent blockade of STAT3 and APE1/Ref-1 redox synergize effectively inhibit critical PDAC cell functions.

  4. Estimation of African apes' body size from postcranial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Markku; Junno, Juho-Antti

    2009-07-01

    We examine how African apes' postcranial skeletal dimensions and their combinations are related to body size, as represented by trunk volume, within sex-specific samples of a total of 39 central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and 34 western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We examine this relationship by determining the strength of the correlation between selected skeletal dimensions and trunk volume. The findings indicate that sex should be taken into account when possible. Most two-predictor models perform better than most single-predictor models. Interspecific regressions based on log-transformed variables and sex/species-specific regression based on raw variables perform about equally well. PMID:19221857

  5. Masticatory form and function in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B

    2002-02-01

    This study examines variability in masticatory morphology as a function of dietary preference among the African apes. The African apes differ in the degree to which they consume leaves and other fibrous vegetation. Gorilla gorilla beringei, the eastern mountain gorilla, consumes the most restricted diet comprised of mechanically resistant foods such as leaves, pith, bark, and bamboo. Gorilla gorilla gorilla, the western lowland gorilla subspecies, consumes leaves and other terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) but also consumes a fair amount of ripe, fleshy fruit. In contrast to gorillas, chimpanzees are frugivores and rely on vegetation primarily as fallback foods. However, there has been a long-standing debate regarding whether Pan paniscus, the pygmy chimpanzee (or bonobo), consumes greater quantities of THV as compared to Pan troglodytes, the common chimpanzee. Because consumption of resistant foods involves more daily chewing cycles and may require larger average bite force, the mechanical demands placed on the masticatory system are expected to be greater in folivores as compared to primates that consume large quantities of fleshy fruit. Therefore, more folivorous taxa are predicted to exhibit features that improve load-resistance capabilities and increase force production. To test this hypothesis, jaw and skull dimensions were compared in ontogenetic series of G. g. beringei, G. g. gorilla, P. t. troglodytes, and P. paniscus. Controlling for the influence of allometry, results show that compared to both chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas exhibit some features of the jaw complex that are suggestive of improved masticatory efficiency. For example, compared to all other taxa, G. g. beringei has a significantly wider mandibular corpus and symphysis, larger area for the masseter muscle, higher mandibular ramus, and higher mandibular condyle relative to the occlusal plane of the mandible. However, the significantly wider mandibular symphysis may be an

  6. The construction of Masculinity in Tarzan of the Apes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贇

    2008-01-01

    Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar R Burroughs is a notorious exemplar of both racist and sexist rhapsody. A veteran writer, Burroughs creates his macho hero with precise choice-wording and heart-throbbing suspense, presenting the turn-of-the-century hegemonic ideals of masculinity stemming from the notion of white supremacy twinned with primitive savagery. To understand the aim of constructing such a larger-than-life figure, we will take a look at the male body first, then analyze the ego, finally inspect the noble heart and civilized demeanor which are the essence of its spirit.

  7. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes. PMID:21158624

  8. Ape1/Ref-1 Stimulates GDNF/GFRalpha1-mediated Downstream Signaling and Neuroblastoma Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Young; Kim, Kweon Young; Yoon, Young; Kang, Yoonsung; Kim, Hong Beum; Youn, Cha Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hui; Kim, Mi-Hwa

    2009-10-01

    We previously reported that glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) is a direct target of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1). In the present study, we further analyzed the physiological roles of Ape1/Ref-1-induced GFRalpha1 expression in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. Ape1/Ref-1 expression caused the clustering of GFRalpha1 immunoreactivity in lipid rafts in response to GDNF. We also found that Ret, a downstream target of GFRalpha1, was functionally activated by GDNF in Ape1/Ref-1-expressing cells. Moreover, GDNF promoted the proliferation of Ape1/Ref-1-expressing Neuro2a cells. Furthermore, GFRalpha1-specific RNA experiments demonstrated that the downregulation of GFRalpha1 by siRNA in Ape1/Ref-1-expressing cells impaired the ability of GDNF to phosphorylate Akt and PLCgamma-1 and to stimulate cellular proliferation. These results show an association between Ape1/Ref-1 and GDNF/GFRalpha signaling, and suggest a potential molecular mechanism for the involvement of Ape1/Ref-1 in neuronal proliferation.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of APE1/Ref-1 as a Therapeutic Target Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 functions in the DNA base excision repair pathway, the redox regulation of several transcription factors, and the control of intracellular redox status through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. APE1/Ref-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus; however, its subcellular localization is dynamically regulated and it may be found in the mitochondria or elsewhere in the cytoplasm. Studies have identified a nuclear localization signal and a mitochondrial target sequence in APE1/Ref-1, as well as the involvement of the nuclear export system, as determinants of APE1/Ref-1 subcellular distribution. Recently, it was shown that APE1/Ref-1 is secreted in response to hyperacetylation at specific lysine residues. Additionally, post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, S-nitrosation, and ubiquitination appear to play a role in fine-tuning the activities and subcellular localization of APE1/Ref-1. In this review, we will introduce the multifunctional role of APE1/Ref-1 and its potential usefulness as a therapeutic target in cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  10. The role of APE/Ref-1 in oxidative stress injury%APE/Ref-1在氧化应激损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建宏; 吴丽颖; 朱玲玲; 范明

    2009-01-01

    APE/Ref-1是一个在体内广泛分布的多功能蛋白质,在DNA碱基切除修复、细胞信号转导、转录因子的氧化还原和活性氧簇(ROS)的调控等多个重要生物学过程中发挥着重要作用.本文综合近几年国内外的众多文献,从APE/Ref-1的结构、分布、功能入手,综述了APE/Ref-1的各种功能和作用机制,重点阐述了APE/Ref-1在氧化应激损伤中的作用.

  11. Lucanthone and its derivative hycanthone inhibit apurinic endonuclease-1 (APE1 by direct protein binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta D Naidu

    Full Text Available Lucanthone and hycanthone are thioxanthenone DNA intercalators used in the 1980s as antitumor agents. Lucanthone is in Phase I clinical trial, whereas hycanthone was pulled out of Phase II trials. Their potential mechanism of action includes DNA intercalation, inhibition of nucleic acid biosyntheses, and inhibition of enzymes like topoisomerases and the dual function base excision repair enzyme apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1. Lucanthone inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity. Our goal was to decipher the precise mechanism of APE1 inhibition as a prerequisite towards development of improved therapeutics that can counteract higher APE1 activity often seen in tumors. The IC(50 values for inhibition of APE1 incision of depurinated plasmid DNA by lucanthone and hycanthone were 5 µM and 80 nM, respectively. The K(D values (affinity constants for APE1, as determined by BIACORE binding studies, were 89 nM for lucanthone/10 nM for hycanthone. APE1 structures reveal a hydrophobic pocket where hydrophobic small molecules like thioxanthenones can bind, and our modeling studies confirmed such docking. Circular dichroism spectra uncovered change in the helical structure of APE1 in the presence of lucanthone/hycanthone, and notably, this effect was decreased (Phe266Ala or Phe266Cys or Trp280Leu or abolished (Phe266Ala/Trp280Ala when hydrophobic site mutants were employed. Reduced inhibition by lucanthone of the diminished endonuclease activity of hydrophobic mutant proteins (as compared to wild type APE1 supports that binding of lucanthone to the hydrophobic pocket dictates APE1 inhibition. The DNA binding capacity of APE1 was marginally inhibited by lucanthone, and not at all by hycanthone, supporting our hypothesis that thioxanthenones inhibit APE1, predominantly, by direct interaction. Finally, lucanthone-induced degradation was drastically reduced in the presence of short and long lived free radical scavengers, e

  12. Tat-APE1/ref-1 protein inhibits TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun Jeong; Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Kwon Ho; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2008-03-28

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved both in DNA base excision repair and redox regulation. In this study we evaluated the protective role of Tat-mediated APE1/ref-1 transduction on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-activated endothelial activation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. To construct Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein, human full length of APE1/ref-1 was fused with Tat-protein transduction domain. Purified Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein efficiently transduced cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and reached maximum expression at 1h after incubation. Transduced Tat-APE1/ref-1 showed inhibitory activity on the TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. These results suggest Tat-APE1/ref-1 might be useful to reduce vascular endothelial activation or vascular inflammatory disorders.

  13. 5-HMF prevents against oxidative injury via APE/Ref-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-H; Di, Y; Wu, L-Y; He, Y-L; Zhao, T; Huang, X; Ding, X-F; Wu, K-W; Fan, M; Zhu, L-L

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative injury is involved in many diseases, including ischemic and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant drugs can be used to relieve the oxidative injury caused by these diseases; however, there are very few antioxidant drugs available for clinical use. In this study, we found that 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (5-HMF) protects against the oxidative damage induced by cerebral ischemia in rats or by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in PC12 cells. We demonstrated that 5-HMF performs this function via apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1). APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in oxidative DNA damage repair through the base excision repair (BER) pathway and in the regulation of the DNA-binding activity of several transcription factors. The current study focused on the role of APE/Ref-1 in the antioxidative properties of 5-HMF. The results show that 5-HMF inhibited the reduction of APE/Ref-1 protein level caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats or H2O2 treatment in PC12 cells. Treatment with an APE/Ref-1 inhibitor blocked 5-HMF-induced protection, suggesting that APE/Ref-1's DNA repair function contributes to antioxidation. In conclusion, this study suggests that APE/Ref-1 may be a potential target for antioxidant drugs.

  14. Subcellular localization of APE1/Ref-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma: possible prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maso, Vittorio; Avellini, Claudio; Crocè, Lory Saveria; Rosso, Natalia; Quadrifoglio, Franco; Cesaratto, Laura; Codarin, Erika; Bedogni, Giorgio; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Tell, Gianluca; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    APE1/Ref-1, normally localized in the nucleus, is a regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. Cytoplasmic localization has been observed in several tumors and correlates with a poor prognosis. Because no data are available on liver tumors, we investigated APE1/Ref-1 subcellular localization and its correlation with survival in 47 consecutive patients undergoing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection. APE1/Ref-1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in HCC and surrounding liver cirrhosis (SLC) and compared with normal liver tissue. Survival probability was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank test) and Cox regression. Cytoplasmic expression of APE1/Ref-1 was significantly higher in HCC than in SLC (P = 0.00001); normal liver showed only nuclear reactivity. Patients with poorly differentiated HCC showed a cytoplasmic expression three times higher than those with well-differentiated HCC (P = 0.03). Cytoplasmic localization was associated with a median survival time shorter than those with negative cytoplasmic reactivity (0.44 compared with 1.64 years, P = 0.003), and multivariable analysis confirmed that cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 localization is a predictor of survival. Cytoplasmic expression of APE1/Ref-1 is increased in HCC and is associated with a lower degree of differentiation and a shorter survival time, pointing to the use of the cytoplasmic localization of APE1/Ref-1 as a prognostic marker for HCC.

  15. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches.

  16. The DNA base excision repair protein Ape1/Ref-1 as a therapeutic and chemopreventive target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Kelley, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    With our growing understanding of the pathways involved in cell proliferation and signaling, targeted therapies, in the treatment of cancer are entering the clinical arena. New and emerging targets are proteins involved in DNA repair pathways. Inhibition of various proteins in the DNA repair pathways sensitizes cancer cells to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and/or radiation. We study the apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) and believe that its crucial function in DNA repair and reduction-oxidation or redox signaling make it an excellent target for sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Ape1/Ref-1 is an essential enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, Ape1/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. Ape1/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NFkappaB, HIF-1alpha, CREB, p53 and others. We will discuss what is known regarding the pharmacological targeting of the DNA repair activity, as well as the redox activity of Ape1/Ref-1, and explore the budding clinical utility of inhibition of either of these functions in cancer treatment. A brief discussion of the effect of polymorphisms in its DNA sequence is included because of Ape1/Ref-1's importance to maintenance and integrity of the genome. Experimental modification of Ape1/Ref-1 activity changes the response of cells and of organisms to DNA damaging agents, suggesting that Ape1/Ref-1 may also be a productive target of chemoprevention. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ape1/Ref-1's activities and explore the potential of this protein as a target in cancer treatment as well as its role in chemoprevention.

  17. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  18. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  19. APE1/Ref-1基因真核表达质粒的构建和鉴定%Construction and identification of the eukarotic expression vector of human APE1/Ref-1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永红; 王东; 李增鹏; 杨宇馨

    2007-01-01

    目的 构建含人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段的真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1+ APE1,以期进一步研究该基因对细胞DNA损伤的保护作用.方法 采用RT-PCR法定向克隆人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段,构建pGM-T Easy/APE1质粒,测序鉴定APE1/Ref-1基因cDNA序列正确后,将目的片断亚克隆至真核表达载体pcDNA3.1+上,构成pcDNA3.1+APE1表达质粒,并用Western blotting法检测转染人脐静脉内皮细胞APE1/Ref-1蛋白的表达水平.结果 经酶切及测序证实APE1/Ref-1基因真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1+ APE1构建成功,Western blotting法检测到转染pcDNA3.1+APE1后,细胞内APE1/Ref-1蛋白表达明显增加.结论 成功构建含人APE1/Ref-1基因全长cDNA片段的真核表达质粒,为探讨APE1/Ref-1对细胞电离辐射损伤的保护作用奠定了基础.

  20. Ape1/Ref-1 induces glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) responsiveness by upregulating GDNF receptor alpha1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Hong-Beum; Acharya, Samudra; Sohn, Hong-Moon; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Chang, In-Youb; You, Ho Jin

    2009-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) dysregulation has been identified in several human tumors and in patients with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the function of Ape1/Ref-1 is unclear. We show here that Ape1/Ref-1 increases the expression of glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1), a key receptor for GDNF. Expression of Ape1/Ref-1 led to an increase in the GDNF responsiveness in human fibroblast. Ape1/Ref-1 induced GFRalpha1 transcription through enhanced binding of NF-kappaB complexes to the GFRalpha1 promoter. GFRalpha1 levels correlate proportionally with Ape1/Ref-1 in cancer cells. The knockdown of endogenous Ape1/Ref-1 in pancreatic cancer cells markedly suppressed GFRalpha1 expression and invasion in response to GNDF, while overexpression of GFRalpha1 restored invasion. In neuronal cells, the Ape1/Ref-1-mediated increase in GDNF responsiveness not only stimulated neurite outgrowth but also protected the cells from beta-amyloid peptide and oxidative stress. Our results show that Ape1/Ref-1 is a novel physiological regulator of GDNF responsiveness, and they also suggest that Ape1/Ref-1-induced GFRalpha1 expression may play important roles in pancreatic cancer progression and neuronal cell survival.

  1. Study of Relationship between APE/Ref-1 and Gynecologic Neoplasm%APE/Ref-1与妇科肿瘤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪瑞; 李英勇

    2010-01-01

    无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶(APE)又名氧化还原因子1(Ref-1),是一种多功能蛋白,除了修复AP 位点外,还保持很多转录因子的活性还原状态,对维持DNA的稳定和调节细胞因子的表达具有重要作用.目前国内外研究发现APE/Ref-1蛋白在细胞中的表达部位与妇科肿瘤的发生、发展及预后有关,而APE/Ref-1蛋白表达水平的改变与妇科肿瘤放疗的敏感性有关.

  2. Impact of APE1/Ref-1 redox inhibition on pancreatic tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Jiang, Yanlin; Rajeshkumar, N V; Scandura, Glenda; Sinn, Anthony L; He, Ying; Shen, Changyu; Jones, David R; Pollok, Karen E; Ivan, Mircea; Maitra, Anirban; Kelley, Mark R

    2011-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is especially a deadly form of cancer with a survival rate less than 2%. Pancreatic cancers respond poorly to existing chemotherapeutic agents and radiation, and progress for the treatment of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. To address this unmet medical need, a better understanding of critical pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic tumor development, progression, and resistance to traditional therapy is therefore critical. Reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling systems are emerging as important targets in pancreatic cancer. AP endonuclease1/Redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is upregulated in human pancreatic cancer cells and modulation of its redox activity blocks the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic cancer-associated endothelial cells in vitro. Modulation of APE1/Ref-1 using a specific inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1's redox function, E3330, leads to a decrease in transcription factor activity for NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α in vitro. This study aims to further establish the redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 as a molecular target in pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 via E3330 results in tumor growth inhibition in cell lines and pancreatic cancer xenograft models in mice. Pharmacokinetic studies also show that E3330 attains more than10 μmol/L blood concentrations and is detectable in tumor xenografts. Through inhibition of APE1/Ref-1, the activity of NFκB, AP-1, and HIF1α that are key transcriptional regulators involved in survival, invasion, and metastasis is blocked. These data indicate that E3330, inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1, has potential in pancreatic cancer and clinical investigation of APE1/Ref-1 molecular target is warranted.

  3. Evolutionary tree for apes and humans based on cleavage maps of mitochondrial DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, S D; Wilson, A C; Brown, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    The high rate of evolution of mitochondrial DNA makes this molecule suitable for genealogical research on such closely related species as humans and apes. Because previous approaches failed to establish the branching order of the lineages leading to humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, we compared human mitochondrial DNA to mitochondrial DNA from five species of ape (common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon). About 50 restriction endonuclease cleavage sites were mappe...

  4. An Analysis of The Hairy Ape from the Perspective of Mythological Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丹秋

    2014-01-01

    This essay is about mythological criticism reflected in Eugene O’Neill’s play-The Hairy Ape. The Hairy Ape documents the downward spiral of a fireman who works on a ship during the period of industrial prosperity in capitalist society. In fact, his degeneration is the miniature of the whole people of that age. Mythological criticism, especially the Jungian psychology and his archetypal insights, will help to understand how the theme is conveyed.

  5. APE1/Ref-1与肿瘤的研究进展%Research progress of APE1/Ref-1 and tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海燕; 辛晓燕

    2012-01-01

    脱嘌呤脱嘧啶核酸内切酶1又称氧化还原因子-1,是一种双功能酶,不仅具有核酸内切酶活性,发挥DNA修复功能,而且具有氧化还原功能,调控多种重要转录因子的活性.目前研究发现APE1/Ref-1在人体多种肿瘤中表达且与肿瘤的发生、发展及预后相关.APE1/Ref-1可能成为极具潜力的肿瘤基因治疗的新靶点.本文就APE1/Ref-1的结构、功能及在肿瘤研究方面的进展作了一系列的回顾与总结.%Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 also known as redox factor - 1, is a bifunctional enzyme, which not only has the endonuclease activity, playing DNA repair function but also has a redox function, regulating a variety of important transcription factor activity. At present, studies have found that APE1/ Ref - 1 is expressed in a variety of human tumors and relates to tumor occurrence, development and prognosis. APE1 / Ref - 1 may be a potential no-vel target for gene therapy of cancer. This article tries to make a series of review and summary on the APE1/ Ref -1 structure, function and how it benefits tumor research progress.

  6. Mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 suppressed protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Choi, Sunga; Park, Kyoungsook; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2014-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an important pathological factor in cardiovascular diseases. The role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) on PKC-induced mitochondrial dysfunction has not been variously investigated. In this study, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species generation and also increased mitochondrial translocation of APE1/Ref-1. APE1/Ref-1 overexpression suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, gene silencing of APE1/Ref-1 increased the sensitivity of mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS)-fused APE1/Ref-1 more effectively suppressed PMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. These results suggest that mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 is contributed to the protective role to protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  7. APE1/Ref-1 as an emerging therapeutic target for various human diseases: phytochemical modulation of its functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Shweta; Sarkar, Bibekananda; Cholia, Ravi P; Gautam, Nandini; Dhiman, Monisha; Mantha, Anil K

    2014-07-18

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which repairs oxidative base damage caused by endogenous and exogenous agents. APE1 acts as a reductive activator of many transcription factors (TFs) and has also been named redox effector factor 1, Ref-1. For example, APE1 activates activator protein-1, nuclear factor kappa B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, paired box gene 8, signal transducer activator of transcription 3 and p53, which are involved in apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and survival pathways. APE1/Ref-1 maintains cellular homeostasis (redox) via the activation of TFs that regulate various physiological processes and that crosstalk with redox balancing agents (for example, thioredoxin, catalase and superoxide dismutase) by controlling levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The efficiency of APE1/Ref-1's function(s) depends on pairwise interaction with participant protein(s), the functions regulated by APE1/Ref-1 include the BER pathway, TFs, energy metabolism, cytoskeletal elements and stress-dependent responses. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 acts as a 'hub-protein' that controls pathways that are important for cell survival. In this review, we will discuss APE1/Ref-1's versatile nature in various human etiologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases that have been linked with alterations in the expression, subcellular localization and activities of APE/Ref-1. APE1/Ref-1 can be targeted for therapeutic intervention using natural plant products that modulate the expression and functions of APE1/Ref-1. In addition, studies focusing on translational applications based on APE1/Ref-1-mediated therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  8. Danes commemorating Darwin: apes and evolution at the 1909 anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-10-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: on the one hand, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as 'radical', 'evangelical' and 'safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism prominent among naturalists played only a secondary role in the public arena. This article demonstrates the value of using newspapers as historical sources when looking for public images of Darwin, popular receptions of Darwinism and representations of science in general.

  9. Great apes select tools on the basis of their rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Héctor Marín; Gross, Alexandra Nam-Mi; Call, Josep

    2010-10-01

    Wild chimpanzees select tools according to their rigidity. However, little is known about whether choices are solely based on familiarity with the materials or knowledge about tool properties. Furthermore, it is unclear whether tool manipulation is required prior to selection or whether observation alone can suffice. We investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (n = 9), bonobos (Pan paniscus) (n = 4), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) (n = 6), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) (n = 2) selected new tools on the basis of their rigidity. Subjects faced an out-of-reach reward and a choice of three tools differing in color, diameter, material, and rigidity. We used 10 different 3-tool sets (1 rigid, 2 flexible). Subjects were unfamiliar with the tools and needed to select and use the rigid tool to retrieve the reward. Experiment 1 showed that subjects chose the rigid tool from the first trial with a 90% success rate. Experiments 2a and 2b addressed the role of manipulation and observation in tool selection. Subjects performed equally well in conditions in which they could manipulate the tools themselves or saw the experimenter manipulate the tools but decreased their performance if they could only visually inspect the tools. Experiment 3 showed that subjects could select flexible tools (as opposed to rigid ones) to meet new task demands. We conclude that great apes spontaneously selected unfamiliar rigid or flexible tools even after gathering minimal observational information. PMID:20718558

  10. Spontaneous use of tools as straws in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Héctor Marín; Call, Josep

    2011-03-01

    Great apes can use multiple tools to extract food embedded in substrates and can invent new ways to exploit those resources. We tested five bonobos, five chimpanzees, and six orangutans in a task in which they had to use (and modify) a tool as a straw to drink the juice located inside a container. Experiment 1 showed that four orangutans and one chimpanzee invented the use of a piece of electric cable to get the juice. Experiment 2 investigated whether subjects could transform a non-functional hose into a functional one by removing blockages that impeded the free flow of juice. Orangutans outperformed chimpanzees and bonobos by differentially removing those blockages that prevented the flow of juice, often doing so before attempting to extract the juice. In Experiment 3, we presented chimpanzees and orangutans with four 3-tool sets (each tool set contained a single straw-like tool) and allowed them to select one tool. Unlike chimpanzees, orangutans succeeded in selecting the straw-like tool above chance levels without having to physically manipulate it. We suggest that orangutans' superior performance is related to their greater reliance on mouth actions during foraging. Experiment 4 investigated whether orangutans were also capable of selecting the suitable tool not by its appearance, but by the effects that it produced. After witnessing the experimenter blow bubbles or absorb liquid with a functional tool but fail to accomplish the same thing with the non-functional tool, orangutans failed to select the functional tool above chance levels. PMID:21132450

  11. Endothelial cell tumor growth is Ape/ref-1 dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K; Gordillo, Gayle M

    2015-09-01

    Tumor-forming endothelial cells have highly elevated levels of Nox-4 that release H2O2 into the nucleus, which is generally not compatible with cell survival. We sought to identify compensatory mechanisms that enable tumor-forming endothelial cells to survive and proliferate under these conditions. Ape-1/ref-1 (Apex-1) is a multifunctional protein that promotes DNA binding of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as AP-1, and repairs oxidative DNA damage. A validated mouse endothelial cell (EOMA) tumor model was used to demonstrate that Nox-4-derived H2O2 causes DNA oxidation that induces Apex-1 expression. Apex-1 functions as a chaperone to keep transcription factors in a reduced state. In EOMA cells Apex-1 enables AP-1 binding to the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (mcp-1) promoter and expression of that protein is required for endothelial cell tumor formation. Intraperitoneal injection of the small molecule inhibitor E3330, which specifically targets Apex-1 redox-sensitive functions, resulted in a 50% decrease in tumor volume compared with mice injected with vehicle control (n = 6 per group), indicating that endothelial cell tumor proliferation is dependent on Apex-1 expression. These are the first reported results to establish Nox-4 induction of Apex-1 as a mechanism promoting endothelial cell tumor formation.

  12. APE1 is dispensable for S-region cleavage but required for its repair in class switch recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianliang; Husain, Afzal; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) has been shown to be a critical endonuclease required for class switch recombination (CSR). Here we show that APE1’s endonuclease activity, but not its redox regulation or transcriptional regulation activity, is important for CSR. Conversely, APE1 is dispensable for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-induced somatic hypermutation (SHM) as well as IgH/c-myc translocation. Moreover, during CSR, APE1 is not required for AID-induced S-region br...

  13. Functional assessment of population and tumor-associated APE1 protein variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Illuzzi

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the predominant AP site repair enzyme in mammals. APE1 also maintains 3'-5' exonuclease and 3'-repair activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its REF-1 function. Since complete or severe APE1 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality and cell death, it has been hypothesized that APE1 protein variants with slightly impaired function will contribute to disease etiology. Our data indicate that except for the endometrial cancer-associated APE1 variant R237C, the polymorphic variants Q51H, I64V and D148E, the rare population variants G241R, P311S and A317V, and the tumor-associated variant P112L exhibit normal thermodynamic stability of protein folding; abasic endonuclease, 3'-5' exonuclease and REF-1 activities; coordination during the early steps of base excision repair; and intracellular distribution when expressed exogenously in HeLa cells. The R237C mutant displayed reduced AP-DNA complex stability, 3'-5' exonuclease activity and 3'-damage processing. Re-sequencing of the exonic regions of APE1 uncovered no novel amino acid substitutions in the 60 cancer cell lines of the NCI-60 panel, or in HeLa or T98G cancer cell lines; only the common D148E and Q51H variants were observed. Our results indicate that APE1 missense mutations are seemingly rare and that the cancer-associated R237C variant may represent a reduced-function susceptibility allele.

  14. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  15. Cytoplasmic localization and redox cysteine residue of APE1/Ref-1 are associated with its anti-inflammatory activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Kim, Soo Jin; Choi, Sunga; Lee, Sang Do; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-11-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and transcriptional regulation of gene expression. APE1/Ref-1 is mainly localized in the nucleus, but cytoplasmic localization has also been reported. However, the functional role of cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 and its redox cysteine residue are still unknown. We investigated the role of cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions in endothelial cells. Endogenous APE1/Ref-1 was mainly observed in the nucleus, however, cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 was increased by TNF-α. Cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 expression was not blunted by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Transfection of an N-terminus deletion mutant APE1/Ref-1(29-318) inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression, indicating an anti-inflammatory role for APE1/Ref-1 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, redox mutant of APE1/Ref-1 (C65A/C93A) transfection led to increased TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression. Our findings suggest cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 localization and redox cysteine residues of APE1/Ref-1 are associated with its anti-inflammatory activity in endothelial cells.

  16. Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes: variation in prevalence and timing of defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    2001-11-01

    The prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes has the potential to reveal episodes of physiological stress in early stages of ontogenetic development. However, little is known about enamel defects of deciduous teeth in great apes. Unresolved questions addressed in this study are: Do hypoplastic enamel defects occur with equal frequency in different groups of great apes? Are enamel hypoplasias more prevalent in the deciduous teeth of male or female apes? During what phase of dental development do enamel defects tend to form? And, what part of the dental crown is most commonly affected? To answer these questions, infant and juvenile skulls of two sympatric genera of great apes (Gorilla and Pan) were examined for dental enamel hypoplasias. Specimens from the Powell-Cotton Museum (Quex Park, UK; n = 107) are reported here, and compared with prior findings based on my examination of juvenile apes at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Hamman-Todd Collection; n = 100) and Smithsonian Institution (National Museum of Natural History; n = 36). All deciduous teeth were examined by the author with a x10 hand lens, in oblique incandescent light. Defects were classified using Fédération Dentaire International (FDI)/Defects of Dental Enamel (DDE) standards; defect size and location on the tooth crown were measured and marked on dental outline charts. Enamel defects of ape deciduous teeth are most common on the labial surface of canine teeth. While deciduous incisor and molar teeth consistently exhibit similar defects with prevalences of approximately 10%, canines average between 70-75%. Position of enamel defects on the canine crown was analyzed by dividing it into three zones (apical, middle, and cervical) and calculating defect prevalence by zone. Among gorillas, enamel hypoplasia prevalence increases progressively from the apical zone (low) to the middle zone to the cervical zone (highest), in both maxillary and mandibular canine teeth

  17. XPC deficiency is related to APE1 and OGG1 expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Julliane Tamara Araújo; de Souza Timoteo, Ana Rafaela; Lajus, Tirzah Braz Petta; Brandão, Juliana Alves; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins; Campalans, Anna; Radicella, J Pablo; Vessoni, Alexandre Teixeira; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is considered to be a major cause of neurodegeneration and internal tumors observed in syndromes that result from nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficiencies, such as Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne Syndrome (CS). Recent evidence has shown that NER aids in removing oxidized DNA damage and may interact with base excision repair (BER) enzymes. Here, we investigated APE1 and OGG1 expression, localization and activity after oxidative stress in XPC-deficient cells. The endogenous APE1 and OGG1 mRNA levels were lower in XPC-deficient fibroblasts. However, XPC-deficient cells did not show hypersensitivity to oxidative stress compared with NER-proficient cells. To confirm the impact of an XPC deficiency in regulating APE1 and OGG1 expression and activity, we established an XPC-complemented cell line. Although the XPC complementation was only partial and transient, the transfected cells exhibited greater OGG1 expression and activity compared with XPC-deficient cells. However, the APE1 expression and activity did not significantly change. Furthermore, we observed a physical interaction between the XPC and APE1 proteins. Together, the results indicate that the responses of XPC-deficient cells under oxidative stress may not only be associated with NER deficiency per se but may also include new XPC functions in regulating BER proteins. PMID:26811994

  18. Brain structure variation in great apes, with attention to the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Cranfield, Michael R; Mehlman, Patrick T; Lilly, Alecia A; Garbe, Jo Anne L; Whittier, Christopher A; Nutter, Felicia B; Rein, Thomas R; Bruner, Harlan J; Holloway, Ralph L; Tang, Cheuk Y; Naidich, Thomas P; Delman, Bradley N; Steklis, H Dieter; Erwin, Joseph M; Hof, Patrick R

    2004-07-01

    This report presents data regarding the brain structure of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in comparison with other great apes. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of three mountain gorilla brains were obtained with a 3T scanner, and the volume of major neuroanatomical structures (neocortical gray matter, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellum) was measured. These data were included with our existing database that includes 23 chimpanzees, three western lowland gorillas, and six orangutans. We defined a multidimensional space by calculating the principal components (PCs) from the correlation matrix of brain structure fractions in the well-represented sample of chimpanzees. We then plotted data from all of the taxa in this space to examine phyletic variation in neural organization. Most of the variance in mountain gorillas, as well as other great apes, was contained within the chimpanzee range along the first two PCs, which accounted for 61.73% of the total variance. Thus, the majority of interspecific variation in brain structure observed among these ape taxa was no greater than the within-species variation seen in chimpanzees. The loadings on PCs indicated that the brain structure of great apes differs among taxa mostly in the relative sizes of the striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings suggest possible functional differences among taxa in terms of neural adaptations for ecological and locomotor capacities. Importantly, these results fill a critical gap in current knowledge regarding great ape neuroanatomical diversity. PMID:15258959

  19. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.;

    2010-01-01

    In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must...... be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social...... and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species...

  20. A cautionary note on fecal sampling and molecular epidemiology in predatory wild great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nys, Hélène Marie; Madinda, Nadège Freda; Merkel, Kevin; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian Hubertus; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Fecal samples are an important source of information on parasites (viruses, prokaryotes, or eukaryotes) infecting wild great apes. Molecular analysis of fecal samples has already been used for deciphering the origins of major human pathogens such as HIV-1 or Plasmodium falciparum. However, for apes that hunt (chimpanzees and bonobos), detection of parasite nucleic acids may reflect either true infection of the host of interest or ingestion of an infected prey, for example, another non-human primate. To determine the potential magnitude of this issue, we estimated the prevalence of prey DNA in fecal samples obtained from two wild chimpanzee communities. We observed values >15%, which are higher than or close to the fecal detection rates of many great ape parasites. Contamination of fecal samples with parasite DNA from dietary origin may therefore occasionally impact non-invasive epidemiological studies. This problem can be addressed (at least partially) by monitoring the presence of prey DNA. PMID:26031302

  1. Cloning and characterization of a wheat homologue of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Ape1L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botagoz Joldybayeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP endonucleases are key DNA repair enzymes involved in the base excision repair (BER pathway. In BER, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases and/or oxidative damage. A Triticum aestivum cDNA encoding for a putative homologue of ExoIII family AP endonucleases which includes E. coli Xth, human APE1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtApe1L has been isolated and its protein product purified and characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that the putative wheat AP endonuclease, referred here as TaApe1L, contains AP endonuclease, 3'-repair phosphodiesterase, 3'-phosphatase and 3' → 5' exonuclease activities. Surprisingly, in contrast to bacterial and human AP endonucleases, addition of Mg(2+ and Ca(2+ (5-10 mM to the reaction mixture inhibited TaApe1L whereas the presence of Mn(2+, Co(2+ and Fe(2+ cations (0.1-1.0 mM strongly stimulated all its DNA repair activities. Optimization of the reaction conditions revealed that the wheat enzyme requires low divalent cation concentration (0.1 mM, mildly acidic pH (6-7, low ionic strength (20 mM KCl and has a temperature optimum at around 20 °C. The steady-state kinetic parameters of enzymatic reactions indicate that TaApe1L removes 3'-blocking sugar-phosphate and 3'-phosphate groups with good efficiency (kcat/KM = 630 and 485 μM(-1 · min(-1, respectively but possesses a very weak AP endonuclease activity as compared to the human homologue, APE1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data establish the DNA substrate specificity of the wheat AP endonuclease and suggest its possible role in the repair of DNA damage generated by endogenous and environmental factors.

  2. Cognitive inferences in fossil apes (Primates, Hominoidea): does encephalization reflect intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, David M

    2010-01-01

    Paleobiological inferences on general cognitive abilities (intelligence) in fossil hominoids strongly rely on relative brain size or encephalization, computed by means of allometric residuals, quotients or constants. Th is has been criticized on the basis that it presumably fails to reflect the higher intelligence of great apes, and absolute brain size has been favored instead. Many problems of encephalization metrics stem from the decrease of allometric slopes towards lower taxonomic level, thus making it difficult to determine at what level encephalization metrics have biological meaning. Here, the hypothesis that encephalization can be used as a good neuroanatomical proxy for intelligence is tested at two different taxonomic levels. A significant correlation is found between intelligence and encephalization only at a lower taxonomic level, i.e. on the basis of a low allometric slope, irrespective of whether species data or independent contrasts are employed. This indicates that higher-level slopes, resulting from encephalization grade shifts between subgroups (including hylobatids vs. great apes), do not reflect functional equivalence, whereas lower-level metrics can be employed as a paleobiological proxy for intelligence. Thus, in accordance to intelligence rankings, lower-level metrics indicate that great apes are more encephalized than both monkeys and hylobatids. Regarding fossil taxa, encephalization increased during hominin evolution (particularly in Homo), but during the Miocene a significant shift towards higher encephalization (and inferred enhanced cognitive abilities) must have been also involved in the emergence of the great-ape-and-human clade (Hominidae). This is confirmed by the modern great-ape-like degree of encephalization displayed by the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus, which contrasts with the rather hylobatid-like degree of the stem hominoid Proconsul. The similarly low encephalization of Oreopithecus might result from secondary reduction

  3. Anticancer clinical utility of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1), as a type of multifunctional protein, plays an essential role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, APE/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. APE/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA-binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression, such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NF-kappaB, HIF-1alpha, p53, and others. Based on the structures and functions of APE1/Ref-1, we will provide an overview of its activities and explore the budding clinical use of this protein as a target in cancer treatment, and propose that APE/Ref-1 has a great potential for application in clinical research.

  4. Great apes' risk-taking strategies in a decision making task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B M Haun

    Full Text Available We investigate decision-making behaviour in all four non-human great ape species. Apes chose between a safe and a risky option across trials of varying expected values. All species chose the safe option more often with decreasing probability of success. While all species were risk-seeking, orangutans and chimpanzees chose the risky option more often than gorillas and bonobos. Hence all four species' preferences were ordered in a manner consistent with normative dictates of expected value, but varied predictably in their willingness to take risks.

  5. Role of the XRCC1 - APE1 interaction in the maintenance of genetic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is divided in four chapters: the first one concerns the genetic instability, the second one is devoted to the DNA repair, the third one is related to the XRCC1 and the chapter four concerns APE1. Then, are defined the objectives and the results. This work fits into the studies of repair mechanisms. The physical and functional characterisation of the interaction between XRCC1 and APE1 allowed to understand its involvement in the prevention of the genetic instability at the origin of cancer. (N.C.)

  6. APE1/Ref-1 enhances DNA binding activity of mutant p53 in a redox-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yanping; Dai, Nan; Li, Mengxia; Xiong, Chengjie; Zhang, Qinhong; Sui, Jiangdong; Qian, Chengyuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-02-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a dual function protein; in addition to its DNA repair activity, it can stimulate DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors as a reduction-oxidation (redox) factor. APE1/Ref-1 has been found to be a potent activator of wild-type p53 (wtp53) DNA binding in vitro and in vivo. Although p53 is mutated in most types of human cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), little is known about whether APE1/Ref-1 can regulate mutant p53 (mutp53). Herein, we reported the increased APE1/Ref-1 protein and accumulation of mutp53 in HCC by immunohistochemistry. Of note, it was observed that APE1/Ref-1 high-expression and mutp53 expression were associated with carcinogenesis and progression of HCC. To determine whether APE1/Ref-1 regulates DNA binding of mutp53, we performed electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HCC cell lines. In contrast to sequence-specific and DNA structure-dependent binding of wtp53, reduced mutp53 efficiently bound to nonlinear DNA, but not to linear DNA. Notably, overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 resulted in increased DNA binding activity of mutp53, while downregulation of APE1/Ref-1 caused a marked decrease of mutp53 DNA binding. In addition, APE1/Ref-1 could not potentiate the accumulation of p21 mRNA and protein in mutp53 cells. These data indicate that APE1/Ref-1 can stimulate mutp53 DNA binding in a redox-dependent manner.

