Sample records for aperture radar capabilities

  1. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  2. Quantum synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) uses sensor motion to generate finer spatial resolution of a given target area. In this paper we explore the theoretical potential of quantum synthetic aperture quantum radar (QSAR). We provide theoretical analysis and simulation results which suggest that QSAR can provide improved detection performance over classical SAR in the high-noise low-brightness regime.

  3. Optical synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Zach, Shlomo; Zalevsky, Zeev


    A method is proposed for increasing the resolution of an object and overcoming the diffraction limit of an optical system installed on top of a moving imaging system, such as an airborne platform or satellite. The resolution improvement is obtained via a two-step process. First, three low resolution differently defocused images are captured and the optical phase is retrieved using an improved iterative Gershberg-Saxton based algorithm. The phase retrieval allows numerical back propagation of the field to the aperture plane. Second, the imaging system is shifted and the first step is repeated. The obtained optical fields at the aperture plane are combined and a synthetically increased lens aperture is generated along the direction of movement, yielding higher imaging resolution. The method resembles a well-known approach from the microwave regime called the synthetic aperture radar in which the antenna size is synthetically increased along the platform propagation direction. The proposed method is demonstrated via Matlab simulation as well as through laboratory experiment.

  4. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier


    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  5. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  6. Miniature synthetic-aperture radar system (United States)

    Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.


    Loral Defense Systems-Arizona has developed a high-performance synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) for small aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance applications. This miniature radar, called Miniature Synthetic-Aperture Radar (MSAR), is packaged in a small volume and has low weight. It retains key features of large SAR systems, including high-resolution imaging and all-weather operation. The operating frequency of MSAR can optionally be selected to provide foliage penetration capability. Many imaging radar configurations can be derived using this baseline system. MSAR with a data link provides an attractive UAV sensor. MSAR with a real-time image formation processor is well suited to installations where onboard processing and immediate image analysis are required. The MSAR system provides high-resolution imaging for short-to-medium range reconnaissance applications.

  7. Future of synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Barath, F. T.


    The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

  8. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.


    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  9. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) Polarimetric Upgrade (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Perrine, Martin; McLinden, Matthew; Valett, Susan


    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center for the development and implementation of digital beamforming radar techniques. DBSAR was recently upgraded to polarimetric operation in order to enhance its capability as a science instrument. Two polarimetric approaches were carried out which will be demonstrated in upcoming flight campaigns.

  10. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy...

  11. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  12. Synthetic aperture radar imaging simulator for pulse envelope evaluation (United States)

    Balster, Eric J.; Scarpino, Frank A.; Kordik, Andrew M.; Hill, Kerry L.


    A simulator for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation is presented. The simulator produces radar returns from a virtual radar positioned at an arbitrary distance and altitude. The radar returns are produced from a source image, where the return is a weighted summation of linear frequency-modulated (LFM) pulse signals delayed by the distance of each pixel in the image to the radar. The imagery is resampled into polar format to ensure consistent range profiles to the position of the radar. The SAR simulator provides a capability enabling the objective analysis of formed SAR imagery, comparing it to an original source image. This capability allows for analysis of various SAR signal processing techniques previously determined by impulse response function (IPF) analysis. The results suggest that IPF analysis provides results that may not be directly related to formed SAR image quality. Instead, the SAR simulator uses image quality metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structured similarity index (SSIM), for formed SAR image quality analysis. To showcase the capability of the SAR simulator, it is used to investigate the performance of various envelopes applied to LFM pulses. A power-raised cosine window with a power p=0.35 and roll-off factor of β=0.15 is shown to maximize the quality of the formed SAR images by improving PSNR by 0.84 dB and SSIM by 0.06 from images formed utilizing a rectangular pulse, on average.

  13. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the discrete fourier transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are polar format processing and overlapped subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized tiered subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both polar format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  14. Forward imaging for obstacle avoidance using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Wong, David C.; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory


    In support of the Army vision for increased mobility, survivability, and lethality, we are investigating the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology to enhance unmanned ground vehicle missions. The ability of UWB radar technology to detect objects concealed by foilage could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for robotic vehicles. This would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the probability of survivability of U.S. forces. This technology would address the particular challenges that confront robotic vehicles such as large rocks hidden in tall grass and voids such as ditches and bodies of water. ARL has designed and constructed an instrumentation-grade low frequency, UWB synthetic aperture radar for evaluation of the target signatures and underlying phenomenology of stationary tactical targets concealed by foilage and objects buried in the ground. The radar (named BoomSAR) is installed in teh basekt of a 30-ton boom lift and can be operated while the entire boom lift is driven forward slowly, with the boom arm extended as high as 45 m to generate a synthetic aperture. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of the UWB radar in the forward imaging configuration. The paper describes the forward imaging radar and test setup at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. We present imagery of "positive" obstacles such as trees, fences, wires, mines, etc., as well as "negative" obstacles such as ditches. Imagery of small targets such as plastic mines is also included. We provide eletromagnetic simulations of forward SAR imagery of plastic mines and compare that to the measurement data.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation. (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C


    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.

  16. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains Synthetic Aperture Radar images (SAR), which consist of a fine resolution (12.5-50m), two-dimensional radar backscatter map of the...

  17. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar with Application to Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitewood, A. P; Mueller, B. R; Griffiths, H. D; Baker, C. J


    .... This paper describes a bistatic radar system which uses the combination of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar transmitter on board the European Space Agency's Envisat satellite, and a low-cost...

  18. CLPX-Airborne: Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Imagery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) is a side-looking imaging radar that is able to collect data irrespective of daylight or cloud cover. The AIRSAR...

  19. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Beaconless search and rescue using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    McCandless, Samuel W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Wallace, Ronald; Larsen, Rudolph; Rais, Houra


    In developing a beaconless search and rescue capability to quickly locate small aircraft that have crashed in remote areas, NASA's Search and Rescue (S&R) Program brings together advanced polarimetric synthetic aperture radar processing, field and laboratory tests, and state-of-the-art automated target detection algorithms. This paper provides the status of this program, which began with experiments conducted in concert with the JPL DC-8 AirSAR in 1989 at the Duke University Forest. The program is being conducted by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) under the auspices of the Search and Rescue Office.

  1. Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kirk


    The purpose of the Signal Based Motion Compensation (SBMC) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) effort is to develop a method to measure and compensate for both down range and cross range motion of the radar in order to provide high quality focused SAR imagery in the absence of precision measurements of the platform motion. Currently SAR systems require very precise navigation sensors for motion compensation. These sensors are very expensive and are often supplied in pairs for reliability. In the case of GPS they can be jammed, further degrading performance. This makes for a potentially very expensive and possibly vulnerable SAR system. SBMC can eliminate or reduce the need for these expensive navigation sensors thus reducing the cost of budget minded SAR systems. The results on this program demonstrated the capability of the SBMC approach.

  2. Adaptive synthetic aperture radar image enhancement (United States)

    Cheng, Hua; Tian, Jinwen


    An adaptive SAR image enhancement method is presented for reducing the speckle noise and increasing the contrast of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. First, a fuzzy logic based filter, employing fuzzy edge to weight the contributions of pixel values in filter window, is used to filter the speckles. Second, the original SAR image is decomposed into lowfrequency component and high-frequency component. The fuzzy filtered image is viewed as the low-frequency component, and the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization algorithm is used to increase its contrast. The highfrequency component is obtained by subtracting the low-frequency component from the original image, and its gain is controlled by fuzzy structural which employed to express the degree of a pixel belonging to structures. After processed one after the other, the two components are added together to form the final enhanced SAR image. Experimental results show the excellent effect of the proposed method by visual observation and numerical measurement. Many fine structures and little speckle noise can be seen from the enhanced SAR images.

  3. Deep Learning for Passive Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Yonel, Bariscan; Mason, Eric; Yazici, Birsen


    We introduce a deep learning (DL) framework for inverse problems in imaging, and demonstrate the advantages and applicability of this approach in passive synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image reconstruction. We interpret image recon- struction as a machine learning task and utilize deep networks as forward and inverse solvers for imaging. Specifically, we design a recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture as an inverse solver based on the iterations of proximal gradient descent optimization methods. We further adapt the RNN architecture to image reconstruction problems by transforming the network into a recurrent auto-encoder, thereby allowing for unsupervised training. Our DL based inverse solver is particularly suitable for a class of image formation problems in which the forward model is only partially known. The ability to learn forward models and hyper parameters combined with unsupervised training approach establish our recurrent auto-encoder suitable for real world applications. We demonstrate the performance of our method in passive SAR image reconstruction. In this regime a source of opportunity, with unknown location and transmitted waveform, is used to illuminate a scene of interest. We investigate recurrent auto- encoder architecture based on the 1 and 0 constrained least- squares problem. We present a projected stochastic gradient descent based training scheme which incorporates constraints of the unknown model parameters. We demonstrate through extensive numerical simulations that our DL based approach out performs conventional sparse coding methods in terms of computation and reconstructed image quality, specifically, when no information about the transmitter is available.

  4. The development of deep learning in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available sensing techniques but comes at the price of additional complexities. To adequately cope with these, researchers have begun to employ advanced machine learning techniques known as deep learning to Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Deep learning represents...

  5. Ships as salient objects in synthetic aperture radar imaginary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available perspective on ships in Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery by viewing them as visually salient objects. The paper introduces common methods of ship object extraction and demonstrates how salient object mapping can improve the accuracy of extracted ships...

  6. CLPX-Satellite: Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of time-series spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery of the three Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) Meso-cell Study...

  7. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.


    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  8. Feature-enhanced synthetic aperture radar imaging (United States)

    Cetin, Mujdat

    Remotely sensed images have already attained an important role in a wide spectrum of tasks ranging from weather forecasting to battlefield reconnaissance. One of the most promising remote sensing technologies is the imaging radar, known as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). SAR overcomes the nighttime limitations of optical cameras, and the cloud-cover limitations of both optical and infrared imagers. In current systems, techniques such as the polar format algorithm are used to form images from the collected SAR data. These images are then interpreted by human observers. However, the anticipated high data rates and the time critical nature of emerging SAR tasks motivate the use of automated processing or decision-making techniques in information extraction from the reconstructed images. The success of such automated decision-making (e.g. object recognition) depends on how well SAR images exhibit certain features of the underlying scene. Unfortunately, current SAR image formation techniques have no explicit means to highlight features useful for automatic interpretation. Furthermore, these techniques are usually not robust to reduced quality or quantity of data. We have developed a mathematical foundation and associated algorithms for feature-enhanced SAR imaging to address such challenges. Our framework is based on a regularized reconstruction of the scattering field which combines a tomographic model of the SAR observation process with prior information regarding the nature of the features of interest. We demonstrate the inclusion of prior information through a variety of non-quadratic potential functions. Efficient and robust numerical solution of the optimization problems posed in our framework is achieved through novel extensions of half-quadratic regularization methods to the complex-valued SAR problem. We have established a methodology for quantitative evaluation of a SAR image formation technique based on recognition-oriented features. Through qualitative and

  9. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.


    The objective of this applied research and development project is to develop a system known as '3-D SISAR'. This system consists of a ground penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for the detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps of the object locations will be produced which can assist the development of remediation strategies and the characterization of the digface during remediation operations. It is expected that the 3-D SISAR will also prove useful for monitoring hydrocarbon based contaminant migration after remediation. The underground imaging technique being developed under this contract utilizes a spotlight mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach which, due to its inherent stand-off capability, will permit the rapid survey of a site and achieve a high degree of productivity over large areas. When deployed from an airborne platform, the stand-off techniques is also seen as a way to overcome practical survey limitations encountered at vegetated sites

  10. Synthetic aperture radar processing with polar formatted subapertures (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses the motion of a small real antenna to synthesize a larger aperture, and thereby achieve very fine azimuth resolution. Efficient SAR image formation requires modelling the radar echo and compensating (focusing) the delay and phase for various positions in the target scene. Polar-Format processing is one successful algorithm developed to process large scenes at fine resolutions, but is still limited, especially at resolutions near a wavelength. This paper shows how using tiers of subapertures can overcome the limitations of Polar-Format processing and increase the focused scene size substantially while using only efficient vector multiplies and Fast Fourier Transforms.

  11. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung Kuk; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Perrine, Martin; Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar; Beck, Jaclyn; hide


    Advanced Digital Beamforming (DBF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology is an area of research and development pursued at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Advanced SAR architectures enhances radar performance and opens a new set of capabilities in radar remote sensing. DBSAR-2 and EcoSAR are two state-of-the-art radar systems recently developed and tested. These new instruments employ multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) architectures characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instruments have been developed to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. This paper describes the radars advanced features and report on the latest SAR processing and calibration efforts.

  12. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data and the complex Wishart distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning


    When working with multi-look fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data an appropriate way of representing the backscattered signal consists of the so-called covariance matrix. For each pixel this is a 3 by 3 Hermitian, positive definite matrix which follows a complex Wishart distribu...

  13. Exploitation of distributed scatterers in synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samiei Esfahany, S.


    During the last decades, time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a powerful technique to measure various surface deformation phenomena of the earth. Early generations of time-series InSAR methodologies, i.e. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), focused on

  14. Integrated Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor. (United States)


    tion Processing for Aerospace Applications. II, Langley, Virginia, (1983). Appendix C I. Abramov , Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and T. J. 45...1983). 3. I. Abramov , Y. Owechko, A. R. Tanguay, Jr., and T. J. Bicknell, "Real Time Synthetic Aperture Image Formation Utilizing an Electrooptic...LIGHT MODULATOR I. Abramov , Y. Owechko, and A.R. Tanguay, Jr. Departments of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science, and Image Processing

  15. A fast autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen


    High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging requires the motion of the radar platform to be known very accurately. Otherwise, phase errors are induced in the processing of the raw SAR data, and bad focusing results. In particular, a constant error in the measured along-track velocity o...... of magnitude lower than that of other algorithms providing comparable accuracies is presented. The algorithm has been tested on data from the Danish Airborne SAR, and the performance is compared with that of the traditional map drift algorithm...

  16. Synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) a novel multi-frequency MIMO radar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Baixiao


    Analyzes and discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, and experimental results of this advanced radar technology This book systematically discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, target measurement technology, and experimental results of a new kind of radar called synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR). The purpose is to help readers acquire an insight into the concept and principle of the SIAR, to know its operation mode, signal processing method, the difference between the traditional radar and itself, the designing ideals, and the developing me

  17. New military uses for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (United States)

    Reamer, Richard E.; Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.


    Loral Defense Systems-Arizona, holder of the original patent for the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), developed SAR to meet the military's need for an all-weather, day/night sensor that could produce high quality reconnaissance imagery in adverse weather and restricted visibility conditions. These features, and the ability to image large areas with fine resolution in a relatively short period of time make this sensor useful for many military applications. To date, however, SARs for military use have been hampered by the fact that they've been large, complex, and expensive. Additionally, they have been mounted on special purpose, single mission aircraft which are costly to operate. That situation has changed. A small, modular SAR, called Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MSAR) developed by Loral can be mounted with relative ease on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or on multi-mission aircraft such as the F-16, F/A-18, or on the F-14.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar modeling for the Watchkeeper tactical UAV program (United States)

    Jolly, Alistair D.; Thompson, Peter


    Critical to the performance of any synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is accurate compensation for aircraft motion during the imaging aperture. This is thought to be particularly important for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operating in poor weather conditions where the aircraft may be subject to pronounced turbulence effects. This paper presents some initial findings of an investigation into the effects of aircraft motion on SAR azimuth point spread function for given levels of motion spectrum suppression as supplied by the radar's motion compensation processing. With validation, this approach will allow indicative levels of SAR performance to be estimated over a wide range of operating conditions and hence provides a useful source of advice when considering procurement options.

  19. Offshore Wind Potential in South India from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bingöl, Ferhat; Badger, Merete

    The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77° to 80° Eastern longitude and 7° to 10° Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes......-year mean and a general description of the winds and climate with monsoons in India is presented....

  20. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation


    Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo


    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aeria...

  1. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging principles, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen , Victor C


    Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Principles, Algorithms and Applications is based on the latest research on ISAR imaging of moving targets and non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR). With a focus on the advances and applications, this book will provide readers with a working knowledge on various algorithms of ISAR imaging of targets and implementation with MATLAB. These MATLAB algorithms will prove useful in order to visualize and manipulate some simulated ISAR images.

  2. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland


    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies. Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes. In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  3. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland


    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies.

    Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes.

    In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  4. Apodized RFI filtering of synthetic aperture radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems necessarily require wide bandwidths that often overlap spectrum utilized by other wireless services. These other emitters pose a source of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to the SAR echo signals that degrades SAR image quality. Filtering, or excising, the offending spectral contaminants will mitigate the interference, but at a cost of often degrading the SAR image in other ways, notably by raising offensive sidelobe levels. This report proposes borrowing an idea from nonlinear sidelobe apodization techniques to suppress interference without the attendant increase in sidelobe levels. The simple post-processing technique is termed Apodized RFI Filtering (ARF).

  5. Convolutional neural networks for synthetic aperture radar classification (United States)

    Profeta, Andrew; Rodriguez, Andres; Clouse, H. Scott


    For electro-optical object recognition, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art. For large datasets, CNNs are able to learn meaningful features used for classification. However, their application to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been limited. In this work we experimented with various CNN architectures on the MSTAR SAR dataset. As the input to the CNN we used the magnitude and phase (2 channels) of the SAR imagery. We used the deep learning toolboxes CAFFE and Torch7. Our results show that we can achieve 93% accuracy on the MSTAR dataset using CNNs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudi


    Full Text Available Geomorphology is briefly the study of landforms and their formative processes on the surface of the planet earth as human habitat. The landforms evolution and the formative processes can best be studied by technologies with main application in study of elevation. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is the appropriate technology for this application. With phase differences calculations in radar waves, the results of this technology can extensively be interpreted for geomorphologic researches. The purpose of the study is to review the geomorphologic studies using InSAR and also the technical studies about InSAR with geomorphologic interpretations. This study states that the InSAR technology can be recommended to be employed as a fundamental for geomorphology researches.

  7. Experiment in Onboard Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing (United States)

    Holland, Matthew


    Single event upsets (SEUs) are a threat to any computing system running on hardware that has not been physically radiation hardened. In addition to mandating the use of performance-limited, hardened heritage equipment, prior techniques for dealing with the SEU problem often involved hardware-based error detection and correction (EDAC). With limited computing resources, software- based EDAC, or any more elaborate recovery methods, were often not feasible. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), when operated in the space environment, are interesting due to their relevance to NASAs objectives, but problematic in the sense of producing prodigious amounts of raw data. Prior implementations of the SAR data processing algorithm have been too slow, too computationally intensive, and require too much application memory for onboard execution to be a realistic option when using the type of heritage processing technology described above. This standard C-language implementation of SAR data processing is distributed over many cores of a Tilera Multicore Processor, and employs novel Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBS) techniques designed to protect the component processes (one per core) and their shared application memory from the sort of SEUs expected in the space environment. The source code includes calls to Tilera APIs, and a specialized Tilera compiler is required to produce a Tilera executable. The compiled application reads input data describing the position and orientation of a radar platform, as well as its radar-burst data, over time and writes out processed data in a form that is useful for analysis of the radar observations.

  8. Indoor imagery with a 3D through-wall synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Sévigny, Pascale; DiFilippo, David J.; Laneve, Tony; Fournier, Jonathan


    Through-wall radar imaging is an emerging technology with great interest to military and police forces operating in an urban environment. A through-wall imaging radar can potentially provide interior room layouts as well as detection and localization of targets of interest within a building. In this paper, we present our through-wall radar system mounted on the side of a vehicle and driven along a path in front of a building of interest. The vehicle is equipped with a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and motion sensors that provide auxiliary information. The radar uses an ultra wideband frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveform to obtain high range resolution. Our system is composed of a vertical linear receive array to discriminate targets in elevation, and two transmit elements operated in a slow multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) configuration to increase the achievable elevation resolution. High resolution in the along-track direction is obtained through synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques. We present experimental results that demonstrate the 3-D capability of the radar. We further demonstrate target detection behind challenging walls, and imagery of internal wall features. Finally, we discuss future work.

  9. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar in Cold Climate Flood Response (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images during a cold climate disaster response event. There were 15 European Space Agency (ESA) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASAR scenes, five Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) scenes, one RADARSAT2 scene, and numerous optical sensor data. These data were primarily used to indentify floodwater inundation polygons and flow vectors. However, in cold climate flooding, there are complicating factors such as frazil ice, ice jams, and snow-covered, frozen flood waters that are not present during warmer flooding events. The imagery was obtained through the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters.” The Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters through Authorized Users. Each member agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter, and thus is helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property. On 25 March 2009, the Charter was activated in response to the flooding along the Red River of the North in the states of North Dakota and Minnesota of the United States. The delivery time of a single SAR scene from a Charter participant was less than 12 hours from the time of acquisition. This expedited service allowed additional time for creating image-based derivations, field checking and delivery to a decision maker or emergency responder. SAR-derived data sets include identification of river ice and saturated ground conditions. This data could be provided to experts in river ice engineering for use in the development of plans to reduce ice jamming, its effect on water levels and additional stresses on river infrastructure. During disaster response applications, SAR data was found to very useful in indentifying open water and the front of ice jams. Using a river

  10. Shuttle Imaging Radar-C mission operations - Technology test bed for Earth Observing System synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Trimble, J. P.; Collins, C. E.


    The mission operations for the Space Radar Lab (SRL), particularly in the areas of real-time replanning and science activity coordination, are presented. The two main components of SRL are the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and the X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Earth Observing System SAR will be a multispectral, multipolarization radar satellite that will provide information over an entire decade, permitting scientists to monitor large-scale changes in the earth's environment over a long period of time.

  11. Seamless Synthetic Aperture Radar Archive for Interferometry Analysis (United States)

    Baker, S.; Baru, C.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Crosby, C.; Fielding, E.; Meertens, C.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.


    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived interferometric SAR (InSAR) data products. A unified application programming interface (API) has been created to search the SAR archives at ASF and UNAVCO, 30 and 90-m SRTM DEM data available through OpenTopography, and tropospheric data from the NASA OSCAR project at JPL. The federated query service provides users a single access point to search for SAR granules, InSAR pairs, and corresponding DEM and tropospheric data products from the four archives, as well as the ability to search and download pre-processed InSAR products from ASF and UNAVCO.

  12. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The performance of an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. In this report we specifically examine ISAR as applied to maritime targets (e.g. ships). It is often difficult to get your arms around the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall ISAR system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time.

  13. Convolution backprojection image reconstruction for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar. (United States)

    Desai, M D; Jenkins, W K


    Convolution backprojection (CBP) image reconstruction has been proposed as a means of producing high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images by processing data directly in the polar recording format which is the conventional recording format for spotlight mode SAR. The CBP algorithm filters each projection as it is recorded and then backprojects the ensemble of filtered projections to create the final image in a pixel-by-pixel format. CBP reconstruction produces high-quality images by handling the recorded data directly in polar format. The CBP algorithm requires only 1-D interpolation along the filtered projections to determine the precise values that must be contributed to the backprojection summation from each projection. The algorithm is thus able to produce higher quality images by eliminating the inaccuracies of 2-D interpolation, as well as using all the data recorded in the spectral domain annular sector more effectively. The computational complexity of the CBP algorithm is O(N (3)).

  14. Support subspaces method for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Fursov


    Full Text Available This article offers a new object recognition approach that gives high quality using synthetic aperture radar images. The approach includes image preprocessing, clustering and recognition stages. At the image preprocessing stage, we compute the mass centre of object images for better image matching. A conjugation index of a recognition vector is used as a distance function at clustering and recognition stages. We suggest a construction of the so-called support subspaces, which provide high recognition quality with a significant dimension reduction. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed method provides higher recognition quality (97.8% than such methods as support vector machine (95.9%, deep learning based on multilayer auto-encoder (96.6% and adaptive boosting (96.1%. The proposed method is stable for objects processed from different angles.

  15. Autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging with large curvilinear apertures (United States)

    Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.


    An approach to autofocusing for large curved synthetic aperture radar (SAR) apertures is presented. Its essential feature is that phase corrections are being extracted not directly from SAR images, but rather from reconstructed SAR phase-history data representing windowed patches of the scene, of sizes sufficiently small to allow the linearization of the forward- and back-projection formulae. The algorithm processes data associated with each patch independently and in two steps. The first step employs a phase-gradient-type method in which phase correction compensating (possibly rapid) trajectory perturbations are estimated from the reconstructed phase history for the dominant scattering point on the patch. The second step uses phase-gradient-corrected data and extracts the absolute phase value, removing in this way phase ambiguities and reducing possible imperfections of the first stage, and providing the distances between the sensor and the scattering point with accuracy comparable to the wavelength. The features of the proposed autofocusing method are illustrated in its applications to intentionally corrupted small-scene 2006 Gotcha data. The examples include the extraction of absolute phases (ranges) for selected prominent point targets. They are then used to focus the scene and determine relative target-target distances.

  16. Simulations of Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar for the EISCAT_3D Project (United States)

    La Hoz, C.; Belyey, V.


    EISCAT_3D is a project to build the next generation of incoherent scatter radars endowed with multiple 3-dimensional capabilities that will replace the current EISCAT radars in Northern Scandinavia. Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) is one of the technologies adopted by the EISCAT_3D project to endow it with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. This ability will open new research opportunities to map small structures associated with non-homogeneous, unstable processes such as aurora, summer and winter polar radar echoes (PMSE and PMWE), Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), structures excited by HF ionospheric heating, meteors, space debris, and others. To demonstrate the feasibility of the antenna configurations and the imaging inversion algorithms a simulation of synthetic incoherent scattering data has been performed. The simulation algorithm incorporates the ability to control the background plasma parameters with non-homogeneous, non-stationary components over an extended 3-dimensional space. Control over the positions of a number of separated receiving antennas, their signal-to-noise-ratios and arriving phases allows realistic simulation of a multi-baseline interferometric imaging radar system. The resulting simulated data is fed into various inversion algorithms. This simulation package is a powerful tool to evaluate various antenna configurations and inversion algorithms. Results applied to realistic design alternatives of EISCAT_3D will be described.

  17. Onboard Data Compression of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Status and Prospects (United States)

    Klimesh, Matthew A.; Moision, Bruce


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of producing huge quantities of data. Onboard lossy data compression is commonly used to reduce the burden on the communication link. In this paper an overview is given of various SAR data compression techniques, along with an assessment of how much improvement is possible (and practical) and how to approach the problem of obtaining it. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of acquiring huge quantities of data. As a result, the available downlink rate and onboard storage capacity can be limiting factors in mission design for spacecraft with SAR instruments. This is true both for Earth-orbiting missions and missions to more distant targets such as Venus, Titan, and Europa. (Of course for missions beyond Earth orbit downlink rates are much lower and thus potentially much more limiting.) Typically spacecraft with SAR instruments use some form of data compression in order to reduce the storage size and/or downlink rate necessary to accommodate the SAR data. Our aim here is to give an overview of SAR data compression strategies that have been considered, and to assess the prospects for additional improvements.

  18. Relative error-constrained compression for synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano


    Near-lossless compression, i.e., yielding strictly bounded reconstruction error, is extended to preserve the radiometric resolution of data produced by coherent imaging systems, like Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). First a causal spatial DPCM based on a fuzzy matching-pursuit (FMP) prediction is adjusted to yield a relative-error bounded compression by applying a logarithmic quantization to the ratio of original to predicted pixel values. Then, a noncausal DPCM is achieved based on the Rational Laplacian Pyramid (RLP), recently introduced by the authors for despeckling. The baseband icon of the RLP is (causally) DPCM encoded, the intermediate layers are uniformly quantized, and the bottom layer is logarithmically quantized. As a consequence, the relative error, i.e., pixel ratio of original to decoded image, can be strictly bounded around unity by the quantization step size of the bottom layer of the RLP. Experimental results reported on true SAR data from NASA/JPL AIRSAR show that virtually lossless images can be achieved with compression ratios larger than three.

  19. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti


    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  20. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation. (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo


    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  1. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum


    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  2. Subsidence feature discrimination using deep convolutional neral networks in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available Effective detection and discrimination of surface deformation features in Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery is one of the most important applications of the data. Areas that undergo surface deformation can pose health and safety risks which...

  3. Modified Range-Doppler Processing for FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.


    The combination of compact frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) technology and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing techniques should pave the way for the development of a lightweight, cost-effective, high-resolution, airborne imaging radar. Regarding FM-CW SAR signal

  4. AMBER: An X-band FMCW digital beam forming synthetic aperture radar for a tactical UAV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, M.W. van der; Otten, M.P.G.; Huizing, A.G.; Tan, R.G.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Ruizenaar, M.G.A.


    An X-band Digital Array Synthetic Aperture Radar for a Short Range Tactical UAV is presented. This system is demonstrated on a manned helicopter and motor glider. The Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar principle in combination with digital beam forming over 24 receive channels is used to meet

  5. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar signal processing using FPGAs (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yohei; Ozawa, Satoru; Inaba, Noriyasu


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery requires image reproduction through successive signal processing of received data before browsing images and extracting information. The received signal data records of the ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 are stored in the onboard mission data storage and transmitted to the ground. In order to compensate the storage usage and the capacity of transmission data through the mission date communication networks, the operation duty of the PALSAR-2 is limited. This balance strongly relies on the network availability. The observation operations of the present spaceborne SAR systems are rigorously planned by simulating the mission data balance, given conflicting user demands. This problem should be solved such that we do not have to compromise the operations and the potential of the next-generation spaceborne SAR systems. One of the solutions is to compress the SAR data through onboard image reproduction and information extraction from the reproduced images. This is also beneficial for fast delivery of information products and event-driven observations by constellation. The Emergence Studio (Sōhatsu kōbō in Japanese) with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is developing evaluation models of FPGA-based signal processing system for onboard SAR image reproduction. The model, namely, "Fast L1 Processor (FLIP)" developed in 2016 can reproduce a 10m-resolution single look complex image (Level 1.1) from ALOS/PALSAR raw signal data (Level 1.0). The processing speed of the FLIP at 200 MHz results in twice faster than CPU-based computing at 3.7 GHz. The image processed by the FLIP is no way inferior to the image processed with 32-bit computing in MATLAB.

  6. Current Development in Airborne Repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Xue-lian


    Full Text Available Due to its agility, flexibility and accuracy, airborne repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is capable of overcoming the disadvantages of long revisit time and low resolution in space-borne SAR interferometry, and play an irreplaceable role in monitoring the deformation of landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc. In this paper, the history and status in the world wide about the technology of airborne repeat-pass SAR interferometry are reviewed detailedly. Then after the accuracy of this technology is analyzed, its key problems in practice are presented, and the related researches in this field are also introduced comprehensively. The development trend and the prospect of this technology are also described in this paper. Finally, it is pointed that several problems still need to be studied further for accurate parameter inversion.

  7. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the RADARSAT-2 satellite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived high resolution wind products are calculated from high resolution SAR images of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the...

  8. Towards Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for small sea vessels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdul Gaffar, MY


    Full Text Available of the impala ISAR movie of an Impala Credit: Telephonics APS-143B (V)3r it: l i - ( ) Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 Block diagram for ISAR processing Radar tran smi t sig nal rece ive sign al Radar receiver...

  9. Moving Target Indication via RADARSAT-2 Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragošević MV


    Full Text Available With the recent launches of the German TerraSAR-X and the Canadian RADARSAT-2, both equipped with phased array antennas and multiple receiver channels, synthetic aperture radar, ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI data are now routinely being acquired from space. Defence R&D Canada has been conducting SAR-GMTI trials to assess the performance and limitations of the RADARSAT-2 GMTI system. Several SAR-GMTI modes developed for RADARSAT-2 are described and preliminary test results of these modes are presented. Detailed equations of motion of a moving target for multiaperture spaceborne SAR geometry are derived and a moving target parameter estimation algorithm developed for RADARSAT-2 (called the Fractrum Estimator is presented. Limitations of the simple dual-aperture SAR-GMTI mode are analysed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio and target speed. Recently acquired RADARSAT-2 GMTI data are used to demonstrate the capability of different system modes and to validate the signal model and the algorithm.

  10. A Fast Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Data Simulation Using Cloud Computing. (United States)

    Li, Zhixin; Su, Dandan; Zhu, Haijiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ruirui


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4_ speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration.

  11. SMEX02 Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Data, Iowa (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains radar backscatter measurments taken over the Soil Moisture Experiments 2002 (SMEX02) Walnut Creek Watershed area in Iowa, USA. The Airborne...

  12. Concept Development for Advanced Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort will focus on P-Band and L-band polarimetric radar architectures that employ advanced and innovative techniques to increase the science value of the...

  13. Means to achieve wide swath widths in synthetic aperture satellite borne radars (United States)

    Cutrona, L. J.


    The radar range equation including processing gains for pulse compression and synthetic aperture generation was the starting point. System geometry considerations were introduced. For simplicity, flat earth geometry was used, although it was realized that this was not a good model for satellite-borne radars. Next, the constraints were introduced. These included those needed to avoid ambiguities in both range and azimuth, those needed to acheive the desired resolution, and those needed to achieve the desired swath width.

  14. New Algorithms and Sparse Regularization for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (United States)


    statistical analysis of one such method, the so-called MUSIC algorithm (multiple signal classification). We have a publication that mathematically justifies...called MUSIC algorithm (multiple signal classification). We have a publication that mathematically justifies the scaling of the phase transition...Demanet Department of Mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • Grant title: New Algorithms and Sparse Regularization for Synthetic Aperture

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing on an FPGA Multi-Core System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; Kusk, Anders; Dall, Jørgen


    Synthetic aperture radar, SAR, is a high resolution imaging radar. The direct back-projection algorithm allows for a precise SAR output image reconstruction and can compensate for deviations in the flight track of airborne radars. Often graphic processing units, GPUs are used for data processing...... as the back-projection algorithm is computationally expensive and highly parallel. However, GPUs may not be an appropriate solution for applications with strictly constrained space and power requirements. In this paper, we describe how we map a SAR direct back-projection application to a multi-core system...

  16. An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies (United States)

    Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.


    A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

  17. Retrieval of Wind Speed Using an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaldo, Frank M.; Thompson, Donald R.; Badger, Merete


    usefulness over the ocean. Most recent wind retrievals from spaceborne SARs have been at C-band for ERS-1/2, Radarsat, and Envisat. With the launch of the sophisticated multi- polarization Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), we renew...

  18. Integrating polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and imaging spectrometry for wildland fuel mapping in southern California (United States)

    P.E. Dennison; D.A. Roberts; J. Regelbrugge; S.L. Ustin


    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and imaging spectrometry exemplify advanced technologies for mapping wildland fuels in chaparral ecosystems. In this study, we explore the potential of integrating polarimetric SAR and imaging spectrometry for mapping wildland fuels. P-band SAR and ratios containing P-band polarizations are sensitive to variations in stand...

  19. Offshore wind resource mapping for Europe by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete


    of satellite remote sensing observations and atmospheric modelling. The satellite data include Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from the European Space Agency from Envisat and the Copernicus mission Sentinel-1. SAR has the advantage of high spatial resolution such that we can cover near-coastal areas where many...

  20. Design of a Small, Low Cost, P-Band Airborne Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueras i Ventura, J.; Hoogeboom, P.


    A preliminary study of the design of a small, low cost, P-band airborne, polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar desired by the Wageningen University and the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS) to carry out forest biomass monitoring in Indonesia is presented. The requirements of the application

  1. Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

  2. Wavefront curvature limitations and compensation to polar format processing for synthetic aperture radar images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Limitations on focused scene size for the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation are derived. A post processing filtering technique for compensating the spatially variant blurring in the image is examined. Modifications to this technique to enhance its robustness are proposed.

  3. Multiscale-Driven approach to detecting change in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery (United States)

    Gens, R.; Hogenson, K.; Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.; Myers, A.; Logan, T. A.; Arnoult, K., Jr.


    Detecting changes between Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images can be a useful but challenging exercise. SAR with its all-weather capabilities can be an important resource in identifying and estimating the expanse of events such as flooding, river ice breakup, earthquake damage, oil spills, and forest growth, as it can overcome shortcomings of optical methods related to cloud cover. However, detecting change in SAR imagery can be impeded by many factors including speckle, complex scattering responses, low temporal sampling, and difficulty delineating boundaries. In this presentation we use a change detection method based on a multiscale-driven approach. By using information at different resolution levels, we attempt to obtain more accurate change detection maps in both heterogeneous and homogeneous regions. Integrated within the processing flow are processes that 1) improve classification performance by combining Expectation-Maximization algorithms with mathematical morphology, 2) achieve high accuracy in preserving boundaries using measurement level fusion techniques, and 3) combine modern non-local filtering and 2D-discrete stationary wavelet transform to provide robustness against noise. This multiscale-driven approach to change detection has recently been incorporated into the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3) using radiometrically terrain corrected SAR images. Examples primarily from natural hazards are presented to illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the change detection method.

  4. Rancang Bangun Band Pass Filter Frekuensi 1.27 GHz untuk Teknologi Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRAKSynthetic Apertur Radar (SAR adalah teknologi radar yang digunakan untuk pengambilan gambar suatu objek dalam bentuk 2 atau 3 dimensi (penginderaan jarak jauh. Sistem tersebut  bekerja pada rentang frekuensi 1.265 sampai dengan 1.275 GHZ dengan frekuensi tengahnya 1.27 GHz. Agar sistem SAR ini dapat bekerja dengan optimal, dibutuhkan suatu perangkat filter yang dapat meloloskan frekuensi yang diinginkan. Sebelumnya sudah ada penelitian yang membuat perangkat ini di band frekuensi yang sama namun menggunakan bahan duroid 5880 dan resonator berbentuk kotak. Bandpass filter Pada penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan metode Hairpin line dan bahan epoxy FR4. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan nilai Return Loss masih cukup besar yaitu -9.33 dB dan nilai Insertion Loss minimal sebesar -13.51 dB.Kata kunci: Syntethic Aperture Radar, Band Pass Filter, Hairpin-lineABSTRACTSynthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a radar technology that used for taking an object in the form of 2 or 3 dimensions (remote sensing. It works in the frequency range 1.265 to 1.275 GHZ with a middle frequency of 1.27 GHz. SAR system can work optimally if it support a filter device that can pass the desired frequency. Previously there has been research that makes this device in the same frequency band but using 5885 duroid material and square resonator. Bandpass filter In this study designed using Hairpin line method and FR4 epoxy material. The measurement results of Return Loss values are still quite large  arround -9.33 dB and Insertion Loss minimum at -13.51 dB.Keywords: Syntethic Aperture Radar, Band Pass Filter, Hairpin line

  5. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities (United States)

    Kuntman, Daryal


    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  6. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.


    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  7. Prospective IS-MST radar. Potential and diagnostic capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potekhin A.P.


