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Sample records for aperture grb observatory

  1. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

  2. LAGOVirtual: A Collaborative Environment for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, R; Diaz, G; Guada, C; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Melfo, A; Nunez, L A; Perez, Y; Quintero, C; Rosales, M; Torrens, R

    2009-01-01

    We present the LAGOVirtual Project: an ongoing project to develop platform