  7. The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael; Williamson, David L.; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrea M.; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Kotoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Climate simulations by 16 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are compared on an aqua-planet, a water-covered Earth with prescribed sea surface temperature varying only in latitude. The idealised configuration is designed to expose differences in the circulation simulated by different models. Basic features of the aqua-planet climate are characterised by comparison with Earth. The models display a wide range of behaviour. The balanced component of the tropospheric mean flow, and mid-latitude eddy covariances subject to budget constraints, vary relatively little among the models. In contrast, differences in damping in the dynamical core strongly influence transient eddy amplitudes. Historical uncertainty in modelled lower stratospheric temperatures persists in APE.Aspects of the circulation generated more directly by interactions between the resolved fluid dynamics and parameterized moist processes vary greatly. The tropical Hadley circulation forms either a single or double inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at the equator, with large variations in mean precipitation. The equatorial wave spectrum shows a wide range of precipitation intensity and propagation characteristics. Kelvin mode-like eastward propagation with remarkably constant phase speed dominates in most models. Westward propagation, less dispersive than the equatorial Rossby modes, dominates in a few models or occurs within an eastward propagating envelope in others. The mean structure of the ITCZ is related to precipitation variability, consistent with previous studies.The aqua-planet global energy balance is unknown but the models produce a surprisingly large range of top of atmosphere global net flux, dominated by differences in shortwave reflection by clouds. A number of newly developed models, not optimised for Earth climate, contribute to this. Possible reasons for differences in the optimised models are discussed.The aqua-planet configuration is intended as one component of an

  8. Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) in human ovarian cancer and indentification of the therapeutic potential of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Debing; Wang, Dong; Xin, Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Resistance to platinum is a major limitation for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In an effort to overcome the platinum resistance problem in ovarian cancer treatment, we explored the correlation between cisplatin resistance and the human AP endonuclease (APE1 or Ref-1). APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein that is not only an essential enzyme in base excision repair pathway, but also acts as a major redox-signaling factor that has a wide variety of important cellular functions including transcription factor regulation, oxidative signaling and cell cycle control. In this study, we examined APE1/Ref-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sections of ovarian cancers from 78 patients who were administered standard adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum post-operatively. Altered levels and subcellular APE1/Ref-1 expression was found in patients not responding to platinum-based chemotherapy comparing with those who responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. Meanwhile, we detected the APE1/Ref-1 expression in A2780 and CP70 cell lines which have different sensitivity to cisplatin. We found similar altered APE1/Ref-1 expression in them. We hypothesized that the APE1/Ref-1 expression is responsible in part for the cisplatin resistance. To answer this hypothesis, we decreased the APE1/Ref-1 level by silencing RNA targeting technology in A2780 and CP70 cell lines. The A2780 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had IC50 values ranging from 6.70 to 1.74 microM cisplatin compared with 15.81 microM for control A2780 cells. The CP70 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had 1.62-4.63-fold enhancement in cisplatin sensitivity. The apoptosis assays using TUNEL analysis showed that decreased APE1/Ref-1 level resulted in increased apoptosis levels in A2780 and CP70 cell lines compared with the control-treated cells. These data suggest that APE1/Ref-1 levels play an important role in the sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to apoptosis. In vitro studies revealed that it is possible to

  9. The roles of APE1, APE2, DNA polymerase β and mismatch repair in creating S region DNA breaks during antibody class switch

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Carol E.; Guikema, Jeroen E.J.; Wu, Xiaoming; Stavnezer, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) occurs by an intrachromosomal deletion requiring generation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in immunoglobulin switch region DNA. The initial steps of DSB formation have been elucidated: cytosine deamination by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and the generation of abasic sites by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG). We show that abasic sites are converted into single-strand breaks (SSBs) by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases (APE1 and ...

  10. Prognostic Significance of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) Expression in Rectal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun-Sang, E-mail: k423j@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Man [Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Liang, Zhe Long [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ji Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sup; Huh, Gil Ja; Kim, Ki-Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon-June [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Human apurinic endonuclease/redox factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) mediates repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions and regulates transcription via redox-based activation. We investigated the predictive and prognostic significance of APE/Ref-1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) (cT3-T4 or N+). Methods and Materials: APE/Ref-1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in pretreatment biopsy specimens obtained from 83 patients with LARC. Patients received preoperative radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, combined with oral capecitabine and leucovorin chemotherapy, followed by curative surgery. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathologic characteristics, including APE/Ref-1 protein expression, was evaluated. Results: APE/Ref-1 was expressed in 97% of patient samples. Exclusive APE/Ref-1 nuclear staining was observed in 49 of 83 samples (59%), and mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was observed in 31 samples (37%). APE/Ref-1 nuclear expression levels were low in 49 patients (59%) and high in 34 patients (41%). The level of APE/Ref-1 nuclear expression was not a prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival. Cytoplasmic expression of APE/Ref-1 was a borderline-significant predictive factor for pathologic tumor response (p = 0.08) and a significant prognostic factor for disease-free survival, as shown by univariate analysis (p = 0.037). Multivariate analysis confirmed that cytoplasmic localization of APE/Ref-1 is a significant predictor of disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; p = 0.046). Conclusions: APE/Ref-1 was expressed in a majority of pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with LARC. The level of APE/Ref-1 nuclear expression was not a significant predictive and prognostic factor; however, cytoplasmic localization of the protein was negatively associated with disease-free survival. These results indicate that cytoplasmic expression of APE/Ref-1 represents an adverse

  11. Apes finding ants: Predator-prey dynamics in a chimpanzee habitat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Umaru, Buba; Allon, Oliver; Sommer, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Some chimpanzee populations prey upon army ants, usually with stick tools. However, how their prey's subterranean nesting and nomadic lifestyle influence the apes' harvesting success is still poorly understood. This is particularly true for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) at Gashaka/Nigeria, which consume army ants (Dorylus rubellus) with much higher frequency than at other sites. We assessed various harvesting and search options theoretically available to the apes. For this, we reconstructed annual consumption patterns from feces and compared the physical characteristics of exploited ant nests with those that were not targeted. Repeated exploitation of a discovered nest is viable only in the short term, as disturbed colonies soon moved to a new site. Moreover, monitoring previously occupied nest cavities is uneconomical, as ants hardly ever re-used them. Thus, the apes have to detect new nests regularly, although colony density is relatively low (1 colony/1.3 ha). Surprisingly, visual search cues seem to be of limited importance because the probability of a nest being exploited was independent of its conspicuousness (presence of excavated soil piles, concealing leaf-litter or vegetation). However, chimpanzees preferentially targeted nests in forests or at the base of food trees, that is, where the apes spend relatively more time and/or where ant colony density is highest. Taken together, our findings suggest that, instead of employing a search strategy based on visual cues or spatial memory, chimpanzee predation on army ants contains a considerable opportunistic element. PMID:24022711

  12. Fossil hominin shoulders support an African ape-like last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Capellini, Terence D; Roach, Neil T; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-22

    Reconstructing the behavioral shifts that drove hominin evolution requires knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and direction of anatomical changes over the past ∼6-7 million years. These reconstructions depend on assumptions regarding the morphotype of the Homo-Pan last common ancestor (LCA). However, there is little consensus for the LCA, with proposed models ranging from African ape to orangutan or generalized Miocene ape-like. The ancestral state of the shoulder is of particular interest because it is functionally associated with important behavioral shifts in hominins, such as reduced arboreality, high-speed throwing, and tool use. However, previous morphometric analyses of both living and fossil taxa have yielded contradictory results. Here, we generated a 3D morphospace of ape and human scapular shape to plot evolutionary trajectories, predict ancestral morphologies, and directly test alternative evolutionary hypotheses using the hominin fossil evidence. We show that the most parsimonious model for the evolution of hominin shoulder shape starts with an African ape-like ancestral state. We propose that the shoulder evolved gradually along a single morphocline, achieving modern human-like configuration and function within the genus Homo. These data are consistent with a slow, progressive loss of arboreality and increased tool use throughout human evolution. PMID:26351685

  13. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  14. Mammalian Base Excision Repair: Functional Partnership between PARP-1 and APE1 in AP-Site Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    Full Text Available The apurinic/apyrimidinic- (AP- site in genomic DNA arises through spontaneous base loss and base removal by DNA glycosylases and is considered an abundant DNA lesion in mammalian cells. The base excision repair (BER pathway repairs the AP-site lesion by excising and replacing the site with a normal nucleotide via template directed gap-filling DNA synthesis. The BER pathway is mediated by a specialized group of proteins, some of which can be found in multiprotein complexes in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Using a DNA polymerase (pol β immunoaffinity-capture technique to isolate such a complex, we identified five tightly associated and abundant BER factors in the complex: PARP-1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, PNKP, and Tdp1. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, however, was not present. Nevertheless, the complex was capable of BER activity, since repair was initiated by PARP-1's AP lyase strand incision activity. Addition of purified APE1 increased the BER activity of the pol β complex. Surprisingly, the pol β complex stimulated the strand incision activity of APE1. Our results suggested that PARP-1 was responsible for this effect, whereas other proteins in the complex had no effect on APE1 strand incision activity. Studies of purified PARP-1 and APE1 revealed that PARP-1 was able to stimulate APE1 strand incision activity. These results illustrate roles of PARP-1 in BER including a functional partnership with APE1.

  15. Identification of plasma APE1/Ref-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic rats: implication of serological biomarker for an endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Choi, Sunga; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-06-14

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We investigated whether APE1/Ref-1 increased in plasma of endotoxemic rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce endotoxemia in rats. Administration of LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly induced plasma nitrite production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). A 37 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in cell-free plasma of LPS-treated rats using anti-APE1/Ref-1, which reached a maximum at 12 h after the LPS injection. The 37 kDa immunoreactive band was identified as rat APE1/Ref-1 by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant human APE1/Ref-1 protein (2-5 μg/ml for 18 h) inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, the level of plasma APE1/Ref-1 increased in LPS-induced endotoxemic rats, suggesting that plasma APE1/Ref-1 might serve as a serological biomarker for endotoxemia.

  16. What’s Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes’ imitation skills, a “best case scenario” of non-human apes’ imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object–object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes—including imitation-specific training—further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species’ dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors. PMID:27399786

  17. The vertebral formula of the last common ancestor of African apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Melanie A; Rosenman, Burt A; Suwa, Gen; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2010-03-15

    The modal number of lumbar vertebrae in modern humans is five. It varies between three and four in extant African apes (mean=3.5). Because both chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) possess the same distributions of thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae, it has been assumed from parsimony that the last common ancestor (LCA) of African apes and humans possessed a similarly short lower back. This "short-backed LCA" scenario has recently been viewed favorably in an analysis of the intra- and interspecific variation in axial formulas observed among African apes and humans (Pilbeam, 2004. J Exp Zool 302B:241-267). However, the number of bonobo (Pan paniscus) specimens in that study was small (N=17). Here we reconsider vertebral type and number in the LCA in light of an expanded P. paniscus sample as well as evidence provided by the human fossil record. The precaudal (pre-coccygeal) axial column of bonobos differs from those of chimpanzees and gorillas in displaying one additional vertebra as well as significantly different combinations of sacral, lumbar, and thoracic vertebrae. These findings, along with the six-segmented lumbar column of early Australopithecus and early Homo, suggest that the LCA possessed a long axial column and long lumbar spine and that reduction in the lumbar column occurred independently in humans and in each ape clade, and continued after separation of the two species of Pan as well. Such an explanation is strongly congruent with additional details of lumbar column reduction and lower back stabilization in African apes. PMID:19688850

  18. Downregulation of APE1/Ref-1 is involved in the senescence of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun-Young; Jing, Kaipeng; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Seo, Kang-Sik; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Seok; Jung, Yeon-Joo; Hur, Gang-Min; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jong-Il

    2009-06-01

    The senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) causes disruption of tissue and organ maintenance, and is thus an obstacle to stem cell-based therapies for disease. Although some researchers have studied changes in the characteristics of hMSCs (decreases in differentiation ability and self-renewal), comparing young and old ages, the mechanisms of stem cell senescence have not yet been defined. In this study, we developed a growth curve for human bone marrow derived MSCs (hBMSCs) which changes into a hyperbolic state after passage number 7. Senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) staining of hBMSCs showed 10% in passage 9 and 45% in passage 11. We detected an increase in endogenous superoxide levels during senescence that correlated with senescence markers (SA beta-gal, hyperbolic growth curve). Interestingly, even though endogenous superoxide increased in a replicative senescence model, the expression of APE1/Ref-1, which is sensitive to intracellular redox state, decreased. These effects were confirmed in a stress-induced senescence model by exogenous treatment with H(2)O(2). This change is related to the p53 activity that negatively regulates APE1/Ref-1. p21 expression levels, which represent p53 activity, were transiently increased in passage 9, meaning that they correlated with the expression of APE1/Ref-1. Overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 suppressed superoxide production and decreased SA beta-gal in hBMSCs. In conclusion, intracellular superoxide accumulation appears to be the main cause of the senescence of hBMSCs, and overexpression of APE1/Ref-1 can rescue cells from the senescence phenotype. Maintaining characteristics of hBMSCs by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species production can contribute to tissue regeneration and to improved cell therapy.

  19. Comparing ape densities and habitats in northern Congo: surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the Odzala and Ndoki regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Céline; Sanz, Crickette; Morgan, David; Onononga, Jean-Robert; Laporte, Nadine; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2008-05-01

    The conservation status of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees in western equatorial Africa remains largely speculative because many remote areas have never been surveyed and the impact of emergent diseases in the region has not been well documented. In this study, we compared ape densities and habitats in the Lokoué study area in Odzala National Park and the Goualougo Triangle in Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Republic of Congo. Both of these sites have long been considered strongholds for the conservation of chimpanzees and gorillas, but supposedly differ in vegetative composition and relative ape abundance. We compared habitats between these sites using conventional ground surveys and classified Landsat-7 ETM+ satellite images. We present density estimates via both standing-crop and marked-nest methods for the first time for sympatric apes of the Congo Basin. The marked-nest method was effective in depicting chimpanzee densities, but underestimated gorilla densities at both sites. Marked-nest surveys also revealed a dramatic decline in the ape population of Lokoué which coincided with a local Ebola epidemic. Normal baseline fluctuations in ape nest encounter rates during the repeated passages of marked-nest surveys were clearly distinguishable from a 80% decline in ape nest encounter rates at Lokoué. Our results showed that ape densities, habitat composition, and population dynamics differed between these populations in northern Congo. We emphasize the importance of intensifying monitoring efforts and further refinement of ape survey methods, as our results indicated that even the largest remaining ape populations in intact and protected forests are susceptible to sudden and dramatic declines. PMID:18176937

  20. Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity with APX3330 blocks retinal angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Aihua; Gao, Hua; Kelley, Mark R; Qiao, Xiaoxi

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of APE1/Ref-1 in the retina and its potential as a therapeutic target for inhibiting retinal angiogenesis. APE1/Ref-1 expression was quantified by Western blot. The role of APE1/Ref-1 redox function in endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis was examined by treating retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs) with APX3330, a small molecule inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity. In vitro methods included a proliferation assay, a transwell migration assay, a Matrigel tube formation assay, and a Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) using the xCELLigence System. In vivo functional studies of APE1/Ref-1 were carried out by treating very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor knockout mice (Vldlr(-/-)) with intravitreal injection of APX3330, and subsequent measurement of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)-like neovascularization for one week. APE1/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the retina and in RVECs and pericytes in mice. APX3330 (1-10 μM) inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of RVECs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Vldlr(-/-) RVECs were more sensitive to APX3330 than wild-type RVECs. In Vldlr(-/-) mice, a single intravitreal injection of APX3330 at the onset of RAP-like neovascularization significantly reduced RAP-like neovascularization development. APE1/Ref-1 is expressed in retinal vascular cells. APX3330 inhibits RVEC angiogenesis in vitro and significantly reduces RAP-like neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-) mice. These data support the conclusion that APE1/Ref-1 redox function is required for retinal angiogenesis. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may have potential as a therapeutic target for treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration and other neovascular diseases.

  1. Functional characterization of a promoter polymorphism in APE1/Ref-1 that contributes to reduced lung cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Dan; Wang, Huibo; Wu, Wenting; Wang, Xiaotian; Lei, Yunping; Wang, Jiucun; Qian, Ji; Fan, Weiwei; Hu, Zhibin; Jin, Li; Shen, Hongbing; Huang, Wei; Wei, Qingyi; Lu, Daru

    2009-10-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein that possesses both DNA-repair and redox regulatory activities. Although it was originally identified as a DNA-repair enzyme, accumulating evidence supports a role of APE1/Ref-1 in tumor development. To investigate association between APE1/Ref-1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in Chinese populations, we first genotyped three variants of APE1/Ref-1 and found a -141 T-to-G variant (rs1760944) in the promoter associated with decreased risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.62 for GG; P=0.043]. Similar results were obtained in a follow-up replication study. Combined data from the two studies comprising a total of 1072 lung cancer patients and 1064 cancer-free control participants generated a more significant association (P=0.002). We observed lower APE1/Ref-1 mRNA levels in the presence of the protective G allele in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal lung tissues. The -141G-allele-promoter construct exhibited decreased luciferase reporter gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the -141G allele impaired the binding affinity of some transcription factor, accounting for lower APE1/Ref-1-promoter activity. Supershift assays further revealed that the protein of interest was octamer-binding transcription factor-1 (Oct-1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation reconfirmed binding of Oct-1 to the APE1/Ref-1 -141-promoter region. We also found that Oct-1 conferred attenuated transactivation capacity toward the -141G variant by exogenously introducing Oct-1. These data indicate that genetic variations in APE1/Ref-1 may modify susceptibility to lung cancer and provide new insights into an unexpected effect of APE1/Ref-1 on lung carcinogenesis.

  2. 大鼠耳蜗缺血再灌注后APE/Ref-1表达研究%Expression of APE/Ref-1 in the cochlear ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 钟诚; 李太军; 张学渊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlear following cochlear ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Twenty four healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely, the sham operation control group and the ischemia reperfusion group .There were 12 rats in each group. The expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlea was measured immunohistochemistry and western blot . Results In the ischemia reperfusion group, the content of APE/Ref-1 was increased significantly compared with those in the control group. In the normal SD rats, APE/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of spiral ganglion cells and also distributed in the area of spiral ligament and stria vascularis. In the ischemia reperfusion group, The expression of APE/Ref-1 in cochlea was increased significantly in cochlear. Coclusion APE/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the spiral ganglion cells. And it was also observed the content of APE/Ref-1 was in-creased significantly In the ischemia reperfusion group. These results suggests that APE/Ref-1 is closely involved in the oxi-dative stress of ischemia reperfusion injury in the cochlear.%目的:观察APE/Ref-1在正常成年SD大鼠内耳蜗缺血再灌注后的表达变化。方法成年SD大鼠24只,随机分成2组(n=12),分别为假手术对照组、缺血再灌注组。各组动物于再灌注24h取出左侧耳蜗,每组随机4个耳蜗,石蜡包埋切片,行免疫组织化学观察APE/Ref-1表达分布。各组余下耳蜗组织进行均浆,进行免疫印记实验,测定匀浆中APE/Ref-1蛋白表达。结果与假手术对照组相比,缺血再灌注组APE/Ref-1蛋白表达显著增加(P<0.05)。在假手术组大鼠耳蜗中,APE/Ref-1主要表达在正常螺旋神经节区,细胞内定位在细胞浆和细胞核,螺旋韧带和血管纹也可以见到表达。缺血再灌注组APE/Ref-1在耳蜗这些部位的表达显著增加。结论正常大鼠内耳表达APE/Ref-1,主要

  3. Mitochondrial genes support a common origin of rodent malaria parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanquart Samuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute form of human malaria. Most recent studies demonstrate that it belongs to a monophyletic lineage specialized in the infection of great ape hosts. Several other Plasmodium species cause human malaria. They all belong to another distinct lineage of parasites which infect a wider range of primate species. All known mammalian malaria parasites appear to be monophyletic. Their clade includes the two previous distinct lineages of parasites of primates and great apes, one lineage of rodent parasites, and presumably Hepatocystis species. Plasmodium falciparum and great ape parasites are commonly thought to be the sister-group of all other mammal-infecting malaria parasites. However, some studies supported contradictory origins and found parasites of great apes to be closer to those of rodents, or to those of other primates. Results To distinguish between these mutually exclusive hypotheses on the origin of Plasmodium falciparum and its great ape infecting relatives, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on a data set of three mitochondrial genes from 33 to 84 malaria parasites. We showed that malarial mitochondrial genes have evolved slowly and are compositionally homogeneous. We estimated their phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. Inferred trees were checked for their robustness to the (i site selection, (ii assumptions of various probabilistic models, and (iii taxon sampling. Our results robustly support a common ancestry of rodent parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes. Conclusions Our results refute the most common view of the origin of great ape malaria parasites, and instead demonstrate the robustness of a less well-established phylogenetic hypothesis, under which Plasmodium falciparum and its relatives infecting great apes are closely related to rodent parasites. This study sheds light

  4. Morphometrics and hominoid phylogeny: Support for a chimpanzee–human clade and differentiation among great ape subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Charles A.; Kimbel, William H.; Lynch, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses of great apes and humans have identified two potential areas of conflict between molecular and morphological data: phylogenetic relationships among living species and differentiation of great ape subspecies. Here we address these problems by using morphometric data. Three-dimensional landmark data from the hominoid temporal bone effectively quantify the shape of a complex element of the skull. Phylogenetic analysis using distance-based methods corroborates ...

  5. Adenovirus and Herpesvirus Diversity in Free-Ranging Great Apes in the Sangha Region of the Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Sarah H. Olson; Kerry Jo Lee; Gail Rosen; Alain Ondzie; Kenneth Cameron; Patricia Reed; Anthony, Simon J.; Damien O Joly; Karesh, William B.; Denise McAloose; W Ian Lipkin

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the popu...

  6. Higher rate of evolution of X chromosome alpha-repeat DNA in human than in the great apes.

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, H B; Jørgensen, A L; Jones, C; Bak, A L

    1992-01-01

    The rate of introduction of neutral mutations is lower in man than in other primates, including the chimpanzee. This species is generally regarded as our closest relative among the great apes. We present here an analysis of sequences of X chromosomal alphoid repetitive DNA from man and the great apes, which supports the closer relationship between man and chimpanzee and indicates a considerably increased rate of recombination in the human repeat DNA. These results indicate that the 'molecular...

  7. Nuclear depletion of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is an indicator of energy disruption in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpee; Englander, Ella W

    2012-11-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein critical for cellular survival. Its involvement in adaptive survival responses includes key roles in redox sensing, transcriptional regulation, and repair of DNA damage via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Ape1 is abundant in most cell types and central in integrating the first BER step catalyzed by different DNA glycosylases. BER is the main process for removal of oxidative DNA lesions in postmitotic brain cells, and after ischemic brain injury preservation of Ape1 coincides with neuronal survival, while its loss has been associated with neuronal death. Here, we report that in cultured primary neurons, diminution of cellular ATP by either oligomycin or H(2)O(2) is accompanied by depletion of nuclear Ape1, while other BER proteins are unaffected and retain their nuclear localization under these conditions. Importantly, while H(2)O(2) induces γH2AX phosphorylation, indicative of chromatin rearrangements in response to DNA damage, oligomycin does not. Furthermore, despite comparable diminution of ATP content, H(2)O(2) and oligomycin differentially affect critical parameters of mitochondrial respiration that ultimately determine cellular ATP content. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in neurons, nuclear compartmentalization of Ape1 depends on ATP and loss of nuclear Ape1 reflects disruption of neuronal energy homeostasis. Energy crisis is a hallmark of stroke and other ischemic/hypoxic brain injuries. In vivo studies have shown that Ape1 deficit precedes neuronal loss in injured brain regions. Thus, our findings bring to light the possibility that energy failure-induced Ape1 depletion triggers neuronal death in ischemic brain injuries.

  8. A review on protein-protein interaction network of APE1/Ref-1 and its associated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S; Dhiman, M; Tell, G; Mantha, A K

    2015-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a classic example of functionally variable protein. Besides its well-known role in (i) DNA repair of oxidative base damage, APE1 also plays a critical role in (ii) redox regulation of transcription factors controlling gene expression for cell survival pathways, for which it is also known as redox effector factor 1 (Ref-1), and recent evidences advocates for (iii) coordinated control of other non-canonical protein-protein interaction(s) responsible for significant biological functions in mammalian cells. The diverse functions of APE1 can be ascribed to its ability to interact with different protein partners, owing to the attainment of unfolded domains during evolution. Association of dysregulation of APE1 with various human pathologies, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration, is attributable to its multifunctional nature, and this makes APE1 a potential therapeutic target. This review covers the important aspects of APE1 in terms of its significant protein-protein interaction(s), and this knowledge is required to understand the onset and development of human pathologies and to design or improve the strategies to target such interactions for treatment and management of various human diseases.

  9. African great apes are naturally infected with polyomaviruses closely related to Merkel cell polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Cameron, Kenneth N; Kidega, Tonny; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Boesch, Christophe; Calvignac, Sébastien; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infects humans worldwide, but little is known about the occurrence of viruses related to MCPyV in the closest phylogenetic relatives of humans, great apes. We analyzed samples from 30 wild chimpanzees and one captive gorilla and identified two new groups of polyomaviruses (PyVs). These new viruses are by far the closest relatives to MCPyV described to date, providing the first evidence of the natural occurrence of PyVs related to MCPyV in wild great apes. Similar to MCPyV, the prevalence of these viruses is relatively high (>30%). This, together with the fact that humans in West and Central Africa frequently hunt and butcher primates, may point toward further MCPyV-like strains spreading to, or already existing in, our species. PMID:21047967

  10. Eigenmodes of superconducting cavities calculated on an APE-100 supercomputer (SIMD)

    CERN Document Server

    Neugebauer, F

    1999-01-01

    The construction of modern accelerators is usually supported by the numerical determination of eigenmodes in the accelerating cavities. Often the rotational symmetry of the cavity is used to simplify the numerical simulation. However, in cases where the cavity lacks rotational symmetry resp. where attached components like couplers have to be taken into account, a fully three dimensional treatment of the Maxwell equations is necessary. This requires more computer power than is available on a normal high end workstation. Therefore, in the present approach a parallel SIMD super computer (APE-100) is used to compute the eigenmodes of accelerating cavities. As an example parts of the superconducting TESLA structure are investigated. The geometry input is parsed by MAFIA which transfers the resulting system matrix, incorporating geometry and material information, to the APE-100. The result of the diagonalization procedure is then read back to the MAFIA host where further data analysis and visualization can be done....

  11. Samuel Fernberger's rejected doctoral dissertation: a neglected resource for the history of ape research in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, Donald A

    2009-02-01

    I summarize a never-completed 1911 doctoral dissertation on ape behavior by Samuel Fernberger of the University of Pennsylvania. Included are observations on many behavioral patterns including sensory and perceptual function, learning, memory, attention, imagination, personality, and emotion in an orangutan and two chimpanzees. There are examples of behavior resembling insight, conscience, tool use and imitation. Language comprehension was good but speech production was minimal. The document appears to contradict a brief published article on the project by William Furness in that punishment was frequently used. The document is important for understanding Fernberger's early career, for anticipations of later research, and for understanding the status of ape research at the time. PMID:19579568

  12. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Kormos; Kormos, Cyril F.; Tatyana Humle; Annette Lanjouw; Helga Rainer; Ray Victurine; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate fo...

  13. eulerAPE: Drawing Area-Proportional 3-Venn Diagrams Using Ellipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Luana; Rodgers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data. PMID:25032825

  14. eulerAPE: drawing area-proportional 3-Venn diagrams using ellipses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Micallef

    Full Text Available Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data.

  15. Effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 on vinyl chloride-induced chromosome damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 genes on vinyl chloride(VC)-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes.Methods In this study,317 workers occupationally exposed to VC were recruited from a factory in Shandong Province,China.The micronucleus(MN)frequency in peripheral lymphocytes was used as an indicator of chromosomal damage.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and created restriction site

  16. Gestural and Symbolic Development among Apes and Humans: Support for a Multimodal Theory of Language Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen eGillespie-Lynch; Patricia eGreenfield; Heidi eLyn; Sue eSavage-Rumbaugh

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicativ...

  17. Lineage-Specific Changes in Biomarkers in Great Apes and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Ronke

    Full Text Available Although human biomedical and physiological information is readily available, such information for great apes is limited. We analyzed clinical chemical biomarkers in serum samples from 277 wild- and captive-born great apes and from 312 healthy human volunteers as well as from 20 rhesus macaques. For each individual, we determined a maximum of 33 markers of heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and pancreas function, hemoglobin and lipid metabolism and one marker of inflammation. We identified biomarkers that show differences between humans and the great apes in their average level or activity. Using the rhesus macaques as an outgroup, we identified human-specific differences in the levels of bilirubin, cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase, and bonobo-specific differences in the level of apolipoprotein A-I. For the remaining twenty-nine biomarkers there was no evidence for lineage-specific differences. In fact, we find that many biomarkers show differences between individuals of the same species in different environments. Of the four lineage-specific biomarkers, only bilirubin showed no differences between wild- and captive-born great apes. We show that the major factor explaining the human-specific difference in bilirubin levels may be genetic. There are human-specific changes in the sequence of the promoter and the protein-coding sequence of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1, the enzyme that transforms bilirubin and toxic plant compounds into water-soluble, excretable metabolites. Experimental evidence that UGT1A1 is down-regulated in the human liver suggests that changes in the promoter may be responsible for the human-specific increase in bilirubin. We speculate that since cooking reduces toxic plant compounds, consumption of cooked foods, which is specific to humans, may have resulted in relaxed constraint on UGT1A1 which has in turn led to higher serum levels of bilirubin in humans.

  18. Ultrasonographic assessment of reproductive diseases in gorillas and other captive great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Júlia Braga

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária The present work focused on the analysis of ultrasound examinations from 29 male and female captive great apes performed since 1995 by the Leibniz-Institut für Zoo-und Wildtierforschung, IZW (Berlin, Germany), reproduction management group. The ultrasonographic appearance of the normal and abnormal reproductive tract was described. Out of 22 female captive subjects, 18 were detected to have reproductive tract lesions. The altered ul...

  19. The behavioral ecology of sympatric African apes: implications for understanding fossil hominoid ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Craig B

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the great apes is key evidence used in the reconstruction of the behavior of extinct ape and hominid taxa. Chimpanzees and gorillas have been studied in detail in the wild, and some studies of their behavioral ecology in sympatry have also been been carried out. Although the two ape species have divergent behavior and ecology in important respects, recent studies have shown that the interspecific differences are not as stark as previously thought and subsequently urge new consideration of how they share forest resources when sympatric. These new data require re-examination of assumptions about key aspects of chimpanzee-gorilla ecological divergence, such as diet, ranging and nesting patterns, and the mating system. Diet is a key component of the species' adaptive complexes that facilitates avoidance of direct competition from the other. While the nutritional basis for chimpanzee food choice remains unclear and no doubt varies from site to site, this species is a ripe fruit specialist and ranges farther during periods of ripe fruit scarcity. Gorillas in the same habitat also feed on ripe fruit when widely available, but fall back onto fibrous plant foods during lean periods. The inclusion of animal protein in the diet of the chimpanzees and its absence in that of the gorillas also distinguish the species ecologically. It may also offer clues to aspects of ecological divergence among early members of the hominid phylogeny. The paper concludes by suggesting likely characteristics of sympatric associations of Pliocene hominids, based on field data from extant sympatric apes. PMID:16283423

  20. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  1. Dynamics of DNA methylation in recent human and great ape evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Hernando-Herraez; Javier Prado-Martinez; Paras Garg; Marcos Fernandez-Callejo; Holger Heyn; Christina Hvilsom; Arcadi Navarro; Manel Esteller; Sharp, Andrew J.; Tomas Marques-Bonet

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in regulatory processes such as cell differentiation during development, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and susceptibility to complex disease. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation changes between humans and their closest relatives are still poorly understood. We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, go...

  2. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  3. Consequences of Non-Intervention for Infectious Disease in African Great Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Peter D Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both “naturally” occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. Here we explore both the risk of disease to Africa...

  4. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Simeonov

    Full Text Available APE1 is the major nuclease for excising abasic (AP sites and particular 3'-obstructive termini from DNA, and is an integral participant in the base excision repair (BER pathway. BER capacity plays a prominent role in dictating responsiveness to agents that generate oxidative or alkylation DNA damage, as well as certain chain-terminating nucleoside analogs and 5-fluorouracil. We describe within the development of a robust, 1536-well automated screening assay that employs a deoxyoligonucleotide substrate operating in the red-shifted fluorescence spectral region to identify APE1 endonuclease inhibitors. This AP site incision assay was used in a titration-based high-throughput screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280, a collection of well-characterized, drug-like molecules representing all major target classes. Prioritized hits were authenticated and characterized via two high-throughput screening assays -- a Thiazole Orange fluorophore-DNA displacement test and an E. coli endonuclease IV counterscreen -- and a conventional, gel-based radiotracer incision assay. The top, validated compounds, i.e. 6-hydroxy-DL-DOPA, Reactive Blue 2 and myricetin, were shown to inhibit AP site cleavage activity of whole cell protein extracts from HEK 293T and HeLa cell lines, and to enhance the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate. The studies herein report on the identification of novel, small molecule APE1-targeted bioactive inhibitor probes, which represent initial chemotypes towards the development of potential pharmaceuticals.

  5. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  6. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J; Loubes, J-M; Descouens, D; Dumoncel, J; Thackeray, J F; Kahn, J-L; de Beer, F; Riberon, A; Hoffman, K; Balaresque, P; Gilissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  7. Great apes use weight as a cue to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Cornelia; Call, Josep

    2011-04-01

    Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n=5), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii; n=6), and a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=1) were presented with two opaque cups, one empty and one baited (containing two bananas). Subjects had to independently gain weight information about the contents of the cups to find the hidden food. Six apes attained above chance level within a total of 16 trials. Successful subjects spontaneously adopted the method of successively lifting the cups and thus comparing their weight before making a choice. Prior to testing, these apes had participated in a weight discrimination task. To rule out that a subject's good performance was influenced by previous experience in weight experiments, we ran a second test in which the same task was presented to a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n=9) who were naïve to weight experiments. These subjects also participated in an additional test condition in which the same problem was presented based on learning to associate arbitrary visual stimuli. The results show that experience did not affect performance because the nine naïve subjects were equally able to find the food when the task stimuli held a causal relation (i.e. weight indicates the hidden food). Interestingly, only one of the naïve subjects solved the task when the task elements held an arbitrary relation (i.e. certain visual pattern indicates food). Our results confirm previous findings that apes perform better in problems grounded on causal compared to arbitrary relations. PMID:21328591

  8. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kormos

    Full Text Available The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1 takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2 identifies priority offset sites, (3 promotes aggregated offsets, and (4 integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  9. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  10. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  11. Unique genomic sequences in human chromosome 16p are conserved in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzami, S T; Kringstein, A M; Conte, R A; Verma, R S

    1997-01-27

    In humans, acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) with abnormal bone marrow eosinophilia is diagnosed by the presence of a pericentric inversion in chromosome 16, involving breakpoints p13;q23 [i.e., inv(16)(p13;q23)]. A pericentric inversion involves breaks that have occurred on the p and q arms and the segment in between is rotated 180 degrees and reattaches. The recent development of a "human micro-coatasome" painting probe for 16p contains unique DNA sequences that fluorescently label only the short arm of chromosome 16, which facilitates the identification of such inversions and represents an ideal tool for analyzing the "divergence/convergence" of the equivalent human chromosome 16 (PTR 18, GGO 17 and PPY 19) in the great apes, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. When the probe is used on the type of pericentric inversion characteristic of AMML, signals are observed on the proximal portions (the regions closest to the centromere) of the long and short arms of chromosome 16. The probe hybridized to only the short arm of all three ape chromosomes and signals were not observed on the long arms, suggesting that a pericentric inversion similar to that seen in AMML has not occurred in any of these great apes. PMID:9037113

  12. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  13. Dynamics of DNA methylation in recent human and great ape evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hernando-Herraez

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in regulatory processes such as cell differentiation during development, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and susceptibility to complex disease. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation changes between humans and their closest relatives are still poorly understood. We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ∼800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ∼170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution. We identified a significant positive relationship between the rate of coding variation and alterations of methylation at the promoter level, indicative of co-occurrence between evolution of protein sequence and gene regulation. In contrast, and supporting the idea that many phenotypic differences between humans and great apes are not due to amino acid differences, our analysis also identified 184 genes that are perfectly conserved at protein level between human and chimpanzee, yet show significant epigenetic differences between these two species. We conclude that epigenetic alterations are an important force during primate evolution and have been under-explored in evolutionary comparative genomics.

  14. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J; Loubes, J-M; Descouens, D; Dumoncel, J; Thackeray, J F; Kahn, J-L; de Beer, F; Riberon, A; Hoffman, K; Balaresque, P; Gilissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  15. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Braga

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo,Gorilla and (Pan,Homo most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  16. African apes as reservoirs of Plasmodium falciparum and the origin and diversification of the Laverania subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Linda; Fourment, Mathieu; Nerrienet, Eric; Rousset, Dominique; Sadeuh, Serge A; Goodman, Steven M; Andriaholinirina, Nicole V; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Paul, Richard E; Robert, Vincent; Ayala, Francisco J; Ariey, Frédéric

    2010-06-01

    We investigated two mitochondrial genes (cytb and cox1), one plastid gene (tufA), and one nuclear gene (ldh) in blood samples from 12 chimpanzees and two gorillas from Cameroon and one lemur from Madagascar. One gorilla sample is related to Plasmodium falciparum, thus confirming the recently reported presence in gorillas of this parasite. The second gorilla sample is more similar to the recently defined Plasmodium gaboni than to the P. falciparum-Plasmodium reichenowi clade, but distinct from both. Two chimpanzee samples are P. falciparum. A third sample is P. reichenowi and two others are P. gaboni. The other chimpanzee samples are different from those in the ape clade: two are Plasmodium ovale, and one is Plasmodium malariae. That is, we have found three human Plasmodium parasites in chimpanzees. Four chimpanzee samples were mixed: one species was P. reichenowi; the other species was P. gaboni in three samples and P. ovale in the fourth sample. The lemur sample, provisionally named Plasmodium malagasi, is a sister lineage to the large cluster of primate parasites that does not include P. falciparum or ape parasites, suggesting that the falciparum + ape parasite cluster (Laverania clade) may have evolved from a parasite present in hosts not ancestral to the primates. If malignant malaria were eradicated from human populations, chimpanzees, in addition to gorillas, might serve as a reservoir for P. falciparum. PMID:20498054

  17. Gestural and Symbolic Development among Apes and Humans: Support for a Multimodal Theory of Language Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen eGillespie-Lynch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans? This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared nonverbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution.

  18. Differential resource utilization by extant great apes and australopithecines: towards solving the C4 conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponheimer, Matt; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2003-09-01

    Morphological and biogeochemical evidence suggest that australopithecines had diets markedly different from those of extant great apes. Stable carbon isotope analysis, for example, has shown that significant amounts of the carbon consumed by australopithecines were derived from C(4) photosynthesis in plants. This means that australopithecines were eating large quantities of C(4) plants such as tropical grasses and sedges, or were eating animals that were themselves eating C(4) plants. In contrast, there is no evidence that modern apes consume appreciable amounts of any of these foods, even in the most arid extents of their ranges where these foods are most prevalent. Environmental reconstructions of early australopithecine environments overlap with modern chimpanzee habitats. This, in conjunction with the stable isotope evidence, suggests that australopithecines and great apes, even in similar environments, would utilize available resources differently. Thus, the desire or capacity to use C(4) foods may be a basal character of our lineage. We do not know, however, which of the nutritionally disparate C(4) foods were utilized by hominids. Here we discuss which C(4) resources were most likely consumed by australopithecines, as well as the potential nutritional, physiological, and social consequences of eating these foods. PMID:14527627

  19. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  20. Reconsidering great ape imitation and pantomime. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Anne E.

    2016-03-01

    Like previous commentators, I see Arbib's reconstruction of the mirror neuron system's contribution to language evolution [1] as valuable but in need of revision [2,3]. My concerns focus on his proposed behavioral pathway to language - complex imitation to pantomime to protosign - as it concerns great apes. Arbib portrays these abilities as unique to the human lineage, despite evidence that great apes are capable of all three. I suggest great ape findings worth reconsidering.

  1. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliana, Farha M.; Nara, Hidetoshi [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Onoda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Fujii, Hodaka [Combined Program on Microbiology and Immunology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Department of Cancer Medical Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Department of Internal Medicine 1, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Asao, Hironobu, E-mail: asao-h@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-21 induces nuclear accumulation of Ape1/Ref-1 protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ape1/Ref-1 is indispensable in IL-21-induced cell proliferation and survival signal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ape1/Ref-1 is required for IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation. -- Abstract: IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  2. Reduced expression of DNA repair and redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 impairs human pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Zhou, Shaoyu; Sandusky, George E; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is virtually never cured. Understanding the chemoresistance intrinsic to this cancer will aid in developing new regimens. High expression of APE1/Ref-1, a DNA repair and redox signaling protein, is associated with resistance, poor outcome, and angiogenesis; little is known in pancreatic cancer. Immunostaining of adenocarcinoma shows greater APE1/Ref-1 expression than in normal pancreas tissue. A decrease in APE1/Ref-1 protein levels results in pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and altered cell cycle progression. Endogenous cell cycle inhibitors increase when APE1/ Ref-1 is reduced, demonstrating its importance to proliferation and growth of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Secreted APE1/Ref-1 inhibits TNF-α-stimulated endothelial inflammation via thiol-disulfide exchange in TNF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kang, Gun; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Kim, Soo Jin; Lee, Sang Do; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-03-11

    Apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein with redox activity and is proved to be secreted from stimulated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functions of extracellular APE1/Ref-1 with respect to leading anti-inflammatory signaling in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells in response to acetylation. Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells with an inhibitor of deacetylase that causes intracellular acetylation, considerably suppressed vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). During TSA-mediated acetylation in culture, a time-dependent increase in secreted APE1/Ref-1 was confirmed. The acetyl moiety of acetylated-APE1/Ref-1 was rapidly removed based on the removal kinetics. Additionally, recombinant human (rh) APE1/Ref-1 with reducing activity induced a conformational change in rh TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) by thiol-disulfide exchange. Following treatment with the neutralizing anti-APE1/Ref-1 antibody, inflammatory signals via the binding of TNF-α to TNFR1 were remarkably recovered, leading to up-regulation of reactive oxygen species generation and VCAM-1, in accordance with the activation of p66(shc) and p38 MAPK. These results strongly indicate that anti-inflammatory effects in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells by acetylation are tightly linked to secreted APE1/Ref-1, which inhibits TNF-α binding to TNFR1 by reductive conformational change, with suggestion as an endogenous inhibitor of vascular inflammation.