    Full Text Available In the next few years, a new radar is planned to be built near Irkutsk. It should have capabilities of incoherent scatter (IS radars and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST radars [Zherebtsov et al., 2011]. The IS-MST radar is a phased array of two separated antenna panels with a multichannel digital receiving system, which allows detailed space-time processing of backscattered signal. This paper describes characteristics, configuration, and capabilities of the antenna and transceiver systems of this radar. We estimate its potential in basic operating modes to study the ionosphere by the IS method at heights above 100 km and the atmosphere with the use of signals scattered from refractive index fluctuations, caused by turbulent mixing at heights below 100 km. The modeling shows that the radar will allow us to regularly measure neutral atmosphere parameters at heights up to 26 km as well as to observe mesosphere summer echoes at heights near 85 km in the presence of charged ice particles (an increase in Schmidt number and mesosphere winter echoes at heights near 65 km with increasing background electron density. Evaluation of radar resources at the IS mode in two height ranges 100–600 and 600–2000 km demonstrates that in the daytime and with the accumulation time of 10 min, the upper boundaries of electron density and ionospheric plasma temperature are ~1500 and ~1300 km respectively, with the standard deviation of no more than 10 %. The upper boundary of plasma drift velocity is ~1100 km with the standard deviation of 45 m/s. The estimation of interferometric capabilities of the MST radar shows that it has a high sensitivity to objects of angular size near 7.5 arc min, and its potential accuracy in determining target angles can reach 40 arc sec.

  8. Doppler capable FMCW cloud detection radar (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Ćelik, Mert; Yilmaz, Ali Özgur; Koç, Sencer


    This study which was conducted as a Master's thesis, is a radar system working at X band. In this system, a 0.8 Watts continuous electromagnetic wave which is modulated with a frequency ramp of 30 MHz bandwidth is generated and radiated through transmit antenna. The scattered signal from the hydrometeors is multiplied with the transmitted one and the beat signal is obtained. By this deramping process the range information of the target is converted into frequency domain. Data is processed in Matlab after passing through analog to digital converters. The range and velocity information is obtained with signal processing algorithms in fast and slow time. Some special techniques such as clipping, windowing, coherent data integration, and slow time signal processing are performed to the captured beat signal. Verification of the system is performed by buildings and cars whose range and velocities are known. The range of cloud and the speed of wind are estimated by processing the return signal in fast and slow time.

  9. Effects of changing rice cultural practices on C-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar data in the Mekong River Delta (United States)

    Lam-Dao, Nguyen; Le Toan, Thuy; Apan, Armando; Bouvet, Alexandre; Young, Frank; Le-van, Trung


    Changes in rice cultivation systems have been observed in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Among the changes in cultural practices, the change from transplanting to direct sowing, the use of water-saving technology, and the use of high production method could have impacts on radar remote sensing methods previously developed for rice monitoring. Using Envisat (Environmental Satellite) ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) data over the province of An Giang, this study showed that the radar backscattering behaviour is much different from that of the reported traditional rice. At the early stage of the season, direct sowing on fields with rough and wet soil surface provides very high backscatter values for HH (Horizontal transmit - Horizontal receive polarisation) and VV (Vertical transmit - Vertical receive polarisation) data, as a contrast compared to the very low backscatter of fields covered with water before emergence. The temporal increase of the backscatter is therefore not observed clearly over direct sowing fields. Hence, the use of the intensity temporal change as a rice classifier proposed previously may not apply. Due to the drainage that occurs during the season, HH, VV and HH/VV are not strongly related to biomass, in contrast with past results. However, HH/VV ratio could be used to derive the rice/non-rice classification algorithm for all conditions of rice fields in the test province. The mapping results using the HH/VV polarization ratio at a single date in the middle period of the rice season were assessed using statistical data at different districts in the province, where very high accuracy was found. The method can be applied to other regions, provided that the synthetic aperture radar data are acquired during the peak period of the rice season, and that few training fields provide adjusted threshold values used in the method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gade


    Full Text Available We show that high-resolution space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery with pixel sizes well below 1 m2 can be used to complement archaeological surveys in areas that are difficult to access. After major storm surges in the 14th and 17th centuries, vast areas on the German North Sea coast were lost to the sea. Areas of former settlements and historical land use were buried under sediments for centuries, but when the surface layer is driven away under the permanent action of wind, currents, and waves, they appear again on the Wadden Sea surface. However, the frequent flooding and erosion of the intertidal flats make any archaeological monitoring a difficult task, so that remote sensing techniques appear to be an efficient and cost-effective instrument for any archaeological surveillance of that area. Space-borne SAR images clearly show remnants of farmhouse foundations and of former systems of ditches, dating back to the 14th and to the 16th/17th centuries. In particular, the very high-resolution acquisition (staring spotlight mode of the German TerraSAR/ TanDEM-X satellites allows for the detection of various kinds of residuals of historical land use with high precision. In addition, we also investigate the capability of SARs working at lower microwave frequencies (on Radarsat-2 to complement our archaeological survey of historical cultural traces, some of which have been unknown so far.

  11. Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Recognition with Feature Fusion Based on a Stacked Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Kang


    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a crucial step for any automatic target recognition process, especially in the interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery. In order to obtain distinctive features, this paper proposes a feature fusion algorithm for SAR target recognition based on a stacked autoencoder (SAE. The detailed procedure presented in this paper can be summarized as follows: firstly, 23 baseline features and Three-Patch Local Binary Pattern (TPLBP features are extracted. These features can describe the global and local aspects of the image with less redundancy and more complementarity, providing richer information for feature fusion. Secondly, an effective feature fusion network is designed. Baseline and TPLBP features are cascaded and fed into a SAE. Then, with an unsupervised learning algorithm, the SAE is pre-trained by greedy layer-wise training method. Capable of feature expression, SAE makes the fused features more distinguishable. Finally, the model is fine-tuned by a softmax classifier and applied to the classification of targets. 10-class SAR targets based on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR dataset got a classification accuracy up to 95.43%, which verifies the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  12. Feasibility Study of Synthetic Aperture Radar - Adaptability of the Payload to KOMPSAT Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Kim


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has been used for mapping the surface geomorphology of cloudy planets like Venus as well as the Earth. The cloud-free Mars is also going to be scanned by SAR in order to detect buried water channels and other features under the very shallow subsurface of the ground. According to the 'Mid and Long-term National Space Development Plan' of Korea, SAR satellites, in addition to the EO (Electro-Optical satellites, are supposed to be developed in the frame of the KOMPSAT (Korean Multi-Purpose Satellite program. Feasibility of utilizing a SAR payload on KOMPSAT platform has been studied by KARI in collaboration with Astrium U.K. The purpose of the SAR program is Scientific and Civil applications on the Earth. The study showed that KOMPSAT-2 platform can accommodate a small SAR like Astrium's MicroSAR. In this paper, system aspects of the satellite design are presented, such as mission scenario, operation concept, and capabilities. The spacecraft design is also discussed and conclusion is followed.

  13. Apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, R C


    Microwave Scanning Antennas, Volume I: Apertures is a comprehensive account of phased arrays, multiple beam arrays, time domain and synthetic apertures, and adaptive antennas. Advances in continuous apertures and near field theory are discussed. Low noise and monopulse apertures, optical scanners, and large radomes are also covered, along with radio astronomy instruments and associated theory.Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of aperture theory as well as aperture distributions and near field theory. The second and third chapters deal with mechanically steered and

  14. Metrics for Emitter Selection for Multistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)


    13,14,15,19 15,20 1485 7,12,16,20 12,18,20,22 14,15,19,22 13,18,19 1547 8,12,14,18 7,13,14,17 14,15,19 8,12,16,18 1486 7,12,16,19 12,18,19,22 11,15,19 13,16,19...laboratory environment”. Radar Conference, 2010 IEEE , 266 –270. May 2010. [5] Bradaric, I., G. T. Capraro, and M. C. Wicks. “Multistatic ambiguity...Resolution Analysis – Application to GPS-Based Multistatic Radar”. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 48(4):3042 –3057, Oct. 2012. [10

  15. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hensley, Jr., William H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Bryan L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  16. Design of a Forward Looking Synthetic Aperture Radar for an Autonomous Cryobot for Subsurface Exploration of Europa and Enceladus (United States)

    Pradhan, O.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Stone, W.


    We present the design, analyses and field testing of a forward-looking endfire synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for the `Very deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice explorer' (VALKYRIE) ice-penetrating cryobot. This design demonstrates critical technologies that will support an eventual landing and ice penetrating mission to Jupiter's icy moon, Europa. The project consists of (1) design of an array of four conformal cavity-backed log-periodic folded slot dipole array (LPFSA) antennas that form the radiating elements, (2) design of a radar system that includes RF signal generation, 4x4 transmit-receive antenna switching and isolation and digital SAR data processing and (3) field testing of the SAR system. The antennas were designed, fabricated, and lab tested at the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) at CU-Boulder. The radar analog and digital system were also designed and integrated at CET utilizing rugged RF components and FPGA based digital waveform generation. Field testing was performed in conjunction with VALKYRIE tests by Stone Aerospace in June, 2015 on Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. In this presentation we will describe in detail the following aspects pertaining to the design, analysis and testing of the endfire SAR system; (1) Waveform generation capability of the radar as well as transmit and receive channel calibration (2) Theoretical analysis of the radial resolution improvement made possible by using the radar in an endfire SAR mode along with the free space radar tests performed to validate the proposed endfire SAR system (3) A method for azimuth ambiguity resolution by operating the endfire SAR in a bistatic mode (4) Modal analysis of the layered cylindrical LPFSA antenna structure and a forward model of the wave propagation path through planar layered ice medium and (5) Analysis and interpretation of the in-situ measurements of the antennas and endfire SAR operation on the Matanuska glacier.

  17. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode


    Shijian Shen; Xin Nie; Xinggan Zhang


    Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is China’ first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimina...

  18. Synthetic aperture radar images of ocean waves, theories of imaging physics and experimental tests (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Durden, S. L.; Smith, M. P.; Napolitano, D. A.


    The physical mechanism for the synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of ocean waves is investigated through the use of analytical models. The models are tested by comparison with data sets from the SEASAT mission and airborne SAR's. Dominant ocean wavelengths from SAR estimates are biased towards longer wavelengths. The quasispecular scattering mechanism agrees with experimental data. The Doppler shift for ship wakes is that of the mean sea surface.

  19. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the Sentinel-1 satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of high resolution sea surface winds data produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites. This...

  20. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  1. Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (United States)


    rate ( CFAR ) detector. Figure 1. Description of the single-story building used in the 3-D radar image study. (a... CFAR constant false alarm rate CR compression ratio DFT discrete Fourier transform EM electromagnetic PSD power spectral density RCS radar

  2. Wind retrieval from synthetic aperture radar - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Horstmann, Jochen; Mouche, Alexis


    the recent advances of the methodologies, which are capitalizing on the improved capabilities of the modern generation of SAR sensors providing Doppler grid and multi-polarizations. The many applications of SAR wind retrieval have also benefitted from on the improved availability of wide swath modes (~500 km...

  3. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-ying


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direct multiplier and divider. Azimuth ISLR degradation owing to the crystal oscillator phase noise is negligible. The standard deviation of the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of HJ-1-C SAR is lower than 2ns (rms and the azimuth random phase error in the synthetic aperture time slightly degrades the side lobe of the azimuth impulse response. The mathematical expressions and simulation results are presented and suggest that the coherent performance of the HJ-1-C SAR system meets the requirements of synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  4. Study on coding strategies for radar coded-aperture imaging in terahertz band (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Luo, Chenggao; Deng, Bin; Qin, Yuliang; Wang, Hongqiang


    Motivated by the principle of coded-aperture imaging and microwave radar coincidence imaging (RCI), terahertz radar coded-aperture imaging (RCAI) is proposed to obtain high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging. The terahertz RCAI method resolves target scatterers using the correlation processing of the modulated echoes and the reference signal matrix. This process is similar to the basic principle of RCI. To investigate the coding strategies of terahertz RCAI, this study derives three signal models describing operation with the coded aperture placed separately in the transmitting terminal and the receiving terminal and in both of them simultaneously. Furthermore, coding strategies are categorized according to coded-aperture placement and encoded signal, including amplitude modulation and phase modulation. In addition, qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are introduced to describe the resolving ability of terahertz RCAI. Numerical simulations are performed to analyze and compare the performance on different coding strategies. These analyses can provide constructive guidelines for the design of terahertz RCAI systems.

  5. About Phase: Synthetic Aperture Radar and the Phase Retrieval (United States)


    is an important agricultural and environmental tool, capable of accurately moni- toring crop characteristics, soil moisture levels, deforestation SAR could have a more systematic solution if only additional signal data were available for analysis. The desire for more information motivates...transform. This reduction implies that any method of phase retrieval is also a solution to the phase error problem. We note that phase retrieval is

  6. Low cost realization of space-borne synthectic aperture radar - MicroSAR (United States)

    Carter, D.; Hall, C.

    Spaceborne Earth Observation data has been used for decades in the areas of meteorology and optical imaging. The systems and satellites have, in the main, been owned and operated by a few government institutions and agencies. More recently industrial organizations in North America have joined the list. Few of these, however, include Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)., although the additional utility in terms of all weather, 24 hour measurement capability over the Earth's surface is well recognized. Three major factors explain this:1) Relationships between the SAR measurements of radar backscatter and images to the specific information needs have not been seen as sufficiently well understood or robust2) Availability of suitable sources, at the relevant performance and data quality have been inadequate to provide service assurance that is necessary to sustain commercial businesses3) Costs associated with building, launching and operating spaceborne SAR have not been low enough as to achieve an acceptable return of investment. A significant amount of research and development has been undertaken throughout the World to establish reliable and robust algorithms for information extraction from SAR data. Much of this work has been carried out utilizing airborne systems over localized and carefully controlled regions. In addition, an increasing number of pilot services have been offered by geo-information providers. This has allowed customer confidence to grow. With the status of spaceborne SAR being effectively in the development phase, commercial funding has been scarce, and there has been need to rely on government and institutional budgets. Today the increasing maturity of the technology of SAR and its applications is beginning to attract the commercial sector. This is the funding necessary to realize sufficient assets to be able to provide a robust supply of SAR data to the geo-information providers and subsequently a reliable service to customers. Reducing the costs

  7. Sequential Ensembles Tolerant to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Soil Moisture Retrieval Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee


    Full Text Available Due to complicated and undefined systematic errors in satellite observation, data assimilation integrating model states with satellite observations is more complicated than field measurements-based data assimilation at a local scale. In the case of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR soil moisture, the systematic errors arising from uncertainties in roughness conditions are significant and unavoidable, but current satellite bias correction methods do not resolve the problems very well. Thus, apart from the bias correction process of satellite observation, it is important to assess the inherent capability of satellite data assimilation in such sub-optimal but more realistic observational error conditions. To this end, time-evolving sequential ensembles of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF is compared with stationary ensemble of the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI scheme that does not evolve the ensembles over time. As the sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the surface roughness is more sensitive to the SAR retrievals than measurement errors, it is a scope of this study to monitor how data assimilation alters the effects of roughness on SAR soil moisture retrievals. In results, two data assimilation schemes all provided intermediate values between SAR overestimation, and model underestimation. However, under the same SAR observational error conditions, the sequential ensembles approached a calibrated model showing the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, while the stationary ensemble converged towards the SAR observations exhibiting the highest RMSE. As compared to stationary ensembles, sequential ensembles have a better tolerance to SAR retrieval errors. Such inherent nature of EnKF suggests an operational merit as a satellite data assimilation system, due to the limitation of bias correction methods currently available.

  8. Volcanology: Lessons learned from Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery (United States)

    Pinel, Virginie; Poland, Michael P.; Hooper, Andy


    Twenty years of continuous Earth observation by satellite SAR have resulted in numerous new insights into active volcanism, including a better understanding of subsurface magma storage and transport, deposition of volcanic materials on the surface, and the structure and development of volcanic edifices. This massive archive of data has resulted in fundamental leaps in our understanding of how volcanoes work – for example, identifying magma accumulation at supposedly quiescent volcanoes, even in remote areas or in the absence of ground-based data. In addition, global compilations of volcanic activity facilitate comparison of deformation behavior between different volcanic arcs and statistical evaluation of the strong link between deformation and eruption. SAR data are also increasingly used in timely hazard evaluation thanks to decreases in data latency and growth in processing and analysis techniques. The existing archive of SAR imagery is on the cusp of being enhanced by a new generation of satellite SAR missions, in addition to ground-based and airborne SAR systems, which will provide enhanced temporal and spatial resolution, broader geographic coverage, and improved availability of data to the scientific community. Now is therefore an opportune time to review the contributions of SAR imagery to volcano science, monitoring, and hazard mitigation, and to explore the future potential for SAR in volcanology. Provided that the ever-growing volume of SAR data can be managed effectively, we expect the future application of SAR data to expand from being a research tool for analyzing volcanic activity after the fact, to being a monitoring and research tool capable of imaging a wide variety of processes on different temporal and spatial scales as those processes are occurring. These data can then be used to develop new models of how volcanoes work and to improve quantitative forecasts of volcanic activity as a means of mitigating risk from future eruptions.

  9. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

  10. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993 - September 22, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground

  11. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010 (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated a multi-disciplinary study investigating the applicability of remote sensing technologies for geologic mapping and identification of prospective areas for base and precious metal deposits in remote parts of Alaska. The Kahiltna terrane in southwestern Alaska was selected for investigation because of its known mineral deposits and potential for additional mineral resources. An assortment of technologies is being investigated to aid in remote analysis of terrain, and includes imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral remote sensing), high spatial resolution electro-optical imagery, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, there are significant challenges to applying imaging spectroscopy and electro-optical imagery technologies in this area because of the low solar angle for parts of the year, seasonal periods of darkness and snow cover, and the frequently cloudy weather that characterizes Alaska. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was selected because this technology does not rely on solar illumination and has all-weather capability.

  12. Raw Data-Based Motion Compensation for High-Resolution Sliding Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Niu, Shilin; Guo, Zhengwei; Liu, Yabo; Chen, Jiaqi


    For accurate motion compensation (MOCO) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, a high-precision inertial navigation system (INS) is required. However, an INS is not always precise enough or is sometimes not even included in airborne SAR systems. In this paper, a new, raw, data-based range-invariant motion compensation approach, which can effectively extract the displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, is proposed for high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR mode. In this approach, the sub-aperture radial accelerations of the airborne platform are estimated via a well-developed weighted total least square (WTLS) method considering the time-varying beam direction. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by two airborne sliding spotlight C band SAR raw datasets containing different types of terrain, with a high spatial resolution of about 0.15 m in azimuth.

  13. Complex Wishart distribution based analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning; Conradsen, Knut


    Multi-look, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are often worked with in the so-called covariance matrix representation. For each pixel this representation gives a 3x3 Hermitian, positive definite matrix which follows a complex Wishart distribution. Based on this distribution a test ...... covering agricultural fields near Foulum, Denmark, are used. Soon the Japanese ALOS, the German TerraSAR-X and the Canadian RADARSAT-2 will acquire space-borne, polarimetric data making analysis based on these methods important....

  14. A Large Aperture UWB Antenna Array for Real Beam Radar Imaging


    Liao, Chao-Hsiang; Chang, Dau-Chyrh


    The development of four-element ultra-wideband (UWB) comb taper slot antenna array with 18 cm element spacing for real beam radar imaging is described. The four-element UWB array system with optimum element spacing is analyzed by energy pattern. A wideband double ridge horn antenna is used as the transmitting antenna, the developed large aperture UWB array is used as the receiving antenna. The transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are combined with impulse time domain measurement sys...

  15. Discussion on Application of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar in Marine Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jie


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, an important earth observation sensor, has been used in a wide range of applications for land and marine surveillance. Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR can obtain abundant scattering information of a target to improve the ability of target detection, classification, and quantitative inversion. In this paper, the important role of PolSAR in ocean monitoring is discussed with factors such as sea ice, ships, oil spill, waves, internal waves, and seabed topography. Moreover, the future development direction of PolSAR is put forward to get an inspiration for further research of PolSAR in marine surveillance applications.

  16. Effectiveness of WRF wind direction for retrieving coastal sea surface wind from synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi


    Wind direction is required as input to the geophysical model function (GMF) for the retrieval of sea surface wind speed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The present study verifies the effectiveness of using the wind direction obtained from the weather research and forecasting model...... directions: the meso‐analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (MANAL), the SeaWinds microwave scatterometer on QuikSCAT and the National Center for Environmental Prediction final operational global analysis data (NCEP FNL). In comparison with the errors of the SAR‐retrieved wind speeds obtained using...

  17. Random Walks for Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Fusion in Framelet Domain. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jingkai; Zhu, Ridong


    A new framelet-based random walks (RW) method is presented for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image fusion, including SAR-visible images, SAR-infrared images and Multiband SAR images. In this method, we build a novel random walks model based on the statistical characteristics of framelet coefficients to fuse the high-frequency and low-frequency coefficients. This model converts the fusion problem to estimate the probability of each framelet coefficient being assigned each input image. Experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the contrast while preserves the edges simultaneously, and outperforms many traditional and state-of-the-art fusion techniques in both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  18. Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Heard, Freddie E [Albuquerque, NM; Cordaro, J Thomas [Albuquerque, NM


    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  19. Mapping Offshore Winds Around Iceland Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar and Mesoscale Model Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Nawri, Nikolai


    The offshore wind climate in Iceland is examined based on satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), coastal meteorological station measurements, and results from two atmospheric model data sets, HARMONIE and NORA10. The offshore winds in Iceland are highly influenced by the rugged coastline. Lee...... effects, gap flow, coastal barrier jets, and atmospheric gravity waves are not only observed in SAR, but are also modeled well from HARMONIE. Offshore meteorological observations are not available, but wind speed and wind direction measurements from coastal meteorological masts are found to compare well...

  20. Survey of Study on Internal Waves Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jin-song


    Full Text Available In recent years, Internal Waves (IWs detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image has received considerable attentions in the area of marine remote sensing and has already become one of the most important marine applications of SAR. Typical research results at home and abroad are reviewed. Three areas of researches are introduced and summarized, including parameter inversion method of IWs, the effect of different SAR parameter and wind field conditions on IWs imaging, the 2-dimentional SAR imaging simulation of IWs.

  1. Invariant triangle-based stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kang; Tong, Lihua; Liu, Yongxue; Li, Manchun


    An automatic algorithm for stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of the following two parts. (1) A two-parameter constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to extract targets from the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT) advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR), in which the focus is to determine the appropriate parameters of CFAR, thus ensuring as few as possible false-alarm targets when sea-surface targets are effectively extracted. (2) A simple point cluster matching pattern is proposed based on an invariant triangle rule, by which targets extracted from multitemporal ENVISAT ASAR images are automatically matched for detection of stationary targets (e.g., oil platforms). This invariant triangle rule is that any three moving targets have an extremely low probability of maintaining a relative position in multitemporal images, whereas stationary targets can always maintain a fixed relative position. Even under high noise, this invariant triangle rule can be used to realize the target data matching with high robustness. The experiment shows that the false-alarm rate and the missing rate are relatively low when all the targets are detected. The proposed invariant-triangle-based point cluster matching pattern can conduct effective detection and monitoring of stationary oil platforms.

  2. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Survey of Subsidence in Hampton Roads, Virginia (USA). (United States)

    Bekaert, D P S; Hamlington, B D; Buzzanga, B; Jones, C E


    Over the past century, the Hampton Roads area of the Chesapeake Bay region has experienced one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise on the Atlantic coast of the United States. This rate of relative sea level rise results from a combination of land subsidence, which has long been known to be present in the region, and rising seas associated with global warming on long timescales and exacerbated by shifts in ocean dynamics on shorter timescales. An understanding of the current-day magnitude of each component is needed to create accurate projections of future relative sea level rise upon which to base planning efforts. The objective of this study is to estimate the land component of relative sea level rise using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis applied to ALOS-1 synthetic aperture radar data acquired during 2007-2011 to generate high-spatial resolution (20-30 m) estimates of vertical land motion. Although these results are limited by the uncertainty associated with the small set of available historical SAR data, they highlight both localized rates of high subsidence and a significant spatial variability in subsidence, emphasizing the need for further measurement, which could be done with Sentinel-1 and NASA's upcoming NISAR mission.

  3. A method to evaluate residual phase error for polar formatted synthetic aperture radar systems (United States)

    Musgrove, Cameron; Naething, Richard


    Synthetic aperture radar systems that use the polar format algorithm are subject to a focused scene size limit inherent to the polar format algorithm. The classic focused scene size limit is determined from the dominant residual range phase error term. Given the many sources of phase error in a synthetic aperture radar, a system designer is interested in how much phase error results from the assumptions made with the polar format algorithm. Autofocus algorithms have limits to the amount and type of phase error that can be corrected. Current methods correct only one or a few terms of the residual phase error. A system designer needs to be able to evaluate the contribution of the residual or uncorrected phase error terms to determine the new focused scene size limit. This paper describes a method to estimate the complete residual phase error, not just one or a few of the dominant residual terms. This method is demonstrated with polar format image formation, but is equally applicable to other image formation algorithms. A benefit for the system designer is that additional correction terms can be added or deleted from the analysis as necessary to evaluate the resulting effect upon image quality.

  4. A comparison of synthetic aperture radars applied for satellite remote sensing of the ocean surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilley, D.G.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    imaging radar (SIR-B) aboard the space shuttle Challenger. The wave imaging capabilities of two more recent SAR systems, aboard the European ERS-1 and Russian Almaz satellites, over the Labrador Sea are observed in relation to an emerging consensus...

  5. Localization Capability of Cooperative Anti-Intruder Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Montanari


    Full Text Available System aspects of an anti-intruder multistatic radar based on impulse radio ultrawideband (UWB technology are addressed. The investigated system is composed of one transmitting node and at least three receiving nodes, positioned in the surveillance area with the aim of detecting and locating a human intruder (target that moves inside the area. Such systems, referred to also as UWB radar sensor networks, must satisfy severe power constraints worldwide imposed by, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC and by the European Commission (EC power spectral density masks. A single transmitter-receiver pair (bistatic radar is considered at first. Given the available transmitted power and the capability of the receiving node to resolve the UWB pulses in the time domain, the surveillance area regions where the target is detectable, and those where it is not, are obtained. Moreover, the range estimation error for the transmitter-receiver pair is discussed. By employing this analysis, a multistatic system is then considered, composed of one transmitter and three or four cooperating receivers. For this multistatic system, the impact of the nodes location on area coverage, necessary transmitted power and localization uncertainty is studied, assuming a circular surveillance area. It is highlighted how area coverage and transmitted power, on one side, and localization uncertainty, on the other side, require opposite criteria of nodes placement. Consequently, the need for a system compromising between these factors is shown. Finally, a simple and effective criterion for placing the transmitter and the receivers is drawn.

  6. Integration of differential global positioning system with ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar for forward imaging (United States)

    Wong, David C.; Bui, Khang; Nguyen, Lam H.; Smith, Gregory; Ton, Tuan T.


    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a customer and mission-funded exploratory development program, has been evaluating low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging radar for forward imaging to support the Army's vision for increased mobility and survivability of unmanned ground vehicle missions. As part of the program to improve the radar system and imaging capability, ARL has incorporated a differential global positioning system (DGPS) for motion compensation into the radar system. The use of DGPS can greatly increase positional accuracy, thereby allowing us to improve our ability to focus better images for the detection of small targets such as plastic mines and other concealed objects buried underground. The ability of UWB radar technology to detect concealed objects could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for robotic vehicles, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U.S. forces. This paper details the integration and discusses the significance of integrating a DGPS into the radar system for forward imaging. It also compares the difference between DGPS and the motion compensation data collected by the use of the original theodolite-based system.

  7. Oil detection in a coastal marsh with polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Jones, Cathleen E.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) was deployed in June 2010 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. UAVSAR is a fully polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor for obtaining data at high spatial resolutions. Starting a month prior to the UAVSAR collections, visual observations confirmed oil impacts along shorelines within northeastern Barataria Bay waters in eastern coastal Louisiana. UAVSAR data along several flight lines over Barataria Bay were collected on 23 June 2010, including the repeat flight line for which data were collected in June 2009. Our analysis of calibrated single-look complex data for these flight lines shows that structural damage of shoreline marsh accompanied by oil occurrence manifested as anomalous features not evident in pre-spill data. Freeman-Durden (FD) and Cloude-Pottier (CP) decompositions of the polarimetric data and Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominant scattering mechanism. All decompositions and classifications also identify a class of interior marshes that reproduce the spatially extensive changes in backscatter indicated by the pre- and post-spill comparison of multi-polarization radar backscatter data. FD and CP decompositions reveal that those changes indicate a transform of dominant scatter from primarily surface or volumetric to double or even bounce. Given supportive evidence that oil-polluted waters penetrated into the interior marshes, it is reasonable that these backscatter changes correspond with oil exposure; however, multiple factors prevent unambiguous determination of whether UAVSAR detected oil in interior marshes.

  8. Oil Detection in a Coastal Marsh with Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen E. Jones


    Full Text Available The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s airborne Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR was deployed in June 2010 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. UAVSAR is a fully polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensor for obtaining data at high spatial resolutions. Starting a month prior to the UAVSAR collections, visual observations confirmed oil impacts along shorelines within northeastern Barataria Bay waters in eastern coastal Louisiana. UAVSAR data along several flight lines over Barataria Bay were collected on 23 June 2010, including the repeat flight line for which data were collected in June 2009. Our analysis of calibrated single-look complex data for these flight lines shows that structural damage of shoreline marsh accompanied by oil occurrence manifested as anomalous features not evident in pre-spill data. Freeman-Durden (FD and Cloude-Pottier (CP decompositions of the polarimetric data and Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominant scattering mechanism. All decompositions and classifications also identify a class of interior marshes that reproduce the spatially extensive changes in backscatter indicated by the pre- and post-spill comparison of multi-polarization radar backscatter data. FD and CP decompositions reveal that those changes indicate a transform of dominant scatter from primarily surface or volumetric to double or even bounce. Given supportive evidence that oil-polluted waters penetrated into the interior marshes, it is reasonable that these backscatter changes correspond with oil exposure; however, multiple factors prevent unambiguous determination of whether UAVSAR detected oil in interior marshes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alipour Fard


    Full Text Available This study concerned with fusion of synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite imagery. Due to the difference in the underlying sensor technology, data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical sensors refer to different properties of the observed scene and it is believed that when they are fused together, they complement each other to improve the performance of a particular application. In this paper, two category of features are generate and six classifier fusion operators implemented and evaluated. Implementation results show significant improvement in the classification accuracy.

  10. Glacier and snow hydrology investigation in the Upper Indus Basin using Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Jouvet, G.; Stastny, T.; Oettershagen, P.; Hugentobler, M.; Mantel, T.; Melzer, A.; Weidmann, Y.; Funk, M.; Siegwart, R.; Lund, J.; Forster, R. R.; Burgess, E. W.


    The flows of the Indus River are a vital resource for food security, ecosystem services, hydropower and economy for China, India and Pakistan. Glaciers of the Karakoram Mountains are the largest drivers of discharge in the Upper Indus Basin, and combined with snowmelt constitute the majority of runoff. While recently verified in near balance, the glaciers of the Karakoram exhibit substantial variation both spatially and temporally. Complex climatology, coupled with the challenges of field study in this rugged range, illicit notable uncertainties in observation and prediction of glacial status. Satellite-borne radar sensors acquire imagery regardless of cloud cover or time of day, and offer unique insights into physical processes due to their wavelength. Here we utilize Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to track transient snow lines on glaciers of the Shigar watershed throughout multiple ablation seasons, and discuss the utility of this information in relation to snow and glacier mass balance. As the Sentinel-1 sensor ascending and descending passes capture morning and evening imagery in this region, diurnal radar variations will also be explored as indicators of melt-refreeze cycles and their correlation with peak runoff.

  11. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR-based mapping of volcanic flows: Manam Island, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Weissel


    Full Text Available We present new radar-based techniques for efficient identification of surface changes generated by lava and pyroclastic flows, and apply these to the 1996 eruption of Manam Volcano, Papua New Guinea. Polarimetric L- and P-band airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR data, along with a C-band DEM, were acquired over the volcano on 17 November 1996 during a major eruption sequence. The L-band data are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms on a per pixel basis using radar target decomposition techniques. A classification method is presented, and when applied to the L-band polarimetry, it readily distinguishes bare surfaces from forest cover over Manam volcano. In particular, the classification scheme identifies a post-1992 lava flow in NE Valley of Manam Island as a mainly bare surface and the underlying 1992 flow units as mainly vegetated surfaces. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Network reports allow us to speculate whether the bare surface is a flow dating from October or November in the early part of the late-1996 eruption sequence. This work shows that fully polarimetric SAR is sensitive to scattering mechanism changes caused by volcanic resurfacing processes such as lava and pyroclastic flows. By extension, this technique should also prove useful in mapping debris flows, ash deposits and volcanic landslides associated with major eruptions.

  12. Does the CSIR have the sensor capabilities to put South Africa on the radar screen?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piernaar, Johan E


    Full Text Available Through many years of research and development into radar sensors, the CSIR has made a significant contribution to the strategic and industrial capabilities of South Africa. The continued national investment into radar research and development...

  13. Efficient narrowband interference suppression method for synthetic aperture radar-based on variational mode decomposition (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Su, Weimin; Yang, Jianchao; Gu, Hong


    The narrowband interference (NBI) can degrade the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging quality severely. This paper proposes an NBI mitigation method using the variational mode decomposition (VMD). The coarse estimation of NBI is obtained by decomposing the real part and imaginary part of the complex-valued raw echoes into a number of modes by VMD independently. Next, modes that correspond to NBI are refined by the mask technique in the frequency domain. Then the interference is mitigated by subtracting the refined estimated NBI components from the echoes, and a well-focused SAR image is obtained by conventional imaging schemes. The proposed method outperforms other time-varying NBI mitigation methods with smaller effective data loss and less impact on the focusing performance of images. Results of simulated and measured data prove the validity of the proposed method.

  14. Motion of the Lambert Glacier estimated by using differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuang; Tong, Xiaohua; Xie, Huan; Liu, Xiangfeng; Liu, Jun


    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is one of the most promising remote sensing technologies and has been widely applied in constructing topographic information and estimating the deformation of the Earth's surface. Ice velocity is an important parameter for calculating the mass balance and modelling ice shelve dynamics. Ice velocity is also an important indicator for climate changes. Therefore, it plays an important role in studying the global climate change and global sea level rise. In this paper, the ERS-1/2 tandem data and the ASTER GDEM are combined together to obtained the deformation in line of sight by using the differential Interferometric SAR for the Lambert Amery glacier in Antarctica. Then the surface parallel assumption is adopted in order to achieve the ice flow velocity. The results showed that ice velocity would be increased along the Lambert glacier; the maximum ice velocity would be reach about 450m/year in the study area

  15. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijian Shen


    Full Text Available Gaofen-3 (GF-3 is China’ first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  16. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode. (United States)

    Shen, Shijian; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Xinggan


    Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is China' first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP) and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm) imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  17. Physics-Based Predictions for Coherent Change Detection Using X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Preiss


    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The model is derived using a dyadic form for surface reflectivity in the Kirchhoff approximation. This permits the combination of Kirchhoff theory and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR image formation theory. The resulting model is used to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The theoretical model is applied to SAR images formed before and after surface changes observed by a repeat-pass SAR system. The change in surface associated with a tyre track following vehicle passage is modelled and SAR coherency estimates are obtained. Predicted coherency distributions for both the change and no-change scenarios are used to estimate receiver operator curves for the detection of the changes using a high-resolution, X-band SAR system.

  18. Two-Stage Multi-Task Representation Learning for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Target Images Classification. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Yijian; Tan, Zhiying; Li, Dong; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Tao; Li, Yongming


    In this paper, we propose a two-stage multi-task learning representation method for the classification of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target images. The first stage of the proposed approach uses multi-features joint sparse representation learning, modeled as a ℓ 2 , 1 -norm regularized multi-task sparse learning problem, to find an effective subset of training samples. Then, a new dictionary is constructed based on the training subset. The second stage of the method is to perform target images classification based on the new dictionary, utilizing multi-task collaborative representation. The proposed algorithm not only exploits the discrimination ability of multiple features but also greatly reduces the interference of atoms that are irrelevant to the test sample, thus effectively improving classification performance. Conducted with the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public SAR database, experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective and superior to many state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Some examples of detection of oceanic mesoscale eddies by the Seasat synthetic-aperture radar (United States)

    Fu, L.-L.; Holt, B.


    This note presents images of three dynamically different regions in the ocean to demonstrate the variety of mesoscale variabilities detected by the Seasat synthetic-aperture radar (SAR). South of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, a cold eddy is observed to form as the result of the southward intrusion of Labrador Sea water, perhaps having led to the birth of a Gulf Stream extension ring. Off the northern coast of California, features resulting from the offshore intrusions of cold upwelling water are observed. Two topographically generated eddies are detected near Misteriosa Bank on the Cayman Ridge in the northwestern Caribbean. Comparisons are made with concurrent NOAA-5 infrared images whenever the eddies have thermal signatures.

  20. Savannah woody structure modelling and mapping using multifrequency (X-, C- and L-band) synthetic aperture radar data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L:


    Full Text Available status – a defining but challenging set of characteristics typical of African savannahs. Active remote sensing systems (e.g. Light Detection and Ranging – LiDAR; Synthetic Aperture Radar - SAR), on the other hand, may be more effective in quantifying...

  1. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry for Assessing Wenchuan Earthquake (2008 Deforestation in the Sichuan Giant Panda Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen


    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR has been an unparalleled tool in cloudy and rainy regions as it allows observations throughout the year because of its all-weather, all-day operation capability. In this paper, the influence of Wenchuan Earthquake on the Sichuan Giant Panda habitats was evaluated for the first time using SAR interferometry and combining data from C-band Envisat ASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR data. Coherence analysis based on the zero-point shifting indicated that the deforestation process was significant, particularly in habitats along the Min River approaching the epicenter after the natural disaster, and as interpreted by the vegetation deterioration from landslides, avalanches and debris flows. Experiments demonstrated that C-band Envisat ASAR data were sensitive to vegetation, resulting in an underestimation of deforestation; in contrast, L-band PALSAR data were capable of evaluating the deforestation process owing to a better penetration and the significant coherence gain on damaged forest areas. The percentage of damaged forest estimated by PALSAR decreased from 20.66% to 17.34% during 2009–2010, implying an approximate 3% recovery rate of forests in the earthquake impacted areas. This study proves that long-wavelength SAR interferometry is promising for rapid assessment of disaster-induced deforestation, particularly in regions where the optical acquisition is constrained.

  2. Wetlands and Malaria in the Amazon: Guidelines for the Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote-Sensing. (United States)

    Catry, Thibault; Li, Zhichao; Roux, Emmanuel; Herbreteau, Vincent; Gurgel, Helen; Mangeas, Morgan; Seyler, Frédérique; Dessay, Nadine


    The prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, are important health issues in tropical areas. Malaria transmission is a multi-scale process strongly controlled by environmental factors, and the use of remote-sensing data is suitable for the characterization of its spatial and temporal dynamics. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well-adapted to tropical areas, since it is capable of imaging independent of light and weather conditions. In this study, we highlight the contribution of SAR sensors in the assessment of the relationship between vectors, malaria and the environment in the Amazon region. More specifically, we focus on the SAR-based characterization of potential breeding sites of mosquito larvae, such as man-made water collections and natural wetlands, providing guidelines for the use of SAR capabilities and techniques in order to optimize vector control and malaria surveillance. In light of these guidelines, we propose a framework for the production of spatialized indicators and malaria risk maps based on the combination of SAR, entomological and epidemiological data to support malaria risk prevention and control actions in the field.

  3. On the convergence of the phase gradient autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, M.J.


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a class of coherent range and Doppler signal processing techniques applied to remote sensing. The aperture is synthesized by recording and processing coherent signals at known positions along the flight path. Demands for greater image resolution put an extreme burden on requirements for inertial measurement units that are used to maintain accurate pulse-to-pulse position information. The recently developed Phase Gradient Autofocus algorithm relieves this burden by taking a data-driven digital signal processing approach to estimating the range-invariant phase aberrations due to either uncompensated motions of the SAR platform or to atmospheric turbulence. Although the performance of this four-step algorithm has been demonstrated, its convergence has not been modeled mathematically. A new sensitivity study of algorithm performance is a necessary step towards this model. Insights that are significant to the application of this algorithm to both SAR and to other coherent imaging applications are developed. New details on algorithm implementation identify an easily avoided biased phase estimate. A new algorithm for defining support of the point spread function is proposed, which promises to reduce the number of iterations required even for rural scenes with low signal-to-clutter ratios.

  4. Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT at Barrow, Alaska Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schaefer


    Full Text Available Active layer thickness (ALT is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost that is typically measured at specific locations using probing, in situ temperature sensors, or other ground-based observations. Here we evaluated the Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT product that uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar technique to measure seasonal surface subsidence and infer ALT around Barrow, Alaska. We compared ReSALT with ground-based ALT obtained using probing and calibrated, 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar at multiple sites around Barrow. ReSALT accurately reproduced observed ALT within uncertainty of the GPR and probing data in ~76% of the study area. However, ReSALT was less than observed ALT in ~22% of the study area with well-drained soils and in ~1% of the area where soils contained gravel. ReSALT was greater than observed ALT in some drained thermokarst lake basins representing ~1% of the area. These results indicate remote sensing techniques based on InSAR could be an effective way to measure and monitor ALT over large areas on the Arctic coastal plain.

  5. A Large Aperture UWB Antenna Array for Real Beam Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsiang Liao


    Full Text Available The development of four-element ultra-wideband (UWB comb taper slot antenna array with 18 cm element spacing for real beam radar imaging is described. The four-element UWB array system with optimum element spacing is analyzed by energy pattern. A wideband double ridge horn antenna is used as the transmitting antenna, the developed large aperture UWB array is used as the receiving antenna. The transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are combined with impulse time domain measurement system to achieve real beam radar imaging. The receiving impulse signals at various positions are processed by the time delay and sum algorithm. The examples of several aluminum cans have been verified in the resolution and compared with using the UWB array as a receive antenna and the double ridge horn as a transmit antenna in the test setup. The crossrange resolution of UWB antenna array is better than wideband double ridge horn antenna because the beam width of UWB array is narrower.

  6. Optimization of soil hydraulic model parameters using Synthetic Aperture Radar data: an integrated multidisciplinary approach (United States)

    Mattia, F.; Pauwels, V. R.; Balenzano, A.; Satalino, G.; Skriver, H.; Verhoest, N. E.


    It is widely recognized that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are a very valuable source of information for the modeling of the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. During the last couple of decades, most of the research on the use of SAR data in hydrologic applications has been focused on the retrieval of land and bio-geophysical parameters (e.g. soil moisture contents). One relatively unexplored issue consists of the optimization of soil hydraulic model parameters, such as for example hydraulic conductivity values, through remote sensing. This is due to the fact that no direct relationships between the remote sensing observations, more specifically radar backscatter values, and the parameter values can be derived. However, land surface models can provide these relationships. The objective of this study is to retrieve a number of soil physical model parameters through a combination of remote sensing and land surface modeling. Spatially distributed and multitemporal SAR-based soil moisture maps are the basis of the study. The surface soil moisture values are used in a parameter estimation procedure based on the Extended Kalman Filter equations. In fact, the land surface model is thus used to determine the relationship between the soil physical parameters and the remote sensing data. An analysis is then performed, relating the retrieved soil parameters to the soil texture data available over the study area. The results of the study show that there is a potential to retrieve soil physical model parameters through a combination of land surface modeling and remote sensing.

  7. Change Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Using a Multiscale-Driven Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi A. Ajadi


    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress that was achieved throughout the recent years, to this day, automatic change detection and classification from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images remains a difficult task. This is, in large part, due to (a the high level of speckle noise that is inherent to SAR data; (b the complex scattering response of SAR even for rather homogeneous targets; (c the low temporal sampling that is often achieved with SAR systems, since sequential images do not always have the same radar geometry (incident angle, orbit path, etc.; and (d the typically limited performance of SAR in delineating the exact boundary of changed regions. With this paper we present a promising change detection method that utilizes SAR images and provides solutions for these previously mentioned difficulties. We will show that the presented approach enables automatic and high-performance change detection across a wide range of spatial scales (resolution levels. The developed method follows a three-step approach of (i initial pre-processing; (ii data enhancement/filtering; and (iii wavelet-based, multi-scale change detection. The stand-alone property of our approach is the high flexibility in applying the change detection approach to a wide range of change detection problems. The performance of the developed approach is demonstrated using synthetic data as well as a real-data application to wildfire progression near Fairbanks, Alaska.

  8. Developing an Automated Machine Learning Marine Oil Spill Detection System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Pinales, J. C.; Graber, H. C.; Hargrove, J. T.; Caruso, M. J.


    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify marine hydrocarbon films with spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The dampening effects of hydrocarbon discharges on small surface capillary-gravity waves renders the ocean surface "radar dark" compared with the standard wind-borne ocean surfaces. Given the scope and impact of events like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the need for improved, automated and expedient monitoring of hydrocarbon-related marine anomalies has become a pressing and complex issue for governments and the extraction industry. The research presented here describes the development, training, and utilization of an algorithm that detects marine oil spills in an automated, semi-supervised manner, utilizing X-, C-, or L-band SAR data as the primary input. Ancillary datasets include related radar-borne variables (incidence angle, etc.), environmental data (wind speed, etc.) and textural descriptors. Shapefiles produced by an experienced human-analyst served as targets (validation) during the training portion of the investigation. Training and testing datasets were chosen for development and assessment of algorithm effectiveness as well as optimal conditions for oil detection in SAR data. The algorithm detects oil spills by following a 3-step methodology: object detection, feature extraction, and classification. Previous oil spill detection and classification methodologies such as machine learning algorithms, artificial neural networks (ANN), and multivariate classification methods like partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) are evaluated and compared. Statistical, transform, and model-based image texture techniques, commonly used for object mapping directly or as inputs for more complex methodologies, are explored to determine optimal textures for an oil spill detection system. The influence of the ancillary variables is explored, with a particular focus on the role of strong vs. weak wind forcing.

  9. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Desprats


    Full Text Available Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, suchas hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mappingwas carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SARimages acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz sensors. The comparisonbetween soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows goodagreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that themonitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover,moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmospheretransfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moistureestimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radarestimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE. The comparison between ISBA andgravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally,these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimatedfrom SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  10. Photonics-based broadband radar for high-resolution and real-time inverse synthetic aperture imaging. (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Wang, Ziqian; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Sun, Jun; Pan, Shilong


    A photonics-based radar with generation and de-chirp processing of broadband linear frequency modulated continuous-wave (LFMCW) signal in optical domain is proposed for high-resolution and real-time inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. In the proposed system, a broadband LFMCW signal is generated by a photonic frequency quadrupler based on a single integrated electro-optical modulator, and the echoes reflected from the targets are de-chirped to a low frequency signal by a microwave photonic frequency mixer. The proposed radar can operate at a high frequency with a large bandwidth, and thus achieve an ultra-high range resolution for ISAR imaging. Thanks to the wideband photonic de-chirp technique, the radar receiver could apply low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and mature digital signal processing, which makes real-time ISAR imaging possible. A K-band photonics-based radar with an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz (18-26 GHz) is established and its performance for ISAR imaging is experimentally investigated. Results show that a recorded two-dimensional imaging resolution of ~2 cm × ~2 cm is achieved with a sampling rate of 100 MSa/s in the receiver. Besides, fast ISAR imaging with 100 frames per second is verified. The proposed radar is an effective solution to overcome the limitations on operation bandwidth and processing speed of current radar imaging technologies, which may enable applications where high-resolution and real-time radar imaging is required.

  11. Fine resolution topographic mapping of the Jovian moons: a Ka-band high resolution topographic mapping interferometric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Carsey, Frank D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.


    The topographic data set obtained by MOLA has provided an unprecedented level of information about Mars' geologic features. The proposed flight of JIMO provides an opportunity to accomplish a similar mapping of and comparable scientific discovery for the Jovian moons through us of an interferometric imaging radar analogous to the Shuttle radar that recently generated a new topographic map of Earth. A Ka-band single pass across-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer can provide very high resolution surface elevation maps. The concept would use two antennas mounted at the ends of a deployable boom (similar to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper) extended orthogonal to the direction of flight. Assuming an orbit altitude of approximately 100 km and a ground velocity of approximately 1.5 km/sec, horizontal resolutions at the 10 meter level and vertical resolutions at the sub-meter level are possible.

  12. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Yoshikazu


    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  13. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler anomalies due to volcanic eruption induced phenomena (United States)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Minet, Christian


    In the frame of the EU funded "MEDSUV" supersite project, we use multiple SAR data to investigate Doppler anomalies in the SAR signal occurring during volcanic eruptions. In Synthetic Aperture Radar, variations in the Electro Magnetic Waves travel time results in a change in the Doppler frequency that adds up to the one that is naturally generated by the relative motion between the platform and the ground targets. Within the SAR system, frequencies modulations control the image focusing along the two fundamental SAR directions, the azimuth (i.e. the platform motion direction) and the range (i. e. the sensor looking direction). During the synthetic aperture process (the so called image focusing) a target on the surface is seen along different paths. In standard focusing processing it is assumed both that ground targets are stationary and that between the sensor and the target the medium is the vacuum or a totally homogeneous medium. Therefore, if there is a significant path delay variation along the paths to a specific target this can result either in image defocusing or in pixel misregistration or both. It has been shown that SAR Doppler history anomalies can occur over volcanic areas. The goal of this study is to highlight Doppler history anomalies occurring during the SAR image formation over active volcanoes on a number of test cases. To do so, we apply a sub-aperture cross correlation algorithm on Single Look Complex data. Practically, we measure any pixel misregistration between two sub-looks of the same SAR acquisition. If a pixel shift occurs, it means that the expected radar wave path has been lengthened (or shortened) during the time when ground surface scatterers were illuminated by the sensor radiation either by a ground feature velocity (e. g. water flows, vehicles) or it is refracted by a strong medium discontinuity in the air (volcanic ash plume?). If a Doppler history anomaly is detected by the sub-aperture cross correlation, we try to explore

  14. Exploiting synthetic aperture radar imagery for retrieving vibration signatures of concealed machinery (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco; Campbell, Justin B.; Jaramillo, Monica; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.


    It has been demonstrated that the instantaneous acceleration associated with vibrating objects that are directly imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be estimated through the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) using the information contained in the complex SAR image. In general, vibration signatures may include, for example, the number of chirped sinusoids as well as their respective base frequencies and chirp rates. By further processing the DFrFT-processed data for clutter-noise rejection by means of pseudo- subspace methods, has been shown that the SAR-vibrometry method can be reliable as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the slow-time SAR signal at the range-line of interest exceeds 15dB. Meanwhile, the Nyquist theorem dictates that the maximum measurable vibration frequency is limited by half of the pulse-repetition frequency. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of vibrations generated by machinery concealed within buildings and other structures. This is a challenging task in general because the vibration signatures of the source are typically altered by their housing structure; moreover, the SNR at the surface of the housing structure tends to be reduced. Here, experimental results for three different vibrating targets, including one concealed target, are reported using complex SAR images acquired by the General Atomics Lynx radar at resolutions of 1-ft and 4-in. The concealed vibrating target is actuated by a gear motor with an off-balance weight attached to it, which is enclosed by a wooden housing. The vibrations of the motor are transmitted to a chimney that extends above the housing structure. Using the SAR vibrometry approach, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish among the three vibrating objects based upon their vibration signatures.

  15. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  16. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing


    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

  17. Detecting emergence, growth, and senescence of wetland vegetation with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Kaya, Shannon G.; White, Lori; Brisco, Brian; Roth, Mark F.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Rover, Jennifer


    Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. We investigated the use of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired with Canada’s Radarsat-2 system to track within-season changes in wetland vegetation and surface water. We speculated, a priori, how temporal and morphological traits of different types of wetland vegetation should respond over a growing season with respect to four energy-scattering mechanisms. We used ground-based monitoring data and other ancillary information to assess the limits and consistency of the SAR data for tracking seasonal changes in wetlands. We found the traits of different types of vertical emergent wetland vegetation were detected well with the SAR data and corresponded with our anticipated backscatter responses. We also found using data from Landsat’s optical/infrared sensors in conjunction with SAR data helped remove confusion of wetland features with upland grasslands. These results suggest SAR data can provide useful monitoring information on the statuses of wetlands over time.

  18. An Optimal DEM Reconstruction Method for Linear Array Synthetic Aperture Radar Based on Variational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jun


    Full Text Available Downward-looking Linear Array Synthetic Aperture Radar (LASAR has many potential applications in the topographic mapping, disaster monitoring and reconnaissance applications, especially in the mountainous area. However, limited by the sizes of platforms, its resolution in the linear array direction is always far lower than those in the range and azimuth directions. This disadvantage leads to the blurring of Three-Dimensional (3D images in the linear array direction, and restricts the application of LASAR. To date, the research on 3D SAR image enhancement has focused on the sparse recovery technique. In this case, the one-to-one mapping of Digital Elevation Model (DEM brakes down. To overcome this, an optimal DEM reconstruction method for LASAR based on the variational model is discussed in an effort to optimize the DEM and the associated scattering coefficient map, and to minimize the Mean Square Error (MSE. Using simulation experiments, it is found that the variational model is more suitable for DEM enhancement applications to all kinds of terrains compared with the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMPand Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO methods.

  19. Single-Pol Synthetic Aperture Radar Terrain Classification using Multiclass Confidence for One-Class Classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Mark William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steinbach, Ryan Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moya, Mary M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Except in the most extreme conditions, Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a remote sensing technology that can operate day or night. A SAR can provide surveillance over a long time period by making multiple passes over a wide area. For object-based intelligence it is convenient to segment and classify the SAR images into objects that identify various terrains and man-made structures that we call “static features.” In this paper we introduce a novel SAR image product that captures how different regions decorrelate at different rates. Using superpixels and their first two moments we develop a series of one-class classification algorithms using a goodness-of-fit metric. P-value fusion is used to combine the results from different classes. We also show how to combine multiple one-class classifiers to get a confidence about a classification. This can be used by downstream algorithms such as a conditional random field to enforce spatial constraints.

  20. Generation of large-scale digital elevation models via synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Sansosti, E. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per l' Elettromagnetismo ed i componenti elettronici, Naples (Italy); Tesauro, M.; Franceschetti, G. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni


    It is investigated the possibility to generate a large-scale Digital Elevation Model by applying the Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry technique and using tandem data acquired by the ERS-1/ERS-2 sensors. The presented study is mainly focused on the phase unwrapping step that represents the most critical point of the overall processing chain. In particular, it is concentrated on the unwrapping problems related to the use of a large ERS tandem data set that, in order to be unwrapped, must be partitioned. The paper discusses the inclusion of external information (even rough) of the scene topography, the application of a region growing unwrapping technique and the insertion of possible constraints on the phase to be retrieved in order to minimize the global unwrapping errors. The main goal is the generation of a digital elevation model relative to an area of 300 km by 100 km located in the southern part of Italy. Comparisons between the achieved result and a precise digital terrain model, relative to a smaller area, are also included.

  1. Efficient Backprojection-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Computation with Many-Core Processors

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    Jongsoo Park


    Full Text Available Tackling computationally challenging problems with high efficiency often requires the combination of algorithmic innovation, advanced architecture, and thorough exploitation of parallelism. We demonstrate this synergy through synthetic aperture radar (SAR via backprojection, an image reconstruction method that can require hundreds of TFLOPS. Computation cost is significantly reduced by our new algorithm of approximate strength reduction; data movement cost is economized by software locality optimizations facilitated by advanced architecture support; parallelism is fully harnessed in various patterns and granularities. We deliver over 35 billion backprojections per second throughput per compute node on an Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2670-based cluster, equipped with Intel® Xeon Phi™ coprocessors. This corresponds to processing a 3K×3K image within a second using a single node. Our study can be extended to other settings: backprojection is applicable elsewhere including medical imaging, approximate strength reduction is a general code transformation technique, and many-core processors are emerging as a solution to energy-efficient computing.

  2. Full Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data for ionosphere observation - A comparative study (United States)

    Mohanty, S.; Singh, G.


    Ionosphere, predominantly, govern the propagation of radio waves, especially at L-band and lower frequencies. Small-scale, rapid fluctuations in the electron density, termed as scintillation phenomenon, cause rapid variations in signal amplitude and phase. Scintillation studies have been done using ground-based radio transmitter and beacon GPS signals. In this work, attempt has been made to utilize full polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite signal at L-band (1.27 GHz) to develop a new measurement index for SAR signal intensity fluctuation. Datasets acquired from Japan's latest Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS)-2 over the Indian subcontinent on two different dates, with varying ionospheric activities, have been utilized to compare the index. A 20% increase in the index values for a scintillation-affected day has been observed. The result coincides with the nature of ionospheric scintillation pattern typically observed over the equatorial belt. Total electron content values, for the two dates of acquisition, obtained from freely available Ionosphere Exchange (IONEX) data have been used to validate the varying ionospheric activities as well as the trend in index results. Another interesting finding of the paper is the demarcation of the equatorial anomaly belt. The index values are comparatively higher at these latitudes on a scintillation-affected day. Furthermore, the SAR signal intensity fluctuation index has great potential in being used as a preliminary measurement index to identify low frequency SAR data affected by ionospheric scintillation.

  3. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.


    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  4. Target detection in synthetic aperture radar imagery: a state-of-the-art survey (United States)

    El-Darymli, Khalid; McGuire, Peter; Power, Desmond; Moloney, Cecilia


    Target detection is the front-end stage in any automatic target recognition system for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery (SAR-ATR). The efficacy of the detector directly impacts the succeeding stages in the SAR-ATR processing chain. There are numerous methods reported in the literature for implementing the detector. We offer an umbrella under which the various research activities in the field are broadly probed and taxonomized. First, a taxonomy for the various detection methods is proposed. Second, the underlying assumptions for different implementation strategies are overviewed. Third, a tabular comparison between careful selections of representative examples is introduced. Finally, a novel discussion is presented, wherein the issues covered include suitability of SAR data models, understanding the multiplicative SAR data models, and two unique perspectives on constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection: signal processing and pattern recognition. From a signal processing perspective, CFAR is shown to be a finite impulse response band-pass filter. From a statistical pattern recognition perspective, CFAR is shown to be a suboptimal one-class classifier: a Euclidean distance classifier and a quadratic discriminant with a missing term for one-parameter and two-parameter CFAR, respectively. We make a contribution toward enabling an objective design and implementation for target detection in SAR imagery.

  5. Two-Stage Multi-Task Representation Learning for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Target Images Classification

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    Xinzheng Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage multi-task learning representation method for the classification of synthetic aperture radar (SAR target images. The first stage of the proposed approach uses multi-features joint sparse representation learning, modeled as a ℓ 2 , 1 -norm regularized multi-task sparse learning problem, to find an effective subset of training samples. Then, a new dictionary is constructed based on the training subset. The second stage of the method is to perform target images classification based on the new dictionary, utilizing multi-task collaborative representation. The proposed algorithm not only exploits the discrimination ability of multiple features but also greatly reduces the interference of atoms that are irrelevant to the test sample, thus effectively improving classification performance. Conducted with the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR public SAR database, experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective and superior to many state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Extraction of advanced geospatial intelligence (AGI) from commercial synthetic aperture radar imagery (United States)

    Kanberoglu, Berkay; Frakes, David


    The extraction of objects from advanced geospatial intelligence (AGI) products based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is complicated by a number of factors. For example, accurate detection of temporal changes represented in two-color multiview (2CMV) AGI products can be challenging because of speckle noise susceptibility and false positives that result from small orientation differences between objects imaged at different times. These cases of apparent motion can result in 2CMV detection, but they obviously differ greatly in terms of significance. In investigating the state-of-the-art in SAR image processing, we have found that differentiating between these two general cases is a problem that has not been well addressed. We propose a framework of methods to address these problems. For the detection of the temporal changes while reducing the number of false positives, we propose using adaptive object intensity and area thresholding in conjunction with relaxed brightness optical flow algorithms that track the motion of objects across time in small regions of interest. The proposed framework for distinguishing between actual motion and misregistration can lead to more accurate and meaningful change detection and improve object extraction from a SAR AGI product. Results demonstrate the ability of our techniques to reduce false positives up to 60%.

  7. Unsupervised polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image classification based on sketch map and adaptive Markov random field (United States)

    Shi, Junfei; Li, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Hongying; Yang, Shuyuan; Liu, Lu; Hao, Hongxia


    Markov random field (MRF) model is an effective tool for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image classification. However, due to the lack of suitable contextual information in conventional MRF methods, there is usually a contradiction between edge preservation and region homogeneity in the classification result. To preserve edge details and obtain homogeneous regions simultaneously, an adaptive MRF framework is proposed based on a polarimetric sketch map. The polarimetric sketch map can provide the edge positions and edge directions in detail, which can guide the selection of neighborhood structures. Specifically, the polarimetric sketch map is extracted to partition a PolSAR image into structural and nonstructural parts, and then adaptive neighborhoods are learned for two parts. For structural areas, geometric weighted neighborhood structures are constructed to preserve image details. For nonstructural areas, the maximum homogeneous regions are obtained to improve the region homogeneity. Experiments are taken on both the simulated and real PolSAR data, and the experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can obtain better performance on both region homogeneity and edge preservation than the state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

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    Rui Chang


    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  9. Application of Deep Networks to Oil Spill Detection Using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

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    Guandong Chen


    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing provides an outstanding tool in oil spill detection and classification, for its advantages in distinguishing mineral oil and biogenic lookalikes. Various features can be extracted from polarimetric SAR data. The large number and correlated nature of polarimetric SAR features make the selection and optimization of these features impact on the performance of oil spill classification algorithms. In this paper, deep learning algorithms such as the stacked autoencoder (SAE and deep belief network (DBN are applied to optimize the polarimetric feature sets and reduce the feature dimension through layer-wise unsupervised pre-training. An experiment was conducted on RADARSAT-2 quad-polarimetric SAR image acquired during the Norwegian oil-on-water exercise of 2011, in which verified mineral, emulsions, and biogenic slicks were analyzed. The results show that oil spill classification achieved by deep networks outperformed both support vector machine (SVM and traditional artificial neural networks (ANN with similar parameter settings, especially when the number of training data samples is limited.

  10. Detecting Emergence, Growth, and Senescence of Wetland Vegetation with Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Gallant


    Full Text Available Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. We investigated the use of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data acquired with Canada’s Radarsat-2 system to track within-season changes in wetland vegetation and surface water. We speculated, a priori, how temporal and morphological traits of different types of wetland vegetation should respond over a growing season with respect to four energy-scattering mechanisms. We used ground-based monitoring data and other ancillary information to assess the limits and consistency of the SAR data for tracking seasonal changes in wetlands. We found the traits of different types of vertical emergent wetland vegetation were detected well with the SAR data and corresponded with our anticipated backscatter responses. We also found using data from Landsat’s optical/infrared sensors in conjunction with SAR data helped remove confusion of wetland features with upland grasslands. These results suggest SAR data can provide useful monitoring information on the statuses of wetlands over time.

  11. Deep feature extraction and combination for synthetic aperture radar target classification (United States)

    Amrani, Moussa; Jiang, Feng


    Feature extraction has always been a difficult problem in the classification performance of synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR-ATR). It is very important to select discriminative features to train a classifier, which is a prerequisite. Inspired by the great success of convolutional neural network (CNN), we address the problem of SAR target classification by proposing a feature extraction method, which takes advantage of exploiting the extracted deep features from CNNs on SAR images to introduce more powerful discriminative features and robust representation ability for them. First, the pretrained VGG-S net is fine-tuned on moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) public release database. Second, after a simple preprocessing is performed, the fine-tuned network is used as a fixed feature extractor to extract deep features from the processed SAR images. Third, the extracted deep features are fused by using a traditional concatenation and a discriminant correlation analysis algorithm. Finally, for target classification, K-nearest neighbors algorithm based on LogDet divergence-based metric learning triplet constraints is adopted as a baseline classifier. Experiments on MSTAR are conducted, and the classification accuracy results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. On the detection of crevasses in glacial ice with synthetic-aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.


    The intent of this study is to provide an analysis of the scattering from a crevasse in Antarctic ice, utilizing a physics-based model for the scattering process. Of primary interest is a crevasse covered with a snow bridge, which makes the crevasse undetectable in visible-light images. It is demonstrated that a crevasse covered with a snow bridge can be visible in synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images. The model of the crevasse and snow bridge incorporates a complex dielectric permittivity model for dry snow and ice that takes into account the density profile of the glacier. The surface structure is based on a fractal model that can produce sastrugi-like features found on the surface of Antarctic glaciers. Simulated phase histories, computed with the Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR) method, are processed into SAR images. The viability of the SBR method for predicting scattering from a crevasse covered with a snow bridge is demonstrated. Some suggestions for improving the model are given.

  13. Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, Sebastien


    The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model

  14. Automated global water mapping based on wide-swath orbital synthetic-aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Westerhoff


    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated technique which ingests orbital synthetic-aperture radar (SAR imagery and outputs surface water maps in near real time and on a global scale. The service anticipates future open data dissemination of water extent information using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 data. The classification methods used are innovative and practical and automatically calibrated to local conditions per 1 × 1° tile. For each tile, a probability distribution function in the range between being covered with water or being dry is established based on a long-term SAR training dataset. These probability distributions are conditional on the backscatter and the incidence angle. In classification mode, the probability of water coverage per pixel of 1 km × 1 km is calculated with the input of the current backscatter – incidence angle combination. The overlap between the probability distributions of a pixel being wet or dry is used as a proxy for the quality of our classification. The service has multiple uses, e.g. for water body dynamics in times of drought or for urgent inundation extent determination during floods. The service generates data systematically: it is not an on-demand service activated only for emergency response, but instead is always up-to-date and available. We validate its use in flood situations using Envisat ASAR information during the 2011 Thailand floods and the Pakistan 2010 floods and perform a first merge with a NASA near real time water product based on MODIS optical satellite imagery. This merge shows good agreement between these independent satellite-based water products.

  15. Towards Snowpack Characterization using C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (United States)

    Park, J.; Forman, B. A.


    Sentinel 1A and 1B, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), carries a C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor that can be used to monitor terrestrial snow properties. This study explores the relationship between terrestrial snow-covered area, snow depth, and snow water equivalent with Sentinel 1 backscatter observations in order to better characterize snow mass. Ground-based observations collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) in Caribou, Maine in the United States are also used in the comparative analysis. Sentinel 1 Ground Range Detected (GRD) imagery with Interferometric Wide swath (IW) were preprocessed through a series of steps accounting for thermal noise, sensor orbit, radiometric calibration, speckle filtering, and terrain correction using ESA's Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) software package, which is an open-source module written in Python. Comparisons of dual-polarized backscatter coefficients (i.e., σVV and σVH) with in-situ measurements of snow depth and SWE suggest that cross-polarized backscatter observations exhibit a modest correlation between both snow depth and SWE. In the case of the snow-covered area, a multi-temporal change detection method was used. Results using Sentinel 1 yield similar spatial patterns as when using hyperspectral observations collected by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). These preliminary results suggest the potential application of Sentinel 1A/1B backscatter coefficients towards improved discrimination of snow cover, snow depth, and SWE. One goal of this research is to eventually merge C-band SAR backscatter observations with other snow information (e.g., passive microwave brightness temperatures) as part of a multi-sensor snow assimilation framework.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry Analysis of Ground Deformation within the Coso Geothermal Site, California (United States)

    Brawner, Erik

    Earth's surface movement may cause as a potential hazard to infrastructure and people. Associated earthquake hazards pose a potential side effect of geothermal activity. Modern remote sensing techniques known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can measure surface change with a high degree of precision to mm scale movements. Previous work has identified a deformation anomaly within the Coso Geothermal site in eastern California. Surface changes have not been analyzed since the 1990s, allowing a decade of geothermal production impact to occur since previously assessed. In this study, InSAR data was acquired and analyzed between the years 2005 and 2010. Acquired by the ENVISAT satellite from both ascending and descending modes. This provides an independent dataset from previous work. Incorporating data generated from a new sensor covering a more modern temporal study period. Analysis of this time period revealed a subsidence anomaly in correlation with the extents of the geothermal production area under current operation. Maximum subsidence rates in the region reached approximately 3.8 cm/yr. A similar rate assessed from previous work throughout the 1990s. The correlation of subsidence patterns suggests a linear source of deformation from measurements spanning multiple decades. Regions of subsidence branch out from the main anomaly to the North-Northeast and to the South where additional significant peaks of subsidence occurring. The extents of the deformation anomaly directly correlate with the dispersal of geothermal production well site locations. Depressurization within the geothermal system provides a leading cause to surface subsidence from excessive extraction of hydrothermal fluids. As a result of minimal reinjection of production fluids.

  17. An Iterative Learning Algorithm to Map Oil Palm Plantations from Synthetic Aperture Radar and Crowdsourcing (United States)

    Pinto, N.; Zhang, Z.; Perger, C.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Simard, M.; Banerjee, S.


    The oil palm Elaeis spp. grows exclusively in the tropics and provides 30% of the world's vegetable oil. While oil palm-derived biodiesel can reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuels, plantation establishment may be associated with peat fires and deforestation. The ability to monitor plantation establishment and their expansion over carbon-rich tropical forests is critical for quantifying the net impact of oil palm commodities on carbon fluxes. Our objective is to develop a robust methodology to map oil palm plantations in tropical biomes, based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Sentinel-1, ALOS/PALSAR2, and UAVSAR. The C- and L-band signal from these instruments are sensitive to vegetation parameters such as canopy volume, trunk shape, and trunk spatial arrangement, that are critical to differentiate crops from forests and native palms. Based on Bayesian statistics, the learning algorithm employed here adapts to growing knowledge as sites and trainning points are added. We will present an iterative approach wherein a model is initially built at the site with the most training points - in our case, Costa Rica. Model posteriors from Costa Rica, depicting polarimetric signatures of oil palm plantations, are then used as priors in a classification exercise taking place in South Kalimantan. Results are evaluated by local researchers using the LACO Wiki interface. All validation points, including missclassified sites, are used in an additional iteration to improve model results to >90% overall accuracy. We report on the impact of plantation age on polarimetric signatures, and we also compare model performance with and without L-band data.

  18. High-resolution nondestructive testing of multilayer dielectric materials using wideband microwave synthetic aperture radar imaging (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; James, Robin; Narayanan, Ram M.


    Fiber Reinforced Polymer or Plastic (FRP) composites have been rapidly increasing in the aerospace, automotive and marine industry, and civil engineering, because these composites show superior characteristics such as outstanding strength and stiffness, low weight, as well as anti-corrosion and easy production. Generally, the advancement of materials calls for correspondingly advanced methods and technologies for inspection and failure detection during production or maintenance, especially in the area of nondestructive testing (NDT). Among numerous inspection techniques, microwave sensing methods can be effectively used for NDT of FRP composites. FRP composite materials can be produced using various structures and materials, and various defects or flaws occur due to environmental conditions encountered during operation. However, reliable, low-cost, and easy-to-operate NDT methods have not been developed and tested. FRP composites are usually produced as multilayered structures consisting of fiber plate, matrix and core. Therefore, typical defects appearing in FRP composites are disbondings, delaminations, object inclusions, and certain kinds of barely visible impact damages. In this paper, we propose a microwave NDT method, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithms, for stand-off imaging of internal delaminations. When a microwave signal is incident on a multilayer dielectric material, the reflected signal provides a good response to interfaces and transverse cracks. An electromagnetic wave model is introduced to delineate interface widths or defect depths from the reflected waves. For the purpose of numerical analysis and simulation, multilayered composite samples with various artificial defects are assumed, and their SAR images are obtained and analyzed using a variety of high-resolution wideband waveforms.

  19. Hydrologic modeling of Guinale River Basin using HEC-HMS and synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Bien, Ferdinand E.; Plopenio, Joanaviva C.


    This paper presents the methods and results of hydrologic modeling of Guinale river basin through the use of HEC-HMS software and Synthetic Aperture Radar Digital Elevation Model (SAR DEM). Guinale River Basin is located in the province of Albay, Philippines which is one of the river basins covered by the Ateneo de Naga University (ADNU) Phil-LiDAR 1. This research project was funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) through the Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development (PCIEERD). Its objectives are to simulate the hydrologic model of Guinale River basin using HEC-HMS software and SAR DEM. Its basin covers an area of 165.395 and the hydrologic model was calibrated using the storm event typhoon Nona (international name Melor). Its parameter had undergone a series of optimization processes of HEC-HMS software in order to produce an acceptable level of model efficiency. The Nash-Sutcliffe (E), Percent Bias and Standard Deviation Ratio were used to measure the model efficiency, giving values of 0.880, 0.260 and 0.346 respectively which resulted to a "very good" performance rating of the model. The flood inundation model was simulated using Legazpi Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curves (RIDF) and HEC-RAS software developed by the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE). This hydrologic model will provide the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (MDRRMO), Local Government units (LGUs) and the community a tool for the prediction of runoff in the area.

  20. Deep Learning of Post-Wildfire Vegetation Loss using Bitemporal Synthetic Aperture Radar Images (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.


    Wildfire events followed by heavy precipitation have been proven causally related to breakouts of mudflow or debris flow, which, can demand rapid evacuation and threaten residential communities and civil infrastructure. For example, in the case of the city of Glendora, California, it was first afflicted by a severe wildfire in 1968 and then the flooding caused mudslides and debris flow in 1969 killed 34 people. Therefore, burn area or vegetation loss mapping due to wildfire is critical to agencies for preparing for secondary hazards, particularly flooding and flooding induced mudflow. However, rapid post-wildfire mapping of vegetation loss mapping is not readily obtained by regular remote sensing methods, e.g. various optical methods, due to the presence of smoke, haze, and rainy/cloudy conditions that often follow a wildfire event. In this paper, we will introduce and develop a deep learning-based framework that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar images collected prior to and after a wildfire event. A convolutional neural network (CNN) approach will be used that replaces traditional principle component analysis (PCA) based differencing for non-supervised change feature extraction. Using a small sample of human-labeled burned vegetation, normal vegetation, and urban built-up pixels, we will compare the performance of deep learning and PCA-based feature extraction. The 2014 Coby Fire event, which affected the downstream city of Glendora, was used to evaluate the proposed framework. The NASA's UAVSAR data ( will be utilized for mapping the vegetation damage due to the Coby Fire event.

  1. Fault Creep along the Southern San Andreas from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Permanent Scatterers, and Stacking (United States)

    Lyons, Suzanne; Sandwell, David


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides a practical means of mapping creep along major strike-slip faults. The small amplitude of the creep signal (less than 10 mm/yr), combined with its short wavelength, makes it difficult to extract from long time span interferograms, especially in agricultural or heavily vegetated areas. We utilize two approaches to extract the fault creep signal from 37 ERS SAR images along the southem San Andreas Fault. First, amplitude stacking is utilized to identify permanent scatterers, which are then used to weight the interferogram prior to spatial filtering. This weighting improves correlation and also provides a mask for poorly correlated areas. Second, the unwrapped phase is stacked to reduce tropospheric and other short-wavelength noise. This combined processing enables us to recover the near-field (approximately 200 m) slip signal across the fault due to shallow creep. Displacement maps fiom 60 interferograms reveal a diffuse secular strain buildup, punctuated by localized interseismic creep of 4-6 mm/yr line of sight (LOS, 12-18 mm/yr horizontal). With the exception of Durmid Hill, this entire segment of the southern San Andreas experienced right-lateral triggered slip of up to 10 cm during the 3.5-year period spanning the 1992 Landers earthquake. The deformation change following the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake was much smaller (4 cm) and broader than for the Landers event. Profiles across the fault during the interseismic phase show peak-to-trough amplitude ranging from 15 to 25 mm/yr (horizontal component) and the minimum misfit models show a range of creeping/locking depth values that fit the data.

  2. Improved measurements of mean sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas from synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Wergeland Hansen, Morten; Johnsen, Harald; Engen, Geir; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even


    The warm and saline surface Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland ridge transports heat into the Arctic, maintaining the ice-free oceans and regulating sea-ice extent. The AW influences the region's relatively mild climate and is the northern branch of the global thermohaline overturning circulation. Heat loss in the Norwegian Sea is key for both heat transport and deep water formation. In general, the ocean currents in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean is a complex system of topographically steered barotropic and baroclinic currents of which the wind stress and its variability is a driver of major importance. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Doppler centroid shift has been demonstrated to contain geophysical information about sea surface wind, waves and current at an accuracy of 5 Hz and pixel spacing of 3.5 - 9 × 8 km2. This corresponds to a horizontal surface velocity of about 20 cm/s at 35° incidence angle. The ESA Prodex ISAR project aims to implement new and improved SAR Doppler shift processing routines to enable reprocessing of the wide swath acquisitions available from the Envisat ASAR archive (2002-2012) at higher resolution and better accuracy than previously obtained, allowing combined use with Sentinel-1 and Radarsat-2 retrievals to build timeseries of the sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas. Estimation of the geophysical Doppler shift from new SAR Doppler centroid shift retrievals will be demonstrated, addressing key issues relating to geometric (satellite orbit and attitude) and electronic (antenna mis-pointing) contributions and corrections. Geophysical Doppler shift retrievals from one month of data in January 2010 and the inverted surface velocity in the Nordic Seas are then addressed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, in particular those obtained in the ESA GlobCurrent project.

  3. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar: Current status and future directions. A report to the Committee on Earth Sciences, Space Studies Board, National Research Council (United States)

    Evans, D. L. (Editor); Apel, J.; Arvidson, R.; Bindschadler, R.; Carsey, F.; Dozier, J.; Jezek, K.; Kasischke, E.; Li, F.; Melack, J.