  4. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems.

  5. APE/Ref-1在肿瘤治疗中的应用前景%Anticancer clinical utility of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1(APE/Ref-1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 王建

    2010-01-01

    脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)是碱基切除修复途径的关键酶,主要负责修复氧化剂和烷化剂造成的DNA损伤.同时APE/Ref-1还能通过氧化还原功能保持多种转录因子处于激活的还原状态,并通过调控其DNA结合活性参与肿瘤发生发展,这些因子包括AP-1(Fos/Jun)、NF-κB、HIF1α、p53等.本文综合近年来国外的众多文献,从APE/Ref-1的结构功能入手,回顾总结APE/Ref-1与肿瘤之间相关性及其临床研究进展,提示APE/Ref-1是非常有潜力的肿瘤治疗靶点,在临床应用中有良好的发展前景.

  6. APE/Ref-1在消化系统肿瘤中的研究进展%Advances in Study on APE/Ref-1 in Digestive System Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军民; 李琳; 李岩

    2013-01-01

    DNA碱基切除修复(BER)参与由各种原因导致的DNA损伤修复过程,是维持基因组DNA完整性的一个重要修复机制.脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)是BER过程的关键酶之一,具有DNA修复、氧化还原激活、基因表达调控等多种生物学功能,近年研究显示APE/Ref-1与胃癌、结直肠癌、胰腺癌的发生关系密切.本文就APE/Ref-1在消化系统肿瘤中的研究进展作一综述.%DNA base excision repair (BER) is involved in the repair process of DNA damage due to all kinds of causes.It plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA.Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) is a key enzyme for BER.It has various biological functions such as DNA repair,oxidoreduction activation and regulation of gene expression.Recent studies demonstrated that APE/Ref-1 had a close association with gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.This article reviewed the advances in study on APE/Ref-1 in digestive system tumor.

  7. Great ape skeletal collections: making the most of scarce and irreplaceable resources in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam D; Marcus, Emily; Wood, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Information about primate genomes has re-emphasized the importance of the great apes (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo) as, for most purposes, the appropriate comparators when generating hypotheses about the most recent common ancestor of the hominins and panins, or the most recent common ancestor of the hominin clade. Great ape skeletal collections are thus an important and irreplaceable resource for researchers conducting these types of comparative analyses, yet the integrity of these collections is threatened by unnecessary use and their availability is threatened by financial pressures on the institutions in which the collections reside. We discuss the general history of great ape skeletal collections, and in order to get a better sense of the utility and potential of these important sources of data we assemble the equivalent of a biography of the Powell-Cotton Collection. We explore the history of how this collection of chimpanzee and gorilla skeletons was accumulated, how it came to be recognized as a potentially important source of comparative information, who has made use of it, and what types of data have been collected. We present a protocol for collecting information about each individual animal (e.g., which bones are preserved, their condition, etc.) and have made that information about the Powell-Cotton Collection freely available in an online relational database (Human Origins Database, www.humanoriginsdatabase.org). As an illustration of the practical application of these data, we developed a tabular summary of ontogenetic information about each individual (see Appendices A and B). Collections like the Powell-Cotton are irreplaceable sources of material regarding the hard-tissue evidence and recent history of the closest living relatives of modern humans. We end this contribution by suggesting ways that curators and the researchers who use and rely on these reference collections could work together to help preserve and protect them so that future generations

  8. Scapular shape of extant hominoids and the African ape/modern human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Spiewak, Ted A; Seitelman, Brielle; Gunz, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered early hominin fossil scapulae have bolstered investigations of scapular shape, which have long been used to interpret behavioral variation among primates. However, unexpected similarities between Pongo and Homo - particularly in scapular spine orientation - have raised questions about the functional utility of scapular morphology and its phylogenetic context in the hominin lineage. Not surprisingly, significant disagreement surrounds disparate morphological reconstructions of the modern human/African ape last common ancestor (LCA). Our study utilizes geometric morphometric (GM) approaches - two employing homologous, anatomical landmarks and a "spine-free" alternative using 98 sliding semilandmarks along the boundary of the subscapular fossa. The landmark-based "wireframe" GM analysis principally sorted groups by spine orientation: Homo and Pongo were similar to one another with more transversely-oriented spines as compared to Hylobates and the African apes. In contrast, Homo and Gorilla clustered together in our semilandmark analysis with superoinferiorly broad blades. Pan scapulae were similar, but had more mediolaterally compressed blades and laterally-positioned superior angles. Hylobates was superoinferiorly narrow, yet obliquely expanded relative to the vertebral border. Pongo scapulae were unique among hominoids in being nearly as broad as they were long. Previously documented 'convergence' of Homo and Pongo scapulae appears to be principally driven by similarities in spine orientation, rather than overall blade shape. Therefore, we contend that it is more parsimonious to reconstruct the African ape/Homo LCA scapula as being Gorilla-like, especially in light of similar characterizations of certain fossil hominin scapulae. Accordingly, the evolution of Pan (highly oblique spine and laterally-situated superior angle) and Homo (transversely-oriented spine) scapular morphology would have involved relatively minor shifts from this ancestral

  9. Scapular shape of extant hominoids and the African ape/modern human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David J; Spiewak, Ted A; Seitelman, Brielle; Gunz, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered early hominin fossil scapulae have bolstered investigations of scapular shape, which have long been used to interpret behavioral variation among primates. However, unexpected similarities between Pongo and Homo - particularly in scapular spine orientation - have raised questions about the functional utility of scapular morphology and its phylogenetic context in the hominin lineage. Not surprisingly, significant disagreement surrounds disparate morphological reconstructions of the modern human/African ape last common ancestor (LCA). Our study utilizes geometric morphometric (GM) approaches - two employing homologous, anatomical landmarks and a "spine-free" alternative using 98 sliding semilandmarks along the boundary of the subscapular fossa. The landmark-based "wireframe" GM analysis principally sorted groups by spine orientation: Homo and Pongo were similar to one another with more transversely-oriented spines as compared to Hylobates and the African apes. In contrast, Homo and Gorilla clustered together in our semilandmark analysis with superoinferiorly broad blades. Pan scapulae were similar, but had more mediolaterally compressed blades and laterally-positioned superior angles. Hylobates was superoinferiorly narrow, yet obliquely expanded relative to the vertebral border. Pongo scapulae were unique among hominoids in being nearly as broad as they were long. Previously documented 'convergence' of Homo and Pongo scapulae appears to be principally driven by similarities in spine orientation, rather than overall blade shape. Therefore, we contend that it is more parsimonious to reconstruct the African ape/Homo LCA scapula as being Gorilla-like, especially in light of similar characterizations of certain fossil hominin scapulae. Accordingly, the evolution of Pan (highly oblique spine and laterally-situated superior angle) and Homo (transversely-oriented spine) scapular morphology would have involved relatively minor shifts from this ancestral

  10. Comparative psychology and the great apes - Their competence in learning, language, and numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of comparative studies conducted for the past three decades is presented. These studies have led to the establishment of the Language Research Center that provides facilities for research into questions of primate behavior and cognition. Several experiments conducted among chimpanzees are discussed and comparative analyses with the lesser apes, monkeys, and humans are offered. Among the primates, brain complexity varies widely and the evidence is strong that encephalization and enhanced brain complexity facilitate the learning of concepts, the transfer of learning to an advantage, and mediational and observational learning.

  11. Insertion and/or deletion of many repeated DNA sequences in human and higher ape evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwu, H R; Roberts, J W; Davidson, E. H.; Britten, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The total numbers of copies of two repeat families, L1 (Kpn I) and Alu, have been measured in the DNA of four higher apes by an accurate titration method. The number of members of the Alu family repeats in the four genomes are as follows: human, 910,000; chimpanzee, 330,000; gorilla, 410,000; orangutan, 580,000. For the Kpn I family (3'-ward higher frequency region) the number of copies in these genomes are as follows: human, 107,000; chimpanzee, 51,000; gorilla, 64,000; orangutan, 84,000. Th...

  12. Role of the XRCC1 - APE1 interaction in the maintenance of genetic stability; Etude du role de l' interaction entre XRCC1 et APE1 dans la stabilite genetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossou-Becker, M.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis is divided in four chapters: the first one concerns the genetic instability, the second one is devoted to the DNA repair, the third one is related to the XRCC1 and the chapter four concerns APE1. Then, are defined the objectives and the results. This work fits into the studies of repair mechanisms. The physical and functional characterisation of the interaction between XRCC1 and APE1 allowed to understand its involvement in the prevention of the genetic instability at the origin of cancer. (N.C.)

  13. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1(APE/Ref-1): a unique target for the prevention and treatment of human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun; Meyskens, Frank L

    2009-03-01

    Management of melanoma is a growing and challenging public health issue requiring novel and multidisciplinary approaches to achieve more efficient prevention and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this article is to show the critical role of APE/Ref-1 on melanomagenesis and progression. APE/Ref-1 serves as a redox-sensitive node of convergence of various signals as well as a DNA-repair enzyme, and its activation protects melanocytes and melanoma cells from chronic oxidative stress and promotes cell survival via mediation of downstream pathways. APE/Ref-1 is a strong candidate as a potential drug-treatable target for the prevention and treatment of human melanoma. Lead compounds exhibiting inhibitory effects on APE/Ref-1 are also reviewed. We anticipate potential clinical benefit in the future through inhibition of APE/Ref-1 and/or Ref-1-mediated signaling.

  14. Great ape Y Chromosome and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies reflect subspecies structure and patterns of mating and dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Hallast, Pille; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Batini, Chiara; Zadik, Daniel; Rocchi, Mariano; Schempp, Werner; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Mark A Jobling

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of genetic diversity in great ape species is likely to have been affected by patterns of dispersal and mating. This has previously been investigated by sequencing autosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but large-scale sequence analysis of the male-specific region of the Y Chromosome (MSY) has not yet been undertaken. Here, we use the human MSY reference sequence as a basis for sequence capture and read mapping in 19 great ape males, combining the data with sequences extract...

  15. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination. PMID:24386405

  16. Stress Analysis and Optimization of a Piaggio Ape Clutch Plate with different Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Sreedher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available clutch plate is one of the important part in the power transmission systems. Good design of clutch provides better engine performance. Clutch is device which is used to engage or disengage of gears and it transfers the rotary motion of one shaft to the other shaft when desired. In automobiles friction clutches are widely used in power transmission applications. To transmit maximum torque in friction clutches selection of the friction material is one of the important tasks. In this thesis a model of Piaggio Ape clutch plate has been generated in Pro-E Cre0-5 and then imported in ANSYS for power transmission applications. We have conducted structural analysis by varying the friction surfaces material and keeping base material aluminium same. By seeing the results, Comparison is done for both materials to validate better lining material for Piaggio Ape clutch plate by doing analysis on clutch with help of ANSYS software for find out which material is best for the lining of friction surfaces.

  17. Task constraints mask great apes' ability to solve the trap-table task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girndt, Antje; Meier, T; Call, J

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have investigated animals' causal knowledge with a task requiring subjects to use a tool to bring a reward within reach whilst avoiding a trap. Previous studies have suggested limitations in the ability of several species to avoid traps in tubes or tables. However, certain features may have inflated task difficulty. We tested 20 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 7 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 5 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 5 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the trap-table--a task in which subjects have to pull one of two rakes prepositioned behind two rewards on a flat surface. One of the rewards is in front of a trap into which it will fall. We investigated the effect of trap type, tool type, the number of available tools, and reinforcement regime on performance. We replicated previous findings showing that apes failed to choose the correct rake above chance. However, when they could instead choose where to insert a single tool, around 80% of the apes solved the trap-table task in the first trial, revealing an important effect of task constraints on their performance. PMID:18248114

  18. An evolutionary conserved early replicating segment on the sex chromosomes of man and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Schempp, W; Wiesner, H

    1986-01-01

    Replication studies on prometaphase chromosomes of man, the chimpanzee, the pygmy chimpanzee, the gorilla, and the orangutan reveal great interspecific homologies between the autosomes. The early replicating X chromosomes clearly show a high degree of conservation of both the pattern and the time course of replication. An early replicating segment on the short arm of the X chromosomes of man (Xp22.3) which escapes inactivation can be found on the X chromosomes of the great apes as well. Furthermore, the most early replicating segment on the Y chromosomes of all species tested appears to be homologous to this segment on the X chromosomes. Therefore, these early replicating segments in the great apes may correspond to the pseudoautosomal segment proposed to exist in man. From further cytogenetic characterization of the Y chromosomes it is evident that structural alterations have resulted in an extreme divergence in both the euchromatic and heterochromatic parts. It is assumed, therefore, that, in contrast to the X chromosomes, the Y chromosomes have undergone a rapid evolution within the higher primates. PMID:3096642

  19. Relative growth of the limbs and trunk in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B T

    1981-10-01

    Examination of relative growth and allometry is important for our understanding of the African apes, as they represent a closely related group of species of increasing body size. This study presents a comparison of ontogenetic relative growth patterns of some postcranial dimensions in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Interspecific proportion differences among the three species are also analyzed. It is stressed that reliable ontogenetic information can only be obtained if subadults are examined-growth data cannot be inferred from static adult scaling. Results indicate that some postcranial relative growth patterns are very similar in the three species, suggesting differential extrapolation of a common growth pattern, whereas for other proportion comparisons the growth trends differ markedly among the species, producing distinct shape differences in the adults. Interspecific shape changes among the three species are characterized by positive allometry of chest girth and negative allometry of body height and leg length. It is suggested that relative decrease of leg length with increasing body size among the African pongids might be expected on biomechanical grounds, in quadrupedal terrestrialism. Relative to body weight or trunk length, the limbs of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) are longer than in the common chimpanzee or the gorilla, with a lower intermembral index. This may most closely resemble the primitive condition for the African apes. PMID:7325219

  20. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination.

  1. Are apes inequity averse? New data on the token-exchange paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have produced mixed evidence about inequity aversion in nonhuman primates. Brosnan et al. [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 272:253-258, 2005] found inequity aversion in chimpanzees and argued that effort is crucial, if subjects are to evaluate how they are rewarded in comparison to a competitor for an identical performance. In this study we investigated inequity aversion with chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans, using the method of Brosnan et al. [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 272:253-258, 2005] after introducing some methodological improvements. Subjects always received a less-preferred food in exchange for a token, whereas the competitor received either the same type of food for their token (equity) or a more favored food for it (inequity). Apes did not refuse more of the less-preferred food when a competitor had received the more favored food. Thus, with an improved methodology we failed to reproduce the findings of Brosnan et al. [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 272:253-258, 2005] that apes show inequity aversion. PMID:19021260

  2. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  3. The Expressions of APE/Ref-1 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Its Correlation with VEGF and MVD%卵巢上皮性癌中APE/Ref-1的表达及与 VEGF和MVD的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奎美; 纪新强; 徐平平

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)在卵巢上皮性癌中的表达特点及与血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)和血管生成的关系.方法 应用免疫组化P-V6000二步法检测62例卵巢上皮性癌、30例卵巢良性肿瘤和20例正常卵巢组织中APE/Ref-1和VEGF的表达,采用血管内皮特异标记物CD34标记并计数微血管密度(MVD),最后分析APE/Ref-1与VEGF和MVD的关系.结果 良恶性卵巢肿瘤和正常卵巢组织中都有APE/Refo-1表达,但是定位有所不同:20例正常组织只在细胞核中表达;30例良性肿瘤和62例癌组织都存在细胞核表达,但良性肿瘤中4例存在胞质表达,癌组织中48例存在胞质表达,且胞质APE/Ref-1阳性表达的癌组织较无表达者VEGF阳性率显著增加(P<0.05),MVD也显著增加(P<0.05),且细胞核和细胞质中APE/Ref-1的表达都与临床分期关系密切.结论 卵巢癌中APE/Ref-1的胞质移位可能与卵巢癌的发生有关,并且与VEGF的高表达和血管生成关系密切.

  4. Expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma and their clinical significance%APE1、Bcl-2及 Bax在视网膜母细胞瘤中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李德全

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析APE1、Bcl-2及Bax在视网膜母细胞瘤( Rb)中的表达及临床意义。方法选取2011年9月至2013年11月经病理学检查确诊为Rb患者32例及正常视网膜组织16例作为研究对象,免疫组织化学及Western blot分析APE1、Bcl-2及Bax在Rb中及正常视网膜中的表达,比较其在分化及未分化型Rb中的表达。结果 APE1、Bax及Bcl-2在Rb中呈现出高表达,阳性率分别为90.63%、65.63%及68.75%,与正常组比差异均具有统计学意义(χ2=30.13,χ2=12.31,χ2=16.91, P <0.01),与Western blot结果一致;分化组与未分化组中APE1、Bax存在差异显著(χ2=4.99,χ2=7.85, P <0.05),Bcl-2无统计学差异(χ2=0.73, P >0.01)。结论 Rb的发生发展涉及多个基因及生物学过程,分析APE1、bcl-2及bax在Rb中的表达,对Rb的诊断与治疗有重要的参考价值。%Objective To analyze the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma (Rb) and to evaluate their clinical significance.Methods A total of 32 retinoblastoma patients were enrolled for this study from September 2011 to November 2013.Sixteen normal retinal tissues were collected as control.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in retinoblastoma tumor tissues and normal retina.Their expres-sions in differentiated and undifferentiated Rb were also compared.Results APE1, Bax and Bcl-2 were highly expressed in retinoblastoma with positive rates being 90.63%, 65.63% and 68.75%, respectively, and were significantly higher than in normal retina tissues (χ2 =30.13 for APE1,χ2 =12.31 for Bax, andχ2 =16.91 for Bcl-2;P 0.01).Conclusion The development of Rb involves multiple genes and biological processes.Analysis of the expression of APE1, Bcl-2 and Bax in Rb has important clinical value for the diagnosis and treat-ment of Rb.

  5. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  6. Antifungal miconazole induces cardiotoxicity via inhibition of APE/Ref-1-related pathway in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Lin, Hai Yue; Jung, Soohyun; Cho, Soo Min; Shin, Ho-Chul; Bae, Young Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Bokyung

    2012-04-01

    Effects of miconazole, an azole antifungal, have not been fully determined in cardiomyocytes. We therefore identified the transcriptome in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes responding to miconazole using DNA microarray analysis and selected a gene and investigated its role in cardiomyocytes. Miconazole dose-dependently increased the levels of superoxide (O(2)(-)) and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes; these increases were inhibited by treatment with antioxidants. The DNA microarray revealed that 4163 genes were upregulated and 4829 genes downregulated by more than threefold in miconazole-treated cardiomyocytes compared with the vehicle-treated control. Moreover, redox homeostasis-, oxidative stress-, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related categories of genes were strongly affected by miconazole treatment. Among genes overlapped in all these categories, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1), a redox-related gene, was prominent and was diminished in the miconazole-treated group. Changes in the O(2)(-) production and apoptosis induction in response to miconazole were inhibited in cardiomyocytes transfected with adenoviral APE/Ref-1. Overexpression of APE/Ref-1 reversed the reduction in beating frequency induced by miconazole. Our results demonstrate that miconazole may induce rat cardiotoxicity via a ROS-mediated pathway, which is initiated by the inhibition of APE/Ref-1 expression. This possible new adverse event in cardiomyocyte function caused by miconazole may provide a basis for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  7. Lineage-specific expansions of retroviral insertions within the genomes of African great apes but not humans and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Yohn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral infections of the germline have the potential to episodically alter gene function and genome structure during the course of evolution. Horizontal transmissions between species have been proposed, but little evidence exists for such events in the human/great ape lineage of evolution. Based on analysis of finished BAC chimpanzee genome sequence, we characterize a retroviral element (Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus 1 [PTERV1] that has become integrated in the germline of African great ape and Old World monkey species but is absent from humans and Asian ape genomes. We unambiguously map 287 retroviral integration sites and determine that approximately 95.8% of the insertions occur at non-orthologous regions between closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the endogenous retrovirus reveals that the gorilla and chimpanzee elements share a monophyletic origin with a subset of the Old World monkey retroviral elements, but that the average sequence divergence exceeds neutral expectation for a strictly nuclear inherited DNA molecule. Within the chimpanzee, there is a significant integration bias against genes, with only 14 of these insertions mapping within intronic regions. Six out of ten of these genes, for which there are expression data, show significant differences in transcript expression between human and chimpanzee. Our data are consistent with a retroviral infection that bombarded the genomes of chimpanzees and gorillas independently and concurrently, 3-4 million years ago. We speculate on the potential impact of such recent events on the evolution of humans and great apes.

  8. A new APE1/Ref-1-dependent pathway leading to reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and activation of their DNA-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kozue; Hirao, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Ogura, Yuji; Sato, Iwao; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Wada, Tadashi; Handa, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    APE1/Ref-1 is thought to be a multifunctional protein involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) regulation and base excision DNA repair, and is required for early embryonic development in mice. APE1/Ref-1 has redox activity and AP endonuclease activity, and is able to enhance DNA-binding activity of several transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53, through reduction of their critical cysteine residues. However, it remains elusive exactly how APE1/Ref-1 carries out its essential functions in vivo. Here, we show that APE1/Ref-1 not only reduces target transcription factors directly but also facilitates their reduction by other reducing molecules such as glutathione or thioredoxin. The new activity of APE1/Ref-1, termed redox chaperone activity, is exerted at concentration significantly lower than that required for its redox activity and is neither dependent on its redox activity nor on its AP endonuclease activity. We also show evidence that redox chaperone activity of APE1/Ref-1 is critical to NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in human cells and is mediated through its physical association with target transcription factors. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may play multiple roles in an antioxidative stress response pathway through its different biochemical activities. These findings also provide new insight into the mechanism of intracellular redox regulation.

  9. Bonobo habituation in a forest-savanna mosaic habitat: influence of ape species, habitat type, and sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narat, Victor; Pennec, Flora; Simmen, Bruno; Ngawolo, Jean Christophe Bokika; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Habituation is the term used to describe acceptance by wild animals of a human observer as a neutral element in their environment. Among primates, the process takes from a few days for Galago spp. to several years for African apes. There are also intraspecies differences reflecting differences in habitat, home range, and ape-human relationship history. Here, we present the first study of the process of bonobo habituation in a fragmented habitat, a forest-savanna mosaic in the community-based conservation area led by the Congolese nongovernmental organization Mbou-Mon-Tour, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this area, local people use the forest almost every day for traditional activities but avoid bonobos because of a traditional taboo. Because very few flight reactions were observed during habituation, we focused on quantitative parameters to assess the development of ape tolerance and of the tracking efficiency of observer teams. During the 18-month study period (May 2012-October 2013), 4043 h (319 days) were spent in the forest and bonobos were observed for a total of 405 h (196 contacts on 134 days). The average contact duration was stable over time (124 min), but the minimal distance during a contact decreased with habituation effort. Moreover, bonobo location and tracking efficiency, daily ratio of contact time to habituation effort, and the number of observations at ground level were positively correlated with habituation effort. Our observations suggest that bonobos become habituated relatively rapidly. These results are discussed in relation to the habitat type, ape species, and the local sociocultural context of villagers. The habituation process involves changes in ape behavior toward observers and also more complex interactions concerning the ecosystem, including the building of an efficient local team. Before starting a habituation process, knowledge of the human sociocultural context is essential to assess the balance between risks and benefits

  10. Elevated expression of APE1/Ref-1 and its regulation on IL-6 and IL-8 in bone marrow stromal cells of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Yin; Li, Meng-Xia; Xiang, De-Bing; Mou, Jiang-Hong; Qing, Yi; Zeng, Lin-Li; Yang, Zhen-Zhou; Guan, Wei; Wang, Dong

    2010-10-01

    A number of growth factors secreted by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), including interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6/8), are important for the initiation and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). However, the mechanisms that regulate the production of IL-6/8 by BMSC have not yet been well characterized. Human dual functional protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is essential for cell survival and proliferation. Previous studies showed that APE1/Ref-1 was overexpressed in tumor cells, but few studies showed its expression in supportive cells in the tumor microenvironment. We first detected APE1/Ref-1 expression in BMSCs of normal, initial, and recurrent MM patients, and then explore the correlation between APE1/Ref-1 level and IL-6/8 secretion of BMSCs. A marked increase of APE1/Ref-1 expression and abnormal subcellular distribution were observed in MM BMSCs. APE1/Ref-1 overexpression was related to higher secretary level of IL-6/8 by MM BMSCs and the IL-6/8 secretion was blocked significantly by adenovirus-mediated APE1/Ref-1-specific (small interfering RNA) siRNA. Our results also demonstrated that APE1/Ref-1-specific siRNA significantly inhibited DNA binding activity of AP-1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), 2 important transcription factors in the regulation IL-6/8 secretion in MM BMSCs. The results provided by the present study indicate APE1/Ref-1, which plays a regulatory role in IL-6/8 production by BMSCs, may be a potential therapeutic target of MM.

  11. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes. PMID:26479151

  12. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger;

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes......, and that a higher proportion of substitutions results from positive selection. Strikingly, the X exhibits several megabase long regions where diversity is reduced more than five fold. These regions overlap significantly among species, and have a higher singleton proportion, population differentiation......, and nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratio. We rule out background selection and soft selective sweeps as explanations for these observations, and conclude that several strong selective sweeps have occurred independently in similar regions in several species. Since these regions are strongly associated...

  13. Fungal phosphate transporter serves as a receptor backbone for gibbon ape leukemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; van Zeijl, Marja; Johann, Stephen V;

    1997-01-01

    loop plays a critical role in infection. However, further elucidation of the roles of the extracellular loops in infection is hampered by the high level of sequence similarity among these proteins. The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, Pho-4, from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa......Pit1, the receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), is proposed to be an integral membrane protein with five extracellular loops. Chimeras made between Pit1 homologs differing in permissivity for infection and between Pit1 and the related protein Pit2 have shown that the fourth extracellular...... is distantly related to Pit1 and -2, showing an amino acid identity of only 35% to Pit1 in the putative extracellular loops. We show here that Pho-4 itself does not function as a receptor for GALV. Introduction of 12 Pit1-specific amino acid residues in the putative fourth extracellular loop of Pho-4 resulted...

  14. Human-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains within great ape populations in Central Africa (Gabon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, M; Dischinger, J; Türck, M; Verrier, D; Oedenkoven, M; Ngoubangoye, B; Le Flohic, G; Drexler, J F; Bierbaum, G; Gonzalez, J-P

    2013-11-01

    The risk of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is well-known. However, most studies regarding the distribution of (clinically relevant) S. aureus among humans and animals took place in the western hemisphere and only limited data are available from (Central) Africa. In this context, recent studies focused on S. aureus strains in humans and primates, but the question of whether humans and monkeys share related S. aureus strains or may interchange strains remained largely unsolved. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution and spread of human-like S. aureus strains among great apes living in captivity. Therefore, a primate facility at the International Centre for Medical Research of Franceville (Gabon) was screened. We detected among the primates a common human S. aureus strain, belonging to the spa-type t148. It was isolated from three different individuals of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), of which one individual showed a large necrotizing wound. This animal died, most probably of a staphylococcal sepsis. Additionally, we discovered the t148 type among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were settled in the immediate neighbourhood of the infected gorillas. A detailed analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that the gorilla and chimpanzee isolates represented two closely related strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human-associated S. aureus strain causing disease in great apes. The simultaneous detection in gorillas and chimpanzees indicated an interspecies transmission of this S. aureus strain. Our results recommend that protection of wild animals must not only be based on habitat conservation, but also on the assessment of the risk of contact with human pathogens.

  15. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.

    2013-03-22

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  16. The risk of disease to great apes : Simulating disease spread in orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Carne; Stuart Semple; Helen Morrogh-Bernard; Klaus Zuberbühler; Julia Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of...

  17. APE/Ref-1蛋白与脑缺血/再灌注神经元损伤%APE/Ref-1 protein and ischemia/reperfusion injury of neurons in the brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 李智文

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and the aftermath of reperfusion form a hypoxic/hyperoxic sequence of events that can trigger DNA damage in neurons of central nervous system.Neuronal apoptosis will happen without immediate DNA repair.APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involoved in DNA base excision repair pathway and in redox reguiation of DNA-binding activity of AP-1 family members.which may play an important role in protection of postischemic neuronal damage.

  18. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Farha M; Nara, Hidetoshi; Onoda, Tadashi; Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin; Fujii, Hodaka; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Asao, Hironobu

    2012-04-13

    IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  19. Transferability of HIV by arthropods supports the hypothesis about transmission of the virus from apes to man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Manfred; Kloft, Werner; Brandner, Gerhard

    2002-03-01

    The primate Pan troglodytes troglodytes, a chimpanzee subspecies, has recently been defined as a natural animal host of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Apes are traditionally hunted in Africa and are offered for sale in open-air meat markets. The bloody carcasses are regularly covered with blood-feeding flies, amongst them possibly the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), a cosmopolitically occurring biting fly. This fly is the effective vector for the retrovirus causing equine leukemia. According to laboratory experiments, the infectivity of ingested HIV is not reduced in the regurgitates of this fly. These findings are combined to explain the mechanism for a possible primary transmission of HIV from ape to man.

  20. Reduced Nuclease Activity of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE1) Variants on Nucleosomes: IDENTIFICATION OF ACCESS RESIDUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John M; Mao, Peng; McNeill, Daniel R; Wilson, David M

    2015-08-21

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are generated at high frequency in genomic DNA via spontaneous hydrolytic, damage-induced or enzyme-mediated base release. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) is the predominant mammalian enzyme responsible for initiating removal of mutagenic and cytotoxic abasic lesions as part of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. We have examined here the ability of wild-type (WT) and a collection of variant/mutant APE1 proteins to cleave at an AP site within a nucleosome core particle. Our studies indicate that, in comparison to the WT protein and other variant/mutant enzymes, the incision activity of the tumor-associated variant R237C and the rare population variant G241R are uniquely hypersensitive to nucleosome complexes in the vicinity of the AP site. This defect appears to stem from an abnormal interaction of R237C and G241R with abasic DNA substrates, but is not simply due to a DNA binding defect, as the site-specific APE1 mutant Y128A, which displays markedly reduced AP-DNA complex stability, did not exhibit a similar hypersensitivity to nucleosome structures. Notably, this incision defect of R237C and G241R was observed on a pre-assembled DNA glycosylase·AP-DNA complex as well. Our results suggest that the BER enzyme, APE1, has acquired distinct surface residues that permit efficient processing of AP sites within the context of protein-DNA complexes independent of classic chromatin remodeling mechanisms.

  1. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Wobber, Victoria; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    Primates' understanding of tool functionality has been investigated extensively using a paradigm in which subjects are presented with a tool that they must use to obtain an out-of-reach reward. After being given experience on an initial problem, monkeys can transfer their skill to tools of different shapes while ignoring irrelevant tool changes (e.g., color). In contrast, monkeys without initial training perform poorly on the same tasks. Compared to most monkeys, great apes show a clear propensity for tool using and may not require as much experience to succeed on tool functionality tasks. We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or familiarizing them with the test materials. Apes succeeded without experience, but only on problems based on basic properties such as the reward being supported by an object. However, only minimal experience was sufficient to allow them to quickly improve their performance on more complex problems in which the reward was not in contact with the tool. PMID:18489238

  2. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks. PMID:18183433

  3. Remembering in tool-use tasks in children and apes: the role of the information at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Providing adults with relevant information (knowledge that they will be tested at some future time) increases motivation to remember. Research has shown that it is more effective to have this information prior to, rather than after, an encoding phase. We investigated this effect in apes and children in the context of tool-use tasks. In Experiment 1 we presented chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos with two tool-use tasks and three different two-tool sets. We had two conditions: prospective (PP) and retrospective (RP). In the PP subjects were shown the task that they would have to solve before they were shown the tools with which they could solve it. In the RP this order was reversed. Apes remembered the location of the useful tool better in the PP than in the RP. In Experiment 2 we presented 3- and 4-year-olds with the same conditions. Both age groups remembered the location of the correct tool in the PP, but only the 4-year-olds did so in the RP. Thus providing apes and preschool children with relevant information prior to, rather than after, the encoding phase enhances memory. These results have important implications for the understanding of the evolution of memory in general, and encoding mechanisms in particular. PMID:23767928

  4. Ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws parallel great apes in motor self-regulation despite smaller brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Taylor, Lucy A; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    Overriding motor impulses instigated by salient perceptual stimuli represent a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation facilitates more rational behaviour, as it brings economy into the bodily interaction with the physical and social world. It also underlies certain complex cognitive processes including decision making. Recently, MacLean et al. (MacLean et al. 2014 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2140-2148. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1323533111)) conducted a large-scale study involving 36 species, comparing motor self-regulation across taxa. They concluded that absolute brain size predicts level of performance. The great apes were most successful. Only a few of the species tested were birds. Given birds' small brain size-in absolute terms-yet flexible behaviour, their motor self-regulation calls for closer study. Corvids exhibit some of the largest relative avian brain sizes-although small in absolute measure-as well as the most flexible cognition in the animal kingdom. We therefore tested ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws in the so-called cylinder task. We found performance indistinguishable from that of great apes despite the much smaller brains. We found both absolute and relative brain volume to be a reliable predictor of performance within Aves. The complex cognition of corvids is often likened to that of great apes; our results show further that they share similar fundamental cognitive mechanisms. PMID:27152224

  5. Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV. We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV and lymphocryptovirus (LCV were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.

  6. Adenovirus and herpesvirus diversity in free-ranging great apes in the Sangha region of the Republic Of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A; Olson, Sarah H; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J; Joly, Damien O; Karesh, William B; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992

  7. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Herrmann, Esther; Kaminski, Juliane; Krupenye, Christopher; Melis, Alicia P; Schroepfer, Kara; Tan, Jingzhi; Warneken, Felix; Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2013-08-01

    As many studies of cognition and behavior involve captive animals, assessing any psychological impact of captive conditions is an important goal for comparative researchers. Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011) sought to address whether captive chimpanzees show elevated signs of psychopathology relative to wild apes. They modified a checklist of diagnostic criteria for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in humans, and applied these criteria to various captive and wild chimpanzee populations. We argue that measures derived from human diagnostic criteria are not a powerful tool for assessing the psychological health of nonverbal animals. In addition, we highlight certain methodological drawbacks of the specific approach used by Ferdowsian and colleagues (2011). We propose that research should (1) focus on objective behavioral criteria that account for species-typical behaviors and can be reliably identified across populations; (2) account for population differences in rearing history when comparing how current environment impacts psychological health in animals; and (3) focus on how changes in current human practices can improve the well-being of both captive and wild animals. PMID:22889365

  8. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies. PMID:27234173

  9. Genetic Load of Loss-of-Function Polymorphic Variants in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valles-Ibáñez, Guillem; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Luisi, Pierre; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Casals, Ferran

    2016-03-01

    Loss of function (LoF) genetic variants are predicted to disrupt gene function, and are therefore expected to substantially reduce individual's viability. Knowing the genetic burden of LoF variants in endangered species is of interest for a better understanding of the effects of declining population sizes on species viability. In this study, we have estimated the number of LoF polymorphic variants in six great ape populations, based on whole-genome sequencing data in 79 individuals. Our results show that although the number of functional variants per individual is conditioned by the effective population size, the number of variants with a drastic phenotypic effect is very similar across species. We hypothesize that for those variants with high selection coefficients, differences in effective population size are not important enough to affect the efficiency of natural selection to remove them. We also describe that mostly CpG LoF mutations are shared across species, and an accumulation of LoF variants at olfactory receptor genes in agreement with its pseudogenization in humans and other primate species. PMID:26912403

  10. How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Call, Josep

    2006-07-01

    To date, neither primates nor birds have shown clear evidence of causal knowledge when attempting to solve the trap tube task. One factor that may have contributed to mask the knowledge that subjects may have about the task is that subjects were only allowed to push the reward away from them, which is a particularly difficult action for primates in certain problem solving situations. We presented five orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two bonobos (Pan paniscus), and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) with a modified trap tube that allowed subjects to push or rake the reward with the tool. In two additional follow-up tests, we inverted the tube 180 degrees rendering the trap nonfunctional and also presented subjects with the original task in which they were required to push the reward out of the tube. Results showed that all but one of the subjects preferred to rake the reward. Two orangutans and one chimpanzee (all of whom preferred to rake the reward), consistently avoided the trap only when it was functional but failed the original task. These findings suggest that some great apes may have some causal knowledge about the trap-tube task. Their success, however, depended on whether they were allowed to choose certain tool-using actions. PMID:16612632

  11. From apes to humans: locomotion as a key feature for phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senut, Brigitte

    2002-03-01

    If bipedalism has often been considered to be of a crucial interest for understanding hominid evolution, the acceptance of locomotor features to build phylogenies is still far from being a reality in the field. Especially for hominid evolution, it still seems to be difficult to accept that traits, other than craniodental ones, can be useful for defining the major dichotomies. The recent discovery of Australopithecus anamensis suggests a challenging view of the major dichotomy between apes and humans. Whilst it is widely accepted that Ardipithecus ramidus is ancestral to Australopithecus anamensis, which in its turn is ancestral to Australopithecus afarensis and then to later hominids, the postcranial adaptations, which should be taken into account, suggest another branching pattern. Based on the fact that by 4.0 million years two different locomotor patterns can be identified in hominids, two lineages would appear to be present: the "Australopithecine" lineage (with Australopithecus afarensis or Ardipithecus ramidus if the latter is really a hominid sensu stricto) and the "Hominine" lineage (with Australopithecus anamensis = Praeanthropus africanus). PMID:12050904

  12. Processing of abasic DNA clusters in hApeI-silenced primary fibroblasts exposed to low doses of X-irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prolay Das; Paula Bennett; Betsy M Sutherland

    2011-03-01

    Clustered damage in DNA includes two or more closely spaced oxidized bases, strand breaks or abasic sites that are induced by high- or low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation, and these have been found to be repair-resistant and potentially mutagenic. In the present study we found that abasic clustered damages are also induced in primary human fibroblast cells by low-LET X-rays even at very low doses. In response to the induction of the abasic sites, primary fibroblasts irradiated by low doses of X-rays in the range 10–100 cGy showed dose-dependent up-regulation of the DNA repair enzyme, ApeI. We found that the abasic clusters in primary fibroblasts were more lethal to cells when hApeI enzyme expression was down-regulated by transfecting primary fibroblasts with hApeI siRNA as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Endonuclease activity of hApeI was found to be directly proportional to hApeI gene-silencing efficiency. The DNA repair profile showed that processing of abasic clusters was delayed in hApeI-siRNA-silenced fibroblasts, which challenges the survival of the cells even at very low doses of X-rays. Thus, the present study is the first to attempt to understand the induction of cluster DNA damage at very low doses of low-LET radiation in primary human fibroblasts and their processing by DNA repair enzyme ApeI and their relation with the survival of the cells.

  13. Proteomic study of amyloid beta (25-35) peptide exposure to neuronal cells: Impact on APE1/Ref-1's protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Anil K; Dhiman, Monisha; Taglialatela, Giulio; Perez-Polo, Regino J; Mitra, Sankar

    2012-06-01

    The genotoxic, extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) protein and subsequent neuronal cell death are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway for repairing oxidized and alkylated bases and single-strand breaks (SSBs) in DNA. APE1/Ref-1 is also involved in the redox activation of several trans-acting factors (TFs) in various cell types, but little is known about its role in neuronal functions. There is emerging evidence for APE1/Ref-1's role in neuronal cells vulnerable in AD and other neurodegenerative disorders, as reflected in its nuclear accumulation in AD brains. An increase in APE1/Ref-1 has been shown to enhance neuronal survival after oxidative stress. To address whether APE1/Ref-1 level or its association with other proteins is responsible for this protective effect, we used 2-D proteomic analyses and identified cytoskeleton elements (i.e., tropomodulin 3, tropomyosin alpha-3 chain), enzymes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., pyruvate kinase M2, N-acetyl transferase, sulfotransferase 1c), proteins involved in stress response (i.e., leucine-rich and death domain, anti-NGF30), and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotien-H (hnRNP-H) as being associated with APE1/Ref-1 in Aβ(25-35)-treated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines, two common neuronal precursor lines used in Aβ neurotoxicity studies. Because the levels of some of these proteins are affected in the brains of AD patients, our study suggests a neuroprotective role for APE1/Ref-1 via its association with those proteins and modulating their cellular functions during Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  14. APE1/Ref-1 promotes the effect of angiotensin II on Ca2+ -activated K+ channel in human endothelial cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Sun; Ko, Eun A; Jung, In Duk; Son, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Nari; Park, So Youn; Hong, Ki Whan; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Han, Jin

    2008-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on whole-cell large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) currents was investigated in control and Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1)-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ang II blocked the BK(Ca) current in a dose-dependent fashion, and this inhibition was greater in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs than in control HUVECs (half-inhibition values of 102.81+/-9.54 nM and 11.34+/-0.39 nM in control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs, respectively). Pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or knock down of NADPH oxidase (p22 phox) using siRNA increased the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) currents, similar to the effect of APE1/Ref-1 overexpression. In addition, application of Ang II increased the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in the control HUVECs but not in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. Furthermore, direct application of hydrogen peroxide increased BK(Ca) channel activity. Finally, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) current was blocked by an antagonist of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in both control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. From these results, we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channel function is NADPH oxidase-dependent and may be promoted by APE1/Ref-1.

  15. Processing of abasic DNA clusters in hApeI-silenced primary fibroblasts exposed to low doses of X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Sutherland, B.

    2011-03-01

    Clustered damage in DNA includes two or more closely spaced oxidized bases, strand breaks or abasic sites that are induced by high- or low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation, and these have been found to be repair-resistant and potentially mutagenic. In the present study we found that abasic clustered damages are also induced in primary human fibroblast cells by low-LET X-rays even at very low doses. In response to the induction of the abasic sites, primary fibroblasts irradiated by low doses of X-rays in the range 10-100 cGy showed dose-dependent up-regulation of the DNA repair enzyme, ApeI. We found that the abasic clusters in primary fibroblasts were more lethal to cells when hApeI enzyme expression was down-regulated by transfecting primary fibroblasts with hApeI siRNA as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Endonuclease activity of hApeI was found to be directly proportional to hApeI gene-silencing efficiency. The DNA repair profile showed that processing of abasic clusters was delayed in hApeI-siRNA-silenced fibroblasts, which challenges the survival of the cells even at very low doses of X-rays. Thus, the present study is the first to attempt to understand the induction of cluster DNA damage at very low doses of low-LET radiation in primary human fibroblasts and their processing by DNA repair enzyme ApeI and their relation with the survival of the cells.

  16. 人胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药细胞株 APE1/Ref-1表达升高%Gemcitabine-resistant Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line Overexpresses APE1/Ref-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂佳佳; 熊光苏; 吴叔明

    2015-01-01

    背景:吉西他滨是中晚期胰腺癌的主要化疗药物,但由于胰腺癌对吉西他滨存在高度先天性和获得性耐药,吉西他滨不能明显改善胰腺癌患者的预后。目的:探讨 DNA 损伤修复及其碱基切除修复途径中的关键酶人脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶1/氧化还原因子-1(APE1/ Ref-1)表达与胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药之间的关系。方法:应用前期研究建立的人胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药细胞株 SW1990-0.5(耐药指数9.32)及其亲本细胞株 SW1990,以彗星实验评估两者经吉西他滨作用后的 DNA 损伤程度,real-time PCR 和蛋白质印迹法检测 APE1/ Ref-1 mRNA 和蛋白表达。结果:经吉西他滨作用24 h,SW1990-0.5和 SW1990细胞的彗星实验 OTM 值分别为0.32±0.13和26.96±6.83,相对于SW1990细胞,SW1990-0.5细胞的 APE1/ Ref-1 mRNA 表达量为2.48±0.49,两者 APE1/ Ref-1蛋白相对表达量分别为1.57±0.08和0.84±0.06,组间差异均有统计学意义(P 均<0.05)。结论:DNA 损伤修复可能与胰腺癌吉西他滨耐药相关,APE1/ Ref-1表达上调可能是通过修复 DNA 损伤参与胰腺癌对吉西他滨耐药。%Background:Gemcitabine is the main drug for chemotherapy of advanced pancreatic cancer,however,the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients has not been changed obviously because of the high innate and acquired resistance of cancer cells to gemcitabine. Aims:To investigate the correlation of DNA repair and expression of human APE1 / Ref-1(apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 / redox factor-1),the key enzyme in base excision repair pathway,with the resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine. Methods:A gemcitabine-resistant human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990-0. 5 with a resistance index of 9. 32 and its parental cell line SW1990 were treated with gemcitabine. DNA injury was assessed by comet assay. Expressions of APE1 / Ref-1 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western

  17. Expression of multifunctional gene APE/ref-1 in astrocytic tumor and its prognostic significance%多功能基因APE/ref-1在人脑星形细胞肿瘤中的表达及与预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华亮; 李增鹏; 牟江洪; 张沁宏; 向德兵; 王东

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨多功能基因APE/ref-1在人脑星形细胞肿瘤中的表达特点及其与患者生存期的关系.方法:收集158例各级脑星形细胞肿瘤临床病理资料并随访,石蜡标本制作组织芯片,利用免疫组化方法检测APE/ref-1蛋白的表达.结果:APE/ref-1在正常脑组织表达于胶质细胞核,在91%(143/158)的肿瘤中以胞核/胞质联合表达为主,少数可仅表达于胞核或胞质(各为5及10例,分别占3%和6%).APE/ref-1胞核阳性分度与胞质染色强度之间存在着负相关,r=-0.447,P=0.0010.其中,核表达阳性分度与肿瘤进展相关,即Ⅲ、Ⅳ级肿瘤的APE/ref-1核表达阳性分度显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ级,并与肿瘤复发有关,而APE/ref-1胞质表达与肿瘤分级和复发无关.生存资料分析显示,APE/ref-1核高表达组患者的生存率显著低于相应的APE/ref-1核低表达组,P=0.009 6.结论:多功能基因APE/ref-1与肿瘤发生和进展有关,APE/ref-1核表达可作为判断脑星形细胞肿瘤预后的指标之一;由APE/ref-1介导的DNA碱基切除修复能力的提高,以及细胞增殖相关转录因子的激活可能与星形细胞肿瘤的侵袭性表型密切相关.

  18. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  19. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Bugnyar, Thomas; Call, Josep

    2012-11-01

    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom. Although it has been proposed that this is the result of convergent evolution, little is known about whether this is limited to behavior or also includes the underlying cognitive mechanisms. We compared several species of apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and corvids (carrion crows and common ravens) using exactly the same paradigm: a support task with elements from the classical patterned-string tasks. Corvids proved able to solve at least an easy pattern, whereas apes outperformed corvids with respect to the complexity of the patterns solved, the relative number of subjects solving each problem, and the speed to reach criterion. We addressed the question of whether subjects based their choices purely on perceptual cues or on a more abstract understanding of the problem. This was done by using a perceptually very similar but causally different condition where instead of paper strips there were strip shapes painted on a platform. Corvids' performance did not differ between conditions, whereas apes were able to solve the real but not the painted task. This shows that apes were not basing their choices just on spatial or arbitrary perceptual cues. Instead, and unlike corvids, they must have had some causal knowledge of the task. PMID:22545765

  20. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox antagonist E3330 inhibits the growth of tumor endothelium and endothelial progenitor cells: therapeutic implications in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gang-Ming; Karikari, Collins; Kabe, Yasuaki; Handa, Hiroshi; Anders, Robert A; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-04-01

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape-1/Ref-1) is a multi-functional protein, involved in DNA repair and the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain acts as a cytoprotective element in normal endothelial cells, mitigating the deleterious effects of apoptotic stimuli through induction of survival signals. We explored the role of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain in the maintenance of tumor-associated endothelium, and of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which contribute to tumor angiogenesis. We demonstrate that E3330, a small molecule inhibitor of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain, blocks the in vitro growth of pancreatic cancer-associated endothelial cells (PCECs) and EPCs, which is recapitulated by stable expression of a dominant-negative redox domain mutant. Further, E3330 blocks the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into CD31(+) endothelial progeny. Exposure of PCECs to E3330 results in a reduction of H-ras expression and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, as well as decreased DNA-binding activity of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1alpha. E3330 also reduces secreted and intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor expression by pancreatic cancer cells, while concomitantly downregulating the cognate receptor Flk-1/KDR on PCECs. Inhibition of the Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain with E3330 or comparable angiogenesis inhibitors might be a potent therapeutic strategy in solid tumors.

  1. Extracellularly secreted APE1/Ref-1 triggers apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells via RAGE binding, which is mediated through acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ran; Kim, Ki Mo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Choi, Sunga

    2015-09-15

    The present study evaluated the mechanism of apoptosis caused by post-translational modification, hyperacetylation in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We previously showed that trichostatin A (TSA) induced secretion of acetylated apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ac-APE1/Ref-1). This is the first report showing that Ac-APE1/Ref-1 initiates apoptosis in TNBC cells by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The functional significance of secreted Ac-APE1/Ref-1 was studied by induction of intracellular hyperacetylation through co-treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and TSA in MDA-MB-231 cells. In response to hyperacetylation, secretion of Ac-APE1/Ref-1 in vesicles was observed, resulting in significantly decreased cell viability and induction of apoptosis with increased expression of RAGE. The hyperacetylation-induced apoptosis was similar in two other TNBC cell lines: BT-459 and MDA-MB-468. Therefore, hyperacetylation may be a therapeutic target for treatment of TNBCs. This study introduces a novel paradigm whereby post-translational modification induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells resistant to standard chemotherapeutic agents through secretion of auto- or paracrine molecules such as Ac-APE1/Ref-1.

  2. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition. PMID:27240987

  3. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavini Kumari; Prolay Das; Rekha Kumari

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  4. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  5. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  6. APE1/Ref-1 siRNA inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by cultured bone marrow stromal cells isolated from multiple myeloma patients%APE1/Ref-1 siRNA抑制多发性骨髓瘤骨髓基质细胞IL-6及IL-8分泌的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家印; 王阁; 王东; 李梦侠; 向德兵; 杨镇洲; 杨宇馨; 李增鹏; 曾林立; 仲召阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 体外通过APE1/Ref-1 siRNA敲低多发性骨髓瘤骨髓基质细胞(bone marrow stromal cells,BMSCs)APE1/Ref-1的表达,观察BMSCs的增殖及分泌细胞因子IL-6、IL-8的变化,初步探讨BMSCs APE1/Ref-1表达的功能特点.方法 通过免疫细胞化学染色法定量榆测35例初治、11例复发/难治多发性骨髓瘤患者及10例正常人BMSCsAPE1/Ref-1的表达特点及其差异,经Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染BMSCs后,流式细胞仪检测BMSCs细胞周期的变化;ELISA法检测BMSCs分泌IL-6、IL-8的水平变化情况.结果 多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs的APE1/Ref-1蛋白阳性表达率显著高于正常BMSCs APE1/Ref-1蛋白阳性表达率(P<0.05),且多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs的APE1/Ref-1呈细胞核及核浆共间表达方式.Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染敲低多发性骨髓瘤及正常BMSCs APE1/Ref-1的表达量呈进行性减少(P<0.01),同时发现APE1/Ref-1 siRNA对多发性骨髓瘤BMSCs抑制作用更明显.Adv5-APE1/Ref-1 siRNA感染BMSCs后对正常人及骨髓瘤患者BMSCs分泌细胞因子IL-6、IL-8的量有显著的抑制作用,特别是感染72 h后,骨髓瘤患者及正常人的BMSCs分泌IL-6[初治患者(246.29±46.51)pg/ml,复发/难治患者(365.09±75.25)pg/ml]、IL-8[初治患者(118.77±18.08)pg/ml,复发/难治患者(188.71±33.76)pg/ml]的量最低,与其他时段比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 多发性骨髓瘤BMscs APE1/Ref-1的表达特点不同于正常BMSCs,可能导致其功能差异;APE1/Ref-1 siRNA敲低了MM BMSCsAPE1/Ref-1的表达,同时明显抑制了其IL-6、IL-8的分泌,减少了对骨髓瘤细胞的促增殖和凋亡作用.

  7. Comparative morphology of the hominin and African ape hyoid bone, a possible marker of the evolution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Clegg, Margaret; Martelli, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterized and used to interpret the morphology and affi nities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones. Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the midline). A different pattern is usually found in the African ape hyoids, which have much greater maximum lengths. In humans, the hyoid body is also much more anteroposteriorly shallow in proportion to its height and width, and this is true for all age classes. The Dikika australopithecine hyoid body proportions are chimpanzeelike. A discriminant function analysis, using a larger subadult sample from the three extant species than that reported by Alemseged et al. (2006), confirms this finding. The Kebara hyoid dimensions (body alone, and articulated body and greater horns) are almost all within the observed range for human hyoids. Discriminant functions clearly distinguish human from African ape hyoids and classify the Kebara 2 hyoid as human (confirming the finding of Arensburg et al. 1989). Our virtual dissection of a chimpanzee air sac system shows its subhyoid extension into the dorsal hyoid body. Following Alemseged et al. (2006), the expanded bulla characteristic of the African ape and australopithecine hyoid body is therefore interpreted as refl ecting the presence of such a laryngeal air sac extension. Its absence in the human, Neanderthal, and H. heidelbergensis (Atapuerca SH) hyoids implicates the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene. If

  8. Comparative morphology of the hominin and African ape hyoid bone, a possible marker of the evolution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Clegg, Margaret; Martelli, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterized and used to interpret the morphology and affi nities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones. Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the midline). A different pattern is usually found in the African ape hyoids, which have much greater maximum lengths. In humans, the hyoid body is also much more anteroposteriorly shallow in proportion to its height and width, and this is true for all age classes. The Dikika australopithecine hyoid body proportions are chimpanzeelike. A discriminant function analysis, using a larger subadult sample from the three extant species than that reported by Alemseged et al. (2006), confirms this finding. The Kebara hyoid dimensions (body alone, and articulated body and greater horns) are almost all within the observed range for human hyoids. Discriminant functions clearly distinguish human from African ape hyoids and classify the Kebara 2 hyoid as human (confirming the finding of Arensburg et al. 1989). Our virtual dissection of a chimpanzee air sac system shows its subhyoid extension into the dorsal hyoid body. Following Alemseged et al. (2006), the expanded bulla characteristic of the African ape and australopithecine hyoid body is therefore interpreted as refl ecting the presence of such a laryngeal air sac extension. Its absence in the human, Neanderthal, and H. heidelbergensis (Atapuerca SH) hyoids implicates the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene. If

  9. Chimeras of receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus/feline leukemia virus B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus reveal different modes of receptor recognition by retrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Johann, Stephen V; van Zeijl, Marja;

    1995-01-01

    Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences and are p......Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences...

  10. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    allowed genetically vulnerable populations to negotiate new ways of being fit. The extended synthesis allows for the possibility that great apes were agents long before they were human and that this agency enabled them to fit their environments to their own needs. This article summarises features of the extended synthesis that seem most relevant to archaeology. Some of the topics it discusses may seem abstruse and perhaps unnecessary because they amount to an acknowledgement of socio-natural complexities archaeologists have understood for decades. However, they are extremely significant in study-domains where biology and archaeology intersect. Archaeologists can no longer uncritically accept the conclusions drawn by molecular geneticists because the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology is under reconstruction.

  11. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces. METHODS: We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  12. Developing and Testing the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Astoul, Anthony; Mason, Eric; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew; Shridhar, Kunal; Varghese, Blesson; Varshney, Naman

    2013-01-01

    An automated, real-time, multiple sensor data source relying and globally applicable earthquake loss model and visualiser is desirable for post-event earthquake analysis. To achieve this there is a need to support rapid data ingestion, loss estimation and integration of data from multiple data sources and rapid visualisation at multiple geographic levels. In this paper, the design and development of the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) system for real-time estimation and visualisation of insured losses incurred due to earthquakes is presented. A model for estimating ground up and net of facultative losses due to earthquakes in near real-time is implemented. Since post-event data is often available immediately from multiple disparate sources, a geo-browser is employed to facilitate the visualisation and integration of earthquake hazard, exposure and loss data. The feasibility of APE-ELEV is demonstrated using a test case earthquake that occurred in Tohoku, Japan (201...

  13. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.

    1987-10-16

    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  14. 过氧化氢对PC12细胞中硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1基因表达的影响%Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the expression of thioredoxin and APE/ref-1 in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢振华; 刘长振; 王爱民; 马春

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察过氧化氢(H2O2)对硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1基因表达的影响,探讨H2O2预处理对神经细胞具有适应性保护的分子机制.方法 以PC12细胞作为神经细胞模型,以200和400 μmol/L浓度的H2O2处理PC12细胞,用MTT法检测细胞的损伤程度,以Western blot方法测定硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达水平.结果 200 μmol/L H2O2促进PC12细胞的硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达,400 μmol/L H2O2也促进PC12细胞的APE/Ref-1表达,但使PC12细胞的硫氧还蛋白表达显著降低.结论 促进硫氧还蛋白和APE/Ref-1表达可能是低浓度H2O2预处理对神经细胞具有适应性保护的分子机制.

  15. Proyecto final de carrera Ingeniería Informática: cortometraje de animación 3D "Banana Ape" (720 x 576 px)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Cabañero, Francisco Javier; Puente Méndez, Santiago Timoteo

    2007-01-01

    Proyecto final de carrera Ingeniería Informática: cortometraje de animación 3D "Banana Ape" (Versión alta calidad). Realizado por Fco. Javier Martín Cabañero y tutorizado por: Santiago T. Puente Méndez.

  16. Ontogenetic allometry, heterochrony, and interspecific differences in the skull of African apes, using tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Christine; Penin, Xavier

    2004-06-01

    Ontogenetic studies of African ape skulls lead to an analysis of morphological differences in terms of allometry, heterochrony, and sexual dimorphism. The use of geometric morphometrics allows us 1) to define size and shape variations as independent factors (an essential but seldom respected condition for heterochrony), and 2) to calculate in percentage of shape changes and to graphically represent the parts of shape variation which are related to various biological phenomena: common allometry, intraspecific allometry, and allometric and nonallometric shape discrimination. Three tridimensional Procrustes analyses and the calculation of multivariate allometries, discriminant functions, and statistical tests are used to compare the skulls of 50 Pan troglodytes, and 50 Gorilla gorilla of different dental stages. The results both complement and modify classical results obtained from similar material but with different methods. Size and Scaling in Primate Morphology, New York: Plenum, p. 175-205). As previously described by Shea, the common growth allometric pattern is very important (64% of total shape variation). It corresponds to a larger increase of facial volume than of neurocranial volume, a more obliquely oriented foramen magnum, and a noticeable reshaping of the nuchal region (higher inion). However, the heterochronic interpretation based on common allometry is rather different from Shea. Gorillas differ from chimpanzees not only with a larger magnitude of allometric change (rate peramorphosis), as is classically said, but also grow more in size than in shape (size acceleration). In other words, for a similar stage of growth, gorillas have the size and shape corresponding to older chimpanzees, and for a similar shape, gorillas have a larger size than chimpanzees. In contrast, sexual dimorphism actually corresponds to allometric changes only, as classically demonstrated (time hypermorphosis). Sexual dimorphism is here significant in adult gorillas alone, and

  17. 'Hurrah for the missing link!': A history of apes, ancestors and a crucial piece of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    piece of evidence to Darwin and his formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection. This article demonstrates that the expression was widely used and that the framework for discussions about human’s relation to the apes and gaps in the fossil record were well in place and widely debated......In the nineteenth century the idea of a ‘missing link’ connecting humans with the rest of the animal kingdom was eagerly embraced by professional scientists and popularizers. After the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859, many tied the idea and subsequent search for a crucial...... long before Origin of Species became the standard reference for discussing human evolution. In the second half of the century the missing link gradually became the ultimate prize in palaeoanthropology and grew into one of the most powerful, celebrated and criticized icons of human evolution....

  18. Gene polymorphisms of the DNA Repairing Genes APE1 and XRCC1 among Smoking Lung Cancer Egyptians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezk Ahmed Abd-ellateef Elbaz, Salim Abd-elhady Habib, Maha Ebraheem Esmael Ebraheem, Gamal Kamel EL-Ebidy, Lamiaa Mohamed Mahmoud Ramadan and Ahmed Settin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thus a major public health problem. DNA base damage or losses caused by endogenous and exogenous agents occur constantly at a high frequency in human cells. The removal or repair of damaged bases is an important mechanism in protecting the integrity of the genome. APE1 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and XRCC1 (X-ray cross-complementing group1 are DNA repair proteins that play important roles in the base excision repair (BER pathway. The focus of this work is limited to the association between polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes, (APE1 Asp148Glu (2197 T→G and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (28152 G→A genotypes, cigarette smoking and lung cancer. This study has included 131 cases affected with lung cancers include; 33cases with small cell carcinoma (25.2% and 98 cases with non-small cell carcinoma (74.8%. They were recruited from oncology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt; in the period between April 2008 to March 2010. For comparison, a negative control group including 150 healthy individuals randomly selected from blood donors. Controls were selected by random sampling cancer-free individuals without a past history of cancer, who visited Mansoura University hospitals and provided peripheral blood between April 2008 and March 2010. DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood using generation DNA purification capture column kit (Gentra system, USA and genotyping for APE1 Glu148Asp and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms was performed by a PCR--CTPP (PCR with confronting two-pair primers method. The collected data were organized and statistically analyzed using SPSS statistical computer package version 10 software. we observed that, There were no significant differences in the frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu (2197 T→G polymorphism of all genotypes and alleles in all lung cancer cases compared to all healthy controls. Also, there were no significant differences in the

  19. 吉西他滨对人肺癌A549细胞株CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1mRNA和蛋白表达的影响%Effects of Gemcitabine on Expression of CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1 mRNA and Protein in Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东; 周曙光; 刘玥; 李晓栋; 王姗姗; 唐小龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究人肺癌A549细胞株在吉西他滨化疗时CN-Ⅱ,APE/Ref-1基因表达的变化,并探讨其在肺癌化疗耐药中所起的作用.[方法]不同浓度吉西他滨0、10、20、40及60 μmol/L作用人肺癌A549细胞株24 h,分别以RT-PCR 及Western blot方法测定用药后CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的mRNA及蛋白表达情况. [结果]吉西他滨作用人肺癌A549细胞株24 h后,CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的mRNA及蛋白表达水平均明显上升,并与吉西他滨的浓度呈正相关(CN-Ⅱ RT-PCR:r=0.687,P=0.009;Western blot:r=0.594,P=0.021;APE/Ref-1 RT-PCR:r=0.669,P=0.010;Western blot:r=0.562,P=0.029). [结论]CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1在肺癌化疗时表达明显增强,可能与化疗耐药性的产生有关,并提示针对CN-Ⅱ和APE/Ref-1的靶向干预可能有助于提高肺癌的化疗敏感性.

  20. Research on Expression and Its Significance of APE/Ref-1 in Gastric Cancer by Tissue Micro-array%采用组织芯片技术研究APE/Ref-1在胃癌中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳红; 郭丽娟; 赵治国

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测APE/Ref-1在胃癌中的表达及意义.方法 收集60例胃癌和27例癌旁5 cm胃黏膜,用组织芯片(tissue micro-array)和免疫组织化学法检测APE/Ref-1基因的表达,并分析APE/Ref-1与胃癌临床病理指标之间的关系.结果 APE/Ref-1在胃癌和正常胃黏膜组织中呈胞核、胞质或核质共表达.在胃癌组织中,胞核阳性率为91.7%,胞质阳性率为21.7%,核质阳性率为20%;在胃正常黏膜组织中,胞核阳性率为92.6%,胞质阳性率为78%,核质阳性率为63%.胃癌和胃正常黏膜组织相比,胞核阳性率变化不明显(P>0.05),但胞质阳性率和核质阳性率均有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 APE/Ref-1在胃黏膜组织中普遍表达,以胞核表达为主.APE/Ref-1在胃癌胞质表达水平的降低可能在胃癌的发生、发展中起重要作用.

  1. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  2. Great ape Y Chromosome and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies reflect subspecies structure and patterns of mating and dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallast, Pille; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Batini, Chiara; Zadik, Daniel; Rocchi, Mariano; Schempp, Werner; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of genetic diversity in great ape species is likely to have been affected by patterns of dispersal and mating. This has previously been investigated by sequencing autosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but large-scale sequence analysis of the male-specific region of the Y Chromosome (MSY) has not yet been undertaken. Here, we use the human MSY reference sequence as a basis for sequence capture and read mapping in 19 great ape males, combining the data with sequences extracted from the published whole genomes of 24 additional males to yield a total sample of 19 chimpanzees, four bonobos, 14 gorillas, and six orangutans, in which interpretable MSY sequence ranges from 2.61 to 3.80 Mb. This analysis reveals thousands of novel MSY variants and defines unbiased phylogenies. We compare these with mtDNA-based trees in the same individuals, estimating time-to-most-recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for key nodes in both cases. The two loci show high topological concordance and are consistent with accepted (sub)species definitions, but time depths differ enormously between loci and (sub)species, likely reflecting different dispersal and mating patterns. Gorillas and chimpanzees/bonobos present generally low and high MSY diversity, respectively, reflecting polygyny versus multimale-multifemale mating. However, particularly marked differences exist among chimpanzee subspecies: The western chimpanzee MSY phylogeny has a TMRCA of only 13.2 (10.8-15.8) thousand years, but that for central chimpanzees exceeds 1 million years. Cross-species comparison within a single MSY phylogeny emphasizes the low human diversity, and reveals species-specific branch length variation that may reflect differences in long-term generation times. PMID:26883546

  3. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. METHODS: Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus. RESULTS: Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages. CONCLUSION: Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  5. APE/Ref-1基因重组腺病毒的构建表达和鉴定%Construction of recombinant adenovirus carrying apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 魏运军; 张学渊; 邓凤莲; 卓贤露

    2006-01-01

    目的 构建表达氧化还原因子-1(APE/Ref-1)基因的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒,为进一步研究APE/Ref-1在耳蜗螺旋神经节氧化损伤病理过程中的作用机制提供实验基础.方法 应用RT-PCR 技术从大鼠脑组织总RNA克隆出APE/Ref-1 基因, 将APE/Ref-1 基因定向克隆到穿梭质粒pAdTrack-CMV上,经与腺病毒骨架质粒pAdEasy-1 在大肠埃希菌BJ5183内同源重组后,转染293 细胞进行包装,并反复感染293细胞进行扩增.对其进行安全性、滴度以及活性等检测.采用Western blot 对APE/Ref-1蛋白表达进行检测和鉴定.结果 克隆出大鼠APE/Ref-1基因,经测序证实结果正确;得到高滴度的重组腺病毒,提取病毒DNA证实含目的基因.结论 成功构建了表达APE/Ref-1 的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒.为进一步研究APE/Ref-1在耳蜗螺旋神经节的氧化损伤过程中作用机制奠定了实验基础.

  6. 亚低温对大鼠短暂性全脑缺血后APE/Ref-1表达、神经元凋亡的影响%Effects of Hypothermia on apoptosis and the expression of APE/Ref-1 following transient forebrain ischemia in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 雷惠新; 张旭; 李智文; 张志坚

    2012-01-01

    To explore the neuroprotective mechanism of mild hypothermia by studying the effects of mild hypothermia on the expression of APE/Ref - 1 and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 subregion after transient global cerebral ischemia in rats. [Methods] A model of transient global cerebral ischemia was made by lOmin of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and hypotension in rat. Expression of the APE/Ref - 1 protein was detected by immunohisto-chemical analysis. Apoptosis after global ischemia was observed with TUNEL. [Results] Immunohisto - chemistry showed the nuclear expression of APE/Ref - 1 in the control brains. Nuclear decreasing immunoreactivity of APE/Ref - 1 started at 1st day and became significantly at 2nd day and the TUNEL positive neurons were observed at 2nd day and became significant at 3rd day in the hippocampal CA1 subregion after transient global ischemia in normothermic group. Mild hypothermic ischemic group was less decreased in nuclear immunoreactivity of APE/Ref- 1 (P <0. 01) and less quantitv of apoptotic neurons(P<0.01) than those of normothermic group . Double staining with APE/Ref- 1 and TUNEL clearly showed that the neurons which lost APE/Ref- 1 immunoreactivity became TUNEL positive. [Conclusions] The mild hypothermia had remarkable neuroprotection action. The inhibition of APE/Ref - 1 reduction and ischemic neuronal apoptosis were assumed to be a neuroprotective mechanism of mild hypothermia.%[目的]通过大鼠短暂全脑缺血模型来探讨亚低温对大鼠脑缺血后APE/Ref-1(apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1,无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1)蛋白表达及缺血性神经元凋亡的影响,揭示亚低温的部分神经保护机制.[方法]采用“双侧颈总动脉夹闭+低血压法”建立大鼠短暂性全脑缺血模型.实验动物分假手术组、手术后常温存活1d、2d、3d组及手术后亚低温存活1d、2d、3d组.用免疫组化方法检测各组APE/Ref-1蛋白的

  7. 尤瑞克林对大鼠局灶性脑缺血再灌注损伤后APE/Ref-1表达的影响%Effect of Urinary kallikrein on the expression of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1(APE/Ref-1) in cerebral tissue of rats subjected to cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王言理; 陈晓兵; 许锁; 刘克喜; 石远峰

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Urinary kallikrein on the expression of apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) in rats which were subjected to reperfusion after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for two hours. To explore the protective mechanism of Urinary kallikrein against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury.Methods 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups with 18 mice each group: control group (Con group), ischemic/reperfusion group (Model group), ischemic/reperfusion plus Urinary kallikrein group (URK group). Six rats from each group randomly selected were respectively subjected to the detection of APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA1 region of hippocampus by immunohistochernistry, the detection of cerebral infarct volume by TTC staining and the detection of the expression of protein APE/Ref-1 in hippocampus by Western blot.ResultsCompared with Con group, the levels of protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 in hippocampus significantly decreased (P<0.05), with the APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA3 region of hippocampus significantly lower (P<0.05), Urinary kallikreincan increase the protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 and the APE/Ref-1 positive cell count in CA1 region of hippocampus, but lower than that of Con group, Urinary kallikrein can decrease thecerebral infarct volume induced by the reperfusion after middle cerebral occlusion (MCAO).ConclusionUrinary kallikreincan increase the protein of expression of APE/Ref-1 after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, that may be the other protective mechanism of Urinary kallikrein against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury.%目的:探讨尤瑞克林对大鼠局造性脑缺血再灌注损伤(I/R)后无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)表达的影响,进一步探讨尤瑞克林脑保护作用的机制。方法健康成年雄性SD大鼠54只,采用随机数字表法分为3组:空白对照组(Con组)(n=18),

  8. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094

  9. Expression and significance of APE1/Ref-1 in gastric carcinoma%APEl/Ref-l在胃癌组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云娣; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of APE1/Ref-1 protein in gastric carcinoma. Methods The expression of APE1/Ref-1 protein was detected by EnVision immunohistochemical method in tissues-microarry in 99 cases of gastric carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis(grop A,72 cases) and without(group B, 27 cases). Results The positive expression rate of APE1/Ref-1 in gastric carcinoma tissues was 63. 64%, which was higher in group A than that in group B(73.61% vs. 37.01%) (P<0. 05). Conclusion APE1/Ref-1 may participate in the invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma through enhancing DNA base excision repair.%目的 探讨脱嘌呤脱嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子(APEl/Ref-l)蛋白在胃癌组织中的表达及意义.方法 利用组织芯片技术和免疫组化EnVision法检测APEl/Ref-l蛋白在99例胃癌组织中的表达.其中,无淋巴结转移者27例,有淋巴结转移者72例.结果 APEl/Ref-l在胃癌中的阳性表达率为63.64%.其在无淋巴结转移者为37.01%,明显低于有淋巴结转移者的73.61%(P<0.05).结论 APEl/Ref-l可能通过对增强胃癌组织DNA碱基损伤的修复而参与了胃癌的浸润及转移的机制.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Herd, Kate E.; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking lice in the genera Pediculus and Pthirus are obligate ectoparasites of great apes. Unlike most bilateral animals, which have 37 mitochondrial (mt) genes on a single circular chromosome, the sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mt genomes. The head louse, Pediculus capitis, and the body louse, Pe. humanus, have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, has its 34 mt genes known on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the proces...

  11. Differences in between-reinforcer value modulate the selective-value effect in great apes (Pan troglodytes, P. Paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Amaro, Alejandro; Peretó, Mar; Call, Josep

    2016-02-01

    We investigated how apes allocated their choices between 2 food options that varied in terms of their quantity and quality. Experiment 1 tested whether subjects preferred an AB option over an A option, where the A item is preferred to the B item (e.g., apple + carrot vs. apple). Additionally, we tested whether the length of the intertrial interval (ITI) affected subjects' choices. Five orangutans, 4 gorillas, 7 bonobos, and 10 chimpanzees received 3 types of trials: preference (A vs. B), quantity (AA vs. A), and mixed (AB vs. A where A is the preferred food). We used 3 food items that substantially differed in terms of preference (carrots, apples, and pellets). Subjects showed no overall preference for the mixed option (AB) compared with the single option (A), even though they showed clear preferences during both the preference and quantity trials. The intertrial length had no effect on choice behavior. Experiment 2 further explored apes' choices by using 3 highly preferred food items (bananas, grapes, and pellets) in 6 orangutans, 4 gorillas, 8 bonobos, and 18 chimpanzees. Unlike the results of Experiment 1, apes generally chose the mixed option. Our results indicated that apes did not show a general "selective-value" effect but chose depending on the relative value of the food items involved. Subjects were more likely to select the mixed over the single option when (a) the mixed option was composed of items that were closer in value and (b) they were compared against the less valuable item forming the mixed option. PMID:26460854

  12. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation.

  13. Pre-Sleep and Sleeping Platform Construction Behavior in Captive Orangutans (Pongo spp.): Implications for Ape Health and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, David R; Shumaker, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The nightly construction of a 'nest' or sleeping platform is a behavior that has been observed in every wild great ape population studied, yet in captivity, few analyses have been performed on sleep related behavior. Here, we report on such behavior in three female and two male captive orangutans (Pongo spp.), in a natural light setting, at the Indianapolis Zoo. Behavioral samples were generated, using infrared cameras for a total of 47 nights (136.25 h), in summer (n = 25) and winter (n = 22) periods. To characterize sleep behaviors, we used all-occurrence sampling to generate platform construction episodes (n = 217). Orangutans used a total of 2.4 (SD = 1.2) techniques and 7.5 (SD = 6.3) actions to construct a sleeping platform; they spent 10.1 min (SD - 9.9 min) making the platform and showed a 77% preference for ground (vs. elevated) sleep sites. Comparisons between summer and winter platform construction showed winter start times (17:12 h) to be significantly earlier and longer in duration than summer start times (17:56 h). Orangutans should be provisioned with seasonally appropriate, high quality materials suitable for construction of sleeping platforms to increase sleep quality and improve animal health and welfare. PMID:25998256

  14. The receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine leukemia virus are not downregulated in productively infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiden Maribeth V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last several decades it has been noted, using a variety of different methods, that cells infected by a specific gammaretrovirus are resistant to infection by other retroviruses that employ the same receptor; a phenomenon termed receptor interference. Receptor masking is thought to provide an earlier means of blocking superinfection, whereas receptor down regulation is generally considered to occur in chronically infected cells. Results We used replication-competent GFP-expressing viruses containing either an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV or the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV envelope. We also constructed similar viruses containing fluorescence-labeled Gag proteins for the detection of viral particles. Using this repertoire of reagents together with a wide range of antibodies, we were able to determine the presence and availability of viral receptors, and detect viral envelope proteins and particles presence on the cell surface of chronically infected cells. Conclusions A-MLV or GALV receptors remain on the surface of chronically infected cells and are detectable by respective antibodies, indicating that these receptors are not downregulated in these infected cells as previously proposed. We were also able to detect viral envelope proteins on the infected cell surface and infected cells are unable to bind soluble A-MLV or GALV envelopes indicating that receptor binding sites are masked by endogenously expressed A-MLV or GALV viral envelope. However, receptor masking does not completely prevent A-MLV or GALV superinfection.

  15. Lack of prosociality in great apes, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys: convergent evidence from two different food distribution tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Call, Josep

    2014-10-22

    Prosociality can be defined as any behaviour performed to alleviate the needs of others or to improve their welfare. Prosociality has probably played an essential role in the evolution of cooperative behaviour and several studies have already investigated it in primates to understand the evolutionary origins of human prosociality. Two main tasks have been used to test prosociality in a food context. In the Platforms task, subjects can prosocially provide food to a partner by selecting a prosocial platform over a selfish one. In the Tokens task, subjects can prosocially provide food to a partner by selecting a prosocial token over a selfish one. As these tasks have provided mixed results, we used both tasks to test prosociality in great apes, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys. Our results provided no compelling evidence of prosociality in a food context in any of the species tested. Additionally, our study revealed serious limitations of the Tokens task as it has been previously used. These results highlight the importance of controlling for confounding variables and of using multiple tasks to address inconsistencies present in the literature. PMID:25209941

  16. A novel test of planning ability: great apes can plan step-by-step but not in advance of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2013-11-01

    The ability to identify an appropriate sequence of actions or to consider alternative possible action sequences might be particularly useful during problem solving in the physical domain. We developed a new 'paddle-box' task to test the ability of different ape species to plan an appropriate sequence of physical actions (rotating paddles) to retrieve a reward from a goal location. The task had an adjustable difficulty level and was not dependent on species-specific behaviours (e.g. complex tool use). We investigated the planning abilities of captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) using the paddle-box. In experiment 1, subjects had to rotate one or two paddles before rotating the paddle with the reward on. Subjects of both species performed poorly, though orangutans rotated more non-food paddles, which may be related to their greater exploratory tendencies and bolder temperament compared with bonobos. In experiment 2 subjects could always rotate the paddle with the reward on first and still succeed, and most subjects of both species performed appropriate sequences of up to three paddle rotations to retrieve the reward. Poor performance in experiment 1 may have been related to subjects' difficulty in inhibiting the prepotent response to act on the reward immediately. PMID:24153327

  17. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  18. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) redox function negatively regulates NRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Melissa L; Wu, Xue; Devlin, Cecilia M; Logsdon, Derek P; Jiang, Yanlin; Luo, Meihua; He, Ying; Yu, Zhangsheng; Tong, Yan; Lipking, Kelsey P; Maitra, Anirban; Rajeshkumar, N V; Scandura, Glenda; Kelley, Mark R; Ivan, Mircea

    2015-01-30

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) (henceforth referred to as Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that in addition to its base excision DNA repair activity exerts redox control of multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), STAT3, activator protein-1 (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and tumor protein 53 (p53). In recent years, Ref-1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, particularly in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Although a significant amount of research has centered on Ref-1, no wide-ranging approach had been performed on the effects of Ref-1 inhibition and transcription factor activity perturbation. Starting with a broader approach, we identified a previously unsuspected effect on the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2), a critical regulator of cellular defenses against oxidative stress. Based on genetic and small molecule inhibitor-based methodologies, we demonstrated that repression of Ref-1 potently activates NRF2 and its downstream targets in a dose-dependent fashion, and that the redox, rather than the DNA repair function of Ref-1 is critical for this effect. Intriguingly, our results also indicate that this pathway does not involve reactive oxygen species. The link between Ref-1 and NRF2 appears to be present in all cells tested in vitro, noncancerous and cancerous, including patient-derived tumor samples. In particular, we focused on understanding the implications of the novel interaction between these two pathways in primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor cells and provide the first evidence that this mechanism has implications for overcoming the resistance against experimental drugs targeting Ref-1 activity, with clear translational implications.