    This report provides a context in which questions put forth by NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMPTE) regarding the next steps in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology can be addressed. It summarizes the state-of-the-art in theory, experimental design, technology, data analysis, and utilization of SAR data for studies of the Earth, and describes potential new applications. The report is divided into five science chapters and a technology assessment. The chapters summarize the value of existing SAR data and currently planned SAR systems, and identify gaps in observational capabilities needing to be filled to address the scientific questions. Cases where SAR provides complementary data to other (non-SAR) measurement techniques are also described. The chapter on technology assessment outlines SAR technology development which is critical not only to NASA's providing societally relevant geophysical parameters but to maintaining competitiveness in SAR technology, and promoting economic development.

  4. Transmit/Receive Spatial Smoothing with Improved Effective Array Aperture for Angle and Mutual Coupling Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haomiao Liu


    Full Text Available We proposed a transmit/receive spatial smoothing with improved effective aperture approach for angle and mutual coupling estimation in bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, the noise in each channel is restrained, by exploiting its independency, in both the spatial domain and temporal domain. Then the augmented transmit and receive spatial smoothing matrices with improved effective aperture are obtained, by exploiting the Vandermonde structure of steering vector with uniform linear array. The DOD and DOA can be estimated by utilizing the unitary ESPRIT algorithm. Finally, the mutual coupling coefficients of both the transmitter and the receiver can be figured out with the estimated angles of DOD and DOA. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens


    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  6. River Delta Subsidence Measured with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) (United States)

    Higgins, Stephanie

    This thesis addresses the need for high-resolution subsidence maps of major world river deltas. Driven by a combination of rising water, sediment compaction, and reduced sediment supply due to damming and flood control, many deltas are sinking relative to sea level. A lack of data constraining rates and patterns of subsidence has made it difficult to determine the relative contributions of each factor in any given delta, however, or to assess whether the primary drivers of land subsidence are natural or anthropogenic. In recent years, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has emerged as a satellite-based technique that can map ground deformation with mm-scale accuracy over thousands of square kilometers. These maps could provide critical insight into the drivers of subsidence in deltas, but InSAR is not typically applied to non-urban delta areas due to the difficulties of performing the technique in wet, vegetated settings. This thesis addresses those difficulties and achieves high-resolution measurements of ground deformation in rural deltaic areas. Chapter 1 introduces the processes that drive relative sea level rise in river deltas and investigates open questions in delta subsidence research. Chapter 2 assesses the performance of InSAR in delta settings and reviews interferogram generation in the context of delta analysis, presenting delta-specific processing details and guiding interpretation in these challenging areas. Chapter 3 applies Differential (D-) InSAR to the coast of the Yellow River Delta in China. Results show that subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y due to groundwater extraction at aquaculture facilities, a rate that exceeds local and global average sea level rise by nearly two orders of magnitude and suggests a significant hazard for Asian megadeltas. Chapter 4 applies interferometric stacking and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS)-InSAR to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh. Results show that stratigraphy controls subsidence in

  7. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  8. Sea Ice Deformation State From Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery - Part II: Effects of Spatial Resolution and Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang; Dall, Jørgen


    C- and L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired at like- and cross-polarization over sea ice under winter conditions is examined with the objective to study the discrimination between level ice and ice deformation features. High-resolution low-noise data were analysed in th...... ice. The retrieval of deformation parameters using simulated images that resemble ERS-2 SAR, Envisat ASAR and ALOS PALSAR data products is discussed. Basic differences between real and simulated ERS-2 SAR images are analyzed....

  9. Brief Communication: Contrast-stretching- and histogram-smoothness-based synthetic aperture radar image enhancement for flood map generation (United States)

    Nazir, F.; Riaz, M. M.; Ghafoor, A.; Arif, F.


    Synthetic-aperture-radar-image-based flood map generation is usually a challenging task (due to degraded contrast). A three-step approach (based on adaptive histogram clipping, histogram remapping and smoothing) is proposed for generation of a more visualized flood map image. The pre- and post-flood images are adaptively histogram equalized. The hidden details in difference image are enhanced using contrast-based enhancement and histogram smoothing. A fast-ready flood map is then generated using equalized pre-, post- and difference images. Results (evaluated using different data sets) show significance of the proposed technique.

  10. Nonrigid synthetic aperture radar and optical image coregistration by combining local rigid transformations using a Kohonen network. (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehdi; Behrad, Alireza


    This study proposes a new algorithm for nonrigid coregistration of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical images. The proposed algorithm employs point features extracted by the binary robust invariant scalable keypoints algorithm and a new method called weighted bidirectional matching for initial correspondence. To refine false matches, we assume that the transformation between SAR and optical images is locally rigid. This property is used to refine false matches by assigning scores to matched pairs and clustering local rigid transformations using a two-layer Kohonen network. Finally, the thin plate spline algorithm and mutual information are used for nonrigid coregistration of SAR and optical images.

  11. Radar image processing of real aperture SLAR data for the detection and identification of iceberg and ship targets (United States)

    Marthaler, J. G.; Heighway, J. E.


    An iceberg detection and identification system consisting of a moderate resolution Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) interfaced with a Radar Image Processor (RIP) based on a ROLM 1664 computer with a 32K core memory updatable to 64K is described. The system can be operated in high- or low-resolution sampling modes. Specifically designed algorithms are applied to digitized signal returns to provide automatic target detection and location, geometrically correct video image display and data recording. The real aperture Motorola AN/APS-94D SLAR operates in the X-band and is tunable between 9.10 and 9.40 GHz; its output power is 45 kW peak with a pulse repetition rate of 750 pulses per hour. Schematic diagrams of the system are provided, together with preliminary test data.

  12. Coseismic Deformation of Chi-Chi Earthquake as Detected by Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry and GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Hsieh Tian-Yuan Shih


    Full Text Available A rupture in the Chelungpu fault caused an Mw 7.6 earthquake on 21 September 1999 near Chi-Chi in central Taiwan. This earthquake was the most destructive experienced in Taiwan for the past century along this fault. In this study, we examined the earthquake-induced surface deformation pattern using differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (D-InSAR combined with global positioning system (GPS data regarding the footwall of the Chelungpu fault. Six synthetic aperture radar (SAR scenes, approximately 100 × 100 km each, recorded by the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 (ERS-2, spanning the rupture area, were selected for study. The data were used to generate a high-resolution, wide-area map of displacements in flat or semi-flat areas. Interferograms show radar line contours indicating line-of-sight (LOS changes corresponding to surface displacements caused by earthquake ruptures. These results were compared to synthetic interferograms generated from GPS data. Displacements shown by GPS data were interpolated onto wide-area maps and transformed to coincide with the radar LOS direction. The resulting coseismic displacement contour map showed a lobed pattern consistent with the precise GPSbased displacement field. Highly accurate vertical displacement was determined using D-InSAR data using the coordinate transform method, while GPS data was effective in showing the horizontal component. Thus, this study confirmed the effectiveness of the D-InSAR method for determining the coseismic deformation caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake at the footwall of the Chelungpu fault.

  13. Screening Mississippi River Levees Using Texture-Based and Polarimetric-Based Features from Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Dabbiru


    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing data for earthen levee mapping with an emphasis on finding the slump slides on the levees. Earthen levees built on the natural levees parallel to the river channel are designed to protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the Unites States from flooding. One of the signs of potential impending levee failure is the appearance of slump slides. On-site inspection of levees is expensive and time-consuming; therefore, a need to develop efficient techniques based on remote sensing technologies is mandatory to prevent failures under flood loading. Analysis of multi-polarized radar data is one of the viable tools for detecting the problem areas on the levees. In this study, we develop methods to detect anomalies on the levee, such as slump slides and give levee managers new tools to prioritize their tasks. This paper presents results of applying the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL’s Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR quad-polarized L-band data to detect slump slides on earthen levees. The study area encompasses a portion of levees of the lower Mississippi River in the United States. In this paper, we investigate the performance of polarimetric and texture features for efficient levee classification. Texture features derived from the gray level co-occurrence (GLCM matrix and discrete wavelet transform were computed and analyzed for efficient levee classification. The pixel-based polarimetric decomposition features, such as entropy, anisotropy, and scattering angle were also computed and applied to the support vector machine classifier to characterize the radar imagery and compared the results with texture-based classification. Our experimental results showed that inclusion of textural features derived from the SAR data using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT features and GLCM features provided

  14. Development of an Airborne Ka-band FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, J.J.M.


    In the field of airborne earth observation there is a special interest in lightweight, low cost imaging radars of high resolution. Such radar systems could play an essential role in small-scale earth observation applications such as the monitoring of dikes, watercourses or areas in which gas pipes

  15. Ground deformation occurring in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, and observed by Envisat interferometric synthetic aperture radar during 2003-2007 (United States)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Tiampo, Kristy; GonzáLez, Pablo J.; Manville, Vernon; Jolly, Gill


    In this study we present modeling results derived from ground deformation observed in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) by the C-band Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar. Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand with a current population of over one million, coincides with the AVF, which comprises about 50 individual, largely monogenetic, basaltic volcanoes distributed across a total area of 360 km2. The most recent and largest eruption there occurred 600 years ago. While it is anticipated that the chance of any existing volcano reawakening is very low, a new volcano could be created at any time in a new location within the field. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for mapping ground deformation associated with magma ascent, which would be a likely precursor to the onset of volcanic activity. For this study we acquired and processed 23 single look complex (SLC) images from the Envisat satellite (Track 151, Frame 6442, IS2, VV) spanning from July 2003 until November 2007. All possible combinations of differential interferograms were created. Stacking, Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Permanent Scatterers (PS) processing algorithms were used to determine spatial and temporal patterns of surface deformation as well as their average rates. A number of localized deformation regions were consistently observed by all three techniques. Due to a lack of evidence pointing toward a relationship with volcanic or tectonic sources it was assumed that they are produced by groundwater withdrawal and recharge. Three largest regions of subsidence (S1-S3) and also three largest regions of uplift (U1-U3) were modeled with the derivative-free simplex algorithms for location, depth and source volume change using a Mogi point source approximation. The results show that InSAR is a viable technique capable of detecting the scale, rate and spatial distribution of precursory deformation that would likely be associated with

  16. Statement of capabilities: Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology applied to mine detection and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Gavel, D.T.; Mast, J.E.; Warhus, J.P.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed radar and imaging technologies with potential applications in mine detection by the armed forces and other agencies involved in demining efforts. These new technologies use a patented ultra-wideband (impulse) radar technology that is compact, low-cost, and low power. Designated as Micropower Impulse Radar, these compact, self-contained radars can easily be assembled into arrays to form complete ground penetrating radar imaging systems. LLNL has also developed tomographic reconstruction and signal processing software capable of producing high-resolution 2-D and 3-D images of objects buried in materials like soil or concrete from radar data. Preliminary test results have shown that a radar imaging system using these technologies has the ability to image both metallic and plastic land mine surrogate targets buried in 5 to 10 cm of moist soil. In dry soil, the system can detect buried objects to a depth of 30 cm and more. This report describes LLNL`s unique capabilities and technologies that can be applied to the demining problem.

  17. Investigating the backscatter contrast anomaly in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the dunes along the Israel-Egypt border (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Siegal, Zehava; Blumberg, Dan G.; Adamowski, Jan


    The dune field intersected by the Israel-Egypt borderline has attracted many remote sensing studies over the years because it exhibits unique optical phenomena in several domains, from the visual to the thermal infrared. These phenomena are the result of land-use policies implemented by the two countries, which have differing effects on the two ecosystems. This study explores the surface properties that affect radar backscatter, namely the surface roughness and dielectric properties, in order to determine the cause for the variation across the border. The backscatter contrast was demonstrated for SIR-C, the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor to capture this phenomenon, as well as ASAR imagery that coincides with complementary ground observations. These field observations along the border, together with an aerial image from the same year as the SIR-C acquisition were used to analyze differences in vegetation patterns that can affect the surface roughness. The dielectric permittivity of two kinds of topsoil (sand, biocrust) was measured in the field and in the laboratory. The results suggest that the vegetation structure and spatial distribution differ between the two sides of the border in a manner that is consistent with the radar observations. The dielectric permittivity of sand and biocrust was found to be similar, although they are not constant across the radar spectral region (50 MHz-20 GHz). These findings support the hypothesis that changes to the vegetation, as a consequence of the different land-use practices in Israel and Egypt, are the cause for the radar backscatter contrast across the border.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Ecological Forecasting - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Population Assessment and Management using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data (United States)

    Laygo, K.; Jones, I.; Huerta, J.; Holt, B.


    Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the largest vertebrates in the world and is in high demand in sushi markets. It is a highly political species and is managed internationally by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea are the only two known spawning sites in the world. However, there is a large variance in estimates of adult Atlantic Tuna spawning. This research focuses on extending Earth science research results to existing decision-making systems, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)for population assessment and management of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. The research team is a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary team composed of government (NOAA_NMFS), academic (University of South Florida Institute for Marine Remote Sensing) and commercial (Roffer’s Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc.) institutions. Their goal is to reduce the variance in the estimates of adult Bluefin Tuna spawning stock abundance in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Therefore, this paper will be derived from the innovative use of several earth orbiting satellites focusing on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to identify Sargassum, which is a floating marine algae that may be relevant to the presence of Bluefin Tuna aggregations. The SAR imagery will be examined in combination with MODIS and MERIS Chlorophyll-a products to detect fine-scale surface current shear, eddy and frontal features, as well as biological slicks due to the presence of Sargassum. In addition, wind records from NOAA buoy data will be studied to analyze wind patterns in the Gulf of Mexico. The fine-resolution, all-weather capabilities of SAR provide a valuable complement to optical/IR sensors, which are often impacted by cloud cover. This study will provide an assessment of whether or not SAR can contribute to decision support efforts relevant to commercial fisheries

  19. Development of NASA's Next Generation L-Band Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR-2) (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ranson, K. Jon; Marrero, Victor; Yeary, Mark


    NASA's Next generation Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR-2) is a state-of-the-art airborne L-band radar developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The instrument builds upon the advanced architectures in NASA's DBSAR-1 and EcoSAR instruments. The new instrument employs a 16-channel radar architecture characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instrument has been design to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. The instrument was recently completed, and tested and calibrated in a anechoic chamber.

  20. JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics...

  1. Visualization and Data Analysis Techniques for Ultra-Wideband Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Lam


    .... The software can be employed in both field test and laboratory situations. In a field test, it provides a tool to perform certain signal processing tasks and to quickly assess radar data quality...

  2. Continuous monitoring of biophysical Eucalyptus sp. parameters using interferometric synthetic aperture radar data in P and X bands (United States)

    Gama, Fábio Furlan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Mura, José Claudio


    This work aims to verify the applicability of models obtained using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for estimation of biophysical Eucalyptus saligna parameters [diameter of breast height (DBH), total height and volume], as a method of continuous forest inventory. In order to obtain different digital elevation models, and the interferometric height (Hint) to retrieve the tree heights, SAR surveying was carried out by an airborne interferometric SAR in two frequencies X and P bands. The study area, located in the Brazilian southeast region (S 22°53‧22″/W 45°26‧16″ and S 22°53‧22″/W 45°26‧16″), comprises 128.64 hectares of Eucalyptus saligna stands. The methodological procedures encompassed: forest inventory, topographic surveying, radar mapping, radar processing, and multivariable regression techniques to build Eucalyptus volume, DBH, and height models. The statistical regression pointed out Hint and interferometric coherence as the most important variables for the total height and DBH estimation; for the volume model, however, only the Hint variable was selected. The performance of the biophysical models from the second campaign, two years later (2006), were consistent and its results are very promising for updating annual inventories needed for managing Eucalyptus plantations.

  3. Analysis of Approximations and Aperture Distortion for 3D Migration of Bistatic Radar Data with the Two-Step Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanzi Luigi


    Full Text Available The two-step approach is a fast algorithm for 3D migration originally introduced to process zero-offset seismic data. Its application to monostatic GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar data is straightforward. A direct extension of the algorithm for the application to bistatic radar data is possible provided that the TX-RX azimuth is constant. As for the zero-offset case, the two-step operator is exactly equivalent to the one-step 3D operator for a constant velocity medium and is an approximation of the one-step 3D operator for a medium where the velocity varies vertically. Two methods are explored for handling a heterogeneous medium; both are suitable for the application of the two-step approach, and they are compared in terms of accuracy of the final 3D operator. The aperture of the two-step operator is discussed, and a solution is proposed to optimize its shape. The analysis is of interest for any NDT application where the medium is expected to be heterogeneous, or where the antenna is not in direct contact with the medium (e.g., NDT of artworks, humanitarian demining, radar with air-launched antennas.

  4. The need for separate operational and engineering user interfaces for command and control of airborne synthetic aperture radar systems (United States)

    Klein, Laura M.; McNamara, Laura A.


    In this paper, we address the needed components to create usable engineering and operational user interfaces (UIs) for airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. As airborne SAR technology gains wider acceptance in the remote sensing and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) communities, the need for effective and appropriate UIs to command and control these sensors has also increased. However, despite the growing demand for SAR in operational environments, the technology still faces an adoption roadblock, in large part due to the lack of effective UIs. It is common to find operational interfaces that have barely grown beyond the disparate tools engineers and technologists developed to demonstrate an initial concept or system. While sensor usability and utility are common requirements to engineers and operators, their objectives for interacting with the sensor are different. As such, the amount and type of information presented ought to be tailored to the specific application.

  5. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network (United States)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor


    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  6. Inshore ship detection using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar images based on maximally stable extremal region (United States)

    Wang, Qingping; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongyu; Yuan, Naichang


    We present a method for detecting inshore ships using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The method first applies preprocessing steps to obtain the solving region of an SAR image, suitable for the berthing rules. Then the ship candidates are extracted based on a maximally stable extremal region detector, while ship detection is applied using an improved constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector. Finally, based on discrimination processing, false alarms are removed according to compactness, therefore the ultimate detection result is obtained without interference from strong terrestrial clutter or man-made objects. Experimental results show that this method could achieve effective detection of ships in harbors using high-resolution SAR images. This method can reduce the required computation time by 99.7%, compared with the traditional CFAR method.

  7. Imaging method for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar based on reweighted atomic norm (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Han, Kuoye; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Bingchen; Liu, Jianguo; Hong, Wen


    We propose an imaging algorithm for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) in the circumstance of cross-track sparse and nonuniform array configuration. Considering the off-grid effect and the resolution improvement, the algorithm combines pseudo-polar formatting algorithm, reweighed atomic norm minimization (RANM), and a parametric relaxation-based cyclic approach (RELAX) to improve the imaging performance with a reduced number of array antennas. RANM is employed in the cross-track imaging after pseudo-polar formatting the DLSLA 3-D SAR echo signal, then the reconstructed results are refined by RELAX. By taking advantage of the reweighted scheme, RANM can improve the resolution of the atomic norm minimization, and outperforms discretized compressive sensing schemes that suffer from off-grid effect. The simulated and real data experiments of DLSLA 3-D SAR verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sourcesof production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.


    We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to imageground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal fieldduring different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elasticinversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March,1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this timeperiod were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within thevalley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence andsubsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressureand volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localizedupflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdownwithin the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our resultsalso suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in theshallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont faultzones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears tobe controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament ofas yet unknown origin.

  9. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio


    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  10. Evidence for on-going inflation of the Socorro Magma Body, New Mexico, from interferometric synthetic aperture radar imaging (United States)

    Fialko, Yuri; Simons, Mark

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imaging of the central Rio Grande rift (New Mexico, USA) during 1992-1999 reveals a crustal uplift of several centimeters that spatially coincides with the seismologically determined outline of the Socorro magma body, one of the largest currently active magma intrusions in the Earth’s continental crust. Modeling of interferograms shows that the observed deformation may be due to elastic opening of a sill-like intrusion at a rate of a few millimeters per year. Despite an apparent constancy of the geodetically determined uplift rate, thermodynamic arguments suggest that it is unlikely that the Socorro magma body has formed via steady state elastic inflation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tsyganskaya


    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm designed to map flooded vegetation from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is introduced. The approach is based on fuzzy logic which enables to deal with the ambiguity of SAR data and to integrate multiple ancillary data containing topographical information, simple hydraulic considerations and land cover information. This allows the exclusion of image elements with a backscatter value similar to flooded vegetation, to significantly reduce misclassification errors. The flooded vegetation mapping procedure is tested on a flood event that occurred in Germany over parts of the Saale catchment on January 2011 using a time series of high resolution TerraSAR-X data covering the time interval from 2009 to 2015. The results show that the analysis of multi-temporal X-band data combined with ancillary data using a fuzzy logic-based approach permits the detection of flooded vegetation areas.

  12. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep


    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager – Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  13. Modeling surface deformation observed with synthetic aperture radar interferometry at Campi Flegrei caldera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundgren, P.; Usai, S.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.; Tesauro, M.; Fornaro, G.; Berardino, P.


    Satellite radar interferometry of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, reveals a pattern of subsidence during the period 1993–1998. Interferograms spanning the first half of the observation period (1993–1995) have a lower amplitude and average rate of subsidence than those spanning either the second half

  14. HI-CLASS on AEOS: A Large Aperture Laser Radar for Space Surveillance/ Situational Awareness Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uroden, M


    ...) laser radar systems at MSSS. The paper reviews the first generation kilowatt class ladar/lidar HI-CLASS/LBD systems as the foundation for a second-generation ladar system that was developed under the AFRL/DE ALVA program...

  15. Road-Aided Ground Slowly Moving Target 2D Motion Estimation for Single-Channel Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirui Wang


    Full Text Available To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR, a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target’s position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target’s offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target’s azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar application for tropical peatlands classification: a case study in Siak River Transect, Riau Province, Indonesia (United States)

    Novresiandi, Dandy Aditya; Nagasawa, Ryota


    Mapping spatial distributions of tropical peatlands is important for properly estimating carbon emissions and for providing information that aids in the sustainable management of tropical peatlands, particularly in Indonesia. This study evaluated the performance of phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) dual-polarization and fully polarimetric data for tropical peatlands classification. The study area was in Siak River Transect, Riau Province, Indonesia, a rapidly developing region, where the peatland has been intensively converted mostly into oil palm plantations over the last two decades. Thus, polarimetric features derived after polarimetric decompositions, backscatter coefficients measurements, and the radar vegetation index were evaluated to classify tropical peatlands using the decision tree classifier. Overall, polarimetric features generated by the combination of dual-polarization and fully polarimetric data yielded an overall accuracy (OA) of 69% and a kappa coefficient (K) of 0.57. The integration of an additional feature, "distance to river," to the algorithm increased the OA to 76% and K to 0.66. These results indicated that the methodology in this study might serve as an efficient tool in tropical peatlands classification, especially when involving the use of L-band SAR dual-polarization and fully polarimetric data.

  17. Tracking lava flow emplacement on the east rift zone of Kilauea, Hawai’i with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherence (United States)

    Dietterich, Hannah R.; Poland, Michael P.; Schmidt, David; Cashman, Katharine V.; Sherrod, David R.; Espinosa, Arkin Tapia


    Lava flow mapping is both an essential component of volcano monitoring and a valuable tool for investigating lava flow behavior. Although maps are traditionally created through field surveys, remote sensing allows an extraordinary view of active lava flows while avoiding the difficulties of mapping on location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, in particular, can detect changes in a flow field by comparing two images collected at different times with SAR coherence. New lava flows radically alter the scattering properties of the surface, making the radar signal decorrelated in SAR coherence images. We describe a new technique, SAR Coherence Mapping (SCM), to map lava flows automatically from coherence images independent of look angle or satellite path. We use this approach to map lava flow emplacement during the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha eruption at Kīlauea, Hawai‘i. The resulting flow maps correspond well with field mapping and better resolve the internal structure of surface flows, as well as the locations of active flow paths. However, the SCM technique is only moderately successful at mapping flows that enter vegetation, which is also often decorrelated between successive SAR images. Along with measurements of planform morphology, we are able to show that the length of time a flow stays decorrelated after initial emplacement is linearly related to the flow thickness. Finally, we use interferograms obtained after flow surfaces become correlated to show that persistent decorrelation is caused by post-emplacement flow subsidence.

  18. Analysis of Surface Patterns over Cobb Seamount Using Synthetic-Aperture Radar Imagery. (United States)


    McCandless and Mrazek, 1982). The alteration of surface wave patterns in the vicinity of deep water features has been reported by Robinson (1985), but the...getting lost in the large array of data and options: Jerome Williams and Samuel McCandless . Finally, I would also like to thank the person who has...Radar. JPL Publication 81-120. 1982. Garrett, Christopher , and Walter Munk. "Internal Waves in the Ocean". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 1979

  19. The derivation of sub-canopy surface terrain models of coastal forests using synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Gesch, D. B.


    Radar data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B mission covering a portion of the Mouths of the Ganges forests were used to create a terrain model for use in determining tidal flow and eventual nutrient transport from the forest to the marine habitat. Results show that good digital topographic terrain models of wet coastal forests can be generated using multiple sets of L-band SAR and ancillary tide elevation data. The dominance of the interaction phenomenon in the radar backscatter of flooded forests can be used to create sub-canopy inundation maps which when merged with tide surface data can be used to generate reasonable topographic models. Ideally models could be improved by using multiple sets of data at a constant incidence angle over the total tide range. The optimal angle for the SAR depends upon the characteristics of the forest. The range of 46 to 57 deg seems applicable to the 12.5 m tall closed canopy in this example. Such models can be an extremely valuable tool for studying and mapping the mangal ecosystem.

  20. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)Systems: State of the Art and Future Developments


    Moreira, Alberto; Krieger, Gerhard


    This paper first summarizes the state of the art in spaceborne SAR systems and applications.The second part of this paper gives an overview of new concepts,techniques and technologies for future SAR systems,allowing an increase of flexibility in the SAR operation mode as well as a reduction in the overall system costs.Several innovative concepts and technologies as bi- and multi-static configurations,parasitic SAR,sparse aperture systems and digital beamforming will play an important role for...

  1. Borehole radar directionality in the time domain in small aperture antennas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, DR


    Full Text Available waveform. A sampling rate of 2.56 GHz is used, for a sample time of 391 ps. III. DIRECTION DETERMINATION METHOD The process proposed here takes the configuration of an Adcock antenna, with four dipole antennas arranged at the corners of a square...., and Vogt, D., “Small directional borehole radar antennas; numerical modelling method” in 10th SAGA Biennial Technical Meeting and Exhibition, Wild Coast 24 - 26 October, 171 – 175 (2007). [5] Osman, N., Simmat, C., Hargreaves, J and Mason, I., “Three...

  2. Optimization of Soil Hydraulic Model Parameters Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauwels, Valentijn; Balenzano, Anna; Satalino, Giuseppe


    that no direct relationships between the remote-sensing observations, more specifically radar backscatter values, and the parameter values can be derived. However, land surface models can provide these relationships. The objective of this paper is to retrieve a number of soil physical model parameters through...... model is, thus, used to determine the relationship between the soil physical parameters and the remote-sensing data. An analysis is then performed, relating the retrieved soil parameters to the soil texture data available over the study area. The results of the study show that there is a potential...

  3. Temporal Decorrelation Effect in Carbon Stocks Estimation Using Polarimetric Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR (Case Study: Southeast Sulawesi Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode M Golok Jaya


    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to analyse the effect of temporal decorrelation in carbon stocks estimation. Estimation of carbon stocks plays important roles particularly to understand the global carbon cycle in the atmosphere regarding with climate change mitigation effort. PolInSAR technique combines the advantages of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR and Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR technique, which is evidenced to have significant contribution in radar mapping technology in the last few years. In carbon stocks estimation, PolInSAR provides information about vertical vegetation structure to estimate carbon stocks in the forest layers. Two coherence Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of ALOS PALSAR full-polarimetric with 46 days temporal baseline were used in this research. The study was carried out in Southeast Sulawesi tropical forest. The research method was by comparing three interferometric phase coherence images affected by temporal decorrelation and their impacts on Random Volume over Ground (RvoG model. This research showed that 46 days temporal baseline has a significant impact to estimate tree heights of the forest cover where the accuracy decrease from R2=0.7525 (standard deviation of tree heights is 2.75 meters to R2=0.4435 (standard deviation 4.68 meters and R2=0.3772 (standard deviation 3.15 meters respectively. However, coherence optimisation can provide the best coherence image to produce a good accuracy of carbon stocks.

  4. Forecasting slope failures from space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements (United States)

    Wasowski, J.; Bovenga, F.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Tijani, K.; Morea, A.


    New space-borne radar sensors enable multi-scale monitoring of potentially unstable slopes thanks to wide-area coverage (tens of thousands km2), regular long-term image acquisition schedule with increasing re-visit frequency (weekly to daily), and high measurement precision (mm). In particular, the recent radar satellite missions e.g., COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), Sentinel-1 (S-1) and improved multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) processing techniques allow timely delivery of information on slow ground surface displacements. Here we use two case study examples to show that it is possible to capture pre-failure slope strains through long-term MTI-based monitoring. The first case is a retrospective investigation of a huge 500ML m3 landslide, which occurred in Sept. 2016 in a large, active open-cast coal mine in central Europe. We processed over 100 S-1 images acquired since Fall 2014. The MTI results showed that the slope that failed had been unstable at least since 2014. Importantly, we detected consistent displacement trends and trend changes, which can be used for slope failure forecasting. Specifically, we documented significant acceleration in slope surface displacement in the two months preceding the catastrophic failure. The second case of retrospectively captured pre-failure slope strains regards our earlier study of a small 50 m long landslide, which occurred on Jan. 2014 and caused the derailment of a train on the railway line connecting NW Italy to France. We processed 56 CSK images acquired from Fall 2008 to Spring 2014. The MTI results revealed pre-failure displacements of the engineering structures on the slope subsequently affected by the 2014 slide. The analysis of the MTI time series further showed that the displacements had been occurring since 2009. This information could have been used to forewarn the railway authority about the slope instability hazard. The above examples indicate that more frequent and consistent image acquisitions by the new radar

  5. Surface deformation measured with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Case studies of basin and range and Garlock-San Andreas fault (United States)

    Greene, Fernando

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used to detect ground deformation from varieties of geophysical origins. However, most studies lack the spatial and temporal resolutions to better characterize such observations. The purpose of this research is to use multi-track satellite radar imagery to generate time series to study and monitor vertical ground deformation over large regions such as the Nevada portion of the Basin and Range Province and the western end of the Mojave Desert. We developed an innovative method to remove horizontal movements from InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) observations using a GPS velocity field and subsequently combine the multi-track imagery resulting in one single high spatial resolution map of observed vertical crustal and surface movements. By implementing this technique we detect vertical deformation signals with short and intermediate wavelength signals associated to tectonic processes such as interseismic and postseismic deformation. In Central Nevada Seismic Belt we detect in three independent orbits a broad area of uplift that confirms results of previous studies that associate the origin of this signal to post-seimic deformation of the historic earthquakes at this region. In south-central Nevada we detect several valleys that show a gradual eastward tilt of the valley floors due to deep geodynamical processes. The valleys located at the eastern side of Ruby Mountains show a range decrease that could indicate uplift related to magma intrusion or post-seismic deformation due to older, unrecognized earthquakes. In the Big Bend segment in southern California we detect vertical uplift as expected by mechanical models of interseismic deformation. Additionaly all our velocity maps reveal small wavelength deformation signals of anthropogenic origin.

  6. Automatic Synthetic Aperture Radar based oil spill detection and performance estimation via a semi-automatic operational service benchmark. (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Vespe, Michele; Trieschmann, Olaf


    Today the health of ocean is in danger as it was never before mainly due to man-made pollutions. Operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spill in European waters. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar represents an effective option for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a fully automated approach for oil spill detection from SAR. Total of 41 feature parameters extracted from each segmented dark spot for oil spill and 'look-alike' classification and ranked according to their importance. The classification algorithm is based on a two-stage processing that combines classification tree analysis and fuzzy logic. An initial evaluation of this methodology on a large dataset has been carried out and degree of agreement between results from proposed algorithm and human analyst was estimated between 85% and 93% respectively for ENVISAT and RADARSAT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lithology-controlled subsidence and seasonal aquifer response in the Bandung basin, Indonesia, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry (United States)

    Khakim, Mokhamad Yusup Nur; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    Land subsidence in the Bandung basin, West Java, Indonesia, is characterized based on differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) and interferometric point target analysis (IPTA). We generated interferograms from 21 ascending SAR images over the period 1 January 2007 to 3 March 2011. The estimated subsidence history shows that subsidence continuously increased reaching a cumulative 45 cm during this period, and the linear subsidence rate reached ∼12 cm/yr. This significant subsidence occurred in the industrial and densely populated residential regions of the Bandung basin where large amounts of groundwater are consumed. However, in several areas the subsidence patterns do not correlate with the distribution of groundwater production wells and mapped aquifer degradation. We conclude that groundwater production controls subsidence, but lithology is a counteracting factor for subsidence in the Bandung basin. Moreover, seasonal trends of nonlinear surface deformations are highly related with the variation of rainfall. They indicate that there is elastic expansion (rebound) of aquifer system response to seasonal-natural recharge during rainy season.

  8. Modelling of deformations occurring in the city of Auckland, New Zealand and observed by Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Samsonov, S.; Tiampo, K.; Manville, V.; Jolly, G.


    Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with a current population of over one million. It is situated on a basaltic volcanic field which consist of over 50 individual largely monogenetic volcanoes with a total area of 360 sq. km. The most recent and largest eruption occurred 600 years ago, and was witnessed by local inhabitants. It is anticipated that the chance of reawakening of a past volcano is very low; however, a new volcano could be created at any time in a new location within the field. In this work we present results of modelling of the deformations that occurred in the city of Auckland from 18 July 2003 to 9 November 2007. These deformations were observed by the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar on ENVISAT satellite (Track 151, Frame 6442, IS2, VV). Stacking, Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Permanent Scatterers (PS) processing algorithms where used to determine spatial and temporal patterns of surface deformation as well as average rates. A number of localized deformation regions were consistently observed by all three techniques. Three regions of subsidence are believed to be caused by groundwater extraction. And three source of uplift are modeled here as volcanic sources, however, the volcanic nature of these uplifts has not been confirmed.

  9. FrFT-CSWSF: Estimating cross-range velocities of ground moving targets using multistatic synthetic aperture radar

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    Li Chenlei


    Full Text Available Estimating cross-range velocity is a challenging task for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which is important for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Because the velocity of a target is very small compared with that of the satellite, it is difficult to correctly estimate it using a conventional monostatic platform algorithm. To overcome this problem, a novel method employing multistatic SAR is presented in this letter. The proposed hybrid method, which is based on an extended space-time model (ESTIM of the azimuth signal, has two steps: first, a set of finite impulse response (FIR filter banks based on a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT is used to separate multiple targets within a range gate; second, a cross-correlation spectrum weighted subspace fitting (CSWSF algorithm is applied to each of the separated signals in order to estimate their respective parameters. As verified through computer simulation with the constellations of Cartwheel, Pendulum and Helix, this proposed time-frequency-subspace method effectively improves the estimation precision of the cross-range velocities of multiple targets.

  10. Brief Analysis on the Development and Application of Multi-Input Multi-Output Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wei


    Full Text Available Recently, a novel conception of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based on Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO technology draws much attention for its potential advantages. MIMO-SAR could obtain much more equivalent channels than the number of the physical array elements by simultaneously utilizing multiple antennas at transmission and reception. These additional channels are demonstrated to be useful for the application of High-Resolution Wide-Swath (HRWS imaging and slowly moving target indication. In this paper, a detailed discussion on the conception and connotation of MIMO-SAR is made firstly, and then the investigation states of MIMO-SAR, such as high range resolution SAR imaging, three-dimensional down-looking SAR imaging, HRWS imaging and Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI, are discussed. Base on the discussion mentioned above, the advantages and disadvantages of MIMO-SAR system are analyzed, and the key technical issues in MIMO-SAR are summarized. At last, the prospects of MIMO-SAR application are pointed out.

  11. Accurate sea-land segmentation using ratio of average constrained graph cut for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    She, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Xiaolan; Lei, Bin


    Separating sea surface and land areas in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is challenging yet of great importance to coastline extraction and subsequent coastal classification. Results of the previous state-of-art methods often suffer from a number of limitations that arise from the presence of the speckle effect and the inadequate returned signal around the boundaries. We propose a graph cut (GC)-based approach to tackle these limitations and achieve accurate sea-land segmentation results. To be more specific, as the first step, three powerful multipolarization features are extracted from the polarimetric SAR data as descriptors to fully characterize the sea area and land area. Starting from that, seeds of the sea and land are selected automatically to build the prior model for GC. Based on the prior model, we construct the undirected graph in GC using the multipolarization descriptors. Finally, we incorporate the ratio of average operator to eliminate the speckle effect and get finer results for some finer structures. Experiments on Radarsat-2 quad-polarization images demonstrate significantly improved results of our proposed algorithms compared with several state-of-the-art methods in terms of both quantitative and visual performance.

  12. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  13. Wave-current interaction study in the Gulf of Alaska for detection of eddies by synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chich Y.; Schumacher, James D.


    High resolution Esa Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are used to detect a mesoscale eddy. Such features limit dispersal of pollock larvae and therefore likely influence recruitment of fish in the Gulf of Alaska. During high sea states and high winds, the direct surface signature of the eddy was not clearly visible, but the wave refraction in the eddy area was observed. The rays of the wave field are traced out directly from the SAR image. The ray pattern gives information on the refraction pattern and on the relative variation of the wave energy along a ray through wave current interaction. These observations are simulated by a ray-tracing model which incorporates a surface current field associated with the eddy. The numerical results of the model show that the waves are refracted and diverge in the eddy field with energy density decreasing. The model-data comparison for each ray shows the model predictions are in good agreement with the SAR data.

  14. Ground deformation occurring in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, and observed by Envisat interferometric synthetic aperture radar during 2003–2007


    Samsonov, Sergey; Tiampo, Kristy F.; González Méndez, Pablo José; Manville, Vernon; Jolly, Gill


    In this study we present modeling results derived from ground deformation observed in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) by the C-band Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar. Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand with a current population of over one million, coincides with the AVF, which comprises about 50 individual, largely monogenetic, basaltic volcanoes distributed across a total area of 360 km2. The most recent and largest eruption there occurred 600 years ago. While it is anticipated that...