  19. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) association networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan) and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda), by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members), we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that chimpanzees are

  20. The APE nebuliser - a new delivery system for the alveolar targeting of particulate technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the validation of a new delivery system - aerosol production equipment (known by the acronym APE), which generates a particulate aerosol of technetium 99m diehtylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) with a mass-median aerodynamic diameter of 0.35 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8. Twenty subjects were studied; in group 1 were 12 healthy men with normal spirometry; in group 2 were 8 men with AIDS who had mildly abnormal lung function following an episode of pneumocystic pneumonia-spirometry FEV1 3.08 (0.73) L, FVC 4.83 (0.82) L [mean (SD)]. The APE nebulizer was used to form a particulate aerosol with 200 MBq of 99mTc DTPA, which was collected in a 35 l reservoir of air, which was subsequently inhaled. The mean (SD) inhalation time was 4.7 (0.44) min. The output of the nebulizer (% of activity inhaled) was 82%. Using planar imaging, the penetration index (right lung) in group 1 was 0.93 (0.18), mean (SD), and in group 2 it was 0.91 (0.12). There was virtually no tracheal deposition and extrapulmonary deposition (oropharynx and stomach) was less than 5% of the aerosol delivered. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies carried out in five patients from group 1 confirmed homogeneous intrapulmonary deposition of 99mTc-DTPA. In view of the excellent intrapulmonary deposition of 99mTc-DTPA produced by the APE nebulizer, it may provide an alternative to conventional ventilation studies using radioactive gases. (orig.)

  1. The risk of disease to great apes: simulating disease spread in orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii association networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carne

    Full Text Available All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is therefore crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here, we simulate the transmission of a range of diseases in a population of orang-utans in Sabangau Forest (Central Kalimantan and a community of chimpanzees in Budongo Forest (Uganda, by systematically varying transmission likelihood and probability of subsequent recovery. Both species have fission-fusion social systems, but differ considerably in their level of gregariousness. We used long-term behavioural data to create networks of association patterns on which the spread of different diseases was simulated. We found that chimpanzees were generally far more susceptible to the spread of diseases than orang-utans. When simulating different diseases that varied widely in their probability of transmission and recovery, it was found that the chimpanzee community was widely and strongly affected, while in orang-utans even highly infectious diseases had limited spread. Furthermore, when comparing the observed association network with a mean-field network (equal contact probability between group members, we found no major difference in simulated disease spread, suggesting that patterns of social bonding in orang-utans are not an important determinant of susceptibility to disease. In chimpanzees, the predicted size of the epidemic was smaller on the actual association network than on the mean-field network, indicating that patterns of social bonding have important effects on susceptibility to disease. We conclude that social networks are a potentially powerful tool to model the risk of disease transmission in great apes, and that

  2. 饮水铅暴露对大鼠脑组织APE1表达的影响及与氧化应激的关系研究%Effects of lead exposure through drinking water on expression of APE1 protein and their relationships with oxidative stress in brain tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清风; 李炜娟; 徐群英; 张中伟; 李伟; 冯建高; 任晓慧; 肖元梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of lead exposure through drinking water on the expression of APE1 pro-tein in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats and its relationship with oxidative stress. Methods Forty weaned male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups (control group and four exposure groups) according to body weights of rats. Rats in control group were given deionized water as drinking water. Rats in four exposure groups were given 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L and 800 mg/L lead acetate solution for 60 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus were mea-sured using kits. The protein level of APE1 in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus were detected by Western blotting assay. Results After being exposed to lead, the APE1 protein levels were significantly decreased in cortex, cerebellum and hippo-campus (P<0.05). The protein level showed a trend of gradual decline with the increase of exposed lead (P<0.05). With the increase of dye lead dose, the activity of SOD in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus showed a downward trend, while the contents of H2O2 and MDA showed a rising trend. The activity of SOD was positively correlated with APE1 protein level in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus (r=0.619, 0.380 and 0.375,P<0.05). While the contents of H2O2 and MDA were neg-atively correlated with APE1 protein level in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus (r=-0.472,-0.535,-0.436,-0.514,-0.486 and-0.316,P < 0.05). Conclusion Lead exposure through drinking water can affect the expression of APE1 protein through inducing oxidative stress in brain tissues of rats.%目的 探讨饮水铅暴露对大鼠大脑皮质、小脑、海马组织中脱嘌呤脱嘧啶核酸内切酶1(APE1)表达的影响及其与氧化应激的关系.方法 40只刚断乳雄性SD大鼠按体质量随机区组法均分为5组,对照组自由饮用去离子水,4

  3. Estimate of the lower-limb-specific muscle parameters during bipedal walking for humans, apes and early hominids with the implications for the evolution of body proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijie

    2007-01-01

    Modern human has different body proportion from early hominids and great apes. Comparing with others, in general, modern human adults have relatively long lower limb and heavier body weight. Since the lower limbs provide support to the whole body and play an important role in walking, it is proposed that the ratio of the lower limb to the whole body for modern human could be beneficial to bipedal walking. This study tried to estimate the muscle parameters of the lower limb in walking for the subjects with various body proportions. Using a simplified musculoskeletal model, some muscle parameters of the lower limb, e.g. muscle force, stress, work and power, were estimated for modern human adult, child, AL 288-1 (the fossil specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million years old) and apes. The results show that with the body proportion modern human adult spends less muscle work and power in walking than other subjects. The results imply that using the cost of transport (i.e. the muscle work of the lower limb per unit of displacement) as the criteria, the early hominids, if their body proportions were structurally similar to AL 288-1, could evolve towards what modern human adult looks like, in order to save energy during bipedal walking.

  4. Evolutionary pattern of mutation in the factor IX genes of great apes: How does it compare to the pattern of recent germline mutation in patients with hemophilia B?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grouse, L.H.; Ketterling, R.P.; Sommer, S.S. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Most mutations causing hemophilia B have arisen within the past 150 years. By correcting for multiple biases, the underlying rates of spontaneous germline mutation have been estimated in the factor IX gene. From these rates, an underlying pattern of mutation has emerged. To determine if this pattern compares to a underlying pattern found in the great apes, sequence changes were determined in intronic regions of the factor IX gene. The following species were studied: Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmacus (orangutan) and Homo sapiens. Intronic sequences at least 200 bp from a splice junction were randomly chosen, amplified by cross-species PCR, and sequenced. These regions are expected to be subject to little if any selective pressure. Early diverged species of Old World monkeys were also studied to help determine the direction of mutational changes. A total of 62 sequence changes were observed. Initial data suggest that the average pattern since evolution of the great apes has a paucity of transitions at CpG dinucleotides and an excess of microinsertions to microdeletions when compared to the pattern observed in humans during the past 150 years (p<.05). A larger study is in progress to confirm these results.

  5. Apes are intuitive statisticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Clüver, Annette; Saucke, Liane; Stoffregen, Nicole; Gräbener, Alice; Migura, Judith; Call, Josep

    2014-04-01

    Inductive learning and reasoning, as we use it both in everyday life and in science, is characterized by flexible inferences based on statistical information: inferences from populations to samples and vice versa. Many forms of such statistical reasoning have been found to develop late in human ontogeny, depending on formal education and language, and to be fragile even in adults. New revolutionary research, however, suggests that even preverbal human infants make use of intuitive statistics. Here, we conducted the first investigation of such intuitive statistical reasoning with non-human primates. In a series of 7 experiments, Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas and Orangutans drew flexible statistical inferences from populations to samples. These inferences, furthermore, were truly based on statistical information regarding the relative frequency distributions in a population, and not on absolute frequencies. Intuitive statistics in its most basic form is thus an evolutionarily more ancient rather than a uniquely human capacity. PMID:24440657

  6. Moral ape philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our closest relative the chimpanzee seems to display proto-moral behavior. Some scholars emphasize the similarities between humans and chimpanzees, others some key differences. This paper aims is to formulate a set of intermediate conditions between a sometimes helpful chimpanzee and moral man. I specify these intermediate conditions as requirements for the chimpanzees, and for each requirement I take on a verificationist stance and ask what the empirical conditions that satisfy it would be. ...

  7. Formation of infectious hybrid virions with gibbon ape leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia virus retroviral envelope glycoproteins and the gag and pol proteins of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Wilson; Reitz, M S; Okayama, H; Eiden, M V

    1989-01-01

    The gibbon ape leukemia virus, SEATO strain, and human T-cell leukemia virus type I envelope glycoproteins can be functionally assembled with a Moloney murine leukemia virus core into infectious particles. The envelope-host cell receptor interaction is the major determinant of the host cell specificity for these hybrid virions.

  8. DNA repair and redox activities and inhibitors of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1): a comparative analysis and their scope and limitations toward anticancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Cholia, Ravi P; Mantha, Anil K; Kumar, Raj

    2014-12-26

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA repair and activation of transcription factors through its redox function. The evolutionarily conserved C- and N-termini are involved in these functions independently. It is also reported that the activity of APE1/Ref-1 abruptly increases several-fold in various human cancers. The control over the outcomes of these two functions is emerging as a new strategy to combine enhanced DNA damage and chemotherapy in order to tackle the major hurdle of increased cancer cell growth and proliferation. Studies have targeted these two domains individually for the design and development of inhibitors for APE1/Ref-1. Here, we have made, for the first time, an attempt at a comparative analysis of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors that target both DNA repair and redox activities simultaneously. We further discuss their scope and limitations with respect to the development of potential anticancer agents.

  9. A partial skeleton of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the mosaic evolution of crown-hominoid positional behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Alba

    Full Text Available The extinct dryopithecine Hispanopithecus (Primates: Hominidae, from the Late Miocene of Europe, is the oldest fossil great ape displaying an orthograde body plan coupled with unambiguous suspensory adaptations. On the basis of hand morphology, Hispanopithecus laietanus has been considered to primitively retain adaptations to above-branch quadrupedalism-thus displaying a locomotor repertoire unknown among extant or fossil hominoids, which has been considered unlikely by some researchers. Here we describe a partial skeleton of H. laietanus from the Vallesian (MN9 locality of Can Feu 1 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula, with an estimated age of 10.0-9.7 Ma. It includes dentognathic and postcranial remains of a single, female adult individual, with an estimated body mass of 22-25 kg. The postcranial remains of the rib cage, shoulder girdle and forelimb show a mixture of monkey-like and modern-hominoid-like features. In turn, the proximal morphology of the ulna-most completely preserved in the Can Feu skeleton than among previously-available remains-indicates the possession of an elbow complex suitable for preserving stability along the full range of flexion/extension and enabling a broad range of pronation/supination. Such features, suitable for suspensory behaviors, are however combined with an olecranon morphology that is functionally related to quadrupedalism. Overall, when all the available postcranial evidence for H. laietanus is considered, it emerges that this taxon displayed a locomotor repertoire currently unknown among other apes (extant or extinct alike, uniquely combining suspensory-related features with primitively-retained adaptations to above-branch palmigrady. Despite phylogenetic uncertainties, Hispanopithecus is invariably considered an extinct member of the great-ape-and-human clade. Therefore, the combination of quadrupedal and suspensory adaptations in this Miocene crown hominoid clearly evidences the mosaic nature

  10. Very Efficient Spin Polarization Analysis (VESPA): New Exchange Scattering-based Setup for Spin-resolved ARPES at APE-NFFA Beamline at Elettra

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Chiara; Vobornik, Ivana; Das, Pranab K; Benedetti, Davide; Salvador, Federico; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Complete Photoemission Experiments, enabling to measure the full quantum set of the photoelectron final state, are in high demand for the study of materials and nanostructures whose properties are determined by strong electron and spin correlations. We report here on the implementation of the new spin polarimeter VESPA (Very Efficient Spin Polarization Analysis) at the APE-NFFA Beamline at Elettra that is based on the exchange coupling between the photoelectron spin and a ferromagnetic surface in a reflectometry setup. The system was designed to be integrated with a dedicated Scienta-Omicron DA30 electron energy analyser allowing for two simultaneous reflectometry measurements, along perpendicular axes, that, after magnetization switching of the two targets allow to perform the 3D vectorial reconstruction of the spin polarization while operating the DA30 in high resolution mode. VESPA represents the very first installation for spin-resolved ARPES (SP-ARPES) at the Elettra synchrotron in Trieste, and is being ...

  11. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallente-Samonte Rhea U.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.

  12. Assessment of landscape-scale distribution of sympatric great apes in African rainforests: concurrent use of nest and camera-trap surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko; Nze Nkoguee, Chimene; Inoue, Eiji; Akomo, Etienne-Francois Okoue; Nguema, Philippe Mbehang; Bineni, Thierry Diop; Banak, Ludovic Ngok; Takenoshita, Yuji; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2013-12-01

    Information on the distribution and abundance of sympatric great apes (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are important for effective conservation and management. Although much research has been done to improve the precision of nest-surveys, trade-offs between data-reliability and research-efficiency have not been solved. In this study, we used different approaches to assess the landscape-scale distribution patterns of great apes. We conducted a conventional nest survey and a camera-trap survey concurrently, and checked the consistency of the estimates. We divided the study area (ca. 500 km²), containing various types of vegetation and topography, into thirty 16-km² grids (4 km × 4 km) and performed both methods along 2-km transects centered in each grid. We determined the nest creator species according to the definitions by Tutin & Fernandez [Tutin & Fernandez, 1984, Am J Primatol 6:313-336] and estimated nest-site densities of each species by using the conventional distance-sampling approach. We calculated the mean capture rate of 3 camera traps left for 3 months at each grid as the abundance index. Our analyses showed that both methods provided roughly consistent results for the distribution patterns of the species; chimpanzee groups (parties) were more abundant in the montane forest, and gorilla groups were relatively homogeneously distributed across vegetation types. The line-transect survey also showed that the number of nests per nest site did not vary among vegetation types for either species. These spatial patterns seemed to reflect the ecological and sociological features of each species. Although the consistent results may be largely dependent on site-specific conditions (e.g., high density of each species, distinct distribution pattern between the two species), conventional nest-surveys and a subsequent check of their consistency with independent estimates may be a reasonable approach to obtain certain information on

  13. An Interpretation of The Hairy Ape from Foucault' s Concept of Heterotopia%空间理论视域下的《毛猿》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和军

    2012-01-01

    主要采用福柯的空间理论来观照奥尔尼的经典剧作《毛猿》,通过对剧中的五个主要空间:船舱、五马路、监狱、世界产联和动物园的分析,揭示了其隐喻的空间与权力的关系以及如何利用空间使权力的实施达到最优化状态。%This paper attempts to interpret Eugene 0' Neill' s The Hairy Ape, a classic play that is basically a rant against the ruling classes, from Michel Foucault' s concept of heterotopia. An analysis of five major spaces existent in the play, namely, the cabin, the streets, the prison, and the Industrial Workers of the World, unveils the relationship between spaces and power and reveals how to manipulate spaces to optimize the actualization of power.

  14. Distinct roles of Ape1 protein, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, in high or low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation-induced cell killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Guangnan; Zhang, Xiangming; Tang, Xiaobing; Park, Dongkyoo; Cucinotta, Francis A; Yu, David S; Deng, Xingming; Dynan, William S; Doetsch, Paul W; Wang, Ya

    2014-10-31

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation from space heavy charged particles or a heavier ion radiotherapy machine kills more cells than low LET radiation, mainly because high LET radiation-induced DNA damage is more difficult to repair. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is the ratio of the effects generated by high LET radiation to low LET radiation. Previously, our group and others demonstrated that the cell-killing RBE is involved in the interference of high LET radiation with non-homologous end joining but not homologous recombination repair. This effect is attributable, in part, to the small DNA fragments (≤40 bp) directly produced by high LET radiation, the size of which prevents Ku protein from efficiently binding to the two ends of one fragment at the same time, thereby reducing non-homologous end joining efficiency. Here we demonstrate that Ape1, an enzyme required for processing apurinic/apyrimidinic (known as abasic) sites, is also involved in the generation of small DNA fragments during the repair of high LET radiation-induced base damage, which contributes to the higher RBE of high LET radiation-induced cell killing. This discovery opens a new direction to develop approaches for either protecting astronauts from exposure to space radiation or benefiting cancer patients by sensitizing tumor cells to high LET radiotherapy. PMID:25210033

  15. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  16. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined.

  17. Discovery of a novel retrovirus sequence in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni: a putative link between gibbon ape leukemia virus and koala retrovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Simmons

    Full Text Available Gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GALV and koala retrovirus (KoRV share a remarkably close sequence identity despite the fact that they occur in distantly related mammals on different continents. It has previously been suggested that infection of their respective hosts may have occurred as a result of a species jump from another, as yet unidentified vertebrate host. To investigate possible sources of these retroviruses in the Australian context, DNA samples were obtained from 42 vertebrate species and screened using PCR in order to detect proviral sequences closely related to KoRV and GALV. Four proviral partial sequences totalling 2880 bases which share a strong similarity with KoRV and GALV were detected in DNA from a native Australian rodent, the grassland melomys, Melomys burtoni. We have designated this novel gammaretrovirus Melomys burtoni retrovirus (MbRV. The concatenated nucleotide sequence of MbRV shares 93% identity with the corresponding sequence from GALV-SEATO and 83% identity with KoRV. The geographic ranges of the grassland melomys and of the koala partially overlap. Thus a species jump by MbRV from melomys to koalas is conceivable. However the genus Melomys does not occur in mainland South East Asia and so it appears most likely that another as yet unidentified host was the source of GALV.

  18. Discovery of a novel retrovirus sequence in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni): a putative link between gibbon ape leukemia virus and koala retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Greg; Clarke, Daniel; McKee, Jeff; Young, Paul; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GALV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV) share a remarkably close sequence identity despite the fact that they occur in distantly related mammals on different continents. It has previously been suggested that infection of their respective hosts may have occurred as a result of a species jump from another, as yet unidentified vertebrate host. To investigate possible sources of these retroviruses in the Australian context, DNA samples were obtained from 42 vertebrate species and screened using PCR in order to detect proviral sequences closely related to KoRV and GALV. Four proviral partial sequences totalling 2880 bases which share a strong similarity with KoRV and GALV were detected in DNA from a native Australian rodent, the grassland melomys, Melomys burtoni. We have designated this novel gammaretrovirus Melomys burtoni retrovirus (MbRV). The concatenated nucleotide sequence of MbRV shares 93% identity with the corresponding sequence from GALV-SEATO and 83% identity with KoRV. The geographic ranges of the grassland melomys and of the koala partially overlap. Thus a species jump by MbRV from melomys to koalas is conceivable. However the genus Melomys does not occur in mainland South East Asia and so it appears most likely that another as yet unidentified host was the source of GALV.

  19. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  20. The expression of APE/Ref-1 at early stage of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats%大鼠局灶性脑缺血再灌注早期非嘌呤非嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子-1表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 万琪; 王洪典; 张光运; 刘勇红; 徐若华

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨大鼠大脑中动脉阻塞再灌注(MCAO/R)后,DNA修复酶非嘌呤非嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子~1(APE/Ref-1)的表达变化及其意义.方法采用免疫组织化学方法检测APE/Ref-1在缺血再灌注早期损伤脑组织中的变化.结果自再灌注2 h起,损伤侧APE/Ref-1表达阳性细胞数较相应的假手术对照组和正常组显著下降(P<0.01),至48h各手术组间APE/Ref-1表达并无明显差异(P>0.05),72 h时损伤区域APE/Ref-1表达较其他手术组减少(P<0.01);2~48h,损伤侧及损伤对侧相应区域部分APE/Ref-1的表达出现于胞质,72h时损伤对侧恢复为胞核表达,且无细胞减少.结论局灶性大鼠脑缺血再灌注早期,DNA修复酶APE/Ref-1在损伤区域的表达水平降低,并出现该蛋白的胞质滞留现象,说明再灌注早期DNA修复功能下降可能促进缺血再灌注区域细胞的损伤.

  1. 氧化还原因子1对体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节氧化损伤的保护作用%Adenovirus-mediated APE/Ref-1 expression protects rat spiral ganglion cells from oxidative damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振东; 张学渊; 袁伟; 魏运军; 钟诚

    2008-01-01

    Objective To address the question if apurinic/apyrimidimic endonuclase/redox factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) involved in preventing spiral ganglion cells oxidative damage after oxidative stress. Methods Primary cultured rat spiral ganglion cells were infected with the adenovirus containing APE/Ref-1 for 48 h, then treated with H2O2 (0, 10,25,50,100,300 μmol/L)for 1 h, and finally changed back into normal medium. Western blot were used to detect the level of APE/Ref-1 protein in the infected cells to ensure APE/Ref-1 over expression as a result of adenovirus infection. The cell viability was determined by MTF and the apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results Western blot showed that infection of adenovirus resulted in APE/Ref-1 over expression in the spiral ganglion cells. Over expression of APE/Ref-1 significantly improved cell viability in cultures treated with different concentration H2O2 from 50 to 300 μmol/L However, the apoptosis of cells was significantly inhibited. Conclusions Overe xpression of APE/Ref-1 could protect spiral ganglion cells from oxidative damage.%目的 观察表达无嘌呤无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(apurinic/apyrimidimicendonuclase/redox factor 1,APE/Ref-1)的重组腺病毒感染对H2O2所致体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞氧化损伤的保护作用.方法 体外培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞,APE/Ref-1腺病毒表达载体感染48 h后,加入不同浓度H2O2(0、10、25、50、100及300 μmol/L)干预1 h,更换正常培养液后继续培养24 h,通过蛋白免疫印迹分析、四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法、原位缺口末端标记法(TUNEL)分别检测感染后螺旋神经节细胞APE/Ref-1蛋白表达、细胞活力以及凋亡情况.结果 通过腺病毒感染实现了APE/Ref-1基因在体外培养耳蜗螺旋神经节细胞的过表达,H2O2浓度为50~300 μmol/L时,APE/Ref-1组同对照组比较,细胞活

  2. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  3. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  4. The expression and correlation research of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 in cervical carcinoma%APE/Ref-1和Trx1在宫颈癌中的表达及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明霞; 杨整哉; 曲群; 段钊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression level of oxidation reduction factor-1 (APE/Ref-1)and thi-oredoxin 1 (Trx1 )in cervical cancer,To analysis the relationship between them and clinical pathology. Methods This experiment used Immunohistochemistry S-P method to detect the expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 in 9 normal cervical tissue cases,20 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 38 cervical cancer cases.And the results were analysed with relevant statistical methods.Results APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 had weak expression in normal cervical tissue (22.2%,12.5%),moderate expression in CIN (65.0%,55.0%)and strong positive expression in cervical cancer (84.2%,89.4%),respectively;The ex-pression of APE/Ref-1 was associated with the clinical stage,pathological classification of cervical cancer, while the expression of Trx1 was associated with the pathological classification and lymph nodes metastasis of cervical cancer.The expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 protein were positively related in cervical cancer,and the difference was statistically significant (γ=0.557,P =0.000).Conclusion The expression of APE/Ref-1 and Trx1 protein were positively correlated in cervical cancer ,which may suggest that both of proteins may be involved in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer.%目的:探讨宫颈癌中氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)和硫氧还蛋白1(Trx1)的表达及其与宫颈癌相关临床参数的关系。方法采用免疫组化 S-P法检测9例正常宫颈组织、20例宫颈上皮内瘤样病变(CIN)、38例宫颈癌中 APE/Ref-1和Trx1的表达水平,分析各自表达水平与宫颈癌相关临床参数的关系。结果在正常宫颈组织中 APE/Ref-1和Trx1均呈低表达,分别为22.2%、12.5%;在宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)中均呈中等量表达,分别为65.0%、55.0%;在宫颈癌组织中均呈高表达,分别为84.2%、89.4%;APE/Ref-1的表达与宫颈癌的临床分

  5. The Embodiment of Expressionism in Eugene O'Neill's The Hairy Ape%表现主义在尤金·奥尼尔的《毛猿》中的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 王秀红

    2015-01-01

    表现主义是二十世纪西方文学史上重要的文学运动.它源于绘画,后影响到小说、诗歌和戏剧,且在戏剧领域成就最为显著.尤金·奥尼尔是美国最为杰出和著名的表现主义剧作家的代表.他的经典表现主义戏剧《毛猿》广为世人所熟知.该文以表现主义文学特点为理论依据,采用文本分析的方法,探讨表现主义在尤金·奥尼尔的《毛猿》中的体现,以引导读者更准确、深入地理解表现主义和《毛猿》.%Expressionism is an important literary movement in western literary history of the 20th century. Originating in painting, it then influenced novel, poetry, and drama where it made the greatest achievement. Eugene O'Neill is the most outstanding and distinguished representative of expressionist dramatists in the United States. His classical expressionist play The Hairy Ape is wide-ly known by people all over the world. This thesis aims at exploring the embodiment of expressionism in Eugene O'Neill's The Hairy Ape, which will guide the readers to digest expressionism and The Hairy Ape more accurately and thoroughly.

  6. Relation of Apurinic/apyrimidinic Endonuclease Redox Factor 1 Expression and Neuronal Apoptosis after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats%大鼠脑缺血后APE/Ref-1蛋白表达对神经元凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪效松; 李智文; 张志坚; 许国英

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨脑缺血后无嘌呤/无嘧啶核酸内切酶/氧化还原因子1(APE/Ref-1)蛋白表达变化与神经元凋亡之间的关系. 方法采用双侧颈总动脉阻断+全身低血压法建立大鼠脑缺血模型.动物分假手术组、手术后存活1,2,3 d组.用免疫组织化学方法分析各组APE/Ref-1蛋白的表达;用TUNEL染色观察脑缺血后海马CA1区神经元凋亡的情况. 结果免疫组织化学显示假手术组神经元广泛表达APE/Ref-1蛋白.在脑缺血10 min后第1天海马CA1区APE/Ref-1阳性细胞开始减少,第2天明显减少.该区TUNEL阳性细胞在缺血第2天出现,第3天表现明显.APE/Ref-1和TUNEL双重染色提示丧失了APE/Ref-1免疫活性的细胞转变为TUNEL阳性细胞. 结论短暂性脑缺血后海马CA1区神经元表达APE/Ref-1蛋白减少,这种变化早于神经元凋亡,提示APE/Ref-1蛋白减少和DNA修复功能下降可能与短暂性脑缺血后发生神经元凋亡有关.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1, OGG1, APE1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes, ionizing radiation exposure and chromosomal DNA damage in interventional cardiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia, E-mail: andreas@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Foffa, Ilenia [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Sant' Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa (Italy); Manfredi, Samantha; Botto, Nicoletta [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Cioppa, Angelo [Clinica Cardiologica ' Montevergine' , Mercogliano (Italy); Picano, Eugenio [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa (Italy); Clinica Cardiologica ' Montevergine' , Mercogliano (Italy)

    2009-06-18

    Interventional cardiologists working in high-volume cardiac catheterization laboratory are exposed to significant occupational radiation risks. Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes are thought to modify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on DNA damage, the main initiating event in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between XRCC1 (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln), OGG1 (Ser326Cys), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) SNPs and chromosomal DNA damage. We enrolled 77 subjects: 40 interventional cardiologists (27 male, 41.3 {+-} 9.4 years and 13 female, 37.8 {+-} 8.4 years) and 37 clinical cardiologists (26 male, 39.4 {+-} 9.5 years and 11 female, 35.0 {+-} 9.8 years) without radiation exposure as the control group. Micronucleus (MN) assay was performed as biomarker of chromosomal DNA damage and an early predictor of cancer. MN frequency was significantly higher in interventional cardiologists than in clinical physicians (19.7 {+-} 7.8 per mille vs. 13.5 {+-} 6.3 per mille , p = 0.0003). Within the exposed group, individuals carrying a XRCC3 Met241 allele had higher frequency than homozygous XRCC3 Thr241 (21.2 {+-} 7.8 per mille vs. 16.6 {+-} 7.1 per mille , p = 0.03). Individuals with two or more risk alleles showed a higher MN frequency when compared to subjects with one or no risk allele (18.4 {+-} 6.6 per mille vs. 14.4 {+-} 6.1 per mille , p = 0.02). An interactive effect was found between smoking, exposure >10 years and the presence of the two or more risk alleles on the MN frequency (F = 6.3, p = 0.02). XRCC3 241Met alleles, particularly in combination with multiple risk alleles of DNA repair genes, contribute to chromosomal DNA damage levels in interventional cardiologists.

  8. 从《毛猿》看现代人的非地方生存困境%A Study on Modern Men′s Non-Place Existence in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世存; 王丽

    2014-01-01

    Place theory is a new tendency in contemporary eco-criticism movement.Read from the perspec-tive of place theory,it can be found that there contain deep thinking on place and reflections on non-place existence in Eugene O′Neil′s play The Hairy Ape.The protagonist Yank goes through a painful journey of place deprivation and place seeking,only to find that he is a hairy ape in a cage.The image of cage symboli-zes modern men′s dilemma of non-existence,while the image of the hairy ape is an expressionistic externali-zation of modern men′s loss of identity and alienation of human nature.The tragic end of Yank shows that on-ly by cherishing nature at heart can men have a place on earth,cling to the original roots of human beings and have a sense of place no matter where they are.%地方理论是当代生态批评运动中的一个新动向。从地方理论视角解读奥尼尔剧作《毛猿》,可发现其中蕴含着深刻的地方思想和对非地方生存的反思。主人公扬克经历了地方丧失和地方寻觅的痛苦过程后,却发现自己是身处牢笼的毛猿。笼子意象象征现代人非地方生存的困境,而毛猿意象则是人的身份失落、人性异化的表现主义式的外现。扬克悲剧性的结局说明,人们只有心怀自然,才会不忘大地,不忘人类真正的根,才会不管身在何处,心在地方。

  9. La erosión y sus implicaciones en la morfología de la micro cuenca del Igarapé Apeú, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Santos Odete Cardoso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas de los canales que componen la micro cuenca del canal Apeú, ubicada en el nordeste del estado del Pará, en tierras de los municipios de Castanhal (70%, Inhangapí (10% y Santa Isabel do Pará (20%, son muy aprovechadas por los ribereños y pequeños campesinos. Por eso, en esta investigación se muestra que la erosión acelerada por las actividades antrópicas contribuye a los cambios de la morfología de los canales fluviales que componen la microcuenca. Para medir la erosión en pendiente se empleó la metodología de las estacas; para la erosión marginal en los canales se utilizó la metodología de los Pinos y de las Estacas. Los análisis fisicoquímicas de los sedimentos de los barrancos y del fondo de los canales fueron determinados por las técnicas descriptas por Guimarães et al. (1970, EMBRAPA (1997 y Silva (1999. Laprofundidad de los canales se midió usando el molinete en vado, en el momento de las mediciones de los caudales en las secciones transversales de los canales. De acuerdo con los resultados, la pérdida de suelo por la erosión de la pendiente llegó a 74,02 m en el periodo de octubre de 2002 a julio de 2003. El canal Apeú, el principal de la microcuenca, en la hacienda Morro Verde abandonó su lecho normal por espacio de 50 metros, a causa de los sedimentos provenientes de surcos, zanjas y barrancos formados en el interior de la hacienda mencionada. En ese mismo canal, en el periodo menos lluvioso, en la villa agrícola de Macapazinho, en la mitad del lecho, el nivel de las aguas alcanzó 0,5 m; en el periodo lluvioso llegó a 3,0 m. En los canales predomina la carga del lecho.

  10. Feature of Ref-1/APE expression and its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density in colorectal cancer%大肠癌Ref-1/APE的表达特点及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟江洪; 肖华亮; 向德兵; 张沁宏; 李增鹏; 王东

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨大肠癌氧化还原因子-1(redox factor-1,Ref-1),又称脱嘌呤/脱嘧啶核酸内切酶(apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease,APE),在大肠癌的表达特点及其与血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)和血管密度的关系.方法应用免疫组化S-P法检测110例大肠癌和40例非癌区大肠组织中Ref-1/APE和VEGF的表达,采用血管内皮特异标记物CD31标记并计数肿瘤微血管密度(microvessel density,MVD),最后分析Ref-1/APE与VEGF和MVD的关系.结果所有大肠癌和非癌区大肠组织都有Ref-1/APE表达,但是其在细胞内的定位有所不同.40例非癌区大肠组织细胞核都有Ref-1/APE表达,仅5例有胞质表达(5/40,12.5%);而110例大肠癌中有79例(79/110,71.81%)细胞质有Ref-1/APE表达,比例显著高于非癌区大肠组织(P<0.01).而且细胞质Ref-1/APE阳性表达的大肠癌较无细胞质表达者VEGF阳性率显著增加(P<0.05),MVD也显著增高(P<0.05).结论大肠癌Ref-1/APE移位于细胞质的异常表达可能涉及大肠癌的发生,并且可能与VEGF表达和肿瘤血管生成有关.

  11. A naked ape would have fewer parasites.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, Mark; Bodmer, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Unusually among the mammals, humans lack an outer layer of protective fur or hair. We propose the hypothesis that humans evolved hairlessness to reduce parasite loads, especially ectoparasites that may carry disease. We suggest that hairlessness is maintained by these naturally selected benefits and by sexual selection operating on both sexes. Hairlessness is made possible in humans owing to their unique abilities to regulate their environment via fire, shelter and clothing. Clothes and shelt...

  12. Would humans without language be apes?

    OpenAIRE

    Vauclair, J

    2003-01-01

    The bedrock of comparative psychology of cognition, especially where nonhuman primates are concerned, rests on Darwin's famous account according to which continuity would be the main trait leading from the animal to the human mind. This idea was popularized through the statement in which Darwin postulated only quantitative differences between humans and the other species, namely "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of k...

  13. Determinación de la utilidad de la relación APE l/t (Antígeno Prostático Específico libre sobre el total en pacientes con sospecha de cáncer de próstata estudiados por biopsia ecográfica endorrectal Utility of Free/Total Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Ratio in prostatic cancer studied with endorectal ultrasound biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Marangoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los marcadores tumorales son importantes al momento de decidir la realización de biopsias para el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la exactitud diagnóstica del APE libre como marcador tumoral en casos de pacientes con sospecha de cáncer prostático en su relación con el APE total (APEL/T y determinar un valor de corte ajustado. Material y Método: En total, fueron evaluados 248 pacientes de entre 38 y 88 años de edad, en un período comprendido entre noviembre de 2001 y junio de 2007, con un análisis del APE libre, identificación de la presencia de un área hipoecogénica como ayuda diagnóstica y un análisis anatomopatológico para confirmación pospunción prostática endorrectal, realizado en forma prospectiva. Resultados: La identificación de pacientes con cáncer de próstata a través de la sospecha por el APE libre es relativa pero puede ser potenciada con otros hallazgos. Un 23,3% de pacientes con APEL/T por debajo de 0,20 presentaron biopsias positivas, pero, con un valor de 0,14, el porcentaje fue del 60%. Discusión: La identificación de pacientes para ser estudiados mediante Biopsia Prostática Endorrectal (BPE es un problema de la práctica diaria en los consultorios de Urología. Debido a que la BPE es un procedimiento diagnóstico medianamente invasivo y no exento de morbilidad, es que se debería ajustar su indicación. La relación APEL/T debe ser considerada en este contexto con mayor importancia. Conclusión: La identificación de valores alterados de la relación APE L/T con un valor de corte ajustado a 0,14 puede ayudar en el diagnóstico presuntivo de cáncer de próstata y a la elección de pacientes para biopsia a fin de ahorrar biopsias innecesarias.Introduction: The tumor markers are important to decide to perform biopsies in the prostate cancer diagnosis. The goal of this article is to evaluate the diagnosis precision of FPSA (Free Prostatic Specific

  14. 巨猿、化石人和智人牙齿的波动不对称:人类进化中压力源变化的意义%Fluctuating Dental Asymmetry in Great Apes, Fossil Hominins, and Modern Humans: Implications for Changing Stressors during Human Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frederick; Gordon G. Gallup, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined by random, stress-induced deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, is an indication of the inability to buffer against developmental disturbances, such as poor early nutrition. One method of measuring FA involves comparing individual tooth sizes on opposing sides of the mouth. In this study tooth measurements were compiled for 296 individuals from 10 species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), modern humans (Homo sapiens), and a number of fossil hominins. The orangutan sample had significantly lower levels of dental FA than the gorilla, chimpanzee, Homo erectus, neandertal, or modern human samples. In contrast, the human and neandertal samples had significantly higher dental FA levels than any of the great ape samples. Some explanations relating to relaxed selection pressures are suggested.%波动不对称(FA)是压力的随机性引发双侧完美对称偏离的现象,这是个体无力免受发展中不利因素(如早期营养不良)侵害的一个标志.比较个体口腔两侧牙齿的大小是一种测量FA的方法.本研究汇集了10个物种共296名个体的牙齿测量结果,测量对象包括黑猩猩(学名Pan troglodytes)、猩猩(学名Pongo pygmaeus)、大猩猩(学名Gorilla gorilla)、智人(学名Homo sapiens),以及许多化石人.分析发现,猩猩样本牙齿的FA水平要显著低于大猩猩、黑猩猩、直立人、尼安德特人和智人样本的FA水平.而与之相反的是,智人与尼安德特人样本的牙齿FA水平要显著高于其它任何一种巨猿样本的FA水平.该文提出了有关缓和的选择压力的解释.

  15. Macroscopic inspection of ape feces: what's in a quantification method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Caroline A; McGrew, William C

    2014-06-01

    Macroscopic inspection of feces has been used to investigate primate diet. The limitations of this method to identify food-items to species level have long been recognized, but ascertaining aspects of diet (e.g., folivory) are achievable by quantifying food-items in feces. Quantification methods applied include rating food-items using a scale of abundance, estimating their percentage volume, and weighing food-items. However, verification as to whether or not composition data differ, depending on which quantification method is used during macroscopic inspection, has not been done. We analyzed feces collected from ten adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We compare dietary composition totals obtained from using different quantification methods and ascertain if sieve mesh size influences totals calculated. Finally, this study validates findings from direct observation of feeding by the same individuals from whom the fecal samples had been collected. Contrasting diet composition totals obtained by using different quantification methods and sieve mesh sizes can influence folivory and frugivory estimates. However, our findings were based on the assumption that fibrous matter contained pith and leaf fragments only, which remains to be verified. We advocate macroscopic inspection of feces can be a valuable tool to provide a generalized overview of dietary composition for primate populations. As most populations remain unhabituated, scrutinizing and validating indirect measures are important if they are to be applied to further understand inter- and intra-species dietary variation. PMID:24482001

  16. Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Campbell-Smith

    Full Text Available Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD and females (866 m ± 195, but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across both Sumatran and Bornean orangutan ranges.

  17. Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD) and females (866 m ± 195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across both Sumatran and Bornean orangutan ranges. PMID:21364732

  18. A place holder: the social sciences of monkeys and apes

    OpenAIRE

    Servais, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cognitive sciences, the nature/culture debate has been reignited, and this debate often takes the form of a discussion about the opportunities and dangers of the naturalization of the social. Faced with what they perceive as a threat and an invasion of their discipline by the natural sciences, social science researchers often react by denying that natural sciences have any relevance for their own discipline, as though the biological and cultural aspects of human beings were s...

  19. A place holder: the social sciences of monkeys and apes

    OpenAIRE

    Servais, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of cognitive sciences, the nature/culture debate has been reignited, and this debate often takes the form of a discussion about the opportunities and dangers of the naturalization of the social. Faced with what they perceive as a threat and an invasion of their discipline by the natural sciences, social science researchers often react by denying that natural sciences have any relevance for their own discipline, as though the biological and cultural aspects of huma...

  20. ALKYLPHENOL (APE) MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF REGION 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two draft reports have been prepared for publication - a USGS document titled "Alkylphenols and hormones in wastewater treatment plant influents, effluents, and receiving streams of the Great Lakes Region" and a journal article titled "Biological responses of male fatehead minno...

  1. The Hairy Ape:A Hopeless Search for Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向普

    2013-01-01

    One theme goes through all of Eugene O’Neill’s plays, namely, modern man’s search for identity. The protagonist’s quest for a unitary self indicates the irreconcilable conflicts different moral and spiritual values have caused within the modern man.

  2. The apes' edge: positional learning in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Carden, Sarah; Versace, Elisabetta; Hauser, Marc D

    2010-05-01

    A wide variety of organisms produce actions and signals in particular temporal sequences, including the motor actions recruited during tool-mediated foraging, the arrangement of notes in the songs of birds, whales and gibbons, and the patterning of words in human speech. To accurately reproduce such events, the elements that comprise such sequences must be memorized. Both memory and artificial language learning studies have revealed at least two mechanisms for memorizing sequences, one tracking co-occurrence statistics among items in sequences (i.e., transitional probabilities) and the other one tracking the positions of items in sequences, in particular those of items in sequence-edges. The latter mechanism seems to dominate the encoding of sequences after limited exposure, and to be recruited by a wide array of grammatical phenomena. To assess whether humans differ from other species in their reliance on one mechanism over the other after limited exposure, we presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human adults with brief exposure to six items, auditory sequences. Each sequence consisted of three distinct sound types (X, A, B), arranged according to two simple temporal rules: the A item always preceded the B item, and the sequence-edges were always occupied by the X item. In line with previous results with human adults, both species primarily encoded positional information from the sequences; that is, they kept track of the items that occurred in the sequence-edges. In contrast, the sensitivity to co-occurrence statistics was much weaker. Our results suggest that a mechanism to spontaneously encode positional information from sequences is present in both chimpanzees and humans and may represent the default in the absence of training and with brief exposure. As many grammatical regularities exhibit properties of this mechanism, it may be recruited by language and constrain the form that certain grammatical regularities take. PMID:20012457

  3. Ruminant diets and the Miocene extinction of European great apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Gildas; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S.; Schulz, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The successful evolutionary radiations of European hominoids and pliopithecoids came to an end during the Late Miocene. Using ruminant diets as environmental proxies, it becomes possible to detect variations in vegetation over time with the potential to explain fluctuations in primate diversity along a NW–SE European transect. Analysis shows that ruminants had diverse diets when primate diversity reached its peak, with more grazers in eastern Europe and more browsers farther west. After the drop in primate diversity, grazers accounted for a greater part of western and central European communities. Eastwards, the converse trend was evident with more browsing ruminants. These opposite trends indicate habitat loss and an increase in environmental uniformity that may have severely favoured the decline of primate diversity. PMID:20519220

  4. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Muehlenbein

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53 from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals.

  5. Differences in the Ability of Apes and Children to Instruct Others Using Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Katja; Call, Josep; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In all human cultures, people gesture iconically. However, the evolutionary basis of iconic gestures is unknown. In this study, chimpanzees and bonobos, and 2- and 3-year-old children, learned how to operate two apparatuses to get rewards. Then, at test, only a human adult had access to the apparatuses, and participants could instruct her about…

  6. The Aqua-planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David L.; Blackburn, Michael; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrew; RajenDran, Kavirajan; Kitoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sensitivity of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations to changes in the meridional distribution of sea surface temperature (SST). The simulations are for an aqua-planet, a water covered Earth with no land, orography or sea- ice and with specified zonally symmetric SST. Simulations from 14 AGCMs developed for Numerical Weather Prediction and climate applications are compared. Four experiments are performed to study the sensitivity to the meridional SST profile. These profiles range from one in which the SST gradient continues to the equator to one which is flat approaching the equator, all with the same maximum SST at the equator. The zonal mean circulation of all models shows strong sensitivity to latitudinal distribution of SST. The Hadley circulation weakens and shifts poleward as the SST profile flattens in the tropics. One question of interest is the formation of a double versus a single ITCZ. There is a large variation between models of the strength of the ITCZ and where in the SST experiment sequence they transition from a single to double ITCZ. The SST profiles are defined such that as the equatorial SST gradient flattens, the maximum gradient increases and moves poleward. This leads to a weakening of the mid-latitude jet accompanied by a poleward shift of the jet core. Also considered are tropical wave activity and tropical precipitation frequency distributions. The details of each vary greatly between models, both with a given SST and in the response to the change in SST. One additional experiment is included to examine the sensitivity to an off-equatorial SST maximum. The upward branch of the Hadley circulation follows the SST maximum off the equator. The models that form a single precipitation maximum when the maximum SST is on the equator shift the precipitation maximum off equator and keep it centered over the SST maximum. Those that form a double with minimum on the equatorial maximum SST shift the double structure off the equator, keeping the minimum over the maximum SST. In both situations only modest changes appear in the shifted profile of zonal average precipitation. When the upward branch of the Hadley circulation moves into the hemisphere with SST maximum, the zonal average zonal, meridional and vertical winds all indicate that the Hadley cell in the other hemisphere dominates.

  7. Apes' and Children's Understanding of Cooperative and Competitive Motives in a Communicative Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus") (Study 1) and 18- and 24-month-old human children (Study 2) participated in a novel communicative task. A human experimenter (E) hid food or a toy in one of two opaque containers before gesturing towards the reward's location in one of two ways. In the Informing condition, she attempted…

  8. Functional aspects of metatarsal head shape in humans, apes, and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Peter J; Almécija, Sergio; Patel, Biren A; Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Jungers, William L

    2015-09-01

    Modern human metatarsal heads are typically described as "dorsally domed," mediolaterally wide, and dorsally flat. Despite the apparent functional importance of these features in forefoot stability during bipedalism, the distinctiveness of this morphology has not been quantitatively evaluated within a broad comparative framework. In order to use these features to reconstruct fossil hominin locomotor behaviors with any confidence, their connection to human bipedalism should be validated through a comparative analysis of other primates with different locomotor behaviors and foot postures, including species with biomechanical demands potentially similar to those of bipedalism (e.g., terrestrial digitigrady). This study explores shape variation in the distal metatarsus among humans and other extant catarrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3 DGM). Shape differences among species in metatarsal head morphology are well captured by the first two principal components of Procrustes shape coordinates, and these two components summarize most of the variance related to "dorsal doming" and "dorsal expansion." Multivariate statistical tests reveal significant differences among clades in overall shape, and humans are reliably distinguishable from other species by aspects of shape related to a greater degree of dorsal doming. Within quadrupeds, terrestrial species also trend toward more domed metatarsal heads, but not to the extent seen in humans. Certain aspects of distal metatarsus shape are likely related to habitual dorsiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joints, but the total morphological pattern seen in humans is distinct. These comparative results indicate that this geometric morphometric approach is useful to characterize the complexity of metatarsal head morphology and will help clarify its relationship with function in fossil primates, including early hominins. PMID:26276534

  9. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J;

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges...... from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt......) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along...

  10. Progress in high-throughput assays of MGMT and APE1 activities in cell extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Polychronaki, Nektaria; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair activity is of interest as a potential biomarker of individual susceptibility to genotoxic agents. In view of the current trend for exploitation of large cohorts in molecular epidemiology projects, there is a pressing need for the development of phenotypic DNA repair assays that are high-throughput, very sensitive, inexpensive and reliable. Towards this goal we have developed and validated two phenotypic assays for the measurement of two DNA repair enzymes in cell extracts: (1) O(6...

  11. Ape & Banana: A new user experience for collecting bio-based disposables at festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, S.; Karana, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the implementation of a bio-plastic material (PLA) for disposables at the Lowlands Music Festival. The main aim of the study is to develop a system which motivates Lowlands festival visitors to litter their PLA disposables effectively. In the paper, littering behavior o

  12. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DeMiguel

    Full Text Available Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods, most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments, whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity, although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  13. The spread of a novel behaviour in wild chimpanzees : new insights into the ape cultural mind

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothee; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William John Edward; Hobaiter, Cat

    2015-01-01

    TP was funded by the Canadian Research Chair in Continental Ecosystem Ecology, and received computational support from the Theoretical Ecosystem Ecology group at UQAR. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) and from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) REA grant agreement n°329197 awarded to TG, ERC grant agreement n° 283871 awarded to KZ. WH was funded by a BBSR...

  14. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals. PMID:22438916

  15. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri Neaux; Franck Guy; Emmanuel Gilissen; Walter Coudyzer; Patrick Vignaud; Stéphane Ducrocq

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hy...

  16. and Great Ape (Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes Mandibles: Possible Ontogenetic Strategies and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Boughner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While mandible proportions do not appear to constrain permanent molar initiation times, how adequate space is created in the corpus for these teeth in a timely way is not well understood. This question is important for explaining how primate tooth and jaw development and evolution are coordinated. Landmark and linear measurement data were used to characterize mandible shape, growth trajectory, and growth rate between two genera, Papio and Pan, with contrasting permanent molar initiation schedules and mandible proportions. 3D geometric morphometric and 2D bivariate analyses showed genus-level differences in mandible morphology from birth that were amplified by different postnatal growth trajectories. Different corpus proportions and regional variation in corpus growth rates helped create space in a timely way for the molars. Regional corpus growth rates may evolve alongside permanent molar morphology and developmental timing to modify space available in the corpus for these teeth.

  17. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals.

  18. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J; Flemming, Timothy; Heimbauer, Lisa; Talbot, Catherine F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Wilson, Bart J

    2011-02-22

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along phylogenetic lines, which we found. However, the species were more similar than might be expected. In particular, humans who played using "nonhuman primate-friendly" rules did not behave as is typical. Thus, we find evidence for similarity in decision-making processes across the order Primates. These results indicate that such comparative studies are possible and, moreover, that in any comparison rating species' relative abilities, extreme care must be taken in ensuring that one species does not have an advantage over the others due to methodological procedures. PMID:21300874

  19. Upregulation of APE/ref-1 in recurrence stage I, non small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Woong; Kang, Shin Kwang; Choi, Songyi; Lee, Choong Sik; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lim, Seung Pyung

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related death, still lacks reliable biomarkers. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in the base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidative stress or alkylating compounds, as well as in the regulation of multiple transcription factors. To validate apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 as a biomarker for prediction of lung cancer recurrence, we studied 42 patients who received curative resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. They were divided into 2 groups based on recurrence, and compared by immunohistochemistry staining of paraffin-embedded tissues and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant difference between the cytoplasm and nucleus in patients who had a recurrence compared to those with nonrecurrent adenocarcinoma. In Western blot analysis, the recurrent adenocarcinoma group showed increased expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 in cytoplasm, nucleus, and in total. This indicates that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 is unregulated in recurrent stage I adenocarcinoma. For clinical application as a prognostic marker for non-small-cell lung cancer, further investigation into the role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Ref-1 in carcinogenesis is needed in an expanded prospective study.

  20. A young Alu subfamily amplified independently in human and African great apes lineages.

    OpenAIRE

    Zietkiewicz, E; Richer, C.; Makalowski, W; Jurka, J; Labuda, D

    1994-01-01

    A variety of Alu subfamilies amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. Alu Sb2 belongs to a group of young subfamilies with a characteristic two-nucleotide deletion at positions 65/66. It consists of repeats having a 7-nucleotide duplication of a sequence segment involving positions 246 through 252. The presence of Sb2 inserts was examined in five genomic loci in 120 human DNA samples as well as in DNAs of higher primates. The lack of the insertional polymorphism se...

  1. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests and human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee abundance, in spite of anti-poaching interventions. We caution against the pitfalls of missing and confounded co-variables in model-based estimation approaches and highlight the importance of spatial scale in the response of different species to landscape processes. We stress the importance of a stratified design-based approach to monitoring species status in response to conservation interventions and advocate a holistic framework for landscape-scale monitoring that includes smaller-scale targeted research and punctual assessment of threats.

  2. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests and human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee abundance, in spite of anti-poaching interventions. We caution against the pitfalls of missing and confounded co-variables in model-based estimation approaches and highlight the importance of spatial scale in the response of different species to landscape processes. We stress the importance of a stratified design-based approach to monitoring species status in response to conservation interventions and advocate a holistic framework for landscape-scale monitoring that includes smaller-scale targeted research and punctual assessment of threats.

  3. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests and human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee abundance, in spite of anti-poaching interventions. We caution against the pitfalls of missing and confounded co-variables in model-based estimation approaches and highlight the importance of spatial scale in the response of different species to landscape processes. We stress the importance of a stratified design-based approach to monitoring species status in response to conservation interventions and advocate a holistic framework for landscape-scale monitoring that includes smaller-scale targeted research and punctual assessment of threats. PMID:20428233

  4. Nut-like oil seeds: food for monkeys, chimpanzees, humans, and probably ape-men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C R

    1987-07-01

    The hypothetical hyperrobust australopithecine gnathic nutcracker adaptation is reexamined in light of ecobotanical information on edible wild nuts provided by the flora of tropical and subtropical Africa. The nut producing species are tree-forms. Those of the forest region do not as a rule produce fruits with edible mesocarps. In contrast, the woodland savanna species (particularly in the Zambezian region) characteristically provide an important whole fruit, i.e., a nutritious mesocarp in addition to edible oil-rich nut seeds. These fruits drop from the tree before they are fully mature and go through the final ripening phase on the ground. They are important seasonal foods for a variety of vertebrates, including primates, elephants, and antelope. Altogether the nuts exhibit a broad range of toughness values, measured here as strength under compression. The woodland nuts are not as tough (177-934 kg force, breaking load) as those of the tropical forest (192-1,673 kg force). The seed-predators of the woodland species include squirrels, baboons, warthogs, and parrots. Paleoecological analyses indicate that it was the woodland nuts that were probably available to Australopithecus boisei and A. robustus. Preliminary estimates of adult male gnathic nut-cracking capabilities suggest that A. boisei could have orally cracked a significant portion of the woodland nuts. In spite of this, ecobotanical data indicate that we can probably reject the hypothesis that these hominids were year-round gnathic nut-cracking specialists. Both the indirect and direct evidence support this conclusion. PMID:3113265

  5. Why don't we ask? A complementary method for assessing the status of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Species conservation is difficult. Threats to species are typically high and immediate. Effective solutions for counteracting these threats, however, require synthesis of high quality evidence, appropriately targeted activities, typically costly implementation, and rapid re-evaluation and adaptation. Conservation management can be ineffective if there is insufficient understanding of the complex ecological, political, socio-cultural, and economic factors that underlie conservation threats. When information about these factors is incomplete, conservation managers may be unaware of the most urgent threats or unable to envision all consequences of potential management strategies. Conservation research aims to address the gap between what is known and what knowledge is needed for effective conservation. Such research, however, generally addresses a subset of the factors that underlie conservation threats, producing a limited, simplistic, and often biased view of complex, real world situations. A combination of approaches is required to provide the complete picture necessary to engage in effective conservation. Orangutan conservation (Pongo spp. offers an example: standard conservation assessments employ survey methods that focus on ecological variables, but do not usually address the socio-cultural factors that underlie threats. Here, we evaluate a complementary survey method based on interviews of nearly 7,000 people in 687 villages in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We address areas of potential methodological weakness in such surveys, including sampling and questionnaire design, respondent biases, statistical analyses, and sensitivity of resultant inferences. We show that interview-based surveys can provide cost-effective and statistically robust methods to better understand poorly known populations of species that are relatively easily identified by local people. Such surveys provide reasonably reliable estimates of relative presence and relative encounter rates of such species, as well as quantifying the main factors that threaten them. We recommend more extensive use of carefully designed and implemented interview surveys, in conjunction with more traditional field methods.

  6. Brains and Music, Whales and Apes, Hearing and Learning...and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about whalesongs, hearing, musical brains, and a number of other topics explored over the past 35 years. Previous research is reviewed briefly, and more attention is given to recent efforts with an emphasis on collaborative research conducted with many wonderful colleagues. First is a brief account of the Institute for Music…

  7. Single genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing of Plasmodium spp. DNA from ape fecal specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian; Sharp, Paul; Shaw, George; Hahn, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Conventional PCR followed by molecular cloning and sequencing of amplified products is commonly used to test clinical specimens for target sequences of interest, such as viral, bacterial or parasite nucleic acids. However, this approach has serious limitations when used to analyze mixtures of genetically divergent templates1–9. This is because Taq polymerase is prone to switch templates during the amplification process, thereby generating recombinants that do not exist in vivo4. When amplicon...

  8. Single genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing of Plasmodium spp. DNA from ape fecal specimens

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Conventional PCR followed by molecular cloning and sequencing of amplified products is commonly used to test clinical specimens for target sequences of interest, such as viral, bacterial or parasite nucleic acids. However, this approach has serious limitations when used to analyze mixtures of genetically divergent templates (1-9). This is because Taq polymerase is prone to switch templates during the amplification process, thereby generating recombinants that do not exist in vivo (4). When am...

  9. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Muehlenbein; Marc Ancrenaz; Rosman Sakong; Laurentius Ambu; Sean Prall; Grace Fuller; Mary Ann Raghanti

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans)...

  10. "Try to Do the Best You Can": How Pre-Service APE Specialists Experience Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present an exceptional need for varied instruction within the physical education environment. Adapted physical educators need to be prepared to make a significant amount of choices in regards to adaptations and modifications given the situations they may encounter with their students. However, many…

  11. Why Brains Are Not Computers, Why Behaviorism Is Not Satanism, and Why Dolphins Are Not Aquatic Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Modern psychology has, to all intents and purposes, become synonymous with cognitive psychology, with an emphasis on the idea that the brain is a form of computer, whose job is to take in sensory input, process information, and produce motor output. This places the brain at a remove from both the body and environment and denies the intimate connection that exists between them. As a result, a great injustice is done to both human and nonhuman animals: On the one hand, we fail to recognize the distinctive nature of nonhuman cognition, and on the other hand, we continue to promote a somewhat misleading view of human psychological capacities. Here, I suggest a more mutualistic, embodied, enactive view might allow us to ask more interesting questions about how animals of all kinds come to know their worlds, in ways that avoid the (inevitable) anthropocentric baggage of the cognitivist viewpoint. PMID:27606181

  12. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredsted Tina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed on the basis of the human sequence and are often non-functional in distantly related primate species. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop markers that simultaneously detect Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences and also work across many species. Results A novel method for sex identification in primates is described using a triple primer PCR reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis of the sex-chromosomal isoforms of the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein gene (UTX/UTY. By comparing genomic data from several mammals we identified the UTX/UTY locus as the best candidate for a universal primate sexing marker. Using data from several species we identified a XY-conserved region, a Y conserved region and an X conserved region. This enabled the design of a triple primer PCR setup that amplifies X and Y products of different length in a single PCR reaction. Conclusion This simple PCR amplification of X and Y fragments is useful for sexing DNA samples from all species of primates. Furthermore, since the amplified fragments are very short the method can be applied to fragmented DNA extracted from non-invasive samples.

  13. Foundations of cumulative culture in apes: improved foraging efficiency through relinquishing and combining witnessed behaviours in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah J.; Vale, Gillian L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Whiten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one. Only a single chimpanzee in control groups, who had not witnessed a knowledgeable model, discovered this. Individuals who switched were later able to combine components of their two learned techniques to produce a more efficient solution than their extensively used, original foraging method. These results suggest that, although chimpanzees show a considerable degree of conservatism, they also have an ability to combine independent behaviours to produce efficient compound action sequences; one of the foundational abilities (or candidate mechanisms) for human cumulative culture. PMID:27775061

  14. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Ordas, G.; Call, J.; Colmenares, F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool a...

  15. Comparisons of ape and human sequences that regulate mitochondrial DNA transcription and D-loop DNA synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Foran, D R; Hixson, J E; Brown, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions for common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee and gorilla were sequenced and the lengths and termini of their D-loop DNA's characterized. In these and all other species for which there are data, 5' termini map to sequences that contain the trinucleotide YAY. 3' termini are 25-51 nucleotides downstream from a sequence that is moderately conserved among vertebrates. Substitutions were greater than 1.5 times more frequent in the control region than in regi...

  16. Analysis of the virogenes related to the rhesus monkey endogenous type C retrovirus in monkeys and apes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tainsky, M A

    1981-01-01

    Molecular hybridization studies were carried out by using a [3H]complementary DNA (cDNA) probe to compare the endogenous type C retrovirus of rhesus monkeys (MMC-1) with other known retroviruses and related sequences in various primate DNAs. The genomic RNA of the endogenous type C retrovirus of stumptail monkeys (MAC-1) was found to be highly related to the MMC-1 cDNA probe, whereas the other retroviral RNAs tested showed no homology. Related sequences were found in Old World monkey DNAs and...

  17. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Fredsted, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed o...... amplification of X and Y fragments is useful for sexing DNA samples from all species of primates. Furthermore, since the amplified fragments are very short the method can be applied to fragmented DNA extracted from non-invasive samples.......Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed...... on the basis of the human sequence and are often non-functional in distantly related primate species. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop markers that simultaneously detect Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences and also work across many species. Results A novel method for sex identification in primates...

  18. Systematic morphology and evolutionary anatomy of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the lesser apes, gibbons (hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Whatton, James F

    2008-08-01

    We examined the morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) on 20 sides of 10 gibbons (Hylobatidae) of three genera, and we have inferred the evolution of the anatomy of the primate ACNS. We report the following. (1) Several trivial intraspecific and interspecific variations are present in gibbons, but the general arrangement of the ACNS in gibbons is consistent. (2) Although the parasympathetic vagal cardiac nervous system is extremely consistent, the sympathetic cardiac nervous system, such as the composition of the sympathetic ganglia and the range of origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves, exhibit topographical differences among primates. (3) The vertebral ganglion, seldom observed in the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), was consistently present in gibbons as well as in humans. (4) There are fewer thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion in humans than in gibbons and in gibbons than in Old World monkeys. (5) The superior cardiac nerve originating from the superior cervical ganglion, rarely observed in Old World monkeys but commonly observed in humans, was present in 13 of 20 sides (65%), mostly on the left. Accordingly, the ACNS morphology exhibits evolutionary changes within the primate lineage. These evolutionary differences between Old World monkeys, gibbons, and humans are most parsimoniously interpreted as resulting from regular changes in the lineages leading from their common ancestor to the extant species that we dissected. They include the reduction in the number of thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion and the expansion of the range of the cardiac nervous origin.

  19. SAGA advances in ShApes, Geometry, and Algebra : results from the Marie Curie initial training network

    CERN Document Server

    Muntingh, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book summarizes research carried out in workshops of the SAGA project, an Initial Training Network exploring the interplay of Shapes, Algebra, Geometry and Algorithms. Written by a combination of young and experienced researchers, the book introduces new ideas in an established context. Among the central topics are approximate and sparse implicitization and surface parametrization; algebraic tools for geometric computing; algebraic geometry for computer aided design applications and problems with industrial applications. Readers will encounter new methods for the (approximate) transition between the implicit and parametric representation; new algebraic tools for geometric computing; new applications of isogeometric analysis, and will gain insight into the emerging research field situated between algebraic geometry and computer aided geometric design.

  20. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mailund; Halager, Anders E.; Michael Westergaard; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Kasper Munch; Andersen, Lars N.; Gerton Lunter; Kay Prüfer; Aylwyn Scally; Asger Hobolth; Schierup, Mikkel H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a hidden Markov model (HMM) for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombin...

  1. Comparing the Performances of Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and Human Children (Homo sapiens) in the Floating Peanut Task

    OpenAIRE

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful...

  2. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hanus; Mendes, N; Tennie, C.; Call, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same ‘‘floating peanut task.’’ None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successf...

  3. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, Silke R.; Özel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO2 and bicarbonate but also under normal grow...

  4. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  5. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution. PMID:21687710

  6. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Hanus; Natacha Mendes; Claudio Tennie; Josep Call

    2011-01-01

    There is no current external funding source. The internal funders (MPI) had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further test...

  7. Sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D; Hunt, D M

    1994-10-01

    In man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. A third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. We have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the Hominidea (the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) and in three members of the Cercopithecoidea family of Old World primates (the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana, the talapoin monkey, Miopithecus talapoin, and the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis). No variation in the codons that specify the amino acids involved in spectral tuning were found. We predict therefore that the MW and LW pigments of gorilla and chimpanzee have similar spectral characteristics to those of man. Multiple copies of the same opsin gene sequence were identified in the chimpanzee, talapoin and macaque and we also show that non-human Old World primates are similar to man in showing a bunching of polymorphic sites in exon 3. We discuss the ancestry of the separate MW and LW genes of Old World primates and the equivalent polymorphic gene of the marmoset, a New World primate. PMID:7975287

  8. Saliva Crystallization Occurs in Female Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): Could It Be a New Option for Monitoring of Menstrual Cycle in Captive Great Apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, Anna; Fedorova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Saliva crystallization was previously studied in both humans and animals with various results. The study aimed to confirm of the presence of saliva crystallization in female Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), to evaluate the quality of samples which were collected from animals and processed by keepers, and to test preliminarily if the saliva crystallization could be connected with menstrual cycle and could serve as a cheap, quick and simple method for the basic monitoring of their reproductive status. The research was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015. Sampling of saliva was done in three female orangutans from three zoological gardens (Dvur Kralove, Usti nad Labem, Bojnice) daily, mostly by tongue prints on glass slides with ground edges or by sampling directly from the mouth using plastic spoons from which the saliva was transferred onto glass slides. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy with ×400 magnification. The quality of the sample and type of crystallization was assessed for two different approaches. In total, 246 samples were evaluated. We confirmed the presence of saliva crystallization in orangutans. The quality of samples was variable however acceptable. Unfortunately, it was impossible to detect exact fertile period in two females. However in one orangutan female, when the crystallization was evaluated by the approach typically used in humans, we discovered that saliva crystallization during the fertile period significantly differed from saliva crystallization in the non-fertile period. This points out the possibility of using saliva crystallization for detection of the fertile period in orangutans. However, further research was recommended. PMID:27458728

  9. The ontogeny of great ape gesture - not a simple story. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Although there is an increasing number of studies investigating gestural communication in primates other than humans in both natural and captive settings [1], very little is known about how they acquire their gestures. Different mechanisms have been proposed, including genetic transmission [2], social learning [3], or ontogenetic ritualization [4]. This latter mechanism is central to Arbib's paper [5], because he uses dyadic brain modeling - that is "modeling the brains of two creatures as they interact with each other, so that the action of one affects the perception of the other and so the cycle of interactions continues, with both brains changing in the process" - to explain how gestures might emerge in ontogeny from previously non-communicative behaviors over the course of repeated and increasingly abbreviated and thus ritualized interactions. The aim of my comment is to discuss the current evidence from primate gesture research with regard the different mechanisms proposed for gesture acquisition and how this might confirm or challenge Arbib's approach.

  10. Gclust Server: 19945 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19945 Ape_APE_0184.1 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(84) 418 putative MFS trans...porter 5 1.00e-19 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.67 9.68 0.0 Show 19945 Cluster ID 19945 Sequence ID Ape_APE_0184.1 Link to c

  11. Gclust Server: 181855 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 181855 Ape_APE_0697 Cluster Sequences - 142 hypothetical protein 1 1.00e-70 0.0 0.0... 0.0 0.0 3.23 0.0 Show 181855 Cluster ID 181855 Sequence ID Ape_APE_0697 Link to cluster sequences Cluster S

  12. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar V

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  13. Toward homochiral protocells in noncatalytic peptide systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2008-01-01

    The activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization (APED) model of Plasson et al. has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the evolution of homochirality on prebiotic Earth. The dynamics of the APED model in two-dimensional spatially-extended systems is investigated for various realistic reaction parameters. It is found that the APED system allows for the formation of isolated homochiral proto-domains surrounded by a racemate. A diffusive slowdown of the APED network such as in...

  14. Mechanism of Apoptotic Regulation of Follicular Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, George F.

    2001-01-01

    “There are one hundred and ninety-three living species of monkeys and apes. One hundred and ninety-two of them are covered with hair. The exception is a naked ape self-named Homo sapiens.” —Desmond Morris, The Naked Ape (1967) PMID:11395363

  15. B. Othanel Smith, Douglas McGregor, and the Philosophical Analysis of the Discourse of Institutional Democracy in Education: An Essay with Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Michael A.

    This collection of documents concerns the Analytical Philosophy of Education (APE) and its history. APE was the dominant approach to philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s; it is no longer fashionable. The main paper included in this collection sketches the history of APE and attempts to show its relevance to the idea of "institutional…

  16. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

    OpenAIRE

    Carr Steven M; Flynn Sarah MC

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide se...

  17. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Steven M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. Results In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands ≥ 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. Conclusion Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by more than a few percent. The data suggest that interspecific cross-hybridization will not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data from multispecies microarrays, provided that the species' DNA sequences differ by > 20% (mean of 5b differences per 25b oligo. Recovery of DNA sequence data from multiple, distantly-related species on a single multiplex gene chip should be a practical, highly-parallel method for investigating genomic biodiversity.

  18. Evolution of the primate beta-globin gene region: nucleotide sequence of the delta-beta-globin intergenic region of gorilla and phylogenetic relationships between African apes and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin-Pecontal, P; Gouy, M; Nigon, V M; Trabuchet, G

    1992-01-01

    A 6.0-kb DNA fragment from Gorilla gorilla including the 5' part of the beta-globin gene and about 4.5 kb of its upstream flanking region was cloned and sequenced. The sequence was compared to the human, chimpanzee, and macaque delta-beta intergenic region. This analysis reveals four tandemly repeated sequences (RS), at the same location in the four species, showing a variable number of repeats generating both intraspecific (polymorphism) and interspecific variability. These tandem arrays delimit five regions of unique sequence called IG for intergenic. The divergence for these IG sequences is 1.85 +/- 0.22% between human and gorilla, which is not significantly different from the value estimated in the same region between chimpanzee and human (1.62 +/- 0.21%). The CpG and TpA dinucleotides are avoided. CpGs evolve faster than other sequence sites but do not confuse phylogenetic inferences by producing parallel mutations in different lineages. About 75% of CpG doublets have become TpG or CpA since the common ancestor, in agreement with the methylation/deamination pattern. Comparison of this intergenic region gives information on branching order within Hominoidea. Parsimony and distance-based methods when applied to the delta-beta intergenic region provide evidence (although not statistically significant) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than to gorilla. CpG sites are indeed rich in information by carrying substitutions along the short internal branch. Combining these results with those on the psi eta-delta intergenic region, shows in a statistically significant way that chimpanzee is the closest relative of human. PMID:1556740

  19. 迷失的自我--试论《毛猿》中的身份危机%The Lost Self--On the Identity Crisis in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买玉红

    2006-01-01

    是美国剧作家尤金·奥尼尔的一部重要作品.在这部作品中,通过对主人公扬克的形象刻画,作者指出了人在社会中的所属这一主题,同时也深刻揭露了资本主义社会中下层人物的悲惨境遇.本文试图借助于拉康的镜像理论及弗洛伊德的心理分析来进一步阐述的主题及主人公的悲剧根源.

  20. 无家可归,无根可寻——论表现主义手法在《毛猿》中的运用%Homeless and Rootless——On Expressionism in The Hairy Ape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱秀金

    2010-01-01

    是尤金·奥尼尔的表现主义力作,也是奥尼尔中期创作的实验悲剧代表作之一.文章通过分析该剧中所使用的视觉效果、象征手法、内心独白、面具等多种表现主义手法,来探讨现代人无家可归、无根可寻的悲剧命运.

  1. Fitness supplements as a gateway substance for anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE-Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy-safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy-safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. PMID:22486333

  2. Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Hobaiter, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Great ape gesture is an elaborate, flexible system of intentional communication. It has been suggested that human language originated in gesture, thus, the gestural communication of great apes is of great interest for questions on the origin of language. To date, systematic studies of great ape gesture have been limited to restricted captive settings, supplemented by the study of a few specific gestures in wild populations. To address questions about gestural communication from an evolutionar...

  3. Toward homochiral protocells in noncatalytic peptide systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization (APED) model of Plasson et al. has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the evolution of homochirality on prebiotic Earth. The dynamics of the APED model in two-dimensional spatially-extended systems is investigated for various realistic reaction parameters. It is found that the APED system allows for the formation of isolated homochiral proto-domains surrounded by a racemate. A diffusive slowdown of the APED network such as induced through tidal motion or evaporating pools and lagoons leads to the stabilization of homochiral bounded structures as expected in the first self-assembled protocells.

  4. Toward Homochiral Protocells in Noncatalytic Peptide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Walker, Sara Imari

    2009-10-01

    The activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization (APED) model of Plasson et al. has recently been proposed as a mechanism for the evolution of homochirality on prebiotic Earth. The dynamics of the APED model in two-dimensional spatially-extended systems is investigated for various realistic reaction parameters. It is found that the APED system allows for the formation of isolated homochiral proto-domains surrounded by a racemate. A diffusive slowdown of the APED network induced, for example, through tidal motion or evaporating pools and lagoons leads to the stabilization of homochiral bounded structures as expected in the first self-assembled protocells.

  5. Decisive role of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/Ref-1 in initiation of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2010-11-01

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) is involved in the base excision repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites induced by oxidative DNA damage. APE/Ref-1 was decreased by kainic acid (KA) injury in a time-dependent manner at the level of proteins, not transcripts. We investigated whether alteration of APE/Ref-1 amounts would influence hippocampal cell fate, survival or death, after KA injury. Overexpression of APE/Ref-1 using adenovirus and restoration of APE small peptides significantly reduced KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Both silencing of APE/Ref-1 by siRNA and inhibition of endonuclease by an antibody significantly increased caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cell death triggered from the early time after exposure to KA. These findings suggest that cell death is initiated by reducing APE/Ref-1 protein and inhibiting its repair function in spite of enough protein amounts. In conclusion, APE/Ref-1 may be a regulator of cell death initiation, and APE small peptides could provide molecular mechanism-based therapies for neuroprotection in progressive excitotoxic neuronal damage.

  6. Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan, Archana; Raffoul, Julian J.; Patel, Hiral V.; Prychitko, Thomas M.; Anyangwe, Njwen; Meira, Lisiane B.; Friedberg, Errol C.; Cabelof, Diane C.; Heydari, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is the redox regulator of multiple stress-inducible transcription factors, such as NF-κB, and the major 5’-endonuclease in base excision repair (BER). We utilized mice containing heterozygous gene-targeted deletion of APE1/Ref-1 (Apex+/-) to determine the impact of APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency on the processing of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in the liver tissue of mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency re...

  7. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Wen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0–12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide.

  8. The APENEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Bodin, F; Cabibbo, Nicola; Calvayrac, F; Della Morte, M; De Pietri, R; De Riso, P; Carlo, F D; Renzo, F D; Errico, W; Frezzotti, R; Gensch, Ulrich; Giorgino, T; Guagnelli, M; Hervé, N; Kaldass, H; Lonardo, A; Lukyanov, M; Magazzù, G; Micheli, J; Morénas, V; Mori, L; Palombi, Filippo; Paschedag, N; Pène, O; Petronzio, Roberto; Pleiter, D; Rapuano, F; Rossetti, D; Sartori, L; Simma, H; Schifano, F; Tripiccione, R; Vicini, P

    2002-01-01

    APENEXT is a new generation APE processor, optimized for LGT simulations. The project follows the basic ideas of previous APE machines and develops simple and cheap parallel systems with multi T-Flops processing power. This paper describes the main features of this new development.

  9. Focus on extralevator perineal dissection in supine position for low rectal cancer has led to better quality of surgery and oncologic outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijnse, I.S.; Dudink, R.L.; West, N.P.; Wasowicz, D.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.; Lijnschoten, I. Van; Martijn, H.; Lemmens, V.E.; Velde, C.J. van de; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Quirke, P.; Rutten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After abdominoperineal excision (APE), the presence of tumor cells in the circumferential resection margin (R1) and iatrogenic tumor perforations are still frequent and result in an increased rate of local recurrences. In this study, a standardized supine APE with an increased focus on t

  10. Elusive Rivalry? Conceptions of the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2010-01-01

    What is analytical philosophy of education (APE)? And what has been its place in the history of the subject over the past 50 years? In a recent essay in "Ethics and Education" (Vol. 2, No. 2, October 2007) on 'Rival conceptions of the philosophy of education', Paul Standish described a number of features of APE. Relying on both historical and…

  11. Gr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Blažek

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The-Greek word   (Archilochos, Aristophanes, Plato, Aristoteles, Dor. ní&anos: "ape", ní-&wv, -wvoi; "little ape" (Pindaros does not have any convincible Indo-European etymology. The old comparison with Lat. foedus "beastly, foul" etc. is obviously improbable and the word is rather bor­rowed from an unknown source.

  12. Molecular Recognition of DNA Damage Sites by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, W. A.

    2005-07-28

    The DNA repair/redox factor AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a multifunctional protein which is known to to be essential for DNA repair activity in human cells. Structural/functional analyses of the APE activity is thus been an important research field to assess cellular defense mechanisms against ionizing radiation.

  13. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.;

    2011-01-01

    ‘Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  14. D-dimer testing for safe exclusion and risk stratification in patients with acute pulmonary embolism in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe exclusion and risk stratification are currently recommended for the initial management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. The aim of this study was to assess the safe exclusion and risk stratification value of D-dimer (DD for APE when tested at the beginning of admission. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese APE patients and controls were recruited from January 2010 to December 2012. All measurements of serum indexes were made in duplicate and blinded to the patients′ status. All the 40 patients with the first episode of APE were confirmed by multi-detector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. The plasma prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and DD levels were measured within 24 h of admission. We used the Mann-Whitney U-test to determine the differences between groups and drew receiver operator characteristic curve to evaluate the indexes′ value in the APE screening. Results: The PT and DD in the APE group were significantly higher than those in the disease control group (P 1820 μg/L as cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was 82.5%, 75.2%, 56.9%, and 91.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The patients with APE showed significant higher DD levels compared with disease controls, suggesting a negative qualitative DD test result can safely and efficiently exclude APE in primary care.

  15. Making Meaning out of Human/Animal: Scientific Competition of Classifications in the Spanish Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, the Spanish legislature resolved to grant great apes (though not all simians) basic human rights. While the decision to grant such rights came about largely through the lobbying efforts of the Great Ape Project (GAP), the decision has potential reverberations throughout the scientific world and beyond in its implications for…

  16. Enzymatic resolution of ibuprofen in an organic solvent under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dantong; Yue, Hong; Chen, Ge; Jiang, Liyan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound has been successfully adopted to improve the biocatalytic properties of APE1547 (a novel esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1) in the resolution of ibuprofen. After optimizing the conditions (ultrasound power, 200 W; temperature, 35 °C), the best biocatalytic performance of APE1547 (enzyme activity, 5.39 µmol/H/mg; E value, 130.8) was obtained. Compared with the conventional reaction in an orbital shaker, the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced about 90-fold, and the enantioselectivity was enhanced about fourfold after an ultrasound. The results of scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that the activation effect of ultrasound on APE1547 originated mainly in the morphological change of the enzyme powder. Both lower particle size and conformational change of APE1547 under ultrasound might be helpful to enhance the enantioselectivity. In addition, APE1547 kept its best performance under the low-power ultrasound for at least five reaction cycles.

  17. 欧盟非食品类商品快速通报系统(R APE X)2014年上半年玩具技术性贸易措施研究%Study on Technical Trade Barriers Measures on Toy in Rapid Alert System for Non-food DangerousProducts(RAPEX) during the First Half of 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘醒; 许兵

    2014-01-01

    Rapid alert system for non food dangerous products (RAPEX) is one of the important ways for the EU to prevent or restrict the marketing or use of products posing a serious risk to the health and safety of consumers - with the exception of food, pharmaceutical and medical devices. This study focuses on the research of toy announced in RAPEX on the first half of 2014 to find a solution to the key factors of technical trade barriers in the toy trade between China and Europe, and puts forward some countermeasures, providing reference to carry out measures of the trade technical barriers in the future.%欧盟非食品类商品快速通报系统(RAPEX)是欧盟公布进入其境内除食品和药品外的产品存在问题的重要途径之一。本次研究报告重点对2014年上半年玩具的(RAPEX)通报情况进行研究,旨在找到解决玩具对欧贸易技术性贸易壁垒的关键因素并提出对策,为今后开展其它技术性贸易措施的应对提供参考。

  18. Uniqueness verification of solar spectrum index of average photon energy for evaluating outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minemoto, Takashi; Nakada, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Takakura, Hideyuki [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    To analyze the effect of a spectral irradiance distribution of solar spectra on the outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules, an index for the spectral distribution is needed. Average photon energy (APE) which represents the average energy per photons included in a spectrum is one of these. In this study, the uniqueness of APE to the spectral irradiance distribution was statistically analyzed to assure that an APE value uniquely yields the shape of a solar spectrum. The similar methodology adopted in International Electrotechnical Commission to rate the spectral matching of a solar simulator was used for the analysis. The results showed that an APE value yielded a spectral irradiance distribution with quite small standard deviation. The analysis using APE showed that the outdoor performance of crystalline Si PV modules depended almost only on a module temperature, while that of amorphous Si ones mainly depended on APE. The behaviors were reasonable considering from the operation mechanisms of the PV modules. These results demonstrate that APE is a reasonable and useful index to describe the spectral irradiance distribution for evaluating the outdoor performance of PV modules. (author)

  19. A prospective, comparative study of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and clinical evaluation versus digital subtraction angiography in acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with symptoms of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APE) of short duration were investigated with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy (V/Q scan), and a standardised clinical evaluation was performed. Forty-six angiograms (96%) were diagnostic at the segmental level and were used as reference. In all V/Q scans classified as normal or of high probability for APE, a complete agreement with DSA was found. In scan categories with low or intermediate probability, where the incidence of APE was 32%, there was considerable inter-observer disagreement. Clinical assessment alone was of limited value, but in patients with low clinical suspicion no APE was found. The results indicate that normal and high probability V/Q scans are very reliable for excluding and identifying APE, respectively, but also that fairly large APE cannot be diagnosed with lung scanning. Subdivision of V/Q scans into more than three categories (normal, high probability and inconclusive) seems to be of no practical value. Using a pulsed sequence technique, high frame rate and central injection, DSA is a valuable clinical tool for diagnosing APE down to the segmental level. (orig.)