  15. Pendugaan Potensi Cadangan Karbon Hutan di Atas Permukaan pada Ekosistem Mangrove Berbasis Synthetic Aperture Radar L-BAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Fatwa Hudaya


    ABSTRACT The government policy to reduce the GHG (Green House Gas emision from forestry sector, the need for sufficient forest carbon stock measurement system which encompass a faster measurement and covering broader geographic area to estimate the potential of forest carbon stock is now growing, one of which is the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR in radar remote sensing systems. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the strong relationship between the L-band backscatter of ALOS PALSAR and the aboveground carbon stock in mangrove forest; and its sensitivity level. The information resulted from this study can be useful in reducing strategies of GHG (Green House Gases emision, due to the climate change mitigation efforts in Indonesia. The study site was located at the area of mangrove forest, in Kubu Raya regency, West Kalimantan. The estimation models for aboveground biomass carbon stock was obtained from a quantitative analysis using regression method; i.e. by correlating the values of ALOS PALSAR 50m Res. backscatters at HH and HV polarization with the actual biomass total amount resulted from field -based allometric plots measurements. The estimation models were subsequently use for forest carbon stocks quantification in mangroves, and its distribution geographically. Strong relationship was found with coefficient of determination (R2 62 % on HH polarization based on the equation model of Y=1647e0,358BS_HH  and , 98.6 % on HV polarization based on the equation model of Y = 6,828BS_HV2 + 279,4BS_HV + 2870; two models of carbon density classification maps i.e. model-1 (HH and model-2 (HV are also resulted from the two equation models. The quantity of AGB (aboveground biomass of  mangrove forest in Kubu Raya district found as 178.43 Mg/ ha, while the aboveground biomass carbon is 5,334,454.9 Mg (Mega grams or 5,3 Mt (Mega tons of carbon, and the capacity of carbon dioxide (CO2 sequestration is 19.451 Mt (megatons CO2 equivalent. The Sensitivity of L

  16. Climate Change Indicator for Hazard Identification of Indian North West Coast Marine Environment Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar) (United States)

    Gambheer, Phani Raj


    Stormwater runoff, Petroleum Hydrocarbon plumes are found abundantly near coastal cities, coastal population settlements especially in developing nations as more than half the world's human population. Ever increasing coastal populations and development in coastal areas have led to increased loading of toxic substances, nutrients and pathogens. These hazards cause deleterious effects on the population in many ways directly or indirectly which lead to algal blooms, hypoxia, beach closures, and damage to coastal fisheries. Hence these pollution hazards are important and the coastal administrations and people need to be aware of such a danger lurking very close to them. These hazards due to their small size, dynamic and episodic in nature are difficult to be visualized or to sample using in-situ traditional scientific methods. Natural obstructions like cloud cover and complex coastal circulations can hinder to detect and monitor such occurrences in the selected areas chosen for observations. This study takes recourse to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery because the pollution hazards are easily detectable as surfactants are deposited on the sea surface, along with nutrients and pathogens, smoothing capillary and small gravity waves to produce areas of reduced backscatter compared with surrounding ocean. These black spots can be termed as `Ecologic Indicator' and formed probably due to stronger thermal stratification, a deepening event of thermocline. SAR imagery that delivers useful data better than others regardless of darkness or cloud cover, should be made as an important observational tool for assessment and monitoring marine pollution hazards in the areas close to coastal regions. Till now the effects of climate change, sea level rise and global warming seems to have not affected the coastal populace of India in intrusions of sea water but it takes significance to the human health as the tides dominate these latitudes with bringing these polluted waters. KEY

  17. Rapid Ice Loss at Vatnajokull,Iceland Since Late 1990s Constrained by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.


    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry time series is applied over Vatnajokull, Iceland by using 15 years ERS data. Ice loss at Vatnajokull accelerates since late 1990s especially after 21th century. Clear uplift signal due to ice mass loss is detected. The rebound signal is generally linear and increases a little bit after 2000. The relative annual velocity (GPS station 7485 as reference) is about 12 mm/yr at the ice cap edge, which matches the previous studies using GPS. The standard deviation compared to 11 GPS stations in this area is about 2 mm/yr. A relative-value modeling method ignoring the effect of viscous flow is chosen assuming elastic half space earth. The final ice loss estimation - 83 cm/yr - matches the climatology model with ground observations. Small Baseline Subsets is applied for time series analysis. Orbit error coupling with long wavelength phase trend due to horizontal plate motion is removed based on a second polynomial model. For simplicity, we do not consider atmospheric delay in this area because of no complex topography and small-scale turbulence is eliminated well after long-term average when calculating the annual mean velocity. Some unwrapping error still exits because of low coherence. Other uncertainties can be the basic assumption of ice loss pattern and spatial variation of the elastic parameters. It is the first time we apply InSAR time series for ice mass balance study and provide detailed error and uncertainty analysis. The successful of this application proves InSAR as an option for mass balance study and it is also important for validation of different ice loss estimation techniques.

  18. An UGS radar with micro-Doppler capabilities for wide area persistent surveillance (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Clark, John


    Detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are walking in remote locations and transmit back detections over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. The ability to discriminate men versus animals and vehicles at long range would give a distinct sensor advantage. The reduction in false positive detections due to animals would increase the usefulness of detections, while dismount identification could reduce friendly-fire. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals or civilian activity. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, and verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals.

  19. Dark-spot segmentation for oil spill detection based on multifeature fusion classification in single-pol synthetic aperture radar imagery (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Zhang, Xingyao; Xi, Yuyang; Zhang, Xi; Li, Wei


    In recent years, oil spill surveillance with space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has received unprecedented attention and has been gradually developed into a common technique for maritime environment protection. A typical SAR-based oil spill detection process consists of three steps: (1) dark-spot segmentation, (2) feature extraction, and (3) oil spill and look-alike discrimination. As a preliminary task in the oil spill detection process chain, dark-spot segmentation is a critical and fundamental step prior to feature extraction and classification, since its output has a direct impact on the two subsequent stages. The balance between the detection probability and false alarm probability has a vital impact on the performance of the entire detection system. Unfortunately, this problem has not drawn as much attention as the other two stages. A specific effort has been placed on dark-spot segmentation in single-pol SAR imagery. A combination of fine designed features, including gray features, geometric features, and textural features, is proposed to characterize the oil spill and seawater for improving the performance of dark-spot segmentation. In the proposed process chain, a histogram stretching transform is incorporated before the gray feature extraction to enhance the contrast between possible oil spills and water. A simple but effective multiple-level thresholding algorithm is developed to conduct a binary classification before the geometric feature extraction to obtain more accurate area features. A local binary pattern code is computed and assigned as the textural feature for a pixel to characterize the physical difference between oil spills and water. The experimental result confirms that the proposed fine designed feature combination outperforms existing approaches in both aspects of overall segmentation accuracy and the capability to balance detection probability and false alarm probability. It is a promising alternative that can be incorporated into

  20. Near Real-Time Use of Optical Remote Sensing and Synthetic Aperture Radar for Response to Central U.S. Flooding in Late April-Early May 2017 (United States)

    Bell, J. R.; Schultz, L. A.; Jones, M.; Molthan, A.; Arko, S. A.; Hogenson, K.; Meyer, F. J.


    In late April and early May 2017, heavy rainfall across Missouri led to extensive flooding along the Missouri and Mississippi River basins in the Central United States. Determining the extent of flooding is critical for response organizations to properly deploy personnel and other assets involved in preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) relies on geospatial flood extent data, among other data, to estimate the impacts to population and infrastructure in order to prepare and engage response activities in support of the affected states and communities. To assist FEMA in mapping flood extent in a near real-time, the NASA Earth Science Disasters Program coordinates a multi-NASA center response to provide satellite imagery and products to FEMA during major flood events to supplement their analysis tools and capabilities. Scientists at the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, who led this particular response, have been working with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks to provide synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and derived flood products to FEMA's geospatial response team in support of flooding events. Combined, these efforts helped to provide preliminary flood mapping to FEMA from a broad constellation of remote sensors. The presentation will describe the various products available throughout the response event, post-event collaborations examining these products in comparison to additional modeling and data collection by FEMA, training needs to improve product use, and more efficient methods for data delivery. Lessons learned will highlight opportunities for future work and improvement, and guide other ongoing efforts to develop collaborations that would also support other domestic emergency response activities, such as those led by the National Guard Bureau, which assists individual state Guard units.

  1. KydroSAT: a Ku/Ka band synthetic aperture radar space mission concept for high-resolution mapping of hydrometeorological parameters (United States)

    Mori, Saverio; Marzano, Frank S.; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Bombaci, Ornella; Giancristofaro, Domenico; Macelloni, Giovanni; Lemmetyinem, Juha; Giudici, Davide; Poghosyan, Armen


    Spaceborne X-band synthetic aperture radars (SARs) represent a well-established tool for Earth remote sensing at very high spatial resolution (order of meters). Until now, SAR has not been exploited for hydrological cycle modelling and numerical weather forecast, however, there are scientific evidences that at X band and beyond: i) atmospheric precipitation in liquid and ice phase affect SAR imagery and its intensity can be retrieved, ii) snow areal extent and mass (water-equivalent) can be detected and estimated. KydroSAT mission concept foresees a miniaturised fully-digital SAR at Ku and Ka band (KydroSAR), specifically devoted to detecting and estimating atmospheric precipitation and surface snow; its baseline includes dual-polarization capability, high orbit duty cycle (>75%), flexible ground resolution (5-150 m), and a large variable swath (50-150 km), doubled with formation of two minisatellites both carrying a KydroSAR. Moreover, the mission concept foresees the along-track convoy with the COSMO-SkyMed and SAOCOM SAR platforms, allowing the observation of the same scene at L, X, Ku and Ka bands. The challenging requirements of this architecture require the development of new technologies such as Digital Beam Forming and Direct Digital to RF Conversion. In order to exploit the synergic approach of the KydroSAT convoy for precipitation, in this work we will simulate and discuss the SAR response at X, Ku and Ka bands of the same scene, using the SAR forward model described in Mori et al. (2017). Subsequently, an example retrieval of Snow Equivalent Water (SWE) by Ku-SAR will be given.

  2. Signal Processing for a Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO Video Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR with Beat Frequency Division Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kim


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel signal processing method for video synthetic aperture radar (ViSAR systems, which are suitable for operation in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV environments. The technique improves aspects of the system’s performance, such as the frame rate and image size of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR video. The new ViSAR system is based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW SAR structure that is combined with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technology, and multi-channel azimuth processing techniques. FMCW technology is advantageous for use in low cost, small size, and lightweight systems, like small UAVs. MIMO technology is utilized for increasing the equivalent number of receiving channels in the azimuthal direction, and reducing aperture size. This effective increase is achieved using a co-array concept by means of beat frequency division (BFD FMCW. A multi-channel azimuth processing technique is used for improving the frame rate and image size of SAR video, by suppressing the azimuth ambiguities in the receiving channels. This paper also provides analyses of the frame rate and image size of SAR video of ViSAR systems. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using an exemplary system. The results of analyses are presented, and their validity is verified using numerical simulations.

  3. Forest above ground biomass estimation and forest/non-forest classification for Odisha, India, using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data (United States)

    Suresh, M.; Kiran Chand, T. R.; Fararoda, R.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.


    Tropical forests contribute to approximately 40 % of the total carbon found in terrestrial biomass. In this context, forest/non-forest classification and estimation of forest above ground biomass over tropical regions are very important and relevant in understanding the contribution of tropical forests in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in terms of carbon pools and fluxes. Information on the spatio-temporal biomass distribution acts as a key input to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation Plus (REDD+) action plans. This necessitates precise and reliable methods to estimate forest biomass and to reduce uncertainties in existing biomass quantification scenarios. The use of backscatter information from a host of allweather capable Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems during the recent past has demonstrated the potential of SAR data in forest above ground biomass estimation and forest / nonforest classification. In the present study, Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) / Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data along with field inventory data have been used in forest above ground biomass estimation and forest / non-forest classification over Odisha state, India. The ALOSPALSAR 50 m spatial resolution orthorectified and radiometrically corrected HH/HV dual polarization data (digital numbers) for the year 2010 were converted to backscattering coefficient images (Schimada et al., 2009). The tree level measurements collected during field inventory (2009-'10) on Girth at Breast Height (GBH at 1.3 m above ground) and height of all individual trees at plot (plot size 0.1 ha) level were converted to biomass density using species specific allometric equations and wood densities. The field inventory based biomass estimations were empirically integrated with ALOS-PALSAR backscatter coefficients to derive spatial forest above ground biomass estimates for the study area. Further, The Support Vector Machines (SVM) based Radial

  4. Precipitation evidences on X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery: an approach for quantitative detection and estimation (United States)

    Mori, Saverio; Marzano, Frank S.; Montopoli, Mario; Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno


    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) operating at L-band and above are nowadays a well-established tool for Earth remote sensing; among the numerous civil applications we can indicate flood areas detection and monitoring, earthquakes analysis, digital elevation model production, land use monitoring and classification. Appealing characteristics of this kind of instruments is the high spatial resolution ensured in almost all-weather conditions and with a reasonable duty cycle and coverage. This result has achieved by the by the most recent generation of SAR missions, which moreover allow polarimetric observation of the target. Nevertheless, atmospheric clouds, in particular the precipitating ones, can significantly affect the signal backscattered from the ground surface (e.g. Ferrazzoli and Schiavon, 1997), on both amplitude and phase, with effects increasing with the operating frequency. In this respect, proofs are given by several recent works (e.g. Marzano et al., 2010, Baldini et al., 2014) using X-Band SAR data by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) missions. On the other hand, this sensitivity open interesting perspectives towards the SAR observation, and eventually quantification, of precipitations. In this respect, a proposal approach for X-SARs precipitation maps production and cloud masking arise from our work. Cloud masking allows detection of precipitation compromised areas. Respect precipitation maps, satellite X-SARs offer the unique possibility to ingest within flood forecasting model precipitation data at the catchment scale. This aspect is particularly innovative, even if work has been done the late years, and some aspects need to still address. Our developed processing framework allows, within the cloud masking stage, distinguishing flooded areas, precipitating clouds together with permanent water bodies, all appearing dark in the SAR image. The procedure is mainly based on image segmentation techniques and fuzzy logic (e.g. Pulvirenti et

  5. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas


    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  6. The 1998 Mw 5.7 Zhangbei-Shangyi (China) earthquake revisited: A buried thrust fault revealed with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Li, Zhenhong; Feng, Wanpeng; Xu, Zhonghuai; Cross, Paul; Zhang, Jingfa


    The 1998 Mw 5.7 Zhangbei-Shangyi (China) earthquake is the largest to have occurred in northern China since the large 1976 Ms 7.8 Tangshan earthquake. Due to its proximity to Beijing, the capital of China, it has therefore gained a lot of attention. A great number of studies have been conducted using seismic and geodetic data, but few are able to identify conclusively the orientation of the primary fault plane for this earthquake. In this paper, two independent ERS synthetic aperture radar interferograms are used to determine precisely the location and magnitude of coseismic surface displacements (˜11 cm in the radar line of sight). Modeling the event as dislocation in an elastic half-space suggests that the earthquake is associated with a buried shallow NNE-SSW oriented thrust fault with a limited amount of lateral displacement, which is consistent with seismic intensity distribution and aftershock locations.

  7. Experimental evaluation of penetration capabilities of a Geiger-mode APD array laser radar system (United States)

    Jonsson, Per; Tulldahl, Michael; Hedborg, Julia; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars


    Laser radar 3D imaging has the potential to improve target recognition in many scenarios. One case that is challenging for most optical sensors is to recognize targets hidden in vegetation or behind camouflage. The range resolution of timeof- flight 3D sensors allows segmentation of obscuration and target if the surfaces are separated far enough so that they can be resolved as two distances. Systems based on time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) have the potential to resolve surfaces closer to each other compared to laser radar systems based on proportional mode detection technologies and is therefore especially interesting. Photon counting detection is commonly performed with Geigermode Avalanche Photodiodes (GmAPD) that have the disadvantage that they can only detect one photon per laser pulse per pixel. A strong return from an obscuring object may saturate the detector and thus limit the possibility to detect the hidden target even if photons from the target reach the detector. The operational range where good foliage penetration is observed is therefore relatively narrow for GmAPD systems. In this paper we investigate the penetration capability through semi-transparent surfaces for a laser radar with a 128×32 pixel GmAPD array and a 1542 nm wavelength laser operating at a pulse repetition frequency of 90 kHz. In the evaluation a screen was placed behind different canvases with varying transmissions and the detected signals from the surfaces for different laser intensities were measured. The maximum return from the second surface occurs when the total detection probability is around 0.65-0.75 per pulse. At higher laser excitation power the signal from the second surface decreases. To optimize the foliage penetration capability it is thus necessary to adaptively control the laser power to keep the returned signal within this region. In addition to the experimental results, simulations to study the influence of the pulse energy on penetration through

  8. Monitoring of sinkholes and subsidence affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea through Synthetic Aperture Radar data and last generation Sentinel-1 data (United States)

    Tessari, Giulia; Riccardi, Paolo; Lecci, Daniele; Pasquali, Paolo; Floris, Mario


    Since the mid-1980s the coast of the Dead Sea is affected by sinkholes occurring over and around the emerged mud and salt flats. Strong subsidence and landslides also affect some segments of the coast. Nowadays, several thousands of sinkholes attest that the degradation of the Dead Sea coast is worsening. Furthermore, soil deformations are interesting the main streets running along both the Israeli and Jordanian sides of the Dead Sea. These hazards are due to the dramatic dropping of the Dead Sea level, characterized by an increasing rate from about 60 cm/yr in the 1970s up to 1 m/yr in the 2000s, which provokes a lowering of the fresh-saline groundwater interface, replacing the hypersaline groundwater with fresh water and causing a consequent erosion of the subsurface salt layers. Subsidence, sinkholes, river erosion and landslides damage bridges, roads, dikes, houses, factories worsening this ongoing disaster. One of the most emblematic effects is the catastrophic collapse of a 12-km newly constructed dyke, located on the Lisan Peninsula (Jordan), occurred in 2000. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques and Advanced stacking DInSAR techniques (A-DInSAR) were applied to investigate sinkholes and subsidence affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea. The use of SAR data already proof to be efficient on the risk management of the area, allowing to identify a vulnerable portion of an Israeli highway, averting a possible collapse. Deformation analysis has been focused on the Ghor Al Haditha area and Lisan peninsula, located in the South-Eastern part of the lake coast. The availability of a huge database of SAR data, since the beginning of the 90s, allowed to observe the evolution of the displacements which are damaging this area. Furthermore, last generation Sentinel-1 data, acquired by the ESA mission, were processed to obtain information about the recent evolution of the subsidence and sinkholes affecting the study area, from

  9. Land cover classification accuracy from electro-optical, X, C, and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data fusion (United States)

    Hammann, Mark Gregory

    The fusion of electro-optical (EO) multi-spectral satellite imagery with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data was explored with the working hypothesis that the addition of multi-band SAR will increase the land-cover (LC) classification accuracy compared to EO alone. Three satellite sources for SAR imagery were used: X-band from TerraSAR-X, C-band from RADARSAT-2, and L-band from PALSAR. Images from the RapidEye satellites were the source of the EO imagery. Imagery from the GeoEye-1 and WorldView-2 satellites aided the selection of ground truth. Three study areas were chosen: Wad Medani, Sudan; Campinas, Brazil; and Fresno- Kings Counties, USA. EO imagery were radiometrically calibrated, atmospherically compensated, orthorectifed, co-registered, and clipped to a common area of interest (AOI). SAR imagery were radiometrically calibrated, and geometrically corrected for terrain and incidence angle by converting to ground range and Sigma Naught (?0). The original SAR HH data were included in the fused image stack after despeckling with a 3x3 Enhanced Lee filter. The variance and Gray-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture measures of contrast, entropy, and correlation were derived from the non-despeckled SAR HH bands. Data fusion was done with layer stacking and all data were resampled to a common spatial resolution. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) decision rule was used for the supervised classifications. Similar LC classes were identified and tested for each study area. For Wad Medani, nine classes were tested: low and medium intensity urban, sparse forest, water, barren ground, and four agriculture classes (fallow, bare agricultural ground, green crops, and orchards). For Campinas, Brazil, five generic classes were tested: urban, agriculture, forest, water, and barren ground. For the Fresno-Kings Counties location 11 classes were studied: three generic classes (urban, water, barren land), and eight specific crops. In all cases the addition of SAR to EO resulted

  10. Polarimetric C-/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Melting Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (United States)

    Casey, J. A.; Beckers, J. F.; Brossier, E.; Haas, C.


    Operational ice information services rely heavily on space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for the production of ice charts to meet their mandate of providing timely and accurate sea ice information to support safe and efficient marine operations. During the summer melt period, the usefulness of SAR data for sea ice monitoring is limited by the presence of wet snow and melt ponds on the ice surface, which can mask the signature of the underlying ice. This is a critical concern for ice services whose clients (e.g. commercial shipping, cruise tourism, resource exploration and extraction) are most active at this time of year when sea ice is at its minimum extent, concentration and thickness. As a result, there is a need to further quantify the loss of ice information in SAR data during the melt season and to identify what information can still be retrieved about ice surface conditions and melt pond evolution at this time of year. To date the majority of studies have been limited to analysis of single-polarization C-band SAR data. This study will investigate the potential complimentary and unique sea ice information that polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data can provide to supplement the information available from traditional single co-polarized C-band SAR data. A time-series of polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data was acquired over Jones Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, in the vicinity of the Grise Fiord, Nunavut. Five RADARSAT-2 Wide Fine Quad-pol images and 11 TerraSAR-X StripMap dual-pol (HH/VV) images were acquired. The time-series begins at the onset of melt in early June and extends through advanced melt conditions in late July. Over this period several ponding and drainage events and two snowfall events occurred. Field observations of sea ice properties were collected using an Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy, hourly photos from a time-lapse camera deployed on a coastal cliff, and manual in situ measurements of snow thickness and melt pond depth

  11. Demonstration MTI/SAR capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F.P.P. de; Broek, A.C. van den; Otten, M.P.G.; Groot, J.S.; Steeghs, T.P.H.; Dekker, R.J.; Rossum, W.L. van


    The aim of this project is to demonstrate to the Dutch armed forces the capability of MTI (Moving Target Indicator) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). This is done with the Dutch PHARUS sensor. The sensor is used to demonstrate how a phased array antenna can be used as an MTI/SAR sensor

  12. LBA-ECO LC-15 JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics of L-band...

  13. Measurement of Non-Linear Internal Waves and Their Interaction with Surface Waves using Coherent Real Aperture Radars (United States)


    angles, J. Geophys. Res., 81(12), 1960- 1964, 1976. Kudryavtsev ,V., D. Akimov, J. Johannessen, and B. Chapron, On radar imaging of current...the generation of internal wave microwave surface signatures include Alpers (1985), Lyzenga and Bennett (1988), Thompson, 1988, and Kudryavtsev et...1999. Kudryavtsev , V., D. Akimov, J. Johannessen, and B. Chapron, On radar imaging of current features: 1. Model and comparison with observations

  14. Hunt for forgotten warplanes: a unique application for the Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR2) program (United States)

    Yagen, Gerald; Jackson, Christopher R.


    The principal purpose of the Beaconless Search and Rescue program at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is to utilize synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for the efficient and rapid location of recent small aircraft crashes. An additional side benefit might prove to be the detection and discovery of long lost or forgotten historic aircraft that have now become of immense value for museum display or among wealthy collectors. As the GSFC SAR2 program matures and its achievements in SAR target detection become more widely available, they will be of use to amateur and professional airplane hunters. We recommend that such ancillary benefits be kept in mind during the continued development and testing of such equipment, which would be of benefit to all future generations concerning the history of aviation. We welcome and encourage all participants to notify organizations such as ours of the discovery of any historic aircraft wreckage or intact abandoned old aircraft throughout the world.

  15. Marine target detection in quad-pol synthetic aperture radar imagery based on the relative phase of cross-polarized channels (United States)

    Wang, Yunhua; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Yanmin; Guo, Lixin


    A focus on marine target detection in noise corrupted fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented. The property of the relative phase between two cross-polarized channels reveals that the relative phases evaluated within sea surface area or noise corrupted area are widely spread phase angle region [-π,π] due to decorrelation effect; however, the relative phases are concentrated to zero and ±π for real target and its first-order azimuth ambiguities (FOAAs), respectively. Exploiting this physical behavior, the reciprocal of the mean square value of the relative phase (RMSRP) is defined as a new parameter for target detection, and the experiments based on fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 SAR images show that the strong noise and the FOAAs can be effectively suppressed in RMSRP image. Meanwhile, validity of the new parameter for target detection is also verified by two typical Radarsat-2 SAR images, in which targets' ambiguities and strong noise are present.

  16. Small-scale loess landslide monitoring with small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique-case study of Xingyuan landslide, Shaanxi, China (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoying; Zhang, Qin; He, Yang; Peng, Jianbing; Yang, Chengsheng; Kang, Ya


    Small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique is analyzed to detect and monitor the loess landslide in the southern bank of the Jinghe River, Shaanxi province, China. Aiming to achieve the accurate preslide time-series deformation results over small spatial scale and abrupt temporal deformation loess landslide, digital elevation model error, coherence threshold for phase unwrapping, and quality of unwrapping interferograms must be carefully checked in advance. In this experience, land subsidence accompanying a landslide with the distance <1 km is obtained, which gives a sound precursor for small-scale loess landslide detection. Moreover, the longer and continuous land subsidence has been monitored while deformation starting point for the landslide is successfully inverted, which is key to monitoring the similar loess landslide. In addition, the accelerated landslide deformation from one to two months before the landslide can provide a critical clue to early warning of this kind of landslide.

  17. A practical algorithm for the retrieval of floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byongjun Hwang


    Full Text Available In this study, we present an algorithm for summer sea ice conditions that semi-automatically produces the floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Currently, floe size distribution data from satellite images are very rare in the literature, mainly due to the lack of a reliable algorithm to produce such data. Here, we developed the algorithm by combining various image analysis methods, including Kernel Graph Cuts, distance transformation and watershed transformation, and a rule-based boundary revalidation. The developed algorithm has been validated against the ground truth that was extracted manually with the aid of 1-m resolution visible satellite data. Comprehensive validation analysis has shown both perspectives and limitations. The algorithm tends to fail to detect small floes (mostly less than 100 m in mean caliper diameter compared to ground truth, which is mainly due to limitations in water-ice segmentation. Some variability in the power law exponent of floe size distribution is observed due to the effects of control parameters in the process of de-noising, Kernel Graph Cuts segmentation, thresholds for boundary revalidation and image resolution. Nonetheless, the algorithm, for floes larger than 100 m, has shown a reasonable agreement with ground truth under various selections of these control parameters. Considering that the coverage and spatial resolution of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data have increased significantly in recent years, the developed algorithm opens a new possibility to produce large volumes of floe size distribution data, which is essential for improving our understanding and prediction of the Arctic sea ice cover


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour


    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  19. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, Charles; Cakir, Z.; Meghraoui, M.


    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (M w = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ??55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40?? to 50?? SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60??-65?? to N95??-105??. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology Conference, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, N. Mex., March 8-10, 1978, Proceedings (United States)


    The following aspects of SAR development are discussed: calibration techniques, image simulation and interpretability, antennas, data processing, and system design. Papers are presented on such topics as a postlaunch calibration experiment for the Seasat-A SAR, computer simulation of an orbital SAR system, definition study of the Shuttle Imaging Radar, custom LSI circuits for spaceborne SAR processors, and random sampling adaptively focusing SAR.

  1. Exploratory Data Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Measurements to Distinguish the Sea Surface Expressions of Naturally-Occurring Oil Seeps from Human-Related Oil Spills in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Araújo Carvalho


    Full Text Available An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA aims to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements for discriminating between two oil slick types observed on the sea surface: naturally-occurring oil seeps versus human-related oil spills—the use of satellite sensors for this task is poorly documented in scientific literature. A long-term RADARSAT dataset (2008–2012 is exploited to investigate oil slicks in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico. Simple Classification Algorithms to distinguish the oil slick type are designed based on standard multivariate data analysis techniques. Various attributes of geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slick Size Information are combined with SAR-derived backscatter coefficients—sigma-(σo, beta-(βo, and gamma-(γo naught. The combination of several of these characteristics is capable of distinguishing the oil slick type with ~70% of overall accuracy, however, the sole and simple use of two specific oil slick’s Size Information (i.e., area and perimeter is equally capable of distinguishing seeps from spills. The data mining exercise of our EDA promotes a novel idea bridging petroleum pollution and remote sensing research, thus paving the way to further investigate the satellite synoptic view to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil observed on the sea surface for systematic use.

  2. Estimates of Forest Growing Stock Volume for Sweden, Central Siberia, and Québec Using Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Backscatter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Beer


    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to assess Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR ScanSAR data for quantifying forest growing stock volume (GSV across three boreal regions with varying forest types, composition, and structure (Sweden, Central Siberia, and Québec. Estimates of GSV were obtained using hyper-temporal observations of the radar backscatter acquired by Envisat ASAR with the BIOMASAR algorithm. In total, 5.3×106 km2 were mapped with a 0.01° pixel size to obtain estimates representative for the year of 2005. Comparing the SAR-based estimates to spatially explicit datasets of GSV, generated from forest field inventory and/or Earth Observation data, revealed similar spatial distributions of GSV. Nonetheless, the weak sensitivity of C-band backscatter to forest structural parameters introduced significant uncertainty to the estimated GSV at full resolution. Further discrepancies were observed in the case of different scales of the ASAR and the reference GSV and in areas of fragmented landscapes. Aggregation to 0.1° and 0.5° was then undertaken to generate coarse scale estimates of GSV. The agreement between ASAR and the reference GSV datasets improved; the relative difference at 0.5° was consistently within a magnitude of 20–30%. The results indicate an improvement of the characterization of forest GSV in the boreal zone with respect to currently available information.

  3. Rapid damage mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake using synthetic aperture radar data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 satellites (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Ho; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Owen, Susan; Webb, Frank; Simons, Mark; Sacco, Patrizia; Gurrola, Eric; Manipon, Gerald; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric; Milillo, Pietro; Hua, Hook; Coletta, Alessandro


    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. The Italian Space Agency’s COSMO–SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area four days after the earthquake and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 SAR satellite for larger area nine days after the mainshock. We used these radar observations and rapidly produced damage proxy maps (DPMs) derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR coherence. Our DPMs were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme, and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe’s WorldView optical pre- versus postevent imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  4. Tracking lava flow emplacement on the east rift zone of Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, with synthetic aperture radar coherence (United States)

    Dietterich, Hannah R.; Poland, Michael P.; Schmidt, David A.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Sherrod, David R.; Espinosa, Arkin Tapia


    Lava flow mapping is both an essential component of volcano monitoring and a valuable tool for investigating lava flow behavior. Although maps are traditionally created through field surveys, remote sensing allows an extraordinary view of active lava flows while avoiding the difficulties of mapping on location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, in particular, can detect changes in a flow field by comparing two images collected at different times with SAR coherence. New lava flows radically alter the scattering properties of the surface, making the radar signal decorrelated in SAR coherence images. We describe a new technique, SAR Coherence Mapping (SCM), to map lava flows automatically from coherence images independent of look angle or satellite path. We use this approach to map lava flow emplacement during the Pu`u `Ō`ō-Kupaianaha eruption at Kīlauea, Hawai`i. The resulting flow maps correspond well with field mapping and better resolve the internal structure of surface flows, as well as the locations of active flow paths. However, the SCM technique is only moderately successful at mapping flows that enter vegetation, which is also often decorrelated between successive SAR images. Along with measurements of planform morphology, we are able to show that the length of time a flow stays decorrelated after initial emplacement is linearly related to the flow thickness. Finally, we use interferograms obtained after flow surfaces become correlated to show that persistent decorrelation is caused by post-emplacement flow subsidence.

  5. Use of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) P band for detection of the Moche and Lambayeque canal networks in the Apurlec region, Perù (United States)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Santovito, Maria Rosaria; Pica, Giulia; Catapano, Ilaria; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Lanari, Riccardo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Wester La Torre, Carlos; Fernandez Manayalle, Marco Antonio; Longo, Francesco; Facchinetti, Claudia; Formaro, Roberto


    In recent years, research attention has been devoted to the development of a new class of airborne radar systems using low frequency bands ranging from VHF/UHF to P and L ones. In this frame, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) has promoted the development of a new multi-mode and multi-band airborne radar system, which can be considered even a "proof-of-concept" for the next space-borne missions. In particular, in agreement with the ASI, the research consortium CO.RI.S.T.A. has in charge the design, development and flight validation of such a kind of system, which is the first airborne radar entirely built in Italy. The aim was to design and realize a radar system able to work in different modalities as: nadir-looking sounder at VHF band (163 MHz); side-looking imager (SAR) at P band with two channels at 450 MHz and 900 MHz. The P-band is a penetration radar. Exploiting penetration features of low frequency electromagnetic waves, dielectric discontinuities of observed scene due to inhomogeneous materials rise up and can be detected on the resulting image. Therefore buried objects or targets placed under vegetation may be detected. Penetration capabilities essentially depend on microwave frequency. Typically, penetration distance is inversely proportional to microwave frequency. The higher the frequency, the lower the penetration depth. Terrain characteristics affect penetration capabilities. Humidity acts as a shield to microwave penetration. Hence terrain with high water content are not good targets for P-band applicability. Science community, governments and space agencies have increased their interest about low frequency radar for their useful applicability in climatology, ecosystem monitoring, glaciology, archaeology. The combination of low frequency and high relative bandwidth of such a systems has a large applicability in both military and civilian applications, ranging from forestry applications, biomass measuring, archaeological and geological exploration

  6. Modeling Collapse Chimney and Spall Zone Settlement as a Source of Post-Shot Subsidence Detected by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxwall, W.


    Ground surface subsidence resulting from the March 1992 JUNCTION underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) imaged by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) wholly occurred during a period of several months after the shot (Vincent et al., 1999) and after the main cavity collapse event. A significant portion of the subsidence associated with the small (less than 20 kt) GALENA and DIVIDER tests probably also occurred after the shots, although the deformation detected in these cases contains additional contributions from coseismic processes, since the radar scenes used to construct the deformation interferogram bracketed these two later events, The dimensions of the seas of subsidence resulting from all three events are too large to be solely accounted for by processes confined to the damage zone in the vicinity of the shot point or the collapse chimney. Rather, the subsidence closely corresponds to the span dimensions predicted by Patton's (1990) empirical relationship between spall radius and yield. This suggests that gravitational settlement of damaged rock within the spall zone is an important source of post-shot subsidence, in addition to settlement of the rubble within the collapse chimney. These observations illustrate the potential power of InSAR as a tool for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring and on-site inspection in that the relatively broad ({approx} 100 m to 1 km) subsidence signatures resulting from small shots detonated at normal depths of burial (or even significantly overburied) are readily detectable within large geographical areas (100 km x 100 km) under favorable observing conditions. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate the flexibility of the technique in that the two routinely gathered satellite radar images used to construct the interferogram need not necessarily capture the event itself, but can cover a time period up to several months following the shot.

  7. Commercially Available Low Probability of Intercept Radars and Non-Cooperative ELINT Receiver Capabilities (United States)


    support, and localization [15]. As shown in Table 10, the Sea GIRAFFE operates at 3 W output power and over 5.4-5.9 GHz [16]. It features...continuously rotating Low Probability of Interception dual beam radar that is rapidly deployed. The ELM-2105 radar can be locally or remotely...71]) The Itata ELINT system has been developed by Desarrollo de Tecnologia y Sistemas (DTS) Ltd. and is a high-sensitivity electronic

  8. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold


    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  9. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  10. Reconfigurable metasurface aperture for security screening and microwave imaging (United States)

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Boyarsky, Michael; Pulido-Mancera, Laura; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.


    Microwave imaging systems have seen growing interest in recent decades for applications ranging from security screening to space/earth observation. However, hardware architectures commonly used for this purpose have not seen drastic changes. With the advent of metamaterials a wealth of opportunities have emerged for honing metasurface apertures for microwave imaging systems. Recent thrusts have introduced dynamic reconfigurability directly into the aperture layer, providing powerful capabilities from a physical layer with considerable simplicity. The waveforms generated from such dynamic metasurfaces make them suitable for application in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and, more generally, computational imaging. In this paper, we investigate a dynamic metasurface aperture capable of performing microwave imaging in the K-band (17.5-26.5 GHz). The proposed aperture is planar and promises an inexpensive fabrication process via printed circuit board techniques. These traits are further augmented by the tunability of dynamic metasurfaces, which provides the dexterity necessary to generate field patterns ranging from a sequence of steered beams to a series of uncorrelated radiation patterns. Imaging is experimentally demonstrated with a voltage-tunable metasurface aperture. We also demonstrate the aperture's utility in real-time measurements and perform volumetric SAR imaging. The capabilities of a prototype are detailed and the future prospects of general dynamic metasurface apertures are discussed.

  11. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.


    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  12. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich


    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  13. Airship Sparse Array Antenna Radar Real Aperture Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing and Sparsity in Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liechen


    Full Text Available A conformal sparse array based on combined Barker code is designed for airship platform. The performance of the designed array such as signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed. Using the hovering characteristics of the airship, interferometry operation can be applied on the real aperture imaging results of two pulses, which can eliminate the random backscatter phase and make the image sparse in the transform domain. Building the relationship between echo and transform coefficients, the Compressed Sensing (CS theory can be introduced to solve the formula and achieving imaging. The image quality of the proposed method can reach the image formed by the full array imaging. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The design and evaluation of a 5.8 ghz laptop-based radar system (United States)

    Teng, Kevin Chi-Ming

    This project involves design and analysis of a 5.8 GHz laptop-based radar system. The radar system measures Doppler, ranging and forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images utilizing Matlab software provided from MIT Open Courseware and performs data acquisition and signal processing. The main purpose of this work is to bring new perspective to the existing radar project by increasing the ISM band frequency from 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz and to carry out a series of experiments on the implementation of the radar kit. Demonstrating the radar at higher operating frequency is capable of providing accurate data results in Doppler, ranging and SAR images.

  15. Improving the detectability and imaging capability of ground penetrating radar using novel antenna concepts (United States)

    Koyadan Koroth, Ajith; Bhattacharya, Amitabha


    Antennas are key components of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) instrumentation. A carefully designed antenna can improve the detectability and imaging capability of a GPR to a great extent without changing the other instrumentations. In this work, we propose four different types of antennas for GPR. They are modifications of a conventional bowtie antenna with great improvement in performance parameters. The designed antennas has also been tested in a stepped frequency type GPR and two dimensional scan images of various targets are presented. Bowtie antennas have been traditionally employed in GPR for its wide impedance bandwidth and radiation properties. The researchers proposed resistive loading to improve the bandwidth of the bowtie antenna and for low ringing pulse radiation. But this method was detrimental for antenna gain and efficiency. Bowtie antennas have a very wide impedance bandwidth. But the useful bandwidth of the antenna has been limited by the radiation pattern bandwidth. The boresight gain of bowtie antennas are found to be unstable beyond a 4:1 bandwidth. In this work, these problems have been addressed and maximum usable bandwidth for the bowtie antennas has been achieved. In this work, four antennas have been designed: namely, 1.) RC loaded bowtie antennas, 2.) RC loaded bowtie with metamaterial lens, 3.) Loop loaded bowtie, 4.) Loop loaded bowtie with directors. The designed antennas were characterized for different parameters like impedance bandwidth, radiation pattern and, gain. In antenna 1, a combined resistive-capacitive loading has been applied by periodic slot cut on the arms of the bowtie and pasting a planar graphite sheet over it. Graphite having a less conductance compared to copper acts as resistive loading. This would minimize the losses compared to lumped resistive loading. The antenna had a 10:1 impedance bandwidth and, a 5:1 pattern bandwidth. In antenna 2, a metamaterial lens has been designed to augment the antenna 1, to improve

  16. Quantitative Estimation of Above Ground Crop Biomass using Ground-based, Airborne and Spaceborne Low Frequency Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)

    Koyama, C.; Watanabe, M.; Shimada, M.