  20. Slow base excision by human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase limits the rate of formation of AP sites and AP endonuclease 1 does not stimulate base excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robyn L; Vallur, Aarthy C; Feller, Joyce A; Bloom, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    The base excision repair pathway removes damaged DNA bases and resynthesizes DNA to replace the damage. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) is one of several damage-specific DNA glycosylases that recognizes and excises damaged DNA bases. AAG removes primarily damaged adenine residues. Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes AP sites produced by DNA glycosylases and incises the phophodiester bond 5' to the damaged site. The repair process is completed by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. If not tightly coordinated, base excision repair could generate intermediates that are more deleterious to the cell than the initial DNA damage. The kinetics of AAG-catalyzed excision of two damaged bases, hypoxanthine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine, were measured in the presence and absence of APE1 to investigate the mechanism by which the base excision activity of AAG is coordinated with the AP incision activity of APE1. 1,N6-ethenoadenine is excised significantly slower than hypoxanthine and the rate of excision is not affected by APE1. The excision of hypoxanthine is inhibited to a small degree by accumulated product, and APE1 stimulates multiple turnovers by alleviating product inhibition. These results show that APE1 does not significantly affect the kinetics of base excision by AAG. It is likely that slow excision by AAG limits the rate of AP site formation in vivo such that AP sites are not created faster than can be processed by APE1. PMID:17018265

  1. The capacity of animals to acquire language: do species differences have anything to say to us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Sevcik, R A; Rumbaugh, D M; Rubert, E

    1985-02-13

    Following the Gardners' discovery that an ape named Washoe could learn to produce and combine a number of hand movements similar to those used by deaf human beings, a variety of 'ape-language projects' sprang up. Some projects used different symbol systems, others used different training techniques, and others used different species of apes. While debate still rages regarding the appropriate way to interpret the symbolic productions of apes, three species of great apes (gorilla, orangutan, and chimpanzee) have now been credited with this capacity while no lesser apes or monkeys have been reported, at present, to have acquired such communicative skills. Among all of the claims made for the various animal species, the philosophers have entered the fray attempting to define the essence of what it is about language that makes it 'human'. This paper will compare and contrast the above positions to arrive at behavioural definitions of symbolic usage that can be applied across species. It will then present new data on a fourth ape species Pan paniscus which is proving to be the first non-human species to acquire symbolic skills in a spontaneous manner. PMID:2858874

  2. Combination of aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheets, native dental pulp extracellular matrix and treated dentin matrix as substrates for tooth root regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Jinlong; Yang, Bo; Li, Lei; Luo, Xiangyou; Zhang, Xuexin; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    In tissue engineering, scaffold materials provide effective structural support to promote the repair of damaged tissues or organs through simulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments for stem cells. This study hypothesized that simulating the ECM microenvironments of periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complexes would contribute to the regeneration of tooth root. Here, aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheet (APES), treated dentin matrix (TDM) and native dental pulp extracellular matrix (DPEM) were fabricated and combined into APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM for periodontium and dental pulp regeneration, respectively. This study firstly examined the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of both APES and DPEM in vitro, and further investigated the degradation of APES and revascularization of DPEM in vivo. Then, the potency of APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM in odontogenic induction was evaluated via co-culture with dental stem cells. Finally, we verified the periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complex regeneration in the jaw of miniature swine. Results showed that APES possessed aligned fiber orientation which guided cell proliferation while DPEM preserved the intrinsic fiber structure and ECM proteins. Importantly, both APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM facilitated the odontogenic differentiation of dental stem cells in vitro. Seeded with stem cells, the sandwich composites (APES/TDM/DPEM) generated tooth root-like tissues after being transplanted in porcine jaws for 12 w. In dental pulp/dentin complex-like tissues, columnar odontoblasts-like layer arranged along the interface between newly-formed predentin matrix and dental pulp-like tissues in which blood vessels could be found; in periodontium complex-like tissues, cellular cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues were generated on the TDM surface. Thus, above results suggest that APES and DPEM exhibiting appropriate physicochemical properties and well biocompatibilities, in accompany with TDM, could

  3. MicroRNA-134 as a potential plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE remains a diagnostic challenge due to a variable clinical presentation and the lack of a reliable screening tool. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression in a wide range of pathophysiologic processes. Circulating miRNAs are emerging biomarkers in heart failure, type 2 diabetes and other disease states; however, using plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of APE is still unknown. Methods Thirty-two APE patients, 32 healthy controls, and 22 non-APE patients (reported dyspnea, chest pain, or cough were enrolled in this study. The TaqMan miRNA microarray was used to identify dysregulated miRNAs in the plasma of APE patients. The TaqMan-based miRNA quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to validate the dysregulated miRNAs. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the miRNA identified as the candidate biomarker. Results Plasma miRNA-134 (miR-134 level was significantly higher in the APE patients than in the healthy controls or non-APE patients. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-134 was a specific diagnostic predictor of APE with an area under the curve of 0.833 (95% confidence interval, 0.737 to 0.929; P Conclusions Our findings indicated that plasma miR-134 could be an important biomarker for the diagnosis of APE. Because of this finding, large-scale investigations are urgently needed to pave the way from basic research to clinical utilization.

  4. The effect of worksite physical activity intervention on physical capacity, health, and productivity: A 1-year randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Blangsted, Anne K.; Andersen, Lars L.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of two contrasting physical activity worksite interventions versus a reference intervention (REF) on various health outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted with specific resistance training (SRT), all-round physical exercise (APE...... uptake (APE) increased approximately 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Worksite intervention with both SRT as well as APE is recommended, since these activities compared with REF resulted in clinically relevant reductions of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome-related risk factors as well as musculoskeletal pain...... symptoms, in combination with minor increases in physical capacity....

  5. Molecular Basis for Stereospecific Hydrolysis of Ethyl Mandelate by Thermophilic Esterase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-yan; TAO Jin; ZHENG Liang-yu; CAO Shu-gui

    2011-01-01

    The stereospecific hydrolysis of mandelate can be effectively catalyzed by hyperthermophilic acylpeptide esterase APE 1547(Aeropyrum pernix esterase 1547).APE 1547 used in this reaction showed a remarkable stereodiscrimination in favour of R-mandelic acid(99% e.e.) with an enantiomeric ratio E>200.The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental results.It can be inferred that the R-substrate adopted a binding mode productive of the reaction due to the formation of the hydrogen bond at the active site of APE 1547.

  6. Application of Argan plant extract as green corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 mol/L HCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Afia; R. Salghi; L. Bammou; Lh. Bazzi; B. Hammouti; L. Bazzi

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Argan plant extract (APE) on the corrosion of the steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using gravimetric,electrochemical polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Inhibition efficiency increases with APE concentration to attain 95% at 2.5 g/L.We note good agreement between gravimetric and electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization and EIS).Effect of temperature is also made in the 298-328 K range.Polarization measurements show also that APE act as a mixed inhibitor.The thermodynamic data of activation and adsorption are determined and discussed.

  7. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  8. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  9. 78 FR 40619 - Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... ``wildlife trafficking'') represent an international crisis that continues to escalate. Poaching operations..., rhinos, great apes, tigers, sharks, tuna, and turtles has beneficial economic, social, and environmental... develop and implement a National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking in accordance with...

  10. Body checking behaviors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Catherine; Anderson, Drew A; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Males have been facing increasing pressure from the media to attain a lean, muscular physique, and are at risk for body dissatisfaction, disturbed eating and exercise behaviors, and abuse of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between body checking and mood, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, importance of shape and weight, and APED use in undergraduate males. Body checking in males was correlated with weight and shape concern, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, depression, negative affect, and APED use. Body checking predicted APED use and uniquely accounted for the largest amount of variance in Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) scores (16%). Findings support the view that body checking is an important construct in male body image, muscle dysmorphia, and body change strategies and suggest a need for further research. PMID:19482568

  11. Pop / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Shakedown "You Think You Know", Moloko "Statues", Erlend Oye "Unrest", Guano Apes "Walking On A Thin Line", The Raveonettes "Whip It On", Singer Vinger "Ärq ei lääq", Son of Clay "Face Takes Shape"

  12. Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D M; Savage-Rumbaugh, S

    1995-03-01

    Performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. The subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. When sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. When a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuchins, showed an improvement in terms of modifying the misshapen stick before insertion. Our results indicate that all these species can solve these tasks. However, only the performance of apes is consistent with emerging comprehension of the causal relations required for the avoidance of errors in the more complex tasks. PMID:7705062

  13. "You can't make a monkey out of us": Galen and genetics versus Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A; Goudas, P

    2005-12-01

    The views on the biological relationship between human and ape are polarized. One end is summarized by the axiom that "man is the third chimpanzee", a thesis put forward in an indirect way initially by Charles Darwin in the 19th century. The other is a very modern concept that although similar, the human and ape genomes are distinctly different. We have compared these two views on the subject with the stance of the ancient medical writer Galen. There is a striking resemblance between current and ancient opinion on three key issues. Firstly, on the fact that man and apes are similar but not identical. Secondly, on the influence of such debates on fields much wider than biology. And finally, on the comparative usefulness of apes as a substitute for human anatomy and physiology studies. PMID:17153282

  14. Exceeding the therapeutic zone of proximal development as a clinical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B; Caro Gabalda, Isabel; Ribeiro, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES) summarizes a developmental continuum along which psychological problems progress in successful psychotherapy. The therapeutic zone of proximal development (TZPD) is the segment of the APES continuum within which the clients can proceed from their current APES level to the next with the therapist's assistance. It is the therapeutic working zone for a particular problem. As the client makes progress on a problem, its TZPD shifts up the APES. Theoretically, so long as the therapist's interventions remain within the TZPD, the client feels safe enough to work. However, when an intervention aims beyond the upper limit, the client will find it too risky and will reject or avoid the proposal. In this sense, exceeding the TZPD can be considered as a clinical error. This article presents examples of exceeding the TZPD and ways the error can be repaired. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631854

  15. Cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of zonal available potential energy (APE) by cloud radiative heating is discussed. The APE concept was mathematically formulated by Lorenz (1955) as a measure of the maximum amount of total potential energy that is available for conversion by adiabatic processes to kinetic energy. The rate of change of APE is the rate of the generation of APE minus the rate of conversion between potential and kinetic energy. By radiative transfer calculations, a mean cloud-generated radiative heating for a well defined set of cloud classes is derived as a function of cloud optical thickness. The formulation is suitable for using a general cloud parameter data set and has the advantage of taking into account nonlinearities between the microphysical and macrophysical cloud properties and the related radiation field.

  16. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung You

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian, a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs, and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29, the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs. In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression

  17. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  18. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  19. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Gilad; Molly Przeworski; Doron Lancet

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surv...

  20. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Julia E. Biggins; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C.; Vu, Hong; Aman, M. Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Although infectious disease is now recognized as a major threat to wild gorillas and chimpanzees, safety fears have stifled the use of a powerful disease control tool, vaccination. To illustrate that safety can be rigorously evaluated before vaccines are used on wild apes, we conducted what is, to our knowledge, the first conservation-oriented vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees. We tested an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading killer of wild apes. O...

  1. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Nathan J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natur...

  2. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Emotional Responses to Decision Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Brian Hare

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, ...

  3. Body checking behaviors in men

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D. Catherine; Anderson, Drew A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Males have been facing increasing pressure from the media to attain a lean, muscular physique, and are at risk for body dissatisfaction, disturbed eating and exercise behaviors, and abuse of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between body checking and mood, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, importance of shape and weight, and APED use in undergraduate males. Body checking in males was correlated with weight and shape ...

  4. Self-recognition in an Asian elephant

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnik, Joshua M.; Frans B M de Waal; Reiss, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Considered an indicator of self-awareness, mirror self-recognition (MSR) has long seemed limited to humans and apes. In both phylogeny and human ontogeny, MSR is thought to correlate with higher forms of empathy and altruistic behavior. Apart from humans and apes, dolphins and elephants are also known for such capacities. After the recent discovery of MSR in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), elephants thus were the next logical candidate species. We exposed three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus...

  5. 怎样说“一群……”?(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ant:A colony or An army of ants Ape[猿]:A shrewdness of apes Baboons[狒狒]:A troop of baboons Bear:A sleuth or sloth of bears Bee:A swarm,grist or hive of bees Bird:A flock,flight,congregation or volery of birds Buffalo:A herd of buffalo Cat:A clowder or clutter of cats Cattle:A herd or drove of cattle

  6. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  7. Chiral and chemical oscillations in a simple dimerization model

    CERN Document Server

    Stich, Michael; Hochberg, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider the APED model (activation-polymerization-epimerization-depolymerization) for describing the emergence of chiral solutions within a non-catalytic framework for chiral polymerization. The minimal APED model for dimerization can lead to the spontaneous appearance of chiral oscillations and we describe in detail the nature of these oscillations in the enantiomeric excess, and which are the consequence of oscillations of the concentrations of the associated chemical species.

  8. Blood Groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European Endangered Species Program, and Managed in situ Populations of Bonobo (Pan paniscus), Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Kathryn C.; Moyse, Jill A.; Lovstad, Jessica N.; Ober, Carole B.; Thompson, Emma E.

    2010-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes long have been considered similar although are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan...

  9. African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Exclusion allows the detection of hidden food when confronted with the choice between an empty and a potentially baited food location. However, exclusion may be based on avoidance of the empty location without drawing inferences about the presence of the food in the baited location. So far, such inferences have been demonstrated in the great apes only: after seeing an experimenter eating one of two food types, which both had been hidden previously in two boxes, the apes were able to choose th...

  10. Tool use in wild orang-utans modifies sound production: a functionally deceptive innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hardus, Madeleine E.; Lameira, Adriano R.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wich, Serge A.

    2009-01-01

    Culture has long been assumed to be uniquely human but recent studies, in particular on great apes, have suggested that cultures also occur in non-human primates. The most apparent cultural behaviours in great apes involve tools in the subsistence context where they are clearly functional to obtain valued food. On the other hand, tool-use to modify acoustic communication has been reported only once and its function has not been investigated. Thus, the question whether this is an adaptive beha...

  11. Sperm of rosy barb (Puntius conchonius) as an in vitro assay system of nonylphenol cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qin; ZHANG Shi-cui; HU Jia-hui; XU Yu-yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nonylphenol (NP) is the final degradation product of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEs), which are widely present in plastics, papers, pulp, detergents,pesticides, herbicides, paints and cosmetics. It is estimated that annual global production of APEs is about 500000 t, 60% of which eventually ends up in aquatic ecosystems primarily via wastewater (Sol?et al., 2000). NP is resistant to biodegradation and persistent in the environment (Arukwe et al., 2000).

  12. Level forecasting in the Ebro River during flood episodes using adaptive predictive expert models

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Jose Vicente; Langarita, Pedro; Linares, Lorenzo; Rodellar Benedé, José

    2009-01-01

    In order to minimize the catastrophic effects of floods, it is essential to have good forecasts of the flood dynamics. To carry out these forecasts, commercial computing tools use hydraulic models based on the Saint-Venant equations. Instead of these hydraulic models, this paper proposes the use of input-output adaptive predictive expert (APE) models with properly adjusted parameters. For the initial parameter setting of the APE models used in this paper, four flood episodes occurred in th...

  13. Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Rangaswamy; Chakraborty, Anirban; Miriyala, Sumitra; Hazra, Tapas K.; Izumi, Tadahide

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein. Decrease of APE1 in cells by inducible shRNA knockdown or by conditional gene knockout caused apoptosis. Here we succeeded in establishing a unique mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) line expressing APE1 at a level far lower than those achieved with shRNA knockdown. The cells, named MEFla (MEFlowAPE1), were hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed little activity for repairing AP-sites and MMS induced DNA damage. While these results were consistent with the essential role of APE1 in repair of AP sites, the MEFla cells grew normally and the basal activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in MEFla was lower than that in the wild-type MEF (MEFwt), indicating the low DNA damage stress in MEFla under the normal growth condition. Oxidative phosphorylation activity in MEFla was lower than in MEFwt, while the glycolysis rates in MEFla were higher than in MEFwt. In addition, we observed decreased intracellular oxidative stress in MEFla. These results suggest that cells with low APE1 reversibly suppress mitochondrial respiration and thereby reduce DNA damage stress and increases the cell viability. PMID:25645679

  14. Ascorbic Acid, Ultraviolet C Rays, and Glucose but not Hyperthermia Are Elicitors of Human β-Defensin 1 mRNA in Normal Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Cruz Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hosts’ innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs. Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA, and ultraviolet C rays (UVC as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, cathelicidin (CAMP, and interferon-γ (IFNG genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK. The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C and hyperthermia (39°C are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections.

  15. Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Archana; Raffoul, Julian J; Patel, Hiral V; Prychitko, Thomas M; Anyangwe, Njwen; Meira, Lisiane B; Friedberg, Errol C; Cabelof, Diane C; Heydari, Ahmad R

    2009-06-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is the redox regulator of multiple stress-inducible transcription factors, such as NF-kappaB, and the major 5'-endonuclease in base excision repair (BER). We utilized mice containing a heterozygous gene-targeted deletion of APE1/Ref-1 (Apex(+/-)) to determine the impact of APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency on the processing of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in the liver tissue of mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in response to oxidative stress in liver. In addition, loss of APE1/Ref-1 increases the apoptotic response to oxidative stress, in which significant increases in GADD45g expression, p53 protein stability, and caspase activity are observed. Oxidative stress displays a differential impact on monofunctional (UNG) and bifunctional (OGG1) DNA glycosylase-initiated BER in the liver of Apex(+/-) mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in the repair of oxidized bases (e.g., 8-OHdG), whereas removal of uracil is increased in liver nuclear extracts of mice using an in vitro BER assay. Apex(+/-) mice exposed to 2-NP displayed a significant decline in 3'-OH-containing single-strand breaks and an increase in aldehydic lesions in their liver DNA, suggesting an accumulation of repair intermediates of failed bifunctional DNA glycosylase-initiated BER. PMID:19268524

  16. The Diabatic Heating and the Generation of Available Potential Energy: Results from NCEP Reanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; WU Guoxiong; GUO Yufu

    2005-01-01

    In the existing studies on the atmospheric energy cycle, the attention to the generation of available potential energy (APE) is restricted to its global mean value. The geographical distributions of the generation of APE and its mechanism of formation are investigated by using the three-dimensional NCEP/NCAR diabatic heating reanalysis in this study. The results show that the contributions from sensible heating and net radiation to the generation of zonal and time-mean APE (Gz) are mainly located in high and middle latitudes with an opposite sign, while the latent heating shows a dominant effect on Gz mainly in the tropics and high latitudes where the contributions from the middle and upper tropospheres are also contrary to that from the low troposphere. In high latitudes, the Gz is much stronger for the Winter Hemisphere than for the Summer Hemisphere, and this is consistent with the asymmetrical feature shown by the reservoir of zonal and time-mean APE in two hemispheres, which suggests that the generation of APE plays a fundamental role in maintaining the APE in the global atmospheric energy cycle. The same contributions to the generation of stationary eddy APE (GSE) from the different regions related to the maintenance of longitudinal temperature contrast are likely arisen by different physics. Specifically, the positive contributions to GSE from the latent heating in the western tropical Pacific and from the sensible heating over land are dominated by the heating at warm regions, whereas those from the latent heating in the eastern tropical Pacific and from the sensitive heating over the oceans are dominated by the cooling at cold regions. Thus, our findings provide an observational estimate of the generation of eddy APE to identify the regional contributions in the climate simulations because it might be correct for the wrong reasons in the general circulation model (GCM). The largest positive contributions to the generation of transient eddy APE (GTE) are

  17. Sputum biomarkers and the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G Liou

    Full Text Available Lung function, acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE, and weight are the best clinical predictors of survival in cystic fibrosis (CF; however, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Biomarkers of current disease state predictive of future outcomes might identify mechanisms and provide treatment targets, trial endpoints and objective clinical monitoring tools. Such CF-specific biomarkers have previously been elusive. Using observational and validation cohorts comprising 97 non-transplanted consecutively-recruited adult CF patients at the Intermountain Adult CF Center, University of Utah, we identified biomarkers informative of current disease and predictive of future clinical outcomes. Patients represented the majority of sputum producers. They were recruited March 2004-April 2007 and followed through May 2011. Sputum biomarker concentrations were measured and clinical outcomes meticulously recorded for a median 5.9 (interquartile range 5.0 to 6.6 years to study associations between biomarkers and future APE and time-to-lung transplantation or death. After multivariate modeling, only high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1, mean=5.84 [log ng/ml], standard deviation [SD] =1.75 predicted time-to-first APE (hazard ratio [HR] per log-unit HMGB-1=1.56, p-value=0.005, number of future APE within 5 years (0.338 APE per log-unit HMGB-1, p<0.001 by quasi-Poisson regression and time-to-lung transplantation or death (HR=1.59, p=0.02. At APE onset, sputum granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, mean 4.8 [log pg/ml], SD=1.26 was significantly associated with APE-associated declines in lung function (-10.8 FEV(1% points per log-unit GM-CSF, p<0.001 by linear regression. Evaluation of validation cohorts produced similar results that passed tests of mutual consistency. In CF sputum, high HMGB-1 predicts incidence and recurrence of APE and survival, plausibly because it mediates long-term airway inflammation. High APE-associated GM

  18. Development of the Approach by States method and thermodynamical study of a 1300 MWe PWR type reactor following a complete water loss of vapor generator alimentation with the Cathare 2 code; Developpement de la conduite APE et etude thermohydraulique d'un REP 1300 MWe suite a un accident de perte totale d'eau alimentaire des generateurs de vapeur avec le code Cathare 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, F

    1998-06-30

    The objective of this report is to study the thermohydraulic behavior of a 1300 MWe PWR type reactor for a complete loss accident in water supplying of vapor generators. The Cathare computer code has been used in this aim. (N.C.)

  19. Accumulation of Peptidoglycan O-Acetylation Leads to Altered Cell Wall Biochemistry and Negatively Impacts Pathogenesis Factors of Campylobacter jejuni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Reuben; Frirdich, Emilisa; Sychantha, David; Biboy, Jacob; Taveirne, Michael E.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.; DiRita, Victor J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Clarke, Anthony J.; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite its prevalence, its mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. Peptidoglycan (PG) is important for helical shape, colonization, and host-pathogen interactions in C. jejuni. Therefore, changes in PG greatly impact the physiology of this organism. O-acetylation of peptidoglycan (OAP) is a bacterial phenomenon proposed to be important for proper cell growth, characterized by acetylation of the C6 hydroxyl group of N-acetylmuramic acid in the PG glycan backbone. The OAP gene cluster consists of a PG O-acetyltransferase A (patA) for translocation of acetate into the periplasm, a PG O-acetyltransferase B (patB) for O-acetylation, and an O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase (ape1) for de-O-acetylation. In this study, reduced OAP in ΔpatA and ΔpatB had minimal impact on C. jejuni growth and fitness under the conditions tested. However, accumulation of OAP in Δape1 resulted in marked differences in PG biochemistry, including O-acetylation, anhydromuropeptide levels, and changes not expected to result directly from Ape1 activity. This suggests that OAP may be a form of substrate level regulation in PG biosynthesis. Ape1 acetylesterase activity was confirmed in vitro using p-nitrophenyl acetate and O-acetylated PG as substrates. In addition, Δape1 exhibited defects in pathogenesis-associated phenotypes, including cell shape, motility, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and sodium deoxycholate sensitivity. Δape1 was also impaired for chick colonization and adhesion, invasion, intracellular survival, and induction of IL-8 production in INT407 cells in vitro. The importance of Ape1 in C. jejuni biology makes it a good candidate as an antimicrobial target. PMID:27474744

  20. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads.

  1. Characterization of family IV UDG from Aeropyrum pernix and its application in hot-start PCR by family B DNA polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Peng Liu

    Full Text Available Recombinant uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG from Aeropyrum pernix (A. pernix was expressed in E. coli. The biochemical characteristics of A. pernix UDG (ApeUDG were studied using oligonucleotides carrying a deoxyuracil (dU base. The optimal temperature range and pH value for dU removal by ApeUDG were 55-65°C and pH 9.0, respectively. The removal of dU was inhibited by the divalent ions of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Mn, as well as a high concentration of NaCl. The opposite base in the complementary strand affected the dU removal by ApeUDG as follows: U/C≈U/G>U/T≈U/AP≈U/->U/U≈U/I>U/A. The phosphorothioate around dU strongly inhibited dU removal by ApeUDG. Based on the above biochemical characteristics and the conservation of amino acid residues, ApeUDG was determined to belong to the IV UDG family. ApeUDG increased the yield of PCR by Pfu DNA polymerase via the removal of dU in amplified DNA. Using the dU-carrying oligonucleotide as an inhibitor and ApeUDG as an activator of Pfu DNA polymerase, the yield of undesired DNA fragments, such as primer-dimer, was significantly decreased, and the yield of the PCR target fragment was increased. This strategy, which aims to amplify the target gene with high specificity and yield, can be applied to all family B DNA polymerases.

  2. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenming; SUN Jianhua; ZHAO Sixiong; LI Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China (11-13 June 2008). The results show that kinetic energy (KE) generation and a dvection were the most important KE sources, while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks. There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs. The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV. Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance, as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex (vortex B). The conversion from available potential energy (APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection. Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects.The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection; in this case, vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released, while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  3. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

  4. Increase in functional groups for POSS by introducing branched phenylglycidylether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 胡立江; 孙德智

    2004-01-01

    In the selected experimental conditions, firstly, the branched products with functional groups, N-(2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APES-PGE, containing one hydroxyl group) and N- [ di (2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) ] (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane ( APES-PGE2, containing two hydroxyl groups), were synthesized by reacting 1 mole of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APES) with 2 mole of phenylglycidylether (PGE). Then the hydrolytic condensation of APES-PGE and APES-PGE2 was performed by dissolving 1 g of the corresponding silane in 1.5 ml tetrahydrofuran (THF), adding water and eventually a catalyst ( molar ratios: [ H2O ]/Si = 3, [ NaOH ]/Si = 0.05 ), and heating at 50 ℃ for 24 h, allowing continuous evaporation of volatiles. The final products with branches containing hydroxyl groups were polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). The products from two reactions were characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques,gel partition chromatography (GPC), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS). Additionally, a narrow mass distribution of multifunctionalized POSS was shown by UV-MALDI-TOF MS and assignments of the MS peaks.

  5. Biochemical characterization of RNase HⅡ from Aeropyrum pernix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingli Hou; Yufen Liu; Zheng Lu; Xipeng Liu; Jianhua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aeropyrum pernix contains one homolog of ribonuclease H (RNase H),A.pernix RNase HⅡ (Ape-RNase HⅡ).Activity characterization showed that Ape-RNase HⅡ exhibited the highest activity in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+, 1 mM Co2+, or 10mM Mg2+, respectively;however,its cleavage efficiencies at different cleavage sites for Mn2+ and Mg2+ were different.Ape-RNase HⅡ cleaved 12-bp RNA/DNA substrates at multiple sites and the optimum pH value was 11.0.Moreover,16-bp DNAr4-DNA/DNA and 13-bp DNA-r1-DNA/DNA chimeric substrates were cleaved at DNA-RNA junction.ApeRNase HⅡ was thermostable and the stabilization was enhanced with increased salt concentration.This work is believed to be the first in vitro functional study of ApeRNase HⅡ and the results should contribute to the analysis of RNase H of other archaeal species.

  6. Denaturing Effects of Urea and Guanidine Hydrochloride on Hyperthermophilic Esterase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The changes in the activity and the conformation of the hyperthermophilic esterase derived from aerobic thermophilic Aeropyrumpernix K1 (APE1547) were studied during denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)and urea. The denaturation course of APE1547 was followed by the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence methods. An increase in the denaturant concentration in the denatured system can significantly enhance the inactivation and unfolding of APE1547. The enzyme can be completely inactivated with a urea concentration of 2. 7 mol/L or a GdnHCl concentration of 7.5 mol/L. The fluorescence emission maximum of the enzyme protein red shifts in magnitude to a maximum value(355 nm) when the concentration of GdnHCl is 5.1 mol/L. The experimental results indicate that APE1547 has a high resistance to urea. Unfolding of APE1547 in GdnHCl(4.2-6.0 mol/L) was shown to be an irreversible process. The present results indicate that the ion pairs in this protein may be a key factor for the stability of this esterase.

  7. Understanding mixing efficiency in the oceans: Do the nonlinearities of the equation of state matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Tailleux, Remi

    2009-01-01

    There exist two central measures of turbulent mixing in turbulent stratified fluids, both caused by molecular diffusion: 1) the dissipation rate D(APE) of available potential energy (APE); 2) the turbulent rate of change Wr,turbulent of background potential energy GPEr. So far, these two quantities have often been regarded as the same energy conversion, namely the irreversible conversion of APE into GPEr, owing to D(APE)=Wr,turbulent holding exactly for a Boussinesq fluid with a linear equation of state. It was recently pointed out, however, that this equality no longer holds for a thermally-stratified compressible fluid, the ratio \\xi=Wr,turbulent/D(APE) being then lower than unity and sometimes even negative for water/seawater. In this paper, the behavior of the ratio \\xi is examined for different stratifications having the same buoyancy frequency N(z), but different vertical profiles of the parameter \\Upsilon = \\alpha P/(\\rho C_p), where \\alpha is the thermal expansion, P the hydrostatic pressure, \\rho the...

  8. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-10-22

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  10. AT101 exerts a synergetic efficacy in gastric cancer patients with 5-FU based treatment through promoting apoptosis and autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Duan, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Xin, Xiaojie; Sun, Lei; Gao, Ming; Li, Qing; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a disease with a high mortality rate despite of multiple therapeutic strategies. So far, it is very important to develop new treatment approaches to improve current therapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) involves in DNA base excision repair (BER) during DNA damage pathway. APE1 was found to be associated with poor overall survival with gastric cancer patients. In the in vitro experiment, we tested APE1 inhibitor-AT101 could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and further induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy through p53-dependent pathway. Downregulation of APE1 by AT101 has ability to suppress gastric cancer cell migration and renewal through inhibition of CD133, Nanog and LC3expression. Based on findings that Her-2 positive expression cases has poor prognosis from our dataset and TCGA database, we investigated the role of AT101 in synergetic efficacy with 5-FU treatment in Her-2 overexpression gastric cancer in vivo, indicating that AT101 is able to enhance 5-FU in the shrinkage of xenograft mice tumor and induction of cell apoptosis. In summary, the data obtained from our study showed APE1 is guided as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. AT101 could be regarded as a potent inhibitor to promote chemotherapeutic sensitivity in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27144437

  11. AT101 exerts a synergetic efficacy in gastric cancer patients with 5-FU based treatment through promoting apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Duan, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Xin, Xiaojie; Sun, Lei; Gao, Ming; Li, Qing; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer remains a disease with a high mortality rate despite of multiple therapeutic strategies. So far, it is very important to develop new treatment approaches to improve current therapeutic efficacy in gastric cancer. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) involves in DNA base excision repair (BER) during DNA damage pathway. APE1 was found to be associated with poor overall survival with gastric cancer patients. In the in vitro experiment, we tested APE1 inhibitor-AT101 could potently inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and further induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy through p53-dependent pathway. Downregulation of APE1 by AT101 has ability to suppress gastric cancer cell migration and renewal through inhibition of CD133, Nanog and LC3expression. Based on findings that Her-2 positive expression cases has poor prognosis from our dataset and TCGA database, we investigated the role of AT101 in synergetic efficacy with 5-FU treatment in Her-2 overexpression gastric cancer in vivo, indicating that AT101 is able to enhance 5-FU in the shrinkage of xenograft mice tumor and induction of cell apoptosis. In summary, the data obtained from our study showed APE1 is guided as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. AT101 could be regarded as a potent inhibitor to promote chemotherapeutic sensitivity in patients with gastric cancer.

  12. Effects of mono- and divalent metal ions on DNA binding and catalysis of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikova, Anastasia D; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Vorobjev, Yuri N; Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Fedorova, Olga S

    2016-05-26

    Here, we used stopped-flow fluorescence techniques to conduct a comparative kinetic analysis of the conformational transitions in human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and in DNA containing an abasic site in the course of their interaction. Effects of monovalent (K(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+)) metal ions on DNA binding and catalytic stages were studied. It was shown that the first step of substrate binding (corresponding to formation of a primary enzyme-substrate complex) does not depend on the concentration (0.05-5.0 mM) or the nature of divalent metal ions. In contrast, the initial DNA binding efficiency significantly decreased at a high concentration (5-250 mM) of monovalent K(+) ions, indicating the involvement of electrostatic interactions in this stage. It was also shown that Cu(2+) ions abrogated the DNA binding ability of APE1, possibly, due to a strong interaction with DNA bases and the sugar-phosphate backbone. In the case of Ca(2+) ions, the catalytic activity of APE1 was lost completely with retention of binding potential. Thus, the enzymatic activity of APE1 is increased in the order Zn(2+) < Ni(2+) < Mn(2+) < Mg(2+). Circular dichroism spectra and calculation of the contact area between APE1 and DNA reveal that Mg(2+) ions stabilize the protein structure and the enzyme-substrate complex. PMID:27063150

  13. Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation. (topical review)

  14. Psychological health of orphan bonobos and chimpanzees in African sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wobber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities across Africa care for apes orphaned by the trade for "bushmeat." These facilities, called sanctuaries, provide housing for apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes who have been illegally taken from the wild and sold as pets. Although these circumstances are undoubtedly stressful for the apes, most individuals arrive at the sanctuaries as infants and are subsequently provided with rich physical and social environments that can facilitate the expression of species-typical behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested whether bonobo and chimpanzee orphans living in sanctuaries show any behavioral, physiological, or cognitive abnormalities relative to other individuals in captivity as a result of the early-life stress they experience. Orphans showed lower levels of aberrant behaviors, similar levels of average cortisol, and highly similar performances on a broad battery of cognitive tests in comparisons with individuals of the same species who were either living at a zoo or were reared by their mothers at the sanctuaries. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results support the rehabilitation strategy used by sanctuaries in the Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA and suggest that the orphans we examined did not show long-term signs of stress as a result of their capture. Our findings also show that sanctuary apes are as psychologically healthy as apes in other captive settings and thus represent a valuable resource for non-invasive research.

  15. Design and validation of state-oriented emergency operating procedures on full scope simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper supplements papers 1 and 2 as regards the practical application of the generalized state-oriented approach (APE) by the control room operating team and presents the main differences, from the operational point of view, between second generation state-oriented procedures and current event-oriented procedures. The data presented on the design and validation of the APE procedures is based on the results of the series of tests carried out since October 1986. The new APE procedures will replace the current event-oriented procedures at Penly plant (PWR 1300 MW) when it starts up in 1989 and will be implemented progressively on all EDF PWR plants in the following years. (author)

  16. Autofocus Correction of Azimuth Phase Error and Residual Range Cell Migration in Spotlight SAR Polar Format Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Zhaoda

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are often blurred by phase perturbations induced by uncompensated sensor motion and /or unknown propagation effects caused by turbulent media. To get refocused images, autofocus proves to be useful post-processing technique applied to estimate and compensate the unknown phase errors. However, a severe drawback of the conventional autofocus algorithms is that they are only capable of removing one-dimensional azimuth phase errors (APE). As the resolution becomes finer, residual range cell migration (RCM), which makes the defocus inherently two-dimensional, becomes a new challenge. In this paper, correction of APE and residual RCM are presented in the framework of polar format algorithm (PFA). First, an insight into the underlying mathematical mechanism of polar reformatting is presented. Then based on this new formulation, the effect of polar reformatting on the uncompensated APE and residual RCM is investigated in detail. By using the derived analytical relationship betwee...

  17. Diagnostic utility of N-terminal-proBNP in differentiating acute pulmonary embolism from heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ling; Li Guanzhen; Wang Yi; Liang Hao; Shan Xiaoxi; Zhang Nannan; Wang Maofen

    2014-01-01

    Background The plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level is frequently elevated in dyspnoeic patients and increasingly used in emergency departments to assess the cause of acute dyspnea.In this study we prospectively tested NT-proBNP levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and determined the utility of NT-proBNP for discriminating APE from CHF.Methods A cohort of 177 dyspnoeic patients with a diagnosis of APE and/or CHF was prospectively studied between June 2010 and March 2013.NT-proBNP was measured by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA).All patients were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).APE was diagnosed in the presence of thrombi signs in the pulmonary arteries with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or a high-probability lung ventilation/ perfusion scan.Risk stratification was based on the evaluation on admission according to the ESC guidelines from 2008.The diagnosis of CHF was based on the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology.Two physicians independently reviewed the records to determine the final diagnosis.Results Fifty-nine patients met the criteria for dyspnea caused by APE,and 113 patients were diagnosed with CHF.Most of the APE patients (41,69.5%) were intermediate-risk.The symptoms and signs,such as orthopnea,paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and rales in the lungs,were more common in patients with CHF than in patients with APE (P <0.01).Median NT-proBNP was significantly lower in patients with APE compared to those in patients with CHF (2 855.9 pg/ml vs.6 911.4 pg/ml,P <0.01).We constructed the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve in predicting the diagnosis of APE.At a cut point=1 582.750 pg/ml,NT-proBNP provided a specificity of 93% and a true positive rate (sensitivity) of 17% for the diagnosis.At a cut point=3 390.000 pg

  18. Quantification de révolution morphologique du crâne des Hominidés et hétérochronies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaline, Jean; David, Bruno; Magniez-Jannin, Françoise; Malassé, Anne Dambricourt; Marchand, Didier; Courant, Frédéric; Millet, Jean-Jacques

    1998-02-01

    Comparisons of adult skulls of various species of great apes, fossil hominids and modern humans in the sagittal, Francfort and ortho-sagittal planes reveal a series of three separate organisation plans: 'Great Ape', 'Australopithecine' and 'Homo', the latter including primitive men ( Homo ergaster-erectus-neandertalensis) and modern humans ( Homo sapiens). Morphological changes between these plans are quantified for the first time here by vector fields. This study confirms the existence of cranio-facial contraction, which occurs as a series of leaps. The juvenile morphology of the great ape skull is broadly preserved in adult Homo sapiens, suggesting that numerous heterochronies have occurred in mosaic during ontogeny (hypermorphosis, hypomorphosis, post-displacements).

  19. The dart-throwing motion of the wrist: is it unique to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J; Orr, Caley M; Marzke, Mary W

    2006-11-01

    Kinematic analysis has shown a near-stationary proximal carpal row during the dart-thrower's motion, which is believed to provide a stable platform for the generation of force and accuracy during certain power and precision grip activities. This finding is consistent with evidence in the human hand of adaptations that enabled effective manipulation of stones, cylindric wood, and bone tools for throwing and clubbing. There are at least two possible explanations for the observed human proximal carpal row kinematics. One is that it is retained from a previous common ancestor with great apes and previously adapted to some form of foraging or locomotor behavior involving the hands, but was recruited for tool use after we diverged from the apes. The second is that it evolved after our divergence from apes, in synchrony with adaptations in the human hand to the manipulation of tools, and central to the development of the human's unique ability to aim and accelerate tools and weapons.