    Estimation of crop biomass is one of the important challenges in environmental remote sensing related to agricultural as well as hydrological and meteorological applications. Usually passive optical data (photographs, spectral data) operating in the visible and near-infrared bands is used for such purposes. The virtue of optical remote sensing for yield estimation, however, is rather limited as the visible light can only provide information about the chemical characteristics of the canopy surface. Low frequency microwave signals with wavelength longer 20 cm have the potential to penetrate through the canopy and provide information about the whole vertical structure of vegetation from the top of the canopy down to the very soil surface. This phenomenon has been well known and exploited to detect targets under vegetation in the military radar application known as FOPEN (foliage penetration). With the availability of polarimetric interferometric SAR data the use PolInSAR techniques to retrieve vertical vegetation structures has become an attractive tool. However, PolInSAR is still highly experimental and suitable data is not yet widely available. In this study we focus on the use of operational dual-polarization L-band (1.27 GHz) SAR which is since the launch of Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, 2006-2011) available worldwide. Since 2014 ALOS-2 continues to deliver such kind of partial polarimetric data for the entire land surface. In addition to these spaceborne data sets we use airborne L-band SAR data acquired by the Japanese Pi-SAR-L2 as well as ultra-wideband (UWB) ground based SAR data operating in the frequency range from 1-4 GHz. By exploiting the complex dual-polarization [C2] Covariance matrix information, the scattering contributions from the canopy can be well separated from the ground reflections allowing for the establishment of semi-empirical relationships between measured radar reflectivity and the amount of fresh-weight above

  17. Investigation of land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas by using the Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, 1993-2000 (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Kasmarek, Mark C.; Brandt, Justin; Middleton, Clifton S.


    Since the early 1900s, groundwater has been the primary source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supplies for the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The region's combination of hydrogeology and nearly century-long use of groundwater has resulted in one of the largest areas of subsidence in the United States; by 1979, as much as 3 meters (m) of subsidence had occurred, and approximately 8,300 square kilometers of land had subsided more than 0.3 m. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, used interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data obtained for four overlapping scenes from European remote sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 to analyze land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas. The InSAR data were processed into 27 interferograms that delineate and quantify land-subsidence patterns and magnitudes. Contemporaneous data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were reprocessed by the National Geodetic Survey and analyzed to support, verify, and provide temporal resolution to the InSAR investigation.

  18. Comparison of the two-dimensional directional wave spectra retrieved from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images using the MPI scheme against directional buoy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Violante-Carvalho


    Full Text Available Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is to date the only source of two-dimensional directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage when operated in the so-called SAR Wave Mode (SWM. Since the launch in 1991 of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1, and more recently with ENVISAT, millions of SWM imagettes containing detailed spectral information are now available in quasi-real time. This huge amount of directional wave data has opened up many exciting possibilities for the improvement of our knowledge of the dynamics of ocean waves. However, the retrieval of wave spectra from SAR images is not a trivial exercise due to the nonlinearities involved in the mapping mechanism. In this paper we review the main features of the SAR ocean wave imaging mechanisms and give a detailed description of the Max-Planck Institut (MPI retrieval algorithm which is running operationally at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Some examples of retrieved spectra are compared against directional buoy measurements obtained in deep water in the South Atlantic and against WAM spectra. The main characteristics of the MPI retrieval scheme are discussed and some of its deficiencies and strengths are identified.

  19. On the retrieval of significant wave heights from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-SAR using the Max-Planck Institut (MPI algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante-Carvalho Nelson


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR onboard satellites is the only source of directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage. Millions of SAR Wave Mode (SWM imagettes have been acquired since the launch in the early 1990's of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 and its successors ERS-2 and ENVISAT, which has opened up many possibilities specially for wave data assimilation purposes. The main aim of data assimilation is to improve the forecasting introducing available observations into the modeling procedures in order to minimize the differences between model estimates and measurements. However there are limitations in the retrieval of the directional spectrum from SAR images due to nonlinearities in the mapping mechanism. The Max-Planck Institut (MPI scheme, the first proposed and most widely used algorithm to retrieve directional wave spectra from SAR images, is employed to compare significant wave heights retrieved from ERS-1 SAR against buoy measurements and against the WAM wave model. It is shown that for periods shorter than 12 seconds the WAM model performs better than the MPI, despite the fact that the model is used as first guess to the MPI method, that is the retrieval is deteriorating the first guess. For periods longer than 12 seconds, the part of the spectrum that is directly measured by SAR, the performance of the MPI scheme is at least as good as the WAM model.

  20. Heterogeneous Fault Mechanisms of the 6 October 2008 MW 6.3 Dangxiong (Tibet Earthquake Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xu


    Full Text Available Most current crustal deformation models do not account for topographic effects, crustal lateral variations, and complex fault geometries. To overcome these limitations, we apply finite element models constrained by interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR images of co-seismic displacements to the 2008 Mw 6.3 Dangxiong earthquake that occurred in Yadong–Gulu rift, southern Tibet. For mountainous plateau environments, InSAR observations are advantageous for studying crustal deformation and crustal medium structure. We evaluate the effect of topography and variations in Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli on estimation of coseismic deformation from InSAR observations. The results show that coseismic surface displacements are more sensitive to variations in Young’s modulus than to variations in topography and Poisson’s ratio. Therefore, with constant Poisson’s ratio and density, we change the Young’s modulus on each side of the fault to obtain the model that best fits the observations. This is attained when the Young’s moduli in the eastern and western sides of the fault were 2.6 × 1010 Pa and 7.8 × 1010 Pa, respectively. The result is consistent with previous field surveys that the medium on either side of the fault is different.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Prasetyo


    Full Text Available Proses atau pergerakan penurunan muka tanah telah banyak terjadi di berbagai wilayah di seluruh dunia khususnya kota-kota besar. Dampak dari penurunan muka tanah adalah kerusakan infrastruktur wilayah pemukiman dan gangguan terhadap stabilitas ekonomi dan kehidupan sosial di wilayah tersebut. Oleh sebab itu, kita memerlukan sistem mitigasi bencana alam yang memiliki kemampuan menyajikan analisis kebumian secara cepat dan optimal dalam konsep kajian cepat. Teknologi penginderaan jauh memiliki kemampuan untuk meliput area pengamatan yang luas dalam waktu singkat serta terkait dengan tipikal iklim di Indonesia yang terletak di area tropis (intensitas dan sebaran tutupan awan yang tinggi. Pemilihan teknologi radar adalah salah satu solusi yang baik untuk pemetaan spasial pada estimasi penurunan muka tanah. PS-InSAR adalah metode terbaru dari pemrosesan citra RADAR dimana memberikan akurasi yang baik dan meminimalkan efek dekorelasi. Metode PS-InSAR diterapkan pada wilayah Indonesia merupakan solusi yang tepat karena kemampuannya menembus ketebalan awan dan kabut tebal. Metode ini digunakan dalam analisis penurunan muka tanah pada kota Cimahi-Propinsi Jawa Barat diman hasilnya 17.97 mm/yr ± 11.5 mm/yr. Kecamatan Cimahi Utara memiliki kecepatan penurunan muka tanah tertinggi sebesar 22.9 mm/yr ± 12,7 mm/yr. Metode ini terbukti sebagai salah satu metode penginderaan jauh yang baik untuk meneliti pergerakan penurunan muka tanah.[Land Subsidence Study Using Permanent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSINSAR Method in Cimahi City Area-West Java] Process or movement of land subsidence has a lot going on in various regions of the world especially in big cities. The impact of land subsidence can damage urban infrastructure and a disruption to the economic stability and social life in the region. Because of it, we need a natural disaster mitigation system that is able to provide rapid and optimal a geoscience analysis in the concept of

  2. Deepwater Horizon MC252 response data from the Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) containing Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) nearshore potential oiling footprints collected from 2010-04-29 to 2010-08-11 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163819) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package (AIP) contains Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers of outputs from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)...

  3. Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass in Miombo Savanna Woodlands (Mozambique, East Africa Using L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available The quantification of forest above-ground biomass (AGB is important for such broader applications as decision making, forest management, carbon (C stock change assessment and scientific applications, such as C cycle modeling. However, there is a great uncertainty related to the estimation of forest AGB, especially in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to test a combination of field data and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR backscatter intensity data to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of forest AGB in the Miombo savanna woodlands of Mozambique (East Africa. A machine learning algorithm, based on bagging stochastic gradient boosting (BagSGB, was used to model forest AGB as a function of ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD backscatter intensity metrics. The application of this method resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R between observed and predicted (10-fold cross-validation forest AGB values of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 5.03 Mg·ha−1. However, as a consequence of using bootstrap samples in combination with a cross validation procedure, some bias may have been introduced, and the reported cross validation statistics could be overoptimistic. Therefore and as a consequence of the BagSGB model, a measure of prediction variability (coefficient of variation on a pixel-by-pixel basis was also produced, with values ranging from 10 to 119% (mean = 25% across the study area. It provides additional and complementary information regarding the spatial distribution of the error resulting from the application of the fitted model to new observations.

  4. Robust flood area detection using a L-band synthetic aperture radar: Preliminary application for Florida, the U.S. affected by Hurricane Irma (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Ohki, M.; Abe, T.


    Urgent crisis response for a hurricane-induced flood needs urgent providing of a flood map covering a broad region. However, there is no standard threshold values for automatic flood identification from pre-and-post images obtained by satellite-based synthetic aperture radars (SARs). This problem could hamper prompt data providing for operational uses. Furthermore, one pre-flood SAR image does not always represent potential water surfaces and river flows especially in tropical flat lands which are greatly influenced by seasonal precipitation cycle. We are, therefore, developing a new method of flood mapping using PALSAR-2, an L-band SAR, which is less affected by temporal surface changes. Specifically, a mean-value image and a standard-deviation image are calculated from a series of pre-flood SAR images. It is combined with a post-flood SAR image to obtain normalized backscatter amplitude difference (NoBADi), with which a difference between a post-flood image and a mean-value image is divided by a standard-deviation image to emphasize anomalous water extents. Flooding areas are then automatically obtained from the NoBADi images as lower-value pixels avoiding potential water surfaces. We applied this method to PALSAR-2 images acquired on Sept. 8, 10, and 12, 2017, covering flooding areas in a central region of Dominican Republic and west Florida, the U.S. affected by Hurricane Irma. The output flooding outlines are validated with flooding areas manually delineated from high-resolution optical satellite images, resulting in higher consistency and less uncertainty than previous methods (i.e., a simple pre-and-post flood difference and pre-and-post coherence changes). The NoBADi method has a great potential to obtain a reliable flood map for future flood hazards, not hampered by cloud cover, seasonal surface changes, and "casual" thresholds in the flood identification process.

  5. Real-Time Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Float-Point Imaging System Using Optimized Mapping Methodology and a Multi-Node Parallel Accelerating Technique. (United States)

    Li, Bingyi; Shi, Hao; Chen, Liang; Yu, Wenyue; Yang, Chen; Xie, Yizhuang; Bian, Mingming; Zhang, Qingjun; Pang, Long


    With the development of satellite load technology and very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, on-board real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have facilitated rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the on-board SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance under severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. This paper presents a multi-node prototype system for real-time SAR imaging processing. We decompose the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm into two parts according to the computing features. The linearization and logic-memory optimum allocation methods are adopted to realize the nonlinear part in a reconfigurable structure, and the two-part bandwidth balance method is used to realize the linear part. Thus, float-point SAR imaging processing can be integrated into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip instead of relying on distributed technologies. A single-processing node requires 10.6 s and consumes 17 W to focus on 25-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384. The design methodology of the multi-FPGA parallel accelerating system under the real-time principle is introduced. As a proof of concept, a prototype with four processing nodes and one master node is implemented using a Xilinx xc6vlx315t FPGA. The weight and volume of one single machine are 10 kg and 32 cm × 24 cm × 20 cm, respectively, and the power consumption is under 100 W. The real-time performance of the proposed design is demonstrated on Chinese Gaofen-3 stripmap continuous imaging.

  6. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique. (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Wei, Chunpeng; Xie, Yizhuang; Chen, He; Yu, Wenyue


    With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array-application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC) hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  7. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array−Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang


    Full Text Available With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT, which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array−application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  8. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.


    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  9. Synthetic aperture ladar concept for infrastructure monitoring (United States)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Bergeron, Alain


    Long range surveillance of infrastructure is a critical need in numerous security applications, both civilian and military. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) continues to provide high resolution radar images in all weather conditions from remote distances. As well, Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) have become powerful tools adding high resolution elevation and change detection measurements. State of the art SAR systems based on dual-use satellites are capable of providing ground resolutions of one meter; while their airborne counterparts obtain resolutions of 10 cm. D-InSAR products based on these systems could produce cm-scale vertical resolution image products. Deformation monitoring of railways, roads, buildings, cellular antennas, power structures (i.e., power lines, wind turbines, dams, or nuclear plants) would benefit from improved resolution, both in the ground plane and vertical direction. The ultimate limitation to the achievable resolution of any imaging system is its wavelength. State-of-the art SAR systems are approaching this limit. The natural extension to improve resolution is to thus decrease the wavelength, i.e. design a synthetic aperture system in a different wavelength regime. One such system offering the potential for vastly improved resolution is Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL). This system operates at infrared wavelengths, ten thousand times smaller than radar wavelengths. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of a scaled-down infrastructure deformation monitoring with an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Ladar (IFSAL) system operating at 1.5 μm. Results show sub-millimeter precision on the deformation applied to the target.

  10. RDR-4B doppler weather radar with forward looking wind shear detection capability (United States)

    Grasley, Steven S.


    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Bendix/King atmospheric transport and dispersion (ATAD) position; RDR-4A technical baseline; RTA-4A characteristics; RDR-4 antenna characteristics; modification of RDR-4A to RDR-4B; RDR-4A functional block diagram; RDR-4B characteristics; development/test plan; CV-580 testing capability; CV-580 test results; Continental A300 test configuration; Continental Data Recording Program operational considerations; Continental A300 test results; and display considerations.

  11. Fault model of the 2017 Jiuzhaigou Mw 6.5 earthquake estimated from coseismic deformation observed using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data (United States)

    Nie, Zhaosheng; Wang, Di-Jin; Jia, Zhige; Yu, Pengfei; Li, Liangfa


    On August 8, 2017, the Jiuzhaigou Mw 6.5 earthquake occurred in Sichuan province, southwestern China, along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The epicenter is surrounded by the Minjiang, Huya, and Tazang Faults. As the seismic activity and tectonics are very complicated, there is controversy regarding the accurate location of the epicenter and the seismic fault of the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. To investigate these aspects, first, the coseismic deformation field was derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. Second, the fault geometry, coseismic slip model, and Coulomb stress changes around the seismic region were calculated using a homogeneous elastic half-space model. The coseismic deformation field derived from InSAR measurements shows that this event was mainly dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The maximal and minimal displacements were approximately 0.15 m and - 0.21 m, respectively, along line-of-sight observation. The whole deformation field follows a northwest-trending direction and is mainly concentrated west of the fault. The coseismic slip is 28 km along the strike and 18 km along the dip. It is dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The average and maximal fault slip is 0.18 and 0.85 m, respectively. The rupture did not fully reach the ground surface. The focal mechanism derived from GPS and InSAR data is consistent with the kinematics and geometry of the Huya Fault. Therefore, we conclude that the northern section or the Shuzheng segment of the Huya Fault is the seismogenic fault. The maximal fault slip is located at 33.25°N and 103.82°E at a depth of 11 km, and the release moment is approximately 6.635 × 1018 Nm, corresponding to a magnitude of Mw 6.49, which is consistent with results reported by the US Geological Survey, Global Centroid Moment Tensor, and other researchers. The coseismic Coulomb stress changes enhanced the stress on the northwest and

  12. The potential of flood forecasting using a variable-resolution global Digital Terrain Model and flood extents from Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cecil Mason


    Full Text Available A basic data requirement of a river flood inundation model is a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of the reach being studied. The scale at which modeling is required determines the accuracy required of the DTM. For modeling floods in urban areas, a high resolution DTM such as that produced by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging is most useful, and large parts of many developed countries have now been mapped using LiDAR. In remoter areas, it is possible to model flooding on a larger scale using a lower resolution DTM, and in the near future the DTM of choice is likely to be that derived from the TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model (DEM. A variable-resolution global DTM obtained by combining existing high and low resolution data sets would be useful for modeling flood water dynamics globally, at high resolution wherever possible and at lower resolution over larger rivers in remote areas. A further important data resource used in flood modeling is the flood extent, commonly derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. Flood extents become more useful if they are intersected with the DTM, when water level observations (WLOs at the flood boundary can be estimated at various points along the river reach.To illustrate the utility of such a global DTM, two examples of recent research involving WLOs at opposite ends of the spatial scale are discussed. The first requires high resolution spatial data, and involves the assimilation of WLOs from a real sequence of high resolution SAR images into a flood model to update the model state with observations over time, and to estimate river discharge and model parameters, including river bathymetry and friction. The results indicate the feasibility of such an Earth Observation-based flood forecasting system. The second example is at a larger scale, and uses SAR-derived WLOs to improve the lower-resolution TanDEM-X DEM in the area covered by the flood extents. The resulting reduction in random height error is

  13. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and Global Positioning System, San Bernardino County, Mojave Desert, California (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Stork, Sylvia V.; Amelung, Falk; Galloway, Devin L.


    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in parts of the Mojave Desert, California. Ground water has been the primary source of domestic, agricultural, and municipal water supplies in the desert since the early 1900s. Pumping of ground water from the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins in the southwestern Mojave Desert resulted in water-level declines of more than 30 meters (100 feet) between the 1950s and the 1990s. A Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of a geodetic network was used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes in Lucerne Valley in the Morongo ground-water basin. The GPS survey was conducted in 1998 to estimate historical elevation changes by comparing GPS-derived elevations with historical elevations (which were available for some of the monuments in the network as early as 1944) and to establish baseline values that can be used for comparisons with future GPS surveys. The GPS measurements indicated that about 600 millimeters (2 feet) [plus or minus 1,500 millimeters (5 feet)] of subsidence occurred at three of the monuments between 1969 and 1998 but that very little to no vertical change in position occurred at seven other monuments in the network. Water levels in the area of subsidence in Lucerne Valley declined about 15 meters (50 feet) during 1970-98. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to characterize vertical land-surface changes in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins during various intervals of time between 1992 and 1999. Interferograms, InSAR-generated displacement maps, show that subsidence ranging from 45 to 90 mm (0.15 to 0.3 ft) occurred in four areas of these two ground-water basins--the El Mirage, Lockhart-Harper Lake (dry), Newberry Springs, and Lucerne Valley areas. Some of the InSAR measurements were affected by the earthquakes at Landers and Hector Mine, California, and by

  14. Using multi-polarization C- and L-band synthetic aperture radar to estimate biomass and soil moisture of wheat fields (United States)

    Hosseini, Mehdi; McNairn, Heather


    Biomass and soil moisture are two important parameters for agricultural crop monitoring and yield estimation. In this study, the Water Cloud Model (WCM) was coupled with the Ulaby soil moisture model to estimate both biomass and soil moisture for spring wheat fields in a test site in western Canada. This study exploited both C-band (RADARSAT-2) and L-band (UAVSAR) Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) for this purpose. The WCM-Ulaby model was calibrated for three polarizations (HH, VV and HV). Subsequently two of these three polarizations were used as inputs to an inversion procedure, to retrieve either soil moisture or biomass without the need for any ancillary data. The model was calibrated for total canopy biomass, the biomass of only the wheat heads, as well as for different wheat growth stages. This resulted in a calibrated WCM-Ulaby model for each sensor-polarization-phenology-biomass combination. Validation of model retrievals led to promising results. RADARSAT-2 (HH-HV) estimated total wheat biomass with root mean square (RMSE) and mean average (MAE) errors of 78.834 g/m2 and 58.438 g/m2; soil moisture with errors of 0.078 m3/m3 (RMSE) and 0.065 m3/m3 (MAE) are reported. During the period of crop ripening, L-band estimates of soil moisture had accuracies of 0.064 m3/m3 (RMSE) and 0.057 m3/m3 (MAE). RADARSAT-2 (VV-HV) produced interesting results for retrieval of the biomass of the wheat heads. In this particular case, the biomass of the heads was estimated with accuracies of 38.757 g/m2 (RSME) and 33.152 g/m2 (MAE). For wider implementation this model will require additional data to strengthen the model accuracy and confirm estimation performance. Nevertheless this study encourages further research given the importance of wheat as a global commodity, the challenge of cloud cover in optical monitoring and the potential of direct estimation of the weight of heads where wheat production lies.

  15. Detection of Flooded Areas in a Time Series of High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Images using Curvelet Transform and Unsupervised Classification. (United States)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.


    Due to their weather and illumination independence and due to their large area coverage at high spatial resolution, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been recognized as a valuable data source for the mapping and tracking of flooding events. In order to optimize mapping accuracy, a SAR-based flood detection approach should provide the following features: (1) due to the recent increase of flood situations and the rising number of high-resolution SAR datasets that require rapid processing, the generation of flood maps should be accomplished automatically and with robust results; (2) due to the large spatial extent of many recent flooding events, a flood detection approach should be computationally efficient and transferable to different environmental conditions (surface cover; scene heterogeneity) and data types. Considering these requirements and to improve upon the current state-of-the-art, we propose an unsupervised flood detection approach that is based on a time-series analysis of multi-temporal SAR images. Due to the inclusion of geometric and radiometric terrain correction, our method automatically adapts to changing environmental parameters. To preserve the full resolution of the original SAR data while reducing the influence of Speckle on flood detection performance, we integrate several recent image processing developments in our approach: We use curvelet filtering methods to suppress noise while preserving most relevant image details. Similarly, we perform a multi-scale decomposition of the input images to generate image instances with varying resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios. Finally, to increase the robustness to false alarms, we incorporate time-series analysis techniques in our workflow: We first generate a redundant set of change probability maps from a stack of repeated SAR images and then invert this redundant set using least-square techniques to arrive at the most likely time series of surface change. To demonstrate the performance of

  16. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry observations of the M = 6.0 Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000 (NW Turkey): Reactivation of a listric fault (United States)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet Murat


    We study the coseismic surface displacement field due to the Orta earthquake of 6 June 2000, a moderate-sized (Mw 6.0) oblique-slip event that took place on a previously unknown fault located about 70 km north of the capital, Ankara (Turkey), and about 35 km south of the North Anatolian Fault. We use European Space Agency ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to generate high-resolution maps of the surface displacements by a two-pass differential SAR interferometry method. The surface displacement field reaching up to 15 cm line of sight subsidence is captured in several coseismic interferograms from descending orbits and is inverted to determine the source parameters of the earthquake using elastic dislocations on rectangular fault surfaces with a nonlinear minimization procedure based on simulating annealing algorithm. Modeling of the coseismic interferograms indicates that the earthquake was associated with a shallow (<6 km) left-lateral oblique normal displacement that occurred on a north-south striking, eastward dipping, listric fault trending at a high angle to the plate boundary, right-lateral strike-slip North Anatolian fault. Careful analyses of multiple interferograms together with the field observations allow us to infer the rupture geometry in fine detail. Modeling shows that coseismic slip occurs nearly only on the lower portion of the listric fault at a centroid depth of about 5 km but partially reaches to the surface along the surface trace of the Dodurga fault, in agreement with the field observations. We show that in the absence of field observations, additional measurements, or multiple interferograms that capture the surface deformation from different look angles, SAR interferometry alone may not be sufficient to constrain earthquake rupture geometry if there is no clear surface faulting. The results suggest that the Dodurga fault developed most probably as a result of a restraining bend along the North Anatolian fault and its left

  17. Learning Change from Synthetic Aperture Radar Images: Performance Evaluation of a Support Vector Machine to Detect Earthquake and Tsunami-Induced Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier to learn and detect changes in single- and multi-temporal X- and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images under varying conditions. The purpose is to provide guidance on how to train a powerful learning machine for change detection in SAR images and to contribute to a better understanding of potentials and limitations of supervised change detection approaches. This becomes particularly important on the background of a rapidly growing demand for SAR change detection to support rapid situation awareness in case of natural disasters. The application environment of this study thus focuses on detecting changes caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami disaster, where single polarized TerraSAR-X and ALOS PALSAR intensity images are used as input. An unprecedented reference dataset of more than 18,000 buildings that have been visually inspected by local authorities for damages after the disaster forms a solid statistical population for the performance experiments. Several critical choices commonly made during the training stage of a learning machine are being assessed for their influence on the change detection performance, including sampling approach, location and number of training samples, classification scheme, change feature space and the acquisition dates of the satellite images. Furthermore, the proposed machine learning approach is compared with the widely used change image thresholding. The study concludes that a well-trained and tuned SVM can provide highly accurate change detections that outperform change image thresholding. While good performance is achieved in the binary change detection case, a distinction between multiple change classes in terms of damage grades leads to poor performance in the tested experimental setting. The major drawback of a machine learning approach is related to the high costs of training. The outcomes of this study, however

  18. An Incomplete Inventory of Suspected Human-Induced Surface Deformation in North America Detected by Satellite Interferometric Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana G. Semple


    Full Text Available We used satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR data to document ground deformation across North America suspected to be caused by human activities. We showed that anthropogenic deformation can be measured from space across the continent and thus satellite observations should be collected routinely to characterize this deformation. We included results from the literature as well as new analysis of more than 5000 interferograms from the European Remote Sensing (ERS satellite, Envisat, the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, and other satellites, collectively spanning the period 1992–2015. This compilation, while not complete in terms of spatial or temporal coverage nor uniform in quality over the region, contains 263 different areas of likely anthropogenic ground deformation, including 65 that were previously unreported. The sources can be attributed to groundwater extraction (50%, geothermal sites (6%, hydrocarbon production (20%, mining (21%, and other sources (3% such as lake level changes driven by human activities and tunneling. In a few areas, the source of deformation is ambiguous. We found at least 80 global positioning system (GPS stations within 20 km of of these areas that could be contaminated by the anthropogenic deformation. At sites where we performed a full time series analysis, we found a mix of steady and time-variable deformation rates. For example, at the East Mesa Geothermal Field in California, we found an area that changed from subsidence to uplift around 2006, even though publicly available records of pumping and injection showed no change during that time. We illustrate selected non-detections from wastewater injection in Oklahoma and eastern Texas, where we found that the detection threshold with available data is >0.5 cm/yr. This places into doubt previous results claiming detection below this threshold in eastern Texas. However, we found likely injection-induced uplift in a different area of

  19. Calibrating a hydraulic model using water levels derived from time series high-resolution Radarsat-2 synthetic aperture radar images and elevation data (United States)

    Trudel, M.; Desrochers, N.; Leconte, R.


    Knowledge of water extent (WE) and level (WL) of rivers is necessary to calibrate and validate hydraulic models and thus to better simulate and forecast floods. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has demonstrated its potential for delineating water bodies, as backscattering of water is much lower than that of other natural surfaces. The ability of SAR to obtain information despite cloud cover makes it an interesting tool for temporal monitoring of water bodies. The delineation of WE combined with a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) allows extracting WL. However, most research using SAR data to calibrate hydraulic models has been carried out using one or two images. The objectives of this study is to use WL derived from time series high resolution Radarsat-2 SAR images for the calibration of a 1-D hydraulic model (HEC-RAS). Twenty high-resolution (5 m) Radarsat-2 images were acquired over a 40 km reach of the Athabasca River, in northern Alberta, Canada, between 2012 and 2016, covering both low and high flow regimes. A high-resolution (2m) DTM was generated combining information from LIDAR data and bathymetry acquired between 2008 and 2016 by boat surveying. The HEC-RAS model was implemented on the Athabasca River to simulate WL using cross-sections spaced by 100 m. An image histogram thresholding method was applied on each Radarsat-2 image to derive WE. WE were then compared against each cross-section to identify those were the slope of the banks is not too abrupt and therefore amenable to extract WL. 139 observations of WL at different locations along the river reach and with streamflow measurements were used to calibrate the HEC-RAS model. The RMSE between SAR-derived and simulated WL is under 0.35 m. Validation was performed using in situ observations of WL measured in 2008, 2012 and 2016. The RMSE between the simulated water levels calibrated with SAR images and in situ observations is less than 0.20 m. In addition, a critical success index (CSI) was

  20. Natural and Unnatural Oil Layers on the Surface of the Gulf of Mexico Detected and Quantified in Synthetic Aperture RADAR Images with Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithms (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Morey, S. L.; Huffer, F.


    Effervescent hydrocarbons rise naturally from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and reach the ocean surface. This oil forms thin (~0.1 μm) layers that enhance specular reflectivity and have been widely used to quantify the abundance and distribution of natural seeps using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). An analogous process occurred at a vastly greater scale for oil and gas discharged from BP's Macondo well blowout. SAR data allow direct comparison of the areas of the ocean surface covered by oil from natural sources and the discharge. We used a texture classifying neural network algorithm to quantify the areas of naturally occurring oil-covered water in 176 SAR image collections from the Gulf of Mexico obtained between May 1997 and November 2007, prior to the blowout. Separately we also analyzed 36 SAR images collections obtained between 26 April and 30 July, 2010 while the discharged oil was visible in the Gulf of Mexico. For the naturally occurring oil, we removed pollution events and transient oceanographic effects by including only the reflectance anomalies that that recurred in the same locality over multiple images. We measured the area of oil layers in a grid of 10x10 km cells covering the entire Gulf of Mexico. Floating oil layers were observed in only a fraction of the total Gulf area amounting to 1.22x10^5 km^2. In a bootstrap sample of 2000 replications, the combined average area of these layers was 7.80x10^2 km^2 (sd 86.03). For a regional comparison, we divided the Gulf of Mexico into four quadrates along 90° W longitude, and 25° N latitude. The NE quadrate, where the BP discharge occurred, received on average 7.0% of the total natural seepage in the Gulf of Mexico (5.24 x10^2 km^2, sd 21.99); the NW quadrate received on average 68.0% of this total (5.30 x10^2 km^2, sd 69.67). The BP blowout occurred in the NE quadrate of the Gulf of Mexico; discharged oil that reached the surface drifted over a large area north of 25° N. Performing a

  1. Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of the Interior of Primitive Solar System Bodies: Comets and Asteroids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This task will demonstrate that using Radar Reflection Imager Instrument in an orbing platform , we can perform 3D mapping of the Cometary Nucleus. To probe the...

  2. Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of the Interior of Primitive Solar System Bodies: Comets and Asteroids Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To probe the interior of a comet, we are going to employ Radar Reflection Imager (RRI) Instrument on an orbiting platform. While orbiting around the comet at a safe...

  3. Experimental Verification of Multiple-input Multiple Output (MIMO) Beamforming Capabilities Using a Time-division Coherent MIMO Radar (United States)


    à 8 canaux et à répartition dans le temps sont discutés. Des données de radar à réseau à éléments en phase, obtenus avec une ap- proche mixte...obtenus avec un radar MIMO de bande X à 8 canaux et à répartition dans le temps, clarifient l’exacti- tude de l’estimation de l’angle des radars MIMO...However, where further distribution (beyond the audience specified in (11)) is possible, a wider announcement audience may be selected.) Unlimited 13

  4. Analysis of the inversion monitoring capabilities of a monostatic acoustic radar in complex terrain. [Tennessee River Valley (United States)

    Koepf, D.; Frost, W.


    A qualitative interpretation of the records from a monostatic acoustic radar is presented. This is achieved with the aid of airplane, helicopter, and rawinsonde temperature soundings. The diurnal structure of a mountain valley circulation pattern is studied with the use of two acoustic radars, one located in the valley and one on the downwind ridge. The monostatic acoustic radar was found to be sufficiently accurate in locating the heights of the inversions and the mixed layer depth to warrant use by industry even in complex terrain.

  5. A Methodology for Determining Statistical Performance Compliance for Airborne Doppler Radar with Forward-Looking Turbulence Detection Capability (United States)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Buck, Bill K.


    The objective of the research developed and presented in this document was to statistically assess turbulence hazard detection performance employing airborne pulse Doppler radar systems. The FAA certification methodology for forward looking airborne turbulence radars will require estimating the probabilities of missed and false hazard indications under operational conditions. Analytical approaches must be used due to the near impossibility of obtaining sufficient statistics experimentally. This report describes an end-to-end analytical technique for estimating these probabilities for Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar systems under noise-limited conditions, for a variety of aircraft types, as defined in FAA TSO-C134. This technique provides for one means, but not the only means, by which an applicant can demonstrate compliance to the FAA directed ATDS Working Group performance requirements. Turbulence hazard algorithms were developed that derived predictive estimates of aircraft hazards from basic radar observables. These algorithms were designed to prevent false turbulence indications while accurately predicting areas of elevated turbulence risks to aircraft, passengers, and crew; and were successfully flight tested on a NASA B757-200 and a Delta Air Lines B737-800. Application of this defined methodology for calculating the probability of missed and false hazard indications taking into account the effect of the various algorithms used, is demonstrated for representative transport aircraft and radar performance characteristics.

  6. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Filho Pedro W. M.


    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirmed the usefulness of RADARSAT-1 image for geomorphological mapping and land-cover assessment, particularly in macrotidal mangrove coasts. It was possible to map mangroves, salt marshes, chenier sand ridges, dunes, barrier-beach ridges, shallow water morphologies and different forms of land-use. Furthermore, a new method to estimate shoreline changes based on the superimposition of vectors extracted from both sources of SAR data has indicated that the shoreline has been subjected to severe coastal erosion responsible for retreat of 32 km² and accretion of 20 km², resulting in a mangrove land loss of almost 12 km². In an application perspective, orbital and airborne SAR data proved to be a fundamental source of information for both geomorphological mapping and monitoring coastal changes in moist tropical environments.

  7. Using phase for radar scatterer classification (United States)

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.


    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  8. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon


    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  9. Synthetic aperture imaging in astronomy and aerospace: introduction. (United States)

    Creech-Eakman, Michelle J; Carney, P Scott; Buscher, David F; Shao, Michael


    Aperture synthesis methods allow the reconstruction of images with the angular resolutions exceeding that of extremely large monolithic apertures by using arrays of smaller apertures together in combination. In this issue we present several papers with techniques relevant to amplitude interferometry, laser radar, and intensity interferometry applications.

  10. Use of Seasat satellite radar imagery for the detection of standing water beneath forest vegetation (United States)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Demarcke, J. S.


    The Seasat synthetic aperture radar, operating at a 23-cm, L-band wavelength, detected anomalous tonal patterns in areas having relatively uniform vegetable canopy. These anomalously high radar returns were shown to be related more to the underlying terrain (areas of standing water) than to the vegetation canopy. These results show that L-band radars, imaging forested terrain in a Seasat configuration, are sensitive to gross changes in vegetation, and may even penetrate the vegetation canopy, providing an unmistakable radar signature. Properly designed space imaging radar shuttle experiments, using multiple frequency and polarization radars of various depression angles, may provide documentation for a flood-monitoring capability. Height, configuration, and density of the biomass in conjunction with frequency and incidence angle of the imaging system are shown to be important factors in formulating a backscatter model, but the relative significance of each is yet to be determined.

  11. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures (United States)


    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  12. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger


    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  13. Synthetic aperture ladar based on a MOPAW laser (United States)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Bergeron, Alain; Desbiens, Louis; Paradis, Patrick


    Long range land surveillance is a critical need in numerous military and civilian security applications, such as threat detection, terrain mapping and disaster prevention. A key technology for land surveillance, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) continues to provide high resolution radar images in all weather conditions from remote distances. State of the art SAR systems based on dual-use satellites are capable of providing ground resolutions of one meter; while their airborne counterparts obtain resolutions of 10 cm. Certain land surveillance applications such as subsidence monitoring, landslide hazard prediction and tactical target tracking could benefit from improved resolution. The ultimate limitation to the achievable resolution of any imaging system is its wavelength. State-of-the-art SAR systems are approaching this limit. The natural extension to improve resolution is to thus decrease the wavelength, i.e. design a synthetic aperture system in a different wavelength regime. One such system offering the potential for vastly improved resolution is Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL). This system operates at infrared wavelengths, ten thousand times smaller radar wavelengths. This paper presents a SAL platform based on the INO Master Oscillator with Programmable Amplitude Waveform (MOPAW) laser that has a wavelength sweep of Δλ=1.22 nm, a pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz and up to 200 μJ per pulse. The results for SAL 2D imagery at a range of 10 m are presented, indicating a reflectance sensibility of 8 %, ground-range and azimuth resolution of 1.7 mm and 0.84 mm respectively.

  14. EISCAT Aperture Synthesis Imaging (EASI _3D) for the EISCAT_3D Project (United States)

    La Hoz, Cesar; Belyey, Vasyl


    Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) is one of the technologies adopted by the EISCAT_3D project to endow it with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. This ability will open new research opportunities to map small structures associated with non-homogeneous, unstable processes such as aurora, summer and winter polar radar echoes (PMSE and PMWE), Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), structures excited by HF ionospheric heating, meteors, space debris, and others. The underlying physico-mathematical principles of the technique are the same as the technique employed in radioastronomy to image stellar objects; both require sophisticated inversion techniques to obtain reliable images.

  15. Aperture center energy showcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J. J.


    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  16. Deriving a time series of 3D glacier motion to investigate interactions of a large mountain glacial system with its glacial lake: Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset technique (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Zhi-wei; Wu, Li-xin; Xu, Bing; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Yu-shan; Miao, Ze-lang


    We investigated the interactions of Lake Merzbacher with the Southern Inylchek Glacier (Central Tien Shan) using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset (PO-SBAS) to derive a time series of three-dimensional (3D) glacier motion. The measurements of 3D glacier velocity were ∼17% more precise than a previous study that did not use the SBAS estimation. The velocities of the glacier were up to 58 cm/day east, 70 cm/day north, and 113 cm/day vertically. Combining these data with Landsat images indicated that movement of the glacier is sensitive to changes of Lake Merzbacher. Specifically, the entry of more lake water into the glacier during the ablation season increased englacial ablation due to thermal erosion. Moreover, ice calving begins when the lake water gradually lifts the ice dam. Calving can cause greater loss of glacier mass than normal ablation. Trying to replenish the front mass loss, the distributary accelerates and the mass loss further intensifies. A time series of the vertical velocity indicates that the glacier tongue has a huge englacial cavity. We suggest that the lake outburst is directly related to the crack of this cavity. Bursting of the lake triggers a mini-surge at the glacier tongue. The vertical velocity at the ice dam was ∼+60 cm/day before the lake outburst, and ∼-113 cm/day afterwards. After drainage of the lake, flow velocities at the distributary, do not sharply decrease because pre-drainage mass loss needs to be replenished by fast flow. Based on comparisons with previous measurements, our results indicate that the lake had an increasing influence on the glacier from 2005 to 2009. This study demonstrates that a time series of 3D glacier motion based on the PO-SBAS technique is effective for assessing the dynamics of a mountain glacial system and interactions with its glacial lake.

  17. Transient rift opening in response to multiple dike injections in the Manda Hararo rift (Afar, Ethiopia) imaged by time-dependent elastic inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Doin, M.-P.; Jacques, E.; de Chabalier, J.-B.; King, G. C. P.


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data spanning the time intervals separating thirteen dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rift (Afar, Ethiopia) from 2005 to 2009 show that transient deformation occurs in the inter-diking period. This deformation can be explained by the presence of seven inflating or deflating pressure sources. By combining the data acquired on four different InSAR tracks, through time-dependent elastic models, we are able to track these deformation modes with a time resolution smaller than 1 month. Sustained deflation of a deep magma reservoir at Dabbahu in the 6 months following the main rifting event of 2005, and slow decelerating post-eruptive re-inflation of two shallow magma reservoirs below Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes, are monitored. A deflation signal of deep origin on the neighboring rift system is also detected, possibly caused by outflow of material from a preexisting reservoir into the deep plate boundary. In contrast, rapidly evolving deformation is observed at the center of the Manda Hararo rift segment. Transient deformation events are monitored in the weeks/months following the diking events, with pulses of localized rift opening after the dike intrusions, followed by an exponential-like decay of opening rate. This signal may be associated with the replenishment of the central magma reservoir involved in feeding the 2005-2009 dikes. Alternatively, the predominantly horizontal mode of deformation suggests an interaction between the response of the lithosphere to tectonic strain accumulation, and the process of hydraulic connectivity within the central magma plumbing system.

  18. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter


    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  19. Detecting Moorland Wildfire Scars and their Persistence in the Landscape using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in the Peak District National Park, UK (United States)

    Millin-chalabi, G. R.; McMorrow, J.; Agnew, C.


    The overall aim of this research is to assess the ability of SAR to detect moorland wildfire scars and their persistence in the landscape using the Peak District National Park (PDNP) in the UK as a case study. Spatially-robust data to monitor wildfire scar size and severity in UK moorlands is currently rare. Fires can burn deep into peat soils and contribute to the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and may also affect the water quality of nearby streams. Information on fire extent would be useful for conservation organisations such as Moors For The Future who are trying to preserve the delicate peatland environment. Knowing the size and location of fire scars would help the Fire and Rescue Service to plan future response to moorland fires. Fire scar boundaries can be mapped in the field using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however this is labour intensive. Indeed in the PDNP wildfire scar mapping is conducted by park rangers which provides essential ground truth data for assessing against the SAR data. Therefore this particular area provides a unique opportunity for testing an alternative SAR technique for monitoring wildfire scars in the moorland landscape. Previous research shows that SAR has been successfully applied for wildfire scar detection in other types of environments such as boreal (Bourgeau-Chavez et al, 1997) and the tropics (Huang and Siegert, 2004). This research presents some of the first results of the project which tests the capability of ERS 2; ASAR (C-band) and PALSAR (L-band) data to detect several wildfire scars from 2003 - 2008 of various spatial scales and fire severity. Some of the key areas of interest the paper will explore are at Bleaklow and the Kinder plateau. The Bleaklow peat fire of 18th April 2003 was larger (7km2) and more severe than at Kinder, which burned between 26-29th May 2008 and covered an area of 10 ha. All the wildfire scars were GPS, mapped just after the fire event. Archival time-series SAR imagery was

  20. Automated Change Detection for Synthetic Aperture Sonar (United States)


    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automated Change Detection for Synthetic Aperture Sonar...R. Azimi-Sadjadi and S. Srinivasan, “Coherent Change Detection and Classification in Synthetic Aper - ture Radar Imagery Using Canonical Correlation

  1. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark


    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  2. Aperture area measurement facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  3. Multitemporal synthetic aperture radar for bridges monitoring (United States)

    Tessitore, Serena; Di Martire, Diego; Calcaterra, Domenico; Infante, Donato; Ramondini, Massimo; Russo, Gianpiero


    The present work is devoted to analyze the potentiality of satellite-based techniques for structural monitoring of bridges. Specifically, the well-known case study of the cable stayed bridge across the river Garigliano and Ausente stream is presented. The available "in situ" data have been compared and integrated with satellite-based measurements (ERS, ENVISAT satellites) for the common monitoring period (1993-2004); thus, the temporal observation window has been extended until 2010 (ENVISAT satellite). DInSAR represents a consolidated tool for deformation monitoring and its application on man-made structures and infrastructures can make easier the detection of potential problems with a consequent improvement of risks management.

  4. Commercial requirements for synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Lodge, Dale W. S.; Williamson, H. Dawn; Whitelaw, Alan S.; Howes, Sally; Keyte, Gordon E.


    Structured interviews were used to gather information on the commercial requirements and value of SAR data from about 2005 for the global sample of market sectors using cartographic information and spatial statistics. The results show the relative importance of major application areas as commercial prospects. The annual market projection for the period around 2005 using as yet an incomplete global sample is for over 20,000 scenes with a value of the order of $75 million. The most significant markets are expected to be for topographic maps, oceans and ice and agriculture. However, SAR is unlikely to be the sole source of information for any application but will be incorporated with other data as available. The results of the interviews have been used to define customer requirements on the ground segment, which showed that commercial partnership in the mission operations was essential. A hierarchial market model was developed to support the sampling strategy and to relate customer requirements to the SAR design. The work has established a baseline of information on which to plan a commercial SAR mission in the next century.

  5. Oceanic eddies in synthetic aperture radar images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    determining mechanism of eddy formation in this case is the vorticity (shear) of the currents or devi- ation of one current by another. Figure 10 shows the ERS-1 SAR image with a couple of cyclonic eddies that is supposedly located in the area of confluence of oppositely directed currents in the central part of the Japan Sea.

  6. Wide-swath Shared Aperture Cloud Radar (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) seek to advance key enabling technologies for next generation multi-frequency...

  7. Oceanic eddies in synthetic aperture radar images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    features in the ocean detected in remote sensing images (visible, infrared, and SAR) is presented as well as available information on their spatial and temporal scales. Examples of the Almaz-1 and. ERS-1/2 SAR images showing different eddy types, such as rings, spiral eddies of the open ocean, eddies behind islands and ...

  8. Synthetic aperture lidar as a future tool for earth observation (United States)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Bergeron, Alain


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a tool of prime importance for Earth observation; it provides day and night capabilities in various weather conditions. State-of-the-art satellite SAR systems are a few meters in height and width and achieve resolutions of less than 1 m with revisit times on the order of days. Today's Earth observation needs demand higher resolution imaging together with timelier data collection within a compact low power consumption payload. Such needs are seen in Earth Observation applications such as disaster management of earthquakes, landslides, forest fires, floods and others. In these applications the availability of timely reliable information is critical to assess the extent of the disaster and to rapidly and safely deploy rescue teams. Synthetic aperture lidar (SAL) is based on the same basic principles as SAR. Both rely on the acquisition of multiple electromagnetic echoes to emulate a large antenna aperture providing the ability to produce high resolution images. However, in SAL, much shorter optical wavelengths (1.5 μm) are used instead of radar ones (wavelengths around 3 cm). Resolution being related to the wavelength, multiple orders of magnitude of improvement could be theoretically expected. Also, the sources, the detector, and the components are much smaller in optical domain than those for radar. The resulting system can thus be made compact opening the door to deployment onboard small satellites, airborne platforms and unmanned air vehicles. This has a strong impact on the time required to develop, deploy and use a payload. Moreover, in combination with airborne deployment, revisit times can be made much smaller and accessibility to the information can become almost in real-time. Over the last decades, studies from different groups have been done to validate the feasibility of a SAL system for 2D imagery and more recently for 3D static target imagery. In this paper, an overview of the advantages of this emerging technology will

  9. Ultrawideband imaging radar based on OFDM: system simulation analysis (United States)

    Garmatyuk, Dmitriy


    Orthogonal frequency division-multiplexing (OFDM) is rapidly emerging as a preferred method of UWB signaling in commercial applications aimed mainly at low-power, high data-rate communications. This paper explores the possibility of applying OFDM to use in imaging radar technology. Ultra-wideband nature of the signal provides for high resolution of the radar, whereas usage of multi-sub-carrier method of modulation allows for dynamic spectrum allocation. Robust multi-path performance of OFDM signals and heavy reliance of transceiver design on digital processors easily implemented in modern VLSI technology make a number of possible applications viable, e.g.: portable high-resolution indoor radar/movement monitoring system; through-the-wall/foliage synthetic aperture imaging radar with a capability of image transmission/broadcasting, etc. Our work is aimed to provide a proof-of-concept simulation scenario to explore numerous aspects of UWB-OFDM radar imaging through evaluating range and cross-range imaging performance of such a system with an eventual goal of software-defined radio (SDR) implementation. Stripmap SAR topology was chosen for modeling purposes. Range/cross-range profiles were obtained along with full 2-D images for multi-target in noise scenarios. Model set-up and results of UWB-OFDM radar imaging simulation study using Matlab/Simulink modeling are presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging and Atmospheric Turbulence (United States)


    coherence factor for every retro-pair Ladar Heater Target 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time [sec] In te n s it y Heater On...c) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 10 -13 10 -12 10 -11 C n 2 time [sec] 0.5 m 2 m 4 m 6 m 7.5 m DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for...optical synthetic aperture radar,” US6879279 B2, 12- Apr - 2005. [10] Z. W. Barber and J. R. Dahl, “Synthetic aperture ladar imaging demonstrations and

  11. Space Radar Image of Randonia Rain Cell (United States)


    This multi-frequency space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different radar frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms. This color image was created by combining the three separate radar frequencies into a composite image. The three black and white images below represent the individual frequencies. The lower left image, X-band vertically transmitted and received, is blue in the color image; the lower center image, C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is green; and the lower right image, L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is red. A heavy downpour in the lower center of the image appears as a black 'cloud' in the X-band image, the same area is shows up faintly in the C-band image, and is invisible in the L-band image. When combined in the color image, the rain cell appears red and yellow. Although radar can usually 'see' through clouds, short radar wavelengths (high frequency), such as X and C-band, can be changed by unusually heavy rain cells. L-band, at a 24 cm (9 inches) wavelength, is unaffected by such rain cells. By analyzing the way the radar changes, scientist can estimate rainfall rates. The area shown is in the state of Rondonia, in western Brazil. The pink areas are pristine tropical rainforest, and the blue and green patches are areas where the forest has been cleared for agriculture. Cleared areas are typically able to support intense farming for a only few years, before soil erosion renders the fields unusable. Radar imaging can be used to monitor not only the rainforest destruction, but also the rates of recovery of abandoned fields. This image is 35.2 kilometers by 21.3 kilometers (21.8 miles by 13.2 miles) and is centered at 11.2 degrees south latitude, 61.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic

  12. See-through Detection and 3D Reconstruction Using Terahertz Leaky-Wave Radar Based on Sparse Signal Processing (United States)

    Murata, Koji; Murano, Kosuke; Watanabe, Issei; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Monnai, Yasuaki


    We experimentally demonstrate see-through detection and 3D reconstruction using terahertz leaky-wave radar based on sparse signal processing. The application of terahertz waves to radar has received increasing attention in recent years for its potential to high-resolution and see-through detection. Among others, the implementation using a leaky-wave antenna is promising for compact system integration with beam steering capability based on frequency sweep. However, the use of a leaky-wave antenna poses a challenge on signal processing. Since a leaky-wave antenna combines the entire signal captured by each part of the aperture into a single output, the conventional array signal processing assuming access to a respective antenna element is not applicable. In this paper, we apply an iterative recovery algorithm "CoSaMP" to signals acquired with terahertz leaky-wave radar for clutter mitigation and aperture synthesis. We firstly demonstrate see-through detection of target location even when the radar is covered with an opaque screen, and therefore, the radar signal is disturbed by clutter. Furthermore, leveraging the robustness of the algorithm against noise, we also demonstrate 3D reconstruction of distributed targets by synthesizing signals collected from different orientations. The proposed approach will contribute to the smart implementation of terahertz leaky-wave radar.

  13. Interpreting sea surface slicks on the basis of the normalized radar cross-section model using RADARSAT-2 copolarization dual-channel SAR images (United States)

    Ivonin, D. V.; Skrunes, S.; Brekke, C.; Ivanov, A. Yu.


    A simple automatic multipolarization technique for discrimination of main types of thin oil films (of thickness less than the radio wave skin depth) from natural ones is proposed. It is based on a new multipolarization parameter related to the ratio between the damping in the slick of specially normalized resonant and nonresonant signals calculated using the normalized radar cross-section model proposed by Kudryavtsev et al. (2003a). The technique is tested on RADARSAT-2 copolarization (VV/HH) synthetic aperture radar images of slicks of a priori known provenance (mineral oils, e.g., emulsion and crude oil, and plant oil served to model a natural slick) released during annual oil-on-water exercises in the North Sea in 2011 and 2012. It has been shown that the suggested multipolarization parameter gives new capabilities in interpreting slicks visible on synthetic aperture radar images while allowing discrimination between mineral oil and plant oil slicks.

  14. Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging. (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J


    Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast radar imaging system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the imaging capabilities of a multistatic radar imaging modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for imaging are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave radar breast profile. The proposed imaging method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each imaging scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound imaging technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.

  15. Super-resolution technologies for all-weather sense and avoidance (SAA) radar (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Wang, Shang; Pan, Yu; Suarez, Hernan


    The sense and avoidance (SAA) and due-regard radar systems have strict requirements on size, weight and power (SWaP) and target localization accuracies. Also, the multi-mission capabilities with both weather and hard targets are critical to the survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in the next generation national airspace. The aperture limitations of the aircraft sensor installation, however, have prevented large antennas/arrays to be used. The tradeoffs among frequencies, resolutions and detection range/accuracies have not been fully addressed. Innovative concepts of overcoming the aperture limitation by using a special type of super-resolution technology are introduced. The first technique is based on a combination of thinned antenna array, an extension to the traditional Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique, and applying a two-dimensional sidelobe mitigation technique. To overcome the degradation of MUSIC-type of approach due to coherent radar signals, a special waveform optimization procedure is used. The techniques for mitigating artifacts due to "thinned" array are also introduced. Simulated results of super-resolution techniques are discussed and evaluated, and the capability of separating multiple targets within aperture-constrained beamwidth is demonstrated. Moreover, the potential capabilities of autonomous weather hazard avoidance are also analyzed.

  16. LDAR observations of a developing thunderstorm correlated with field mill, ground strike location, and weather radar data including the first report of the design and capabilities of a new, time-of-arrival Ground-strike Location System (GSLS) (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.


    An experiment designed to observe and measure a thunderstorm prior to, during, and after its development over the Kennedy Space Center was successful. Correlated measurements of airborne field strength, ground-based field strength, LDAR lightning discharge location in the clouds, weather radar percipitation echoes, plus ground strike location with the new KSC Ground Strike Location System (GSLS) were gathered, and reported. This test marks the first operational use of the GSLS System, and this report contains the first report of its design and capabilities.

  17. Flexible T/R Modules for Large-Aperture, Space-Based SAR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SI2 Technologies, Inc (SI2) proposes to develop membrane compatible transmit/receive (T/R) modules for flexible, space-deployable synthetic aperture radar (SAR)...

  18. Intelligent radar data processing (United States)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  19. Mastering Apple Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Thomas


    Written in a conversational style, the author will share his knowledge on advanced Aperture topics with detailed discussions of advanced topics, the theory behind some of those topics and lots of hints and tips for ways to improve your workflow.Photographer's who have a basic understanding of Aperture

  20. Multispectral imaging radar (United States)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.


    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  1. Phased-array radars (United States)

    Brookner, E.


    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  2. Increasing the sensitivity of controlled-source electromagnetics with synthetic aperture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.C.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.


    Controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a derisking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. We apply the concept of synthetic aperture to the lowfrequency electromagnetic field in CSEM. Synthetic aperture sources have been used in radar imaging for many years. Using the

  3. Synthetic aperture ultrasound Fourier beamformation using virtual sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Mahloojifar, Ali


    An efficient Fourier beamformation algorithm is presented for multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging using virtual sources (FBV). The concept is based on the frequency domain wavenumber algorithm from radar and sonar and is extended to a multi-element transmit/receive configuration using...

  4. Fourier beamformation of multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Mahloojifar, Ali


    A new Fourier beamformation (FB) algorithm is presented for multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. It can reduce the number of computations by a factor of 20 compared to conventional Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamformers. The concept is based on the wavenumber algorithm from radar and sonar...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  6. On results using automated wideband instrumentation for radar measurements and characterization (United States)

    Govoni, Mark A.; Dogaru, Traian; Le, Calvin; Sobczak, Kevin


    Experiences are shared from a recent radar measurement and characterization effort. A regimented data collection procedure ensures repeatability and provides an expedited alternative to typical narrowband capabilities. Commercially-available instrumentation is repurposed to support wideband data collections spanning a contiguous range of frequencies from 700 MHz to 40 GHz. Utilizing a 4-port network analyzer, both monostatic and quasi-monostatic measurements are achievable. Polarization is varied by way of a custom-designed antenna mount that allows for the mechanical reorientation of the antennas. Computational electromagnetic modeling is briefly introduced and serves in validating the legitimacy of the collection capability. Data products presented will include high-range resolution profiles and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imagery.

  7. Radar systems for the water resources mission, volume 1 (United States)

    Moore, R. K.; Claassen, J. P.; Erickson, R. L.; Fong, R. K. T.; Hanson, B. C.; Komen, M. J.; Mcmillan, S. B.; Parashar, S. K.


    The state of the art determination was made for radar measurement of: soil moisture, snow, standing and flowing water, lake and river ice, determination of required spacecraft radar parameters, study of synthetic-aperture radar systems to meet these parametric requirements, and study of techniques for on-board processing of the radar data. Significant new concepts developed include the following: scanning synthetic-aperture radar to achieve wide-swath coverage; single-sideband radar; and comb-filter range-sequential, range-offset SAR processing. The state of the art in radar measurement of water resources parameters is outlined. The feasibility for immediate development of a spacecraft water resources SAR was established. Numerous candidates for the on-board processor were examined.

  8. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  9. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  10. Radar image and data fusion for natural hazards characterisation (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong


    Fusion of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images through interferometric, polarimetric and tomographic processing provides an all - weather imaging capability to characterise and monitor various natural hazards. This article outlines interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing and products and their utility for natural hazards characterisation, provides an overview of the techniques and applications related to fusion of SAR/InSAR images with optical and other images and highlights the emerging SAR fusion technologies. In addition to providing precise land - surface digital elevation maps, SAR - derived imaging products can map millimetre - scale elevation changes driven by volcanic, seismic and hydrogeologic processes, by landslides and wildfires and other natural hazards. With products derived from the fusion of SAR and other images, scientists can monitor the progress of flooding, estimate water storage changes in wetlands for improved hydrological modelling predictions and assessments of future flood impacts and map vegetation structure on a global scale and monitor its changes due to such processes as fire, volcanic eruption and deforestation. With the availability of SAR images in near real - time from multiple satellites in the near future, the fusion of SAR images with other images and data is playing an increasingly important role in understanding and forecasting natural hazards.

  11. Radar Chart (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  12. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.


    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  13. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness


    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  14. Radar mutual information and communication channel capacity of integrated radar-communication system using MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui Xu


    Full Text Available Integrated radar-communication system based on multiple input and multiple output (MIMO shares the hardware resource and spectrum to fulfill radar and communication functions, simultaneously. The baseband signal models of the MIMO radar and the integrated radar-communication system are set up. Then, the radar mutual information and the communication channel capacity are derived accordingly. Radar mutual information is used to evaluate the radar performance; communication channel capacity is one of the methods used to measure the communication capability. The influences of signal-to-noise ratio and the number of antennas, on the mutual information and channel capacity are presented through simulations.

  15. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu


    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  16. Radar for tracer particles (United States)

    Ott, Felix; Herminghaus, Stephan; Huang, Kai


    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a 5 mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The 10 GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of 1 W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  17. Spectral Properties of Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Radar Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    On the basis of a two-dimensional, nonstationary white noisemodel for the complex radar backscatter, the spectral properties ofa one-look synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system is derived. It isshown that the power spectrum of the complex SAR image is sceneindependent. It is also shown that the sp...

  18. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke


    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  19. Radar sensing via a Micro-UAV-borne system (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Ludeno, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco; Rodi Vetrella, Amedeo; Fasano, Giancarmine


    In recent years, the miniaturization of flight control systems and payloads has contributed to a fast and widespread diffusion of micro-UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle). While micro-UAV can be a powerful tool in several civil applications such as environmental monitoring and surveillance, unleashing their full potential for societal benefits requires augmenting their sensing capability beyond the realm of active/passive optical sensors [1]. In this frame, radar systems are drawing attention since they allow performing missions in all-weather and day/night conditions and, thanks to the microwave ability to penetrate opaque media, they enable the detection and localization not only of surface objects but also of sub-surface/hidden targets. However, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging represents still a new frontier, since it is much more than a matter of technology miniaturization or payload installation, which can take advantage of the newly developed ultralight systems. Indeed, micro-UAV-borne radar imaging entails scientific challenges in terms of electromagnetic modeling and knowledge of flight dynamics and control. As a consequence, despite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a traditional remote sensing tool, its adaptation to micro-UAV is an open issue and so far only few case studies concerning the integration of SAR and UAV technologies have been reported worldwide [2]. In addition, only early results concerning subsurface imaging by means of an UAV-mounted radar are available [3]. As a contribution to radar imaging via autonomous micro-UAV, this communication presents a proof-of-concept experiment. This experiment represents the first step towards the development of a general methodological approach that exploits expertise about (sub-)surface imaging and aerospace systems with the aim to provide high-resolution images of the surveyed scene. In details, at the conference, we will present the results of a flight campaign carried out by using a single radar

  20. Fmcw Mmw Radar For Automotive Longitudinal Control


    David, William


    This report presents information on millimeter wave (MMW) radar for automotive longitudinal control. It addresses the fundamental capabilities and limitations of millimeter waves for ranging and contrasts their operation with that of conventional microwave radar. The report analyzes pulsed and FMCW radar configurations, and provides detailed treatment of FMCW radar operating at MMW frequency, its advantages and disadvantages as they relate to range and velocity measurements.

  1. Radar systems for a polar mission, volume 1 (United States)

    Moore, R. K.; Claassen, J. P.; Erickson, R. L.; Fong, R. K. T.; Komen, M. J.; Mccauley, J.; Mcmillan, S. B.; Parashar, S. K.


    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in monitoring and managing earth resources is examined. Synthetic aperture radars form a class of side-looking airborne radar, often referred to as coherent SLAR, which permits fine-resolution radar imagery to be generated at long operating ranges by the use of signal processing techniques. By orienting the antenna beam orthogonal to the motion of the spacecraft carrying the radar, a one-dimensional imagery ray system is converted into a two-dimensional or terrain imaging system. The radar's ability to distinguish - or resolve - closely spaced transverse objects is determined by the length of the pulse. The transmitter components receivers, and the mixer are described in details.

  2. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K


    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  3. Space Radar Image of Bahia (United States)


    limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth

  4. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kathree, U


    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  5. A Radar/Radiometer Instrument for Mapping Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.; Hilliard, Laurence; Rincon, Rafael; LeVine, David; Mead, James


    The RadSTAR instrument combines an L-band, digital beam-forming radar with an L-band synthetic aperture, thinned array (STAR) radiometer. The RadSTAR development will support NASA Earth science goals by developing a novel, L-band scatterometer/ radiometer that measures Earth surface bulk material properties (surface emissions and backscatter) as well as surface characteristics (backscatter). Present, real aperture airborne L-Band active/passive measurement systems such as the JPUPALS (Wilson, et al, 2000) provide excellent sampling characteristics, but have no scanning capabilities, and are extremely large; the huge JPUPALS horn requires a the C-130 airborne platform, operated with the aft loading door open during flight operation. The approach used for the upcoming Aquarius ocean salinity mission or the proposed Hydros soil mission use real apertures with multiple fixed beams or scanning beams. For real aperture instruments, there is no upgrade path to scanning over a broad swath, except rotation of the whole aperture, which is an approach with obvious difficulties as aperture size increases. RadSTAR will provide polarimetric scatterometer and radiometer measurements over a wide swath, in a highly space-efficient configuration. The electronic scanning approaches provided through STAR technology and digital beam forming will enable the large L-band aperture to scan efficiently over a very wide swath. RadSTAR technology development, which merges an interferometric radiometer with a digital beam forming scatterometer, is an important step in the path to space for an L-band scatterometer/radiometer. RadSTAR couples a patch array antenna with a 1.26 GHz digital beam forming radar scatterometer and a 1.4 GHz STAR radiometer to provide Earth surface backscatter and emission measurements in a compact, cross-track scanning instrument with no moving parts. This technology will provide the first L-band, emission and backscatter measurements in a compact aircraft instrument

  6. Marine radar properties, analysis and applications


    Kaspersen, Kai Magne


    In this thesis marine radars are compared with synthetic aperture radars (SAR) and the possibility of cross-over applications are investigated. A first cross-over has been demonstrated by using the TS-CFAR on marine radar images. The TS-CFAR was originally developed for SAR and is a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection algorithm based on truncated statistics. Detecting weak targets embedded in sea clutter is difficult because it is hard to find a model describing the sea in its various ...

  7. Radar network communication through sensing of frequency hopping (United States)

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak


    In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars having a communication range and being capable of operating at a sensing frequency and a reporting frequency, wherein the reporting frequency is different than the sensing frequency, each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected, each radar in the plurality of radars has an identification/location frequency for reporting information different from the sensing frequency, a first radar of the radars which senses the event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all other radars in the plurality of radars switch their reporting frequencies to match the reporting frequency of the first radar upon detecting the reporting frequency switch of a radar within the communication range. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

  8. Airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar: trade-offs between various engineering specifications (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Loew, Eric


    NCAR EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next-generation airborne phased array radar (APAR) that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. The APAR will operate at C band. The APAR will use the electronic scanning (e-scan) feature to acquire the optimal number of independent samples for recording research-quality measurements. Since the airborne radar has only a limited time for collecting measurements over a specified region (moving aircraft platform ˜ 100 m s-1), beam multiplexing will significantly enhance its ability to collect high-resolution, research-quality measurements. Beam multiplexing reduces errors in radar measurements while providing rapid updates of scan volumes. Beamwidth depends on the size of the antenna aperture. Beamwidth and directivity of elliptical, circular, and rectangular antenna apertures are compared and radar sensitivity is evaluated for various polarimetric configurations and transmit-receive (T/R) elements. In the case of polarimetric measurements, alternate transmit with alternate receive (single-channel receiver) and simultaneous reception (dual-channel receiver) is compared. From an overall architecture perspective, element-level digitization of T/R module versus digital sub-array is considered with regard to flexibility in adaptive beamforming, polarimetric performance, calibration, and data quality. Methodologies for calibration of the radar and removing bias in polarimetric measurements are outlined. The above-mentioned engineering options are evaluated for realizing an optimal APAR system suitable for measuring the high temporal and spatial resolutions of Doppler and polarimetric measurements of precipitation and clouds.

  9. Survey of coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.


    The basic principle and limitations of coded aperture imaging for x-ray and gamma cameras are discussed. Current trends include (1) use of time varying apertures, (2) use of ''dilute'' apertures with transmission much less than 50%, and (3) attempts to derive transverse tomographic sections, unblurred by other planes, from coded images

  10. Analysis of Interferometric Radar Data in a Queensland, Australia Tropical Rain Forest (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Chapin, Elaine; Accad, Arnon


    The radar flies at 8000 m (24000 ft) above the ground and collects data in swath about 10 km wide. The radar simultaneously collects data from multiple frequencies and is capable of making interferometric radar measurements.

  11. Congenital pyriform aperture stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovsky, Micky; Aizer-Danon, Anat; Horev, Gadi; Sirota, Lea


    Nasal airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening condition in the newborn. Neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. The pyriform aperture is the narrowest, most anterior bony portion of the nasal airway, and a decrease in its cross-sectional area will significantly increase nasal airway resistance. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare, unusual form of nasal obstruction. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neonate or infant with signs and symptoms of upper airway compromise. It is important to differentiate this level of obstruction from the more common posterior choanal stenosis or atresia. CNPAS presents with symptoms of nasal airway obstruction, which are often characterized by episodic apnea and cyclical cyanosis. (orig.)

  12. Black silicon integrated aperture (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.


    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  13. Congenital pyriform aperture stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osovsky, Micky [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Rabin Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikvah (Israel); Aizer-Danon, Anat; Horev, Gadi [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Sirota, Lea [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Petach Tikvah (Israel)


    Nasal airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening condition in the newborn. Neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. The pyriform aperture is the narrowest, most anterior bony portion of the nasal airway, and a decrease in its cross-sectional area will significantly increase nasal airway resistance. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare, unusual form of nasal obstruction. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neonate or infant with signs and symptoms of upper airway compromise. It is important to differentiate this level of obstruction from the more common posterior choanal stenosis or atresia. CNPAS presents with symptoms of nasal airway obstruction, which are often characterized by episodic apnea and cyclical cyanosis. (orig.)

  14. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm (United States)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.


    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  15. Limits to Clutter Cancellation in Multi-Aperture GMTI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Multi-aperture or multi-subaperture antennas are fundamental to Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar systems in order to detect slow-moving targets with Doppler characteristics similar to clutter. Herein we examine the performance of several subaperture architectures for their clutter cancelling performance. Significantly, more antenna phase centers isn’t always better, and in fact is sometimes worse, for detecting targets.

  16. Novel large aperture EBCCD (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsumu; Aoki, Shigeki; Haba, Junji; Sakuda, Makoto; Suyama, Motohiro


    A novel large aperture electron bombardment charge coupled device (EBCCD) has been developed. The diameter of its photocathode is 10 cm and it is the first EBCCD with such a large aperture. Its gain shows good linearity as a function of applied voltage up to -12 kV, where the gain is 2400. The spatial resolution was measured using ladder pattern charts. It is better than 2 line pairs/mm, which corresponds to 3.5 times the CCD pixel size. The spatial resolution was also measured with a copper foil pattern on a fluorescent screen irradiated with X-rays (14 and 18 keV) and a 60 keV gamma-ray from an americium source. The result was consistent with the measurement using ladder pattern charts. The output signal as a function of input light intensity shows better linearity than that of image intensifier tubes (IIT) as expected. We could detect cosmic rays passing through a scintillating fiber block and a plastic scintillator as a demonstration for a practical use in particle physics experiments. This kind of large aperture EBCCD can, for example, be used as an image sensor for a detector with a large number of readout channels and is expected to be additionally applied to other physics experiments.

  17. Mapping the Upper Subsurface of MARS Using Radar Polarimetry (United States)

    Carter, L. M.; Rincon, R.; Berkoski, L.


    Future human exploration of Mars will require detailed knowledge of the surface and upper several meters of the subsurface in potential landing sites. Likewise, many of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey science goals, such as understanding the history of Mars climate change, determining how the surface was altered through processes like volcanism and fluvial activity, and locating regions that may have been hospitable to life in the past, would be significantly advanced through mapping of the upper meters of the surface. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is the only remote sensing technique capable of penetrating through meters of material and imaging buried surfaces at high (meters to tens-of-meters) spatial resolution. SAR is capable of mapping the boundaries of buried units and radar polarimetry can provide quantitative information about the roughness of surface and subsurface units, depth of burial of stratigraphic units, and density of materials. Orbital SAR systems can obtain broad coverage at a spatial scale relevant to human and robotic surface operations. A polarimetric SAR system would greatly increase the safety and utility of future landed systems including sample caching.

  18. Nanolithography using nanoscale ridge apertures (United States)

    Wang, Liang

    There is a continuous effort to develop techniques for nanoscale feature definition below the diffraction limit. Nanolithography has been a key technique because of its precision and cost effective. A sub-wavelength hole in an opaque screen can be used to provide a small light source with the optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit in the near field. However, a nanometer-sized hole in circular or square shapes is plagued by low transmission and poor contrast. This drawback limits the nanoscale apertures from being employed in nanolithography applications. Ridge apertures in C, H and bowtie shapes, on the other hand, have been numerically and experimentally demonstrated to show the ability of achieving both enhanced light transmission and sub-wavelength optical resolution down to nanometer domain benefiting from the existence of waveguide propagation mode confined in the gap between the ridges. In this report, the detailed field distributions in contact nanolithography are analyzed using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. It was found that the high imaging contrast, which is necessary for successful lithography, is achieved close to the mask exit plane and decays quickly with the increase of the distance from the mask exit plane. Simulations are also performed for comparable regular shaped apertures and different shape bowtie apertures. Design rules are proposed to optimize the bowtie aperture for producing a sub-wavelength, high transmission field with high imaging contrast. High resolution contact nanolithography was carried on a home constructed lithography setup. It has been experimentally demonstrated that nanoscale bowtie and C apertures can be used for contact lithography to achieve nanometer scale resolution due to its intrinsic advantages of achieving enhanced optical transmission and concentrating light far beyond the diffraction limit. It also has shown the advantages of bowtie and C apertures over conventional apertures in both

  19. Radar research at the University of Kansas (United States)

    Blunt, Shannon D.; Allen, Christopher; Arnold, Emily; Hale, Richard; Hui, Rongqing; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Leuschen, Carlton; Li, Jilu; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Salandrino, Alessandro; Stiles, James


    Radar research has been synonymous with the University of Kansas (KU) for over half a century. As part of this special session organized to highlight significant radar programs in academia, this paper surveys recent and ongoing work at KU. This work encompasses a wide breadth of sensing applications including the remote sensing of ice sheets, autonomous navigation methods for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), novel laser radar capabilities, detection of highenergy cosmic rays using bistatic radar, different forms of waveform diversity such as MIMO radar and pulse agility, and various radar-embedded communication methods. The results of these efforts impact our understanding of the changing nature of the environment, address the proliferation of unmanned systems in the US airspace, realize new sensing modalities enabled by the joint consideration of electromagnetics and signal processing, and greater facilitate radar operation in an increasingly congested and contested spectrum.

  20. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches (United States)

    Clary, G. R.


    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  1. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Radar Reflectance Image (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  2. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar (United States)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.


    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  3. Innovative SAR/MTI Concepts for Digital Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de


    Contemporary military operations make high demands on the capabilities of sensors. Modern sensors must have the capability to perform different tasks, such as ground surveillance and target tracking, simultaneously. Multifunction digital radar may provide the required capabilities and meet the

  4. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.


    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  5. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)


    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  6. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  7. Diagnostic for dynamic aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, P.L.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rivkin, L.; Ross, M.; Ruth, R.D.; Spence, W.L.


    In large accelerators and low beta colliding beam storage rings, the strong sextupoles, which are required to correct the chromatic effects, produce strong nonlinear forces which act on particles in the beam. In addition in large hadron storage rings the superconducting magnets have significant nonlinear fields. To understand the effects of these nonlinearities on the particle motion there is currently a large theoretical effort using both analytic techniques and computer tracking. This effort is focused on the determination of the 'dynamic aperture' (the stable acceptance) of both present and future accelerators and storage rings. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding nonlinear particle motion, but very little experimental verification of the theoretical results is available. In this paper we describe 'dynamic tracking', a method being studied at the SPEAR storage ring, which can be used to obtain experimental results which are in a convenient form to be compared with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......, it is demonstrated through theoretical considerations that the compound effect achieved is close to a theoretical maximum for the amount of compounding attainable and using a -pitch convex array transducer, the first in-vivo images are created. The computational demands for an implementation are massive...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  9. Signal processing of FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.


    In the field of airborne earth observation there is special attention to compact, cost effective, high resolution imaging sensors. Such sensors are foreseen to play an important role in small-scale remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of dikes, watercourses, or highways. Furthermore,

  10. Damage Proxy Map from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherence (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Ho (Inventor); Fielding, Eric Jameson (Inventor); Webb, Frank H. (Inventor); Simons, Mark (Inventor)


    A method, apparatus, and article of manufacture provide the ability to generate a damage proxy map. A master coherence map and a slave coherence map, for an area prior and subsequent to (including) a damage event are obtained. The slave coherence map is registered to the master coherence map. Pixel values of the slave coherence map are modified using histogram matching to provide a first histogram of the master coherence map that exactly matches a second histogram of the slave coherence map. A coherence difference between the slave coherence map and the master coherence map is computed to produce a damage proxy map. The damage proxy map is displayed with the coherence difference displayed in a visually distinguishable manner.

  11. Surface deformation monitoring using synthetic aperture radar data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ... the first two MODIS bands have a spatial resolution of 250 m). It was shown in Kleynhans et al. (2015), where a similar land cover change was considered, that multiple band combinations as well as vegetation indices including NDVI and EVI were not able to provide significant improvement over that of using only band 1.

  12. SMEX03 Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Data: Oklahoma (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  13. Synthetic aperture radar products for the African marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M


    Full Text Available of ecologically-sensitive environments, such as mangroves and coral reefs. Major economic activities along the continental shelf of the Agulhas Current include fish- ing, oil and mineral exploration as well as intense shipping traffic, with the transport... are routinely used around the world to detect and map oil spills. Coupled with vessel-monitoring systems, SAR?s capacity to detect vessels at sea could be used effectively to take action against illegal fishing and illegal oil dumping, or to monitor...

  14. Design of a Ku band Instrumentation Synthetic Aperture Radar System (United States)


    PA and LNA. ..................................... 25 Figure 11: HMC-C051 mixer to the SDR with enough resolution. The software defined radio ( SDR ) can only sample an input signal at 100 Mega-samples per second (Msps...corresponding to a sample frequency of 100 MHz. The frequency of the received signal will not be able to be sampled by the SDR . To solve this issue, stretch

  15. Analysis of Features for Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Classification (United States)


    Definition AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory ATR automatic target recognition CFAR constant false alarm rate CV civilian vehicles HOG histograms of oriented...percent bright constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ), and fractal dimension of the target in the image have been used and compared to training data to

  16. Site Monitoring with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    Based on a statistical test for the equality of polarimetric matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and a factorization of the test statistic, change analysis in a time series of multi-look polarimetric SAR data in variance-covariance or polarimetric matrix representation is carried...

  17. Surface deformation monitoring using synthetic aperture radar data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    deformation basins over time was recognised and is consistent with the advance of the working face of the mine during the .... Several advanced algorithms have been developed to overcome the limitations due to phase noise. ... or both. Likewise, the antenna can receive either vertically or horizontally polarized waves. The.

  18. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzori, Simone, E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)


    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence.