  20. A cross-species study of gesture and its role in symbolic development: implications for the gestural theory of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, K; Greenfield, P M; Feng, Y; Savage-Rumbaugh, S; Lyn, H

    2013-01-01

    Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffold the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child's symbols were spoken words; the apes' symbols were lexigrams - non-iconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in which gestural representation of a referent preceded symbolic representation of the same referent appeared in all three species (but was statistically significant only for the child). Nonetheless, across species, the ratio of symbol to gesture increased significantly with age. But even though their symbol production increased, the apes continued to communicate more frequently by gesture than by symbol. In contrast, by 15-18 months of age, the child used symbols more frequently than gestures. This ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol, present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape, provides support for the role of gesture in language evolution. In all three species, the overwhelming majority of gestures were communicative (i.e., paired with eye contact, vocalization, and/or persistence). However, vocalization was rare for the apes, but accompanied the majority of the child's communicative gestures. This species difference suggests the co-evolution of speech and gesture after the evolutionary divergence of the hominid line. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. This species difference suggests that multimodal expression of communicative intent was also strengthened after hominids diverged from apes. PMID:23750140

  1. The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Michael S; Simpson, Scott W; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we described several features of the carpometacarpal joints in extant large-bodied apes that are likely adaptations to the functional demands of vertical climbing and suspension. We observed that all hominids, including modern humans and the 4.4-million-year-old hominid Ardipithecus ramidus, lacked these features. Here, we assess the uniqueness of these features in a large sample of monkey, ape, and human hands. These new data provide additional insights into the functional adaptations and evolution of the anthropoid hand. Our survey highlights a series of anatomical adaptations that restrict motion between the second and third metacarpals (MC2 and MC3) and their associated carpals in extant apes, achieved via joint reorganization and novel energy dissipation mechanisms. Their hamate-MC4 and -MC5 joint surface morphologies suggest limited mobility, at least in Pan. Gibbons and spider monkeys have several characters (angled MC3, complex capitate-MC3 joint topography, variably present capitate-MC3 ligaments) that suggest functional convergence in response to suspensory locomotion. Baboons have carpometacarpal morphology suggesting flexion/extension at these joints beyond that observed in most other Old World monkeys, probably as an energy dissipating mechanism minimizing collision forces during terrestrial locomotion. All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of our ancestral locomotor repertoire. Furthermore, the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle-walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms. The most parsimonious explanation of the structural similarity of these carpometacarpal specializations in great apes is that they evolved independently. PMID:26916787

  2. Low rectal cancer : aspects of surgical techniques and treatment results

    OpenAIRE

    Anderin, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the 7th most common form of cancer in Sweden, both for men and women. About one third of all patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have a low tumour (i.e. 0-5 cm from the anal verge). Abdominoperineal excision (APE) is the most common surgical procedure in low rectal cancer, performed in approximately 80% of patients. While oncological outcomes in rectal cancer have improved in recent decades, the outcome after APE has remained poor and local recurrence rates have been report...

  3. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Charles L Nunn; David R. Samson; Krystal, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep—i.e. ‘why’ sleep evolved—remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or ‘nest’. Fu...

  4. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haw-Wen Chen; Chin-Shiu Huang; Pei-Fen Liu; Chien-Chun Li; Chiung-Tong Chen; Cheng-Tzu Liu; Jia-Rong Chiang; Hsien-Tsung Yao; Chong-Kuei Lii

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was g...

  5. The effect of mechanical stirring on buoyancy-driven circulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tailleux, Remi; Rouleau, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the energetics of mechanically-stirred horizontal convection for a Boussinesq fluid yields the formula: G(APE) = \\gamma_{mixing} G(KE) + (1+\\gamma_{mixing}) W_{r,laminar} where G(APE) and G(KE) are the work rate done by the buoyancy and mechanical forcing respectively, \\gamma_{mixing} is the mixing efficiency, and W_{r,laminar} is the background rate of increase in gravitational potential energy due to molecular diffusion. The formula shows that mechanical stirring...

  6. Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan M Cotter

    Full Text Available The field of evolutionary medicine examines the possibility that some diseases are the result of trade-offs made in human evolution. Spinal fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fracture in humans, but are not observed in apes, even in cases of severe osteopenia. In humans, the development of osteoporosis is influenced by peak bone mass and strength in early adulthood as well as age-related bone loss. Here, we examine the structural differences in the vertebral bodies (the portion of the vertebra most commonly involved in osteoporosis-related fractures between humans and apes before age-related bone loss occurs. Vertebrae from young adult humans and chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons (T8 vertebrae, n = 8-14 per species, male and female, humans: 20-40 years of age were examined to determine bone strength (using finite element models, bone morphology (external shape, and trabecular microarchitecture (micro-computed tomography. The vertebrae of young adult humans are not as strong as those from apes after accounting for body mass (p<0.01. Human vertebrae are larger in size (volume, cross-sectional area, height than in apes with a similar body mass. Young adult human vertebrae have significantly lower trabecular bone volume fraction (0.26±0.04 in humans and 0.37±0.07 in apes, mean ± SD, p<0.01 and thinner vertebral shells than apes (after accounting for body mass, p<0.01. Since human vertebrae are more porous and weaker than those in apes in young adulthood (after accounting for bone mass, even modest amounts of age-related bone loss may lead to vertebral fracture in humans, while in apes, larger amounts of bone loss would be required before a vertebral fracture becomes likely. We present arguments that differences in vertebral bone size and shape associated with reduced bone strength in humans is linked to evolutionary adaptations associated with bipedalism.

  7. ExtraLevatory AbdominoPerineal Excision (ELAPE) Does Not Result in Reduced Rate of Tumor Perforation or Rate of Positive Circumferential Resection Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Fischer, Anders; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncological results and possible benefits associated with extralevatory abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) when compared with conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE). BACKGROUND: ELAPE was introduced in 2007 with the purpose of reducing the rate of positive resection...... margins after resection of low rectal cancers. Preliminary studies have shown promising results. No large-scale or nationwide data have been presented. METHODS: Database study based on data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's prospective database. Data on all ELAPEs and APEs performed in Denmark...

  8. Il pianeta delle scimmie: una discussione critica delle nozioni di “neuromania” e “darwinite” in Raymond Tallis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Barzaghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Planet of the Apes: A Critical Examination of Raymond Tallis’ Idea of “Neuromania” and “Darwinitis” - This paper presents a critical examination of Raymond Tallis’ Aping Mankind. Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity. The main themes are summarized and briefly discussed. Tallis presents some of the most extreme reductionist interpretations of contemporary neurosciences, and labels them “neuromania” and “darwinitis”. He proposes instead a non-reductionist philosophical naturalism, one that, according to him, is able to value the latest scientific achievements, without reducing the importance of other humanistic branches of knowledge.

  9. Emil Selenka on the embryonic membranes of the mouse and placentation in gibbons and orangutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Pijnenborg, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emil Selenka made important contributions to embryology in marsupials, rodents and primates that deserve wider recognition. Here we review his work on early development of the mouse and placentation in the great apes. FINDINGS: Selenka was intrigued by germ layer theory, which led him...... discovery that the embryos of gibbons and orangutans develop under a decidua capsularis. Thus all great apes, including humans, exhibit interstitial implantation; this is in contrast to other primates where implantation is superficial. CONCLUSIONS: Selenka's work was thorough and brilliantly illustrated. It...

  10. Semana Responsabilidade Social, Lisboa, 15-19 Maio 2006: Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina; Duarte, Ana Paula; Frazão, Rui

    2006-01-01

    EDITORIAL: No quadro da estreita colaboração entre o Centro para o Desenvolvimento Empresarial Sustentável (CENDES) do INETI e a Associação Portuguesa de Ética Empresarial (APEE), decidimos publicar os presentes proceedings da primeira Semana da Responsabilidade Social, iniciativa que a APEE muito oportunamente lançou, em paralelo com a realização da reunião do grupo de trabalho sobre Responsabilidade Social da ISO decorrida em Maio de 2006. A actuação ética e socialmente re...

  11. Neurons efficiently repair glutamate-induced oxidative DNA damage by a process involving CREB-mediated up-regulation of apurinic endonuclease 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Tadokoro, Takashi; Keijzers, Guido;

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, activates receptors coupled to membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx that mediates functional responses of neurons including processes such as learning and memory. Here we show that reversible nuclear oxidative DNA damage occurs in...... inhibitor (KN-93) blocked the ability of glutamate to induce CREB phosphorylation and APE1 expression. Selective depletion of CREB using RNA interference prevented glutamate-induced up-regulation of APE1. Thus, glutamate receptor stimulation triggers Ca(2+)- and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species...

  12. Nonlinear diffusion model for annealed proton-exchanged waveguides in zirconium-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrock, Carsten; Roussev, Rostislav V; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia; Fejer, Martin M

    2016-08-20

    Photorefractive-damage- (PRD) resistant zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate is investigated as a substrate for the realization of annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguides. Its advantages are a favorable distribution coefficient, PRD resistance comparable to magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate, and a proton-diffusion behavior resembling congruent lithium niobate. A 1D model for APE waveguides was developed based on a previous model for congruently melting lithium niobate. Evidence for a nonlinear index dependence on concentration was found. PMID:27556972

  13. Energy and generating mechanism of a subsurface, cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    Computation of available potential energy (APE) of a recently observed cold core, subsurface eddy (centered at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E) in the Bay of Bengal revealed that the energy maxima associated with the eddy was of the order of 1...

  14. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China(11-13 June 2008).The results show that kinetic energy(KE) generation and advection were the most important KE sources,while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks.There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs.The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV.Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance,as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex(vortex B).The conversion from available potential energy(APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection.Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects. The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection;in this case,vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released,while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  15. Dynamic regulation of cerebral DNA repair genes by psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kristin; Aalling, Nadia; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2015-01-01

    restraint stress (6h/day) or daily handling (controls), and sacrificed after 1, 7 or 21 stress sessions. The mRNA expression of seven genes (Ogg1, Ape1, Ung1, Neil1, Xrcc1, Ercc1, Nudt1) involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction...

  16. What mirror self-recognition can tell us about aspects of self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    that contrary to monkeys, most great apes (humans, common chimpanzees, pygmy chimpanzees and orangutans but not the gorilla) have convincingly displayed the capacity to recognize self by mirrors. The putative discontinuity in phylogeny of the ability suggests the existence of a so-called cognitive gap between...

  17. Testing UV-filtered ("fat-link") clover fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Hölbling, C; Capitani, Stefano; Durr, Stephan; Hoelbling, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We investigate filtered clover fermions, built from fat gauge links, both in one-loop perturbation theory and in numerical simulations. We use a variety of filtering recipes (APE, HYP, EXP, HEX), some of which are suitable for a HMC with dynamical fermions. A generic filtering together with a (fat-link) clover term yields fermions with much reduced chiral symmetry breaking.

  18. Simulation of winter wheat yield and its variability in different climates of Europe: A comparison of eight crop growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Taru; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Angulo, Carlos;

    2011-01-01

    values were lowest (1428 and 1603 kg ha−1) and the index of agreement (0.71 and 0.74) highest. CROPSYST systematically underestimated yields (MBE – 1186 kg ha−1), whereas HERMES, STICS and WOFOST clearly overestimated them (MBE 1174, 1272 and 1213 kg ha−1, respectively). APES, DAISY, HERMES, STICS...

  19. Inactivation of Apc perturbs mammary development, but only directly results in acanthoma in the context of Tcf-1 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, RCJ; Hay, T; Meniel, [No Value; Naughton, C; Anderson, TJ; Shibata, H; Ito, M; Clevers, H; Noda, T; Sansom, OJ; Mason, JO; Clarke, AR

    2002-01-01

    Apc (adenomatous polyposis colt) encodes a tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in the majority of colorectal cancers. Recent evidence has also implicated Apc mutations in the aetiology of breast tumours. Ape is a component of the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway, of which one target is T

  20. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains.

  1. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gilad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor (OR genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surveying randomly chosen subsets of 100 OR genes from each species. We find that apes, Old World monkeys and one New World monkey, the howler monkey, have a significantly higher proportion of OR pseudogenes than do other New World monkeys or the lemur (a prosimian. Strikingly, the howler monkey is also the only New World monkey to possess full trichromatic vision, along with Old World monkeys and apes. Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred concomitant with the acquisition of full trichromatic color vision in primates.

  2. Preservice Physical Education Teachers' Attributes Related to Teaching a Student Labeled ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Rizzo, Terry L.; So, Hosung; Chung, Dong-Hwa; Park, Sung-Je; Lei, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the association between preservice teacher-related variables [i.e., age, adapted physical education (APE) and special education (SPED) coursework, experience teaching students with disabilities and perceive competence] on measures of the "Physical Educators' Intention toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities II-Preservice…

  3. La asimilación de experiencias problemáticas a través de narraciones: un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Allepuz-Faus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se busca describir el proceso de asimilación a través de narraciones de una participante, Mónica, que tenía problemas de tipo oncológico y el beneficio de emplear narraciones para dicha asimilación. Mónica escribió 31 narraciones, durante 8 meses, sobre su experiencia con diversos fibroadenomas y tumores benignos. Estas narraciones se analizaron mediante el modelo de asimilación y la Escala de Asimilación de Experiencias Problemáticas o APES. El procedimiento de preparar los datos para el análisis con la APES dio como resultado 373 párrafos que fueron codificados con la APES y en relación a ocho temas distintivos y sus correspondientes voces dominantes y no dominantes, relacionados con sus experiencias problemáticas. Los resultados muestran que Mónica alcanzó niveles elevados de asimilación en siete de sus ocho experiencias problemáticas. A pesar de esta asimilación, los datos muestran notables retrocesos, es decir, saltos entre distintos niveles APES.

  4. Two-Year-Old Children but Not Domestic Dogs Understand Communicative Intentions without Language, Gestures, or Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not…

  5. Primate Language and Cognition: Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane

    1995-01-01

    Research of the past decade has served to underscore the close psychological relationship between humans, chimpanzees, and the other great apes. In his evolutionary theory, Darwin (1860, 1871) posited both psychological and biological continuities between animals and humans. Although the evidence for biological continuity has been strong for decades, the evidence necessary for affirmation of psychological continuity is recent.

  6. 76 FR 66274 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pier 36/Brannan Street Wharf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... similar to an APE 150, which produces up to 1,800 vibrations per minute. All impact pile driving would use... Bay Bridge. More specifically, this area is located between Pier 30-32 and Pier 38, directly adjacent... background, sound is a mechanical disturbance consisting of minute vibrations that travel through a...

  7. Multilingual, like Franz Kafka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the social and cultural dimensions of individual multilingualism by focusing on a semi-autobiographical essay written in 1917 by an author who is usually read as a monolingual German writer but who was, in fact, multilingual and multicultural: Franz Kafka. The story is about an ape who, in order to survive his capture by the…

  8. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  9. Personality in learning and education : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeRaad, B; Schouwenburg, HC

    1996-01-01

    The literature relevant to the combined area of personality and education and learning is summarized, covering almost a century of research and theorizing. Different topics considered important from the aspect of education and learning or from the aspect of personality ape represented. For personali

  10. Primate Conservation--An Evaluation of Two Different Educational Programs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Brigitte; Braunbeck, Thomas; Randler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all primate species are globally threatened. Conservation approaches need to focus on local people and users of resources from the habitats of the apes. Students worldwide should become aware of the context and relationships in school, and they should change their usage and behaviour as the ultimate goals. This study explored the…

  11. African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2011-12-23

    Exclusion allows the detection of hidden food when confronted with the choice between an empty and a potentially baited food location. However, exclusion may be based on avoidance of the empty location without drawing inferences about the presence of the food in the baited location. So far, such inferences have been demonstrated in the great apes only: after seeing an experimenter eating one of two food types, which both had been hidden previously in two boxes, the apes were able to choose the box that still contained the other food type. African grey parrots are capable of exclusion, and we here assessed if they are capable of inference by exclusion. In our task, two different but equally preferred food items were hidden in full view of the birds under two opaque cups. Then, an experimenter secretly removed one food type and showed it to the bird. Similarly to the apes, one out of seven parrots significantly preferred the baited cup; control conditions rule out that its choice was based on associative learning or the use of olfactory cues. Thus, we conclude that-like the apes-some grey parrots are able to infer the location of a hidden food reward.

  12. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  13. Tendon transfers to restore opposition of the thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramselaar

    1970-01-01

    textabstractIn man and some of the apes, the thumb has the function of a contrafinger. This function is made possible by a great freedom of movement of the first metacarpal and a highly developed and differentiated thumb musculature. The grasp function of the hand is dependent on the oppositional ca

  14. AcEST: BP915480 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ol polyprotein OS=Gibbon ape leukemia virus ... 37 0.070 sp|Q9TTC1|POL_KORV Pro-Pol polyprotein OS=Koala ret...|Q9TTC1|POL_KORV Pro-Pol polyprotein OS=Koala retrovirus GN=pro-pol PE=3 SV=1 Length = 1127 Score = 34.3 bit

  15. The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and her Lovert : on the evolution of the human reproductive strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2003-01-01

    Human reproductive strategy differs from that of most other mammals, including Apes such as the closely related chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). For example, humans, although basically polygamic, exhibit a strong tendency to (serial) monogamy and-very rare for a mammal-pro

  16. Chemical fundamentals of the application of aminopolyether 1.1.1. for tritium fixation for final storage purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of APE 1.1.1. are studied with a view to its suitability for tritium fixation and for final storage purposes. For this purpose, the structure and properties of the free ligand and its protonation and tritiation products were described to begin with, followed by studies on the final storage characteristics of the tritiation products. (orig.)

  17. Orangutan call communication and the puzzle of speech evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis E Lameira, A.

    2013-01-01

    Speech is a human hallmark. However, its evolution is little understood. It remains largely unknown which features of the call communication of our closest relatives – great apes – may have constituted speech evolutionary feedstock. In this study, I investigate the extent to which speech building bl

  18. Effect of non-uniform mean flow field on acoustic propagation problems in computational aeroacoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...

  19. Plaadid / Heili Vaus-Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaus-Tamm, Heili, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Keith Jarret/Gary Peacock/Jack DeJohnette "Up for it", Wladislaw Szpilman "The original recordings of the pianist", Emanuel Ax "Haydn Piano Sonatas", Ravi Coltrane "Mad 6", Guano Apes "Walking On A Thin Line", Will Young "From Now On", Janis Joplin "The Essential"

  20. Electrocardiographic differentiation between acute coronary syndrome and acute pulmonary embolism associated with inverted T waves in precordial leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhong-qun; WANG Chong-quan; HE Chao-rong; WANG Zhi-xiao; MAO Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Inverted T waves in precordial leads are often seen in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The purpose of this study was to analyze the electrocardiogram (ECG) difference between APE and ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads. Methods The ECG difference among 62 patients with APE and 125 patients with ACS related inverted T waves in precordial leads were compared. Results Compared with ACS, Patients with APE were more frequently associated with incomplete or complete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, the sum of the depth of inverted T waves in leads V1 and V2 not less than in lead V3 and V4 (inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4), and inverted T waves in leads V1 and Ⅲ. Conclusions Complete or incomplete RBBB or slurred S wave in lead V1, inverted T waves in leads V1 and III, and inverted TV1 + V2 ≥ inverted TV3 + V4 are useful criteria for predicting APE.

  1. Metabolic Acceleration in Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Karin

    2016-07-12

    Humans stand out among other primates by an unusual combination of a very large brain and high fertility. Pontzer et al. (2016a) present new data on daily energy expenditure in great apes and show that the metabolic rate increased during human evolution. PMID:27411003

  2. Madonna : Ray of light. Princessa / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    1998-01-01

    Plaadiarvustused. : Princessa. Yngvie Malmsteen : Facing the animal. Usher : My way. Cornershop : When I was born for the 7th time. Haddaway : Lets do it now. Black Grape : Stupid stupid stupid. Guano Apes : Proud like a God. Propellerheads : Decksandrumsandrockandroll. Delinquent Habits : Here come the horns. Two : Voyeurs. Eri esitajad : I know what you did last summer. Eri esitajad

  3. Mountain gorilla genomes reveal the impact of long-term population decline and inbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yali; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H;

    2015-01-01

    Mountain gorillas are an endangered great ape subspecies and a prominent focus for conservation, yet we know little about their genomic diversity and evolutionary past. We sequenced whole genomes from multiple wild individuals and compared the genomes of all four Gorilla subspecies. We found that...

  4. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  5. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest a

  6. Statistical Analysis of Hominoid Molecular Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Daniel; Hartigan, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The core data of molecular biology consists of DNA sequences. We will show how DNA sequences may be used to infer the evolution of the primates, human, chimpanzee, ape, orangutan and gibbon. The underlying probability models are taken to be Markov processes on trees. Some dependencies along the sequence due to the genetic code are also considered.

  7. Evolution of speech and its acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Much is known about the evolution of speech. Fossil evidence points to modern adaptations for speech appearing between 1.5 million and 500,000 years ago. Studies of vocal behavior in apes show the ability to use combinatorial vocalizations in some species (but not chimpanzees) and some cultural infl

  8. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  9. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jürgen

    2011-02-21

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  10. Análisis de las competencias profesionales en las jefaturas de la Administración pública española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel López Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el grado de importancia que otorgan los funcionarios de la Administración Pública Española (APE a un conjunto de veinte competencias profesionales así como comparar el nivel competencial autoevaluado por sus jefaturas con el de la población de directivos de referencia. Para ello se ha trabajado con una muestra de 613 empleados públicos de la APE compuesta por puestos base y jefaturas y se ha aplicado una metodología de encuestas para la recogida y análisis de datos. Los resultados obtenidos indican, en primer lugar, que las competencias más relevantes para ambos colectivos son la confianza y seguridad en sí mismo, la comunicación y el trabajo en equipo. En segundo lugar, el nivel de relevancia otorgado por los puestos base es, en muchos casos, superior al nivel otorgado por las jefaturas. Finalmente, las jefaturas de la APE muestran un nivel competencial autoevaluado muy por debajo del de la población de directivos de referencia. Este conjunto de resultados aporta información valiosa para la creación de un sistema de gestión integral de los recursos humanos por competencias en la APE.

  11. Kreative Nord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Nielsen, Christian; Kanstrup, Anne Marie;

    afspejles i regeringens vækstplan for de kreative og innovative brancher. Et andet område, som ofte er blevet sammenholdt med de kreative og innovative erhverv, er turisme. Indenfor dette område finder vi det tidligere ApeX-initiativ, hvor forskere fra Aalborg Universitet og regionen været særligt synlige...

  12. Shock and Awe Pedagogy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Lujan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Galen of Pergamon (130-200 A.D.) was an accomplished showman and scientist who made enormous advancements in the understanding of the heart, nervous system, and mechanics of breathing. These advancements were often achieved during impressive public "performances" of vivisection on Barbary apes and other living animals. These "shock…

  13. Determining the Most Appropriate Physical Education Placement for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columna, Luis; Davis, Timothy; Lieberman, Lauren; Lytle, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Adapted physical education (APE) is designed to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities within the least restrictive environment. Placement in the right environment can help the child succeed, but the wrong environment can create a very negative experience. This article presents a systematic approach to making decisions when…

  14. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  15. Iidamast ja Aadamast ehk "Ahvide planeet" / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud Pierre Boulle'i raamatu ainetel "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Autor võrdleb seda 1968.a. filmiga ning Ain Kaalepi näidendiga "Iidamast ja Aadamast"

  16. Kuidas Helena Bonham Carter ahviks muutus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Kuidas tehti näitlejatele ahvide grimmi. Lähemalt Helena Bonham Carteri grimmist

  17. Video Editing: A Service-Learning Assignment in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Yao, Wei-Ru

    2016-01-01

    For most physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, the constraints surrounding the undergraduate curriculum (e.g., number of credit hours, dual content certificates such as health and physical education, content knowledge) limit PETE programs to offering only one course in adapted physical education (APE) with the expectation that this…

  18. Critical notice: Michael Tomasello on the “prosocial” human animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract According to Michael Tomasello humans cannot help to be informative. Apes, like chimps, do not point at each other, only humans do so in order to attract attention, i.e. to (get) help, play and share experiences. In shared cooperative activities, individual rationality is transformed...

  19. Interpreting sulci on hominin endocasts: old hypotheses and new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Paleoneurologists analyze internal casts (endocasts) of fossilized braincases, which provide information about the size, shape and, to a limited degree, sulcal patterns reproduced from impressions left by the surface of the brain. When interpreted in light of comparative data from the brains of living apes and humans, sulcal patterns reproduced on hominin endocasts provide important information for studying the evolution of the cerebral cortex and cognition in human ancestors. Here, new evidence is discussed for the evolution of sulcal patterns associated with cortical reorganization in three parts of the hominin brain: (1) the parietotemporo-occipital association cortex, (2) Broca's speech area, and (3) dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex. Of the three regions, the evidence regarding the last is the clearest. Compared to great apes, Australopithecus endocasts reproduce a clear middle frontal sulcus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that is derived toward the human condition. This finding is consistent with data from comparative cytoarchitectural studies of ape and human brains as well as shape analyses of australopithecine endocasts. The comparative and direct evidence for all three regions suggests that hominin brain reorganization was underway by at least the time of Australopithecus africanus (~2.5 to 3.0 mya), despite the ape-sized brains of these hominins, and that it entailed expansion of both rostral and caudal association cortices. PMID:24822043

  20. Interpreting sulci on hominin endocasts: Old hypotheses and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eFalk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paleoneurologists analyze internal casts (endocasts of fossilized braincases, which provide information about the size, shape and, to a limited degree, sulcal patterns reproduced from impressions left by the surface of the brain. When interpreted in light of comparative data from the brains of living apes and humans, sulcal patterns reproduced on hominin endocasts provide important information for studying the evolution of the cerebral cortex and cognition in human ancestors. Here, new evidence is discussed for the evolution of sulcal patterns associated with cortical reorganization in three parts of the hominin brain: (1 the parietotemporo-occipital association cortex, (2 Broca’s speech area, and (3 dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex. Of the three regions, the evidence regarding the last is the clearest. Compared to great apes, Australopithecus endocasts reproduce a clear middle frontal sulcus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that is derived toward the human condition. This finding is consistent with data from comparative cytoarchitectural studies of ape and human brains as well as shape analyses of australopithecine endocasts. The comparative and direct evidence for all three regions suggests that hominin brain reorganization was underway by at least the time of Australopithecus africanus (~ 2.5 to 3.0 mya, despite the ape-sized brains of these hominins, and that it entailed expansion of both rostral and caudal association cortices.

  1. Mass-tag labeling reveals site-specific and endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Avital; Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Yount, Jacob S; Hang, Howard C

    2016-04-19

    Fatty acylation of cysteine residues provides spatial and temporal control of protein function in cells and regulates important biological pathways in eukaryotes. Although recent methods have improved the detection and proteomic analysis of cysteine fatty (S-fatty) acylated proteins, understanding how specific sites and quantitative levels of this posttranslational modification modulate cellular pathways are still challenging. To analyze the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation in cells, we developed a mass-tag labeling method based on hydroxylamine-sensitivity of thioesters and selective maleimide-modification of cysteines, termed acyl-PEG exchange (APE). We demonstrate that APE enables sensitive detection of protein S-acylation levels and is broadly applicable to different classes of S-palmitoylated membrane proteins. Using APE, we show that endogenous interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 is S-fatty acylated on three cysteine residues and site-specific modification of highly conserved cysteines are crucial for the antiviral activity of this IFN-stimulated immune effector. APE therefore provides a general and sensitive method for analyzing the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation and should facilitate quantitative studies of this regulated and dynamic lipid modification in biological systems.

  2. Plaadid / Veiko Pesur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesur, Veiko

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Destruction "Thrash Anthems", Big Bang "Essential Selection", Metropolitan Jazz Affair "Bird Of Spring", Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemiline Naiskoor "Nagu puhas mõte", guano Apes "the Best Of", Moby "Go ئ The Very Best Of Moby Remixed"

  3. Technology adoption and the impact on average productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zeng, D.; Zilberman, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a framework is developed to analyze how the specifications of new technologies and the heterogeneity of micro-units of production affect the input use, the adoption pattern, and the productivity of inputs. It shows that asset-productivity-enhancing (APE) technologies tend to be adopte

  4. Asymmetric pulmonary edema after scorpion sting: a case report Edema pulmonar assimétrico após picada de escorpião: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Razi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy was referred with acute asymmetric pulmonary edema (APE four-hour after scorpion sting to Emergency department. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were: dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Chest x-ray revealed APE predominantly on the right hemithorax. The patient was treated with oxygen, intravenous frusemide and digoxin and discharged on the sixth hospital day in a good condition. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of asymmetric pulmonary edema after severe scorpion envenomation within few hours immediately after the sting.Menino de 12 anos foi internado no Pronto Socorro, com edema pulmonar assimétrico agudo (APE, quatro horas após picada de escorpião. À admissão, as principais manifestações clínicas foram: dispnéa, taquipnéa e taquicardia. Raio X do pulmão revelou APE predominantemente no hemitórax direito. O paciente foi tratado com oxigênio, frusemida intravenosa e digoxina e teve alta no sexto dia de internação, em boas condições. Este relato de caso enfatiza a ocorrência de edema pulmonar assimétrico algumas horas após a picada.

  5. Development and evaluation of human AP endonuclease inhibitors in melanoma and glioma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, M Z; Vyjayanti, V N; Laughton, C A;

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of DNA base excision repair (BER) has the potential to enhance response to chemotherapy and improve outcomes in tumours such as melanoma and glioma. APE1, a critical protein in BER that processes potentially cytotoxic abasic sites (AP sites), is a promising new target in cancer...

  6. Evolution of invasive placentation with special reference to non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2011-01-01

    and even tarsiers and New World monkeys show restricted trophoblast invasion. Moreover, a truly villous placenta occurs only in Old World monkeys and great apes. The two latter groups of haplorhine primates show varying degrees of trophoblast-uterine interaction, including differences in the extent...

  7. CT volumetry of artificial pulmonary nodules using an ex vivo lung phantom: Influence of exposure parameters and iterative reconstruction on reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpütz, Mark O., E-mail: Mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Av de Magellan, 33600 Pessac (France); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wroblewski, Jacek, E-mail: JacekWr@gmx.net [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dinkel, Julien, E-mail: jdinkel@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika, E-mail: Monika.eichinger@thoraxklinik-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC-H), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data based iterative reconstruction (IR) on the measurement variability of computer-aided nodule volumetry on chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: N = 7 porcine lung explants were inflated in a dedicated ex vivo phantom and prepared with n = 162 artificial nodules. MDCT was performed eight consecutive times (combinations of 120 and 80 kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12 mA s), and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR. Nodule volume and diameter were measured semi-automatically with dedicated software. The absolute percentage measurement error (APE) was computed in relation to the 120 kV 120 mA s acquisition. Noise was recorded for each nodule in every dataset. Results: Mean nodule volume and diameter were 0.32 ± 0.15 ml and 12.0 ± 2.6 mm, respectively. Although IR reduced noise by 24.9% on average compared to FBP (p < 0.007), APE with IR was equal to or slightly higher than with FBP. Mean APE for volume increased significantly below a volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI) of 1.0 mGy: for 120 kV 12 mA s APE was 3.8 ± 6.2% (FBP) vs. 4.0 ± 5.2% (IR) (p < 0.007); for 80 kV 12 mA s APE was 8.0 ± 13.0% vs. 9.3 ± 15.8% (n.s.), respectively. Correlating APE with image noise revealed that at identical noise APE was higher with IR than with FBP (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Computer-aided volumetry is robust in a wide range of exposure settings, and reproducibility is reduced at a CTDI below 1.0 mGy only, but the error rate remains clinically irrelevant. Noise reduction by IR is not detrimental for measurement error in the setting of semi-automatic nodule volumetry on chest MDCT.

  8. Uterolytic effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) corm [;African Potato'] aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyinawumuntu, Agatha; Awe, Emmanuel O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-01

    Extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corm (African potato) are commonly used by some traditional health practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa as natural antenatal remedy to prevent threatening or premature abortion and miscarriage, and to ensure successful confinement. In this study, we investigated the uterolytic activity of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract on spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of uterine horns taken from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs, as well as on spasmogen-provoked contractions of stilboesterol-primed, oestrogen-dominated, non-pregnant rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns. Relatively low to high concentrations of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract (APE, 25-400 mg/ml) inhibited the amplitude of the spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of, and relaxed, uterine horns isolated from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-related manner. Furthermore, relatively low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) relaxed basal tones of uterine horns taken from non-pregnant, oestrogen-dominated rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-dependent manner. The same moderately low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) inhibited acetylcholine-, oxytocin-, bradykinin-, and potassium chloride (K(+))-induced contractions of oestrogen-dominated rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns in a concentration-related manner. Although the mechanism of uterolytic action of APE could not be established, the results of the present study lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of APE as a natural antenatal remedy for threatening or premature abortion, and suggest that the uterolytic action of the corm's extract is unlikely to be mediated via beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation, but probably mediated through a non-specific spasmolytic mechanism. PMID:19122381

  9. A cross-species study of gesture and its role in symbolic development: Implications for the gestural theory of language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen eGillespie-Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffolded the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child’s symbols were spoken words; the apes’ symbols were lexigrams, noniconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in which gestural representation of a referent preceded symbolic representation of the same referent appeared in all three species (but was statistically significant only for the child. Nonetheless, across species, the ratio of symbol to gesture increased significantly with age. But even though their symbol production increased, the apes continued to communicate more frequently by gesture than by symbol. In contrast, by15-18 months of age, the child used symbols more frequently than gestures. This ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol, present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape, provides support for the role of gesture in language evolution. In all three species, the overwhelming majority of gestures were communicative (paired with eye-contact, vocalization, and/or persistence. However, vocalization was rare for the apes, but accompanied the majority of the child’s communicative gestures. This finding suggests the co-evolution of speech and gesture after the evolutionary divergence of the hominid line. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. This finding suggests that multimodal expression of communicative intent was also strengthened after hominids diverged from apes.

  10. Evolutionary genomic remodelling of the human 4q subtelomere (4q35.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Paola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain insights into the functionality of the human 4q35.2 domain harbouring the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD locus, we investigated in African apes genomic and chromatin organisations, and the nuclear topology of orthologous regions. Results A basic block consisting of short D4Z4 arrays (10–15 repeats, 4q35.2 specific sequences, and approximately 35 kb of interspersed repeats from different LINE subfamilies was repeated at least twice in the gorilla 4qter. This genomic organisation has undergone evolutionary remodelling, leading to the single representation of both the D4Z4 array and LINE block in chimpanzee, and the loss of the LINE block in humans. The genomic remodelling has had an impact on 4qter chromatin organisation, but not its interphase nuclear topology. In comparison with humans, African apes show very low or undetectable levels of FRG1 and FRG2 histone 4 acetylation and gene transcription, although histone deacetylase inhibition restores gene transcription to levels comparable with those of human cells, thus indicating that the 4qter region is capable of acquiring a more open chromatin structure. Conversely, as in humans, the 4qter region in African apes has a very peripheral nuclear localisation. Conclusion The 4q subtelomere has undergone substantial genomic changes during evolution that have had an impact on chromatin condensation and the region's transcriptional regulation. Consequently, the 4qter genes in African apes and humans seem to be subjected to a different strategy of regulation in which LINE and D4Z4 sequences may play a pivotal role. However, the effect of peripheral nuclear anchoring of 4qter on these regulation mechanisms is still unclear. The observed differences in the regulation of 4qter gene expression between African apes and humans suggest that the human 4q35.2 locus has acquired a novel functional relevance.

  11. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) understand connectivity in the skewered grape tool task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Schubiger, Michèle N; Suddendorf, T

    2013-02-01

    Great apes appear to have limited knowledge of tool functionality when they are presented with tasks that involve a physical connection between a tool and a reward. For instance, they fail to understand that pulling a rope with a reward tied to its end is more beneficial than pulling a rope that only touches a reward. Apes show more success when both ropes have rewards tied to their ends but one rope is nonfunctional because it is clearly separated into aligned sections. It is unclear, however, whether this success is based on perceptual features unrelated to connectivity, such as perceiving the tool's separate sections as independent tools rather than one discontinuous tool. Surprisingly, there appears to be no study that has tested any type of connectivity problem using natural tools made from branches with which wild and captive apes often have extensive experience. It is possible that such ecologically valid tools may better help subjects understand connectivity that involves physical attachment. In this study, we tested orangutans with natural tools and a range of connectivity problems that involved the physical attachment of a reward on continuous and broken tools. We found that the orangutans understood tool connectivity involving physical attachment that apes from other studies failed when tested with similar tasks using artificial as opposed to natural tools. We found no evidence that the orangutans' success in broken tool conditions was based on perceptual features unrelated to connectivity. Our results suggest that artificial tools may limit apes' knowledge of connectivity involving physical attachment, whereas ecologically valid tools may have the opposite effect. PMID:22686164

  12. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  13. Endogenous N-losses in broilers estimated by a [15N]-isotope dilution technique: effect of dietary fat type and xylanase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, S; Jeroch, H; Simon, O

    2000-01-01

    Male broilers were given a low protein diet (15.5% CP) spiked with [15N]H4HCO3 from day 12 to day 18 of age to label the endogenous N-constituents. Experimental diets were subsequently fed from day 19 to day 24 of age and consisted of a rye based diet (56% dietary inclusion) which contained either 10% soya oil (S) or 10% beef tallow (T), each of which was either unsupplemented (-) or supplemented (+) with a xylanase containing enzyme preparation (2700 IU/kg at pH 5.3). [15N]-atom percent excess (APE) of excreta, faeces and urine were monitored on a daily basis during both experimental periods. Furthermore, APE was measured in various tissues at the end of the experiment. The APE of urine on the last day of the experiment was between the APE of the pancreas and that of the jejunal tissue, an observation which supported the usefulness of using urinary APE as an indicator for the endogenous N-pool. Endogenous N-proportions were estimated by an isotope dilution technique at the end of the experiment by examination of the ratio of APE in faeces and urine. The endogenous N-proportion in the faeces was greatest in birds receiving the T(-) diet. The proportions were 0.321, 0.319, 0.451 and 0.289 in S(-), S(+), T(-) and T(+) fed groups, respectively. Xylanase addition reduced endogenous N-proportion, a factor which was used to correct apparent crude protein digestibility (85.6, 86.2, 84.3 and 88.5% in S(-), S(+), T(-) and T(+) fed birds, respectively) for endogenous losses resulting in almost equal true digestibilities of crude protein for all treatments (90.3, 90.6, 90.4 and 91.5%). The amounts of endogenous N in faces were estimated to be 87, 69, 244 and 81 mg per day per kg0.67 body weight in S(-), S(+), T(-) and T(+) fed birds, respectively. It was concluded that xylanase supplementation of a rye based broiler diet does not change endogenous N-secretions when the supplemental fat is soya oil. However, addition of tallow rather than soya oil increased these N

  14. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-01-01

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use. PMID:26079292

  15. Comparative primate neurobiology and the evolution of brain language systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-10-01

    Human brain specializations supporting language can be identified by comparing human with non-human primate brains. Comparisons with chimpanzees are critical in this endeavor. Human brains are much larger than non-human primate brains, but human language capabilities cannot be entirely explained by brain size. Human brain specializations that potentially support our capacity for language include firstly, wider cortical minicolumns in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas compared with great apes; secondly, leftward asymmetries in Broca's area volume and Wernicke's area minicolumn width that are not found in great apes; and thirdly, arcuate fasciculus projections beyond Wernicke's area to a region of expanded association cortex in the middle and inferior temporal cortex involved in processing word meaning.

  16. Hybrid Monte Carlo with Fat Link Fermion Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in lattice fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. The FLIC fermion formalism makes use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants. The necessary equations of motion for FLIC fermions are derived, and some initial simulation results are presented. The technique is more general however, and is straightforwardly applicable to other smearing techniques or fat link actions...

  17. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  18. Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm with fat link fermion actions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, Waseem; Williams, Anthony G; 10.1103/PhysRevD.70.014502

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in lattice fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as flat link irrelevant clover (FLIC) fermions. The FLIC fermion formalism makes use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarization is often performed using an iterative maximization of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants. The necessary equations of motion for FLIC fermions are derived, and some initial simulation results are presented. The technique is more general however, and is straightforwardly applicable to other smearing ...

  19. Evolutionary relationships of wild hominids recapitulated by gut microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Ochman

    Full Text Available Multiple factors over the lifetime of an individual, including diet, geography, and physiologic state, will influence the microbial communities within the primate gut. To determine the source of variation in the composition of the microbiota within and among species, we investigated the distal gut microbial communities harbored by great apes, as present in fecal samples recovered within their native ranges. We found that the branching order of host-species phylogenies based on the composition of these microbial communities is completely congruent with the known relationships of the hosts. Although the gut is initially and continuously seeded by bacteria that are acquired from external sources, we establish that over evolutionary timescales, the composition of the gut microbiota among great ape species is phylogenetically conserved and has diverged in a manner consistent with vertical inheritance.

  20. A randomized controlled intervention trial to relieve and prevent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Blangsted, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE:: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different workplace interventions on long-term compliance, muscle strength gains, and neck/shoulder pain in office workers. METHODS:: A 1-yr randomized controlled intervention trial was done with three groups: specific...... in maximal muscle strength, and changes in intensity of neck/shoulder pain (scale 0-9) in those with and without pain at baseline. RESULTS:: Regular participation was achieved by 54%, 31%, and 16% of those of the participants who answered the questionnaire in SRT (78%), APE (81%), and REF (80%), respectively......, during the first half of the intervention period, and decreased to 35%, 28% and 9%, respectively, during the second half. Shoulder elevation strength increased 9-11% in SRT and APE (P