  19. Onboard Data Processor for Change-Detection Radar Imaging (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chien, Steve A.; Saatchi, Sasan S.; Clark, Duane


    A computer system denoted a change-detection onboard processor (CDOP) is being developed as a means of processing the digitized output of a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) apparatus aboard an aircraft or spacecraft to generate images showing changes that have occurred in the terrain below between repeat passes of the aircraft or spacecraft over the terrain. When fully developed, the CDOP is intended to be capable of generating SAR images and/or SAR differential interferograms in nearly real time. The CDOP is expected to be especially useful for understanding some large-scale natural phenomena and/or mitigating natural hazards: For example, it could be used for near-real-time observation of surface changes caused by floods, landslides, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, glaciers, and sea ice movements. It could also be used to observe such longer-term surface changes as those associated with growth of vegetation (relevant to estimation of wildfire fuel loads). The CDOP is, essentially, an interferometric SAR processor designed to operate aboard a radar platform.

  20. Microwave emissions from police radar. (United States)

    Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C


    This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode

  1. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick


    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  2. Micropower radar systems for law enforcement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.; Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    LLNL researchers have pioneered a unique compact low-power and inexpensive radar technology (microradar) that has enormous potential in various industries. Some licenses are currently in place for motion sensors and stud finders. The ultra-wideband characteristics of the microradar (4 to 10 GHz) make it difficult to detect, yet provide potential range resolution of 1 cm at ranges of greater than 20 meters. Real and synthetic apertures arrays of radar elements can address imaging applications behind walls at those distances. Personnel detection applications are currently being tested.

  3. Ship Detection and Measurement of Ship Motion by Multi-Aperture Synthetic Aperture Radar (United States)


    Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R17 i Abstract …….. SAR... de modèles adaptatifs en fonction de l’historique de la distance, ensembles qui caractérisent le mouvement, la longueur et le cap d’un navire à...rigides se déplaçant en fonction des forces de propulsion et du mouvement de la mer. Nous avons appliqué des mesures d’estimation du mouvement

  4. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  5. Forward scatter radar for detection of moving people inside buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van


    Through-wall radar offers capabilities that allow an important contribution to inside-building awareness, such as target detection and tracking. However, reliable radar tracking of people inside a building is not a trivial task. In monostatic operation, radar measures the backscatter from people

  6. Coded aperture tomography revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.


    Coded aperture (CA) Tomography never achieved wide spread use in Nuclear Medicine, except for the degenerate case of Seven Pinhole tomagraphy (7PHT). However it enjoys several attractive features (high sensitivity and tomographic ability with a statis detector). On the other hand, resolution is usually poor especially along the depth axis and the reconstructed volume is rather limited. Arguments are presented justifying the position that CA tomography can be useful for imaging time-varying 3D structures, if its major drawbacks (poor longitudinal resolution and difficulty in quantification) are overcome. Poor results obtained with 7PHT can be explained by both a very limited angular range sampled and a crude modelling of the image formation process. Therefore improvements can be expected by the use of a dual-detector system, along with a better understanding of its sampling properties and the use of more powerful reconstruction algorithms. Non overlapping multipinhole plates, because they do not involve a decoding procedure, should be considered first for practical applications. Use of real CA should be considered for cases in which non overlapping multipinhole plates do not lead to satisfactory solutions. We have been and currently are carrying out theoretical and experimental works, in order to define the factors which limit CA imaging and to propose satisfactory solutions for Dynamic Emission Tomography

  7. Early development in synthetic aperture lidar sensing and processing for on-demand high resolution imaging (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Turbide, Simon; Terroux, Marc; Marchese, Linda; Harnisch, Bernd


    The quest for real-time high resolution is of prime importance for surveillance applications specially in disaster management and rescue mission. Synthetic aperture radar provides meter-range resolution images in all weather conditions. Often installed on satellites the revisit time can be too long to support real-time operations on the ground. Synthetic aperture lidar can be lightweight and offers centimeter-range resolution. Onboard airplane or unmanned air vehicle this technology would allow for timelier reconnaissance. INO has developed a synthetic aperture radar table prototype and further used a real-time optronic processor to fulfill image generation on-demand. The early positive results using both technologies are presented in this paper.

  8. Three Band Cloud and Precipitation Radar (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and demonstrate key enabling technologies for Cloud and Precipitation radars capable of closing the observational gaps left by current and...

  9. Space-Qualifiable Digital Radar Transceiver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Historically, radar systems have tended to be either large, complex, power-hungry, purpose-built systems, or extremely simple systems of limited capability. More...

  10. Digital data acquisition for laser radar for vibration analysis


    Montes, Felix G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Laser radar for vibration analysis represents a military application to develop a target identification system in the future. The problem addressed is how to analyze the vibrations of a target illuminated by the laser radar to achieve a positive identification. This thesis develops a computer-based data acquisition and analysis system for improving the laser radar capability. Specifically, a review is made of the CO2 laser radar, coher...

  11. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  12. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.


    from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...... tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance...... measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution...

  13. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.


    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  14. Radar remote sensing for archaeology in Hangu Frontier Pass in Xin’an, China (United States)

    Jiang, A. H.; Chen, F. L.; Tang, P. P.; Liu, G. L.; Liu, W. K.; Wang, H. C.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.


    As a non-invasive tool, remote sensing can be applied to archaeology taking the advantage of large scale covering, in-time acquisition, high spatial-temporal resolution and etc. In archaeological research, optical approaches have been widely used. However, the capability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for archaeological detection has not been fully exploded so far. In this study, we chose Hangu Frontier Pass of Han Dynasty located in Henan Province as the experimental site (included into the cluster of Silk Roads World Heritage sites). An exploratory study to detect the historical remains was conducted. Firstly, TanDEM-X SAR data were applied to generate high resolution DEM of Hangu Frontier Pass; and then the relationship between the pass and derived ridge lines was analyzed. Second, the temporal-averaged amplitude SAR images highlighted archaeological traces owing to the depressed speckle noise. For instance, the processing of 20-scene PALSAR data (spanning from 2007 to 2011) enabled us to detect unknown archaeological features. Finally, the heritage remains detected by SAR data were verified by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting, implying the potential of the space-to-ground radar remote sensing for archaeological applications.

  15. Studies of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill With the UAVSAR Radar


    Jones, Cathleen E.; Minchew, Brent; Holt, Benjamin; Hensley, Scott


    On 22- 23 June 2010, the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) L band radar imaged the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the effects of oil that was transported within the Gulf of Mexico. We describe the campaign and discuss the unique contributions of the UAVSAR radar to the study of the detection, migration, and impact of oil from the spill. We present an overview of UAVSAR data analyses that support the original science goals of the campaign, namely, (1) algorithm d...

  16. Social Radar (United States)


    development and exploration of courses of action. Recent events suggest the great potential of social media as an important input for this 21st century...unrestricted data domain consisting of open source English and foreign language data of varying types, including social media  Engineering to process and...Ideology identification in multiple languages  Emotion analysis of social media for instability monitoring Social Radar RTA HFM-201/RSM

  17. Observations of Phobos by the Mars Express radar MARSIS: Description of the detection techniques and preliminary results (United States)

    Cicchetti, A.; Nenna, C.; Plaut, J. J.; Plettemeier, D.; Noschese, R.; Cartacci, M.; Orosei, R.


    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005) is a synthetic aperture low frequency radar altimeter, onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter, launched in June 2003. It is the first and so far the only spaceborne radar that has observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were collected on different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of sounding Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into its subsurface. MARSIS is optimized for deep penetration investigations and is capable of transmitting at four different bands between 1.3 MHz and 5.5 MHz with a 1 MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the instrument was originally designed to operate exclusively on Mars, assuming that Phobos would not be observed. Following this assumption, a protection mechanism was implemented in the hardware (HW) to maintain a minimum time separation between transmission and reception phases of the radar. This limitation does not have any impact on Mars observation but it prevented the observation of Phobos. In order to successfully operate the instrument at Phobos, a particular configuration of the MARSIS onboard software (SW) parameters, called ;Range Ambiguity,; was implemented to override the HW protection zone, ensuring at the same time a high level of safety of the instrument. This paper describes the principles of MARSIS onboard processing, and the procedure through which the parameters of the processing software were tuned to observe targets below the minimum distance allowed by hardware. Some preliminary results of data analysis will be shown, with the support of radar echo simulations. A qualitative comparison between the simulated results and the actual data, does not support the detection of subsurface reflectors.

  18. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.


    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...... operating the instrument in space are continuously being implemented in the standard data reduction software packages available to every observer. Particular strengths of the instrument include the detectability of very cold sources, high resolution mapping and fast spectrophotometry. The far infrared...

  19. Broadband light funneling in ultrasubwavelength channels having periodic connected unfilled apertures (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Brener, Igal; Foteinopoulou, Stavroula


    A structure for broadband light funneling comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of connected ultrasubwavelength apertures, each aperture comprising a large sub-aperture that aids in the coupling of the incoming incident light and a small sub-aperture that funnels a significant fraction of the incident light power. The structure possesses all the capabilities of prior extraordinary optical transmission platforms, yet operates nonresonantly on a distinctly different mechanism. The structure demonstrates efficient ultrabroadband funneling of optical power confined in an area as small as .about.(.lamda./500).sup.2, where optical fields are enhanced, thus exhibiting functional possibilities beyond resonant platforms.

  20. Experimentally achieving borehole antenna radar directivity in the time domain in the presence of strong mutual coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D


    Full Text Available published borehole radar antennas have achieved directivity by post processing data received in the frequency domain, or by constructing an aperture antenna, where borehole dimensions allowed this. In this paper, a time-domain technique is investigated...

  1. Reduced-Resolution Radar Imagery, Digital Elevation Models, and Related GIS Layers for Barrow, Alaska, USA, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product set contains reduced-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) imagery and geospatial data for the Barrow Peninsula (155.39 - 157.48...

  2. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting

  3. Laser radar IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 29, 30, 1989 (United States)

    Becherer, Richard J.


    Various papers on laser radars are presented. Individual topics considered include: frequency chirp of a low-pressure hybrid TE CO2 laser, design of a high-power isotopic CO2 laser amplifier, monolithic beam steering for large aperture laser radar, laser radar receiver using a Digicon detector, all-solid-state CO2 laser driver, noise in an acoustooptic-modulated laser source, laser signature prediction using the Value computer program, laser radar acquisition and tracking, concept of a moving target indicator search ladar, system design philosophy for laser radar wavelength determination, imaging three-frequency CO2 laser radar, backscatter-modulation semiconductor laser radar, three-dimensional imaging using a single laser pulse, design and manufacture of a high-resolution laser radar scanner, calculations of vibrational signatures for coherent ladar, coherent subaperture ultraviolet imagery, and range-Doppler resolution degradation associated with amplitude distortion.

  4. Space Radar Image of Phnom Phen, Cambodia (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the image. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. Radar images like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  5. Radar signal pre-processing to suppress surface bounce and multipath (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Mast, Jeffrey E; Beer, N. Reginald


    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes that return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  6. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naething, Richard M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  7. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick


    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  8. Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL): Fundamental Theory, Design Equations for a Satellite System, and Laboratory Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucke, Robert


    .... Design equations are presented to allow quick assessment of the hardware parameters required for a notional system, most notably optical aperture sizes and the laser's power, chirp, and pulse rate capabilities...


    Vanzyl, J.


    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  10. Mapping Palaeohydrography in Deserts: Contribution from Space-Borne Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Paillou


    Full Text Available Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has the capability to image subsurface features down to several meters in arid regions. A first demonstration of this capability was performed in the Egyptian desert during the early eighties, thanks to the first Shuttle Imaging Radar mission. Global coverage provided by recent SARs, such as the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR sensor, allowed the mapping of vast ancient hydrographic systems in Northern Africa. We present a summary of palaeohydrography results obtained using PALSAR data over large deserts such as the Sahara and the Gobi. An ancient river system was discovered in eastern Lybia, connecting in the past the Kufrah oasis to the Mediterranean Sea, and the terminal part of the Tamanrasett river was mapped in western Mauritania, ending with a large submarine canyon. In southern Mongolia, PALSAR images combined with topography analysis allowed the mapping of the ancient Ulaan Nuur lake. We finally show the potentials of future low frequency SAR sensors by comparing L-band (1.25 GHz and P-band (435 MHz airborne SAR acquisitions over a desert site in southern Tunisia.

  11. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy: Computed Imaging for Scanned Coherent Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Boppart


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT, utilize interferometric ranging, but do not apply computed imaging methods and therefore must scan the focal depth to acquire extended volumetric images. ISAM removes the need to scan the focus by allowing volumetric image reconstruction from data collected at a single focal depth. ISAM signal processing techniques are similar to the Fourier migration methods of seismology and the Fourier reconstruction methods of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. In this article ISAM is described and the close ties between ISAM and SAR are explored. ISAM and a simple strip-map SAR system are placed in a common mathematical framework and compared to OCT and radar respectively. This article is intended to serve as a review of ISAM, and will be especially useful to readers with a background in SAR.

  12. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme


    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  13. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC (United States)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.


    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of

  14. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...

  15. An implementation of synthetic aperture focusing technique in frequency domain. (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz


    A new implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) based on concepts used in synthetic aperture radar and sonar is presented in the paper. The algorithm, based on the convolution model of the imaging system developed in frequency domain, accounts for the beam pattern of the finite-sized transducer used in the synthetic aperture. The 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for the calculation of a 2D spectrum of the ultrasonic data. The spectrum is then interpolated to convert the polar coordinate system used for the acquisition of ultrasonic signals to the rectangular coordinates used for the presentation of imaging results. After compensating the transducer lobe amplitude profile using a Wiener filter, the transformed spectrum is subjected to the 2D inverse Fourier transform to get the time-domain image again. The algorithm is computationally attractive due to the use of 2D FFT. The performance of the proposed frequency-domain algorithm and the classical time-domain SAFT are compared in the paper using simulated and real ultrasonic data.

  16. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan (United States)


    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image. A portion of the city sits on an island surrounded by the Keelung and Freshwater Rivers. The main channel of the Freshwater River is to the right of the island and appears dark in the image. The channel to the left of the island is no longer active and appear slighter. Rugged, heavily vegetated mountains surround the city and are shown in green. The runways of the Chiang Kai Shek International Airport are seen as dark parallel strips in the upper left of the image. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The image is 50 kilometers by 33 kilometers (31 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 25.1 degrees north latitude, 121.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  17. Comet radar explorer (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  18. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model (United States)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.


    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  19. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar cross-section (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, through-barrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  20. The Design and Evaluation of a 5.8 GHz Laptop-Based Radar System


    Teng, Kevin Chi-Ming


    This project involves design and analysis of a 5.8 GHz laptop-based radar system. The radar system measures Doppler, ranging and forming Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images utilizing Matlab software provided from MIT Open Courseware and performs data acquisition and signal processing. The main purpose of this work is to bring new perspective to the existing radar project by increasing the ISM band frequency from 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz and to carry out a series of experiments on the implementati...

  1. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. MetaSensing's FastGBSAR: ground based radar for deformation monitoring (United States)

    Rödelsperger, Sabine; Meta, Adriano


    The continuous monitoring of ground deformation and structural movement has become an important task in engineering. MetaSensing introduces a novel sensor system, the Fast Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (FastGBSAR), based on innovative technologies that have already been successfully applied to airborne SAR applications. The FastGBSAR allows the remote sensing of deformations of a slope or infrastructure from up to a distance of 4 km. The FastGBSAR can be setup in two different configurations: in Real Aperture Radar (RAR) mode it is capable of accurately measuring displacements along a linear range profile, ideal for monitoring vibrations of structures like bridges and towers (displacement accuracy up to 0.01 mm). Modal parameters can be determined within half an hour. Alternatively, in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) configuration it produces two-dimensional displacement images with an acquisition time of less than 5 seconds, ideal for monitoring areal structures like dams, landslides and open pit mines (displacement accuracy up to 0.1 mm). The MetaSensing FastGBSAR is the first ground based SAR instrument on the market able to produce two-dimensional deformation maps with this high acquisition rate. By that, deformation time series with a high temporal and spatial resolution can be generated, giving detailed information useful to determine the deformation mechanisms involved and eventually to predict an incoming failure. The system is fully portable and can be quickly installed on bedrock or a basement. The data acquisition and processing can be fully automated leading to a low effort in instrument operation and maintenance. Due to the short acquisition time of FastGBSAR, the coherence between two acquisitions is very high and the phase unwrapping is simplified enormously. This yields a high density of resolution cells with good quality and high reliability of the acquired deformations. The deformation maps can directly be used as input into an Early

  3. Processing Sliding Mosaic Mode Data with Modified Full-Aperture Imaging Algorithm Integrating Scalloping Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tuan


    Full Text Available In this study, we present a modified full-aperture imaging algorithm that includes scalloping correction and spike suppression for sliding-Mosaic-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. It is innovational to correct the azimuth beam-pattern weighting altered by radar antenna rotation in the azimuth during the deramping preprocessing operation. The main idea of spike suppression is to substitute zeros between bursts with linear-predicted data extrapolated from adjacent bursts to suppress spikes caused by multiburst processing. We also integrate scalloping correction for the sliding mode into this algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed using the C-band airborne SAR system with a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz to validate the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  5. Space radar image of Mount Everest (United States)


    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  6. The proposed flatland radar (United States)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.


    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  7. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter


    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  8. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G


    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  9. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)


    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  10. Radar transponder antenna pattern analysis for the space shuttle (United States)

    Radcliff, Roger


    In order to improve tracking capability, radar transponder antennas will soon be mounted on the Shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). These four antennas, each being identical cavity-backed helices operating at 5.765 GHz, will be mounted near the top of the SRB's, adjacent to the intertank portion of the external tank. The purpose is to calculate the roll-plane pattern (the plane perpendicular to the SRB axes and containing the antennas) in the presence of this complex electromagnetic environment. The large electrical size of this problem mandates an optical (asymptotic) approach. Development of a specific code for this application is beyond the scope of a summer fellowship; thus a general purpose code, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code - Basic Scattering Code, was chosen as the computational tool. This code is based on the modern Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, and allows computation of scattering of bodies composed of canonical problems such as plates and elliptic cylinders. Apertures mounted on a curved surface (the SRB) cannot be accomplished by the code, so an antenna model consisting of wires excited by a method of moments current input was devised that approximated the actual performance of the antennas. The improvised antenna model matched well with measurements taken at the MSFC range. The SRB's, the external tank, and the shuttle nose were modeled as circular cylinders, and the code was able to produce what is thought to be a reasonable roll-plane pattern.

  11. Compact networked radars for Army unattended ground sensors (United States)

    Wikner, David A.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Wellman, Ronald; Clark, John; Kurtz, Jim; Pulskamp, Jeff; Proie, Robert; Ivanov, Tony; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Adler, Eric D.


    The Army Research Laboratory is in partnership with the University of Florida - Electronics Communications Laboratory to develop compact radar technology and demonstrate that it is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight platforms (portable sensor applications. The advantage of this compact radar is its steerable beam technology and relatively long-range capability compared to other small, battery-powered radar concepts. This paper will review the ongoing development of the sensor and presents a sample of the collected data thus far.

  12. Soft Copy Imagery Interpretation Capability (United States)

    LaMonica, Gary L.


    The evolution of an interactive automated multisensor soft copy imagery exploitation work-station is described. A brief history of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and predecessor equipment/systems is presented along with performance achieved during field training exercises in Central Europe to illustrate the comparative effectiveness of this generic software reconfigurable workstation. The workstation was designed to increase the rate of imagery exploitation while minimizing the personnel skill level and training required for proficiency. Characteristics include real-time screening of scrolling sensor imagery, superpositioning of cue symbols, rapid accessing of collateral data base information, and near real-time computer-assisted reporting. Frame processing enables real-time rotation, warp/dewarp, and roam. Convolution filtering permits edge enhancement and haze reduction.

  13. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar (United States)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)


    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  14. Common aperture multispectral spotter camera: Spectro XR (United States)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Freiman, Dov; Diamant, Idan; Giladi, Shira; Leibovich, Maor


    The Spectro XRTM is an advanced color/NIR/SWIR/MWIR 16'' payload recently developed by Elbit Systems / ELOP. The payload's primary sensor is a spotter camera with common 7'' aperture. The sensor suite includes also MWIR zoom, EO zoom, laser designator or rangefinder, laser pointer / illuminator and laser spot tracker. Rigid structure, vibration damping and 4-axes gimbals enable high level of line-of-sight stabilization. The payload's list of features include multi-target video tracker, precise boresight, strap-on IMU, embedded moving map, geodetic calculations suite, and image fusion. The paper describes main technical characteristics of the spotter camera. Visible-quality, all-metal front catadioptric telescope maintains optical performance in wide range of environmental conditions. High-efficiency coatings separate the incoming light into EO, SWIR and MWIR band channels. Both EO and SWIR bands have dual FOV and 3 spectral filters each. Several variants of focal plane array formats are supported. The common aperture design facilitates superior DRI performance in EO and SWIR, in comparison to the conventionally configured payloads. Special spectral calibration and color correction extend the effective range of color imaging. An advanced CMOS FPA and low F-number of the optics facilitate low light performance. SWIR band provides further atmospheric penetration, as well as see-spot capability at especially long ranges, due to asynchronous pulse detection. MWIR band has good sharpness in the entire field-of-view and (with full HD FPA) delivers amount of detail far exceeding one of VGA-equipped FLIRs. The Spectro XR offers level of performance typically associated with larger and heavier payloads.

  15. Optical aperture synthesis: limitations and interest for the earth observation (United States)

    Brouard, Laurent; Safa, Frederic; Crombez, Vincent; Laubier, David


    For very large telescope diameters, typically above 4 meters, monolithic telescopes can hardly be envisaged for space applications. Optical aperture synthesis can be envisaged in the future for improving the image resolution from high altitude orbits by co-phasing several individual telescopes of smaller size and reconstituting an aperture of large surface. The telescopes can be deployed on a single spacecraft or distributed on several spacecrafts in free flying formation. Several future projects are based on optical aperture synthesis for science or earth observation. This paper specifically discusses the limitations and interest of aperture synthesis technique for Earth observation from high altitude orbits, in particular geostationary orbit. Classical Fizeau and Michelson configurations are recalled, and system design aspects are investigated: synthesis of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), integration time and imaging procedure are first discussed then co-phasing strategies and instrument metrology are developed. The discussion is supported by specific designs made at EADS Astrium. As example, a telescope design is presented with a surface of only 6.6 m2 for the primary mirror for an external diameter of 10.6 m allowing a theoretical resolution of 1.2 m from geostationary orbit with a surface lower than 10% of the overall surface. The impact is that the integration time is increasing leading to stringent satellite attitude requirements. Image simulation results are presented. The practical implementation of the concept is evaluated in terms of system impacts in particular spacecraft attitude control, spacecraft operations and imaging capability limitations.

  16. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  17. Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Falin; Zhou, Chongbin; Lv, Yuanhao; Hu, Jingqiu


    Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D) phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error.

  18. Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li


    Full Text Available Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error.

  19. Mapping Pyroclastic Flow Inundation Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images and Lahar Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wook Lee


    Full Text Available Sinabung volcano, located above the Sumatra subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate, became active in 2010 after about 400 years of quiescence. We use ALOS/PALSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR images to measure surface deformation from February 2007 to January 2011. We model the observed preeruption inflation and coeruption deflation using Mogi and prolate spheroid sources to infer volume changes of the magma chamber. We interpret that the inflation was due to magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir beneath Mount Sinabung and attribute the deflation due to magma withdrawal from the shallow reservoir during the eruption as well as thermoelastic compaction of erupted material. The pyroclastic flow extent during the eruption is then derived from the LAHARZ model based on the coeruption volume from InSAR modeling and compared to that derived from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image. The pyroclastic flow inundation extents between the two different methods agree at about 86%, suggesting the capability of mapping pyroclastic flow inundation by combing radar and optical imagery as well as flow modeling.

  20. Weather Radar Impact Zones (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  1. Radar Weather Observation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  2. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C


    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  3. Gossiping Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid

    declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip......Gossip-based protocols are now acknowledged as a sound basis to implement collaborative high-bandwidth content dissemination: content location is disseminated through gossip, the actual contents being subsequently pulled. In this paper, we present HEAP, HEterogeneity Aware gossip Protocol, where...... nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...

  4. Network radar countermeasure systems integrating radar and radar countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Qiuxi


    This is the very first book to present the network radar countermeasure system. It explains in detail the systematic concept of combining radar and radar countermeasures from the perspective of the information acquisition of target location, the optimization of the reconnaissance and detection, the integrated attack of the signals and facilities, and technological and legal developments concerning the networked system. It achieves the integration of the initiative and passivity, detection and jamming. The book explains how the system locates targets, completes target identification, tracks targets and compiles the data.

  5. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia (United States)


    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  6. Vibrating mirror system suitable for q-switching large-aperture lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, P.J.


    Resonant vibrating mirrors provide a convenient means of Q-switching a laser, but large-aperture versions require careful design if the drive power is not to become excessive. This report outlines the design principles involved in the optimisation of moving-iron galvanometer drivers, and describes a prototype device with an aperture of 40 mm x 80 mm which is capable of beam deflections of + or - 40 mrad at 800 Hz. Some suggestions are made concerning more refined designs.

  7. Radar Performance Degradation due to the Presence of Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theil, A.; Ewijk, L.J. van


    Wind turbines located in the vicinity of a radar system may affect the system's detection and tracking capability. A description of adverse effects is given in the paper for both primary and secondary radar. In order to judge the consequence of the shadowed volume cast by a wind turbine, results of

  8. Radar Resource Management in a Dense Target Environment (United States)


    linear programming MFR multifunction phased array radar MILP mixed integer linear programming NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization PDF probability...1: INTRODUCTION Multifunction phased array radars ( MFRs ) are capable of performing various tasks in rapid succession. The performance of target search...detect, and track operations concurrently with missile guidance functions allow MFRs to deliver superior battle space awareness and air defense

  9. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng


    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  10. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece (United States)


    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. Slit aperture technique for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.


    Following a discussion of various principles used in the elimination of scatter, the prototype of a simple slit aperture mammography apparatus is described (modified Mammomat, Siemens). The main advantage of this technique compared with grid mammography is a halving of the radiation dose for identical image quality, using an identical film system. The technical requirements (heavy duty tube, new generator) are, however, considerable. If the film-screen systems currently in use are to remain the common systems for the future, then the development of a multi-lamellar slit diaphragm technique carries much promise for mammography. (orig.) [de

  12. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels


    of the thesis considers a method for estimating the two-dimensional velocity vector within the image plane. This method, called synthetic aperture vector flow imaging, is first shortly reviewed. The main contribution of this work is partly an analysis of the method with respect to focusing effects, motion...... estimation. The method can be used for increasing the frame rate of color flow maps or alternatively for a new imaging modality entitled quadroplex imaging, featuring a color flow map and two independent spectrograms at a high frame rate. The second is an alternative method for ultrasonic vector velocity...

  13. Laser radar: historical prospective-from the East to the West (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl; McManamon, Paul; Steinvall, Ove; Kobayashi, Takao; Chen, Weibiao


    This article discusses the history of laser radar development in America, Europe, and Asia. Direct detection laser radar is discussed for range finding, designation, and topographic mapping of Earth and of extraterrestrial objects. Coherent laser radar is discussed for environmental applications, such as wind sensing and for synthetic aperture laser radar development. Gated imaging is discussed through scattering layers for military, medical, and security applications. Laser microradars have found applications in intravascular studies and in ophthalmology for vision correction. Ghost laser radar has emerged as a new technology in theoretical and simulation applications. Laser radar is now emerging as an important technology for applications such as self-driving cars and unmanned aerial vehicles. It is also used by police to measure speed, and in gaming, such as the Microsoft Kinect.

  14. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl (United States)


    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  15. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya


    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  16. Subsurface and through-wall SAR imaging techniques for ground penetrating radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents some useful signal processing and synthetic aperture radar imaging techniques for ultra-wide band (UWB ground penetrating radar. Novel UWB antenna structures are experimentally designed in this work. Raw and processed data collected in the course of experimental studies of subsurface sensing and through-wall imaging scenarios are demonstrated in B-scan and C-scan target images.

  17. Sea ice monitoring in the northern sea route by satellite radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, O.M.; Sandven, S.; Pettersson, L.H. [and others


    A project to implement satellite monitoring of ice in the Northern Sea Route between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait is described. The project objectives are to support ice navigation, offshore oil exploration and production, and global climate change studies. Satellite monitoring will include synthetic-aperture radar, sidelooking radar, and other remote sensing data. The joint project between the Russian Space Agency and the European Space Agency is outlined, and major project elements are described.

  18. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.


    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature

  19. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive


    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  20. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon


    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  1. A circular aperture array for ultrasonic tomography and quantitative NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.A.


    The main topics of this thesis are ultrasonic tomography and ultrasonic determination of elastic stiffness constants. Both issues are based on a synthetic array with transducer elements distributed uniformly along a circular aperture, i.e., a circular aperture array. The issues are treated both theoretically and experimentally by broadband pulse techniques. Ultrasonic tomography, UCT, from a circular aperture is a relatively new imaging technique in Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) to acquire cross sectional images in bulk materials. A filtered back-projection algorithm is used to reconstruct images in four different experiments and results of attenuation, velocity and reflection tomograms in Plexiglas of AlSi-alloy cylinders are presented. Two kinds of ultrasonic tomography are introduced: bistatic and monostatic imaging. Both techniques are verified experimentally by Plexiglas cylinders. Different reconstruction artifacts are discussed and theoretical resolution constraints are discussed for various configurations of the circular aperture array. The monostatic technique is used in volumetric imaging. In the experimental verification artificial and real discontinuities in a cylindrical AlSi-alloy are compared with similar discontinuities in a Plexiglas specimen. Finally, some limitations to UCT are discussed. The circular aperture array is used to determine five independent elastic stiffness constants of a unidirectional glass/PET (Poly Ethylene Teraphtalate) laminate. Energy flux propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves are considered and velocity surfaces are calculated for different planes of interest. Relations between elastic stiffness constants and engineering constants (i.e., Young`s moduli, shear moduli and Poisson`s ratios) are discussed for an orthotropic composite. Six micromechanical theories are reviewed, and expressions predicting the elastic engineering constants are evaluated. The micromechanical predicted elastic stiffness constants for the

  2. MEGARA Optics: Sub-aperture Stitching Interferometry for Large Surfaces (United States)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, Daniel; Carrasco, Esperanza; Izazaga-Pérez, Rafael; Páez, Gonzalo; Granados-Agustín, Fermín; Percino-Zacarías, Elizabeth; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Villalobos-Mendoza, Brenda


    In this work, we present a detailed analysis of sub-aperture interferogram stitching software to test circular and elliptical clear apertures with diameters and long axes up to 272 and 180 mm, respectively, from the Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía (MEGARA). MEGARA is a new spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It offers a resolution between 6000 and 20000 via the use of volume phase holographic gratings. It has an integral field unit and a set of robots for multi-object spectroscopy at the telescope focal plane. The output end of the fibers forms the spectrograph pseudo-slit. The fixed geometry of the collimator and camera configuration requires prisms in addition to the flat windows of the volume phase holographic gratings. There are 73 optical elements of large aperture and high precision manufactured in Mexico at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica (CIO). The principle of stitching interferometry is to divide the surface being tested into overlapping small sections, which allows an easier analysis (Kim & Wyant 1981). This capability is ideal for non-contact tests for unique and large optics as required by astronomical instruments. We show that the results obtained with our sub-aperture stitching algorithm were consistent with other methods that analyze the entire aperture. We used this method to analyze the 24 MEGARA prisms that could not be tested otherwise. The instrument has been successfully commissioned at GTC in all the spectral configurations. The fulfillment of the irregularity specifications was one of the necessary conditions to comply with the spectral requirements.

  3. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard


    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  4. Space-Qualifiable Digital Radar Transceiver, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Historically, radar systems have tended to be either large, complex, power-hungry, purpose-built systems, or extremely simple systems of limited capability. More...

  5. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.


    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  6. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  7. Implementation of complex digital PLL for phase detection in software defined radar


    Mandal, Amritakar; Mishra, Rajesh; Nagar, M. R.


    Software defined radar (SDR) has been the latest trend in developing enhanced radar signal processing techniques for state-of-the-art radar systems. SDR provides tremendous flexibility in reconfigurable design and rapid prototyping capabilities on FPGA platform. To cater real-time processing for high-speed radar, COordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) unit has been utilized as a core processing element in a complex digital phase locked loop (DPLL) for digital demodulation of received s...

  8. Radar image processing for the AFIT anechoic chamber (United States)

    Sanders, Brian K.


    The purpose of this study was to begin development of an Inverse Synthetic Aperature Radar imaging capability for the AFIT anechoic chamber. This began with an evaluation of the capabilities and limitations of the existing radar system and the chamber itself for this application. Then, after deciding on the image processing approach, software had to be written to collect the data necessary for image processing. This constituted the majority of this study, and resulted in a versatile, user-friendly program that automates the process of collecting data for high-resolution radar images. The program checks that the data to be collected will lead to a valid radar cross-section (RCS) image, but will allow data collection for general radar images. Finally, the image processing software was begun. This made use of commercially available software packages called PC-MATLAB and PRO-MATLAB. Further work is needed on the image processing software to generate calibrated images, and to perform focusing.

  9. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  10. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.


    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  11. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy


    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  12. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy


    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  13. Space radar image of New York City (United States)


    This radar image of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the image. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The image is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the image. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the image, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the image where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the image. Many bridges are visible in the image, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The radar illumination is from the left of the image; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the radar pulse. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Radar images like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The radar imaging systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban

  14. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia (United States)


    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  15. An approach for flood monitoring by the combined use of Landsat 8 optical imagery and COSMO-SkyMed radar imagery (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohua; Luo, Xin; Liu, Shuguang; Xie, Huan; Chao, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shijie; Makhinov, A. N.; Makhinova, A. F.; Jiang, Yuying


    Remote sensing techniques offer potential for effective flood detection with the advantages of low-cost, large-scale, and real-time surface observations. The easily accessible data sources of optical remote sensing imagery provide abundant spectral information for accurate surface water body extraction, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems represent a powerful tool for flood monitoring because of their all-weather capability. This paper introduces a new approach for flood monitoring by the combined use of both Landsat 8 optical imagery and COSMO-SkyMed radar imagery. Specifically, the proposed method applies support vector machine and the active contour without edges model for water extent determination in the periods before and during the flood, respectively. A map difference method is used for the flood inundation analysis. The proposed approach is particularly suitable for large-scale flood monitoring, and it was tested on a serious flood that occurred in northeastern China in August 2013, which caused immense loss of human lives and properties. High overall accuracies of 97.46% for the optical imagery and 93.70% for the radar imagery are achieved by the use of the techniques presented in this study. The results show that about 12% of the whole study area was inundated, corresponding to 5466 km2 of land surface.

  16. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia (United States)


    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This image shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the image are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the image are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The image is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar fequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.

  17. Gas And Ice Spectrometer/Radar (GAISR): a new instrument for close-up comet activity observations (United States)

    Cooper, Ken; Monje, Raquel; Cochrane, Corey; Tang, Adrian; Alonso, Maria; Dengler, Robert; Durden, Stephen; Choukroun, Mathieu


    The Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko enabled the first detailed and long-term survey of cometary activity, which occurs primarily through water outgassing and emission of dust. Its highly-capable instrument suite improved our understanding of the outgassing and the dust emission and size distribution separately, however the coupling between the two remains poorly understood. GAISR consists of a dual-channel submillimeter-wave spectrometer inspired from MIRO/Rosetta, coupled to a small-particle Doppler radar for simultaneous observations of outgassing and emission of the large dust particles (comprising most of the mass emitted) in cometary jets and plumes of outer solar system satellites. GAISR’s medium-range W-band (95 GHz) radar will operate in a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) mode with 1 Watt of transmit power to achieve high sensitivity detection of the range and velocity distribution of 0.1-10 mm sized ice and dust particles released by jets and plumes. The radar’s primary aperture also functions as an antenna for two passive heterodyne spectrometer channels at 270 and 560 GHz for detecting the abundance, temperature, and velocity of water vapor and its isotopes (including HDO), as well other major cometary volatiles such as CO, NH3, CH3OH. GAISR has been designed with a priority placed on low mass and power needs, to facilitate its infusion in future planetary missions. This is accomplished by leveraging recent innovations in W-band signal generation using low power silicon integrated circuits, state-of-the art III-V semiconductor devices for signal amplification and detection, and compact quasioptical duplexing. A new signal processing algorithm for FMCW Doppler radar detection out to the maximum range ambiguity limit has also been developed. GAISR’s performance testing has begun, and this poster will summarize its proven capabilities and plans for validation in relevant environments.

  18. Investigations of a high current linear aperture radial multichannel pseudospark switch (United States)

    Lamba, R. P.; Pathania, V.; Meena, B. L.; Rahaman, H.; Pal, U. N.; Prakash, Ram


    In this paper, a high current linear aperture radial multichannel Pseudospark switch (LARM-PSS) is reported which has been analyzed for its high current characteristics. In order to enhance hold-off voltage and support hollow cathode effect for the ignition of the discharge in this configuration, the field penetration analysis through circular and linear apertures of the electrodes has been carried out. The linear apertures in the electrodes increase the current handling capacity than that of circular aperture electrodes without significant compromise of the hold-off capacity. The developed LARM-PSS switch is capable to hold voltage up to 25 kV at gas pressure between 10 and 50 Pa for hydrogen. The switch has been operated using a 800 nF capacitor bank and conducted an effective charge up to 1.5 C with peak switch current ˜20 kA at applied voltage 19 kV.

  19. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas


    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  20. Capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Wu, Siwen; Lai, Quan; Ma, Li


    Ship classification in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has become a new hotspot in remote sensing community for its valuable potential in many maritime applications. Several kinds of ship features, such as geometric features, polarimetric features, and scattering features have been widely applied on ship classification tasks. Compared with polarimetric features and scattering features, which are subject to SAR parameters (e.g., sensor type, incidence angle, polarization, etc.) and environment factors (e.g., sea state, wind, wave, current, etc.), geometric features are relatively independent of SAR and environment factors, and easy to be extracted stably from SAR imagery. In this paper, the capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery with various resolution has been investigated. Firstly, the relationship between the geometric feature extraction accuracy and the SAR imagery resolution is analyzed. It shows that the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) of ship can be extracted exactly in terms of absolute precision by the proposed automatic ship-sea segmentation method. Next, six simple but effective geometric features are extracted to build a ship representation for the subsequent classification task. These six geometric features are composed of length (f1), width (f2), area (f3), perimeter (f4), elongatedness (f5) and compactness (f6). Among them, two basic features, length (f1) and width (f2), are directly extracted based on the MBR of ship, the other four are derived from those two basic features. The capability of the utilized geometric features to classify ships are validated on two data set with different image resolutions. The results show that the performance of ship classification solely by geometric features is close to that obtained by the state-of-the-art methods, which obtained by a combination of multiple kinds of features, including scattering features and geometric features after a complex feature selection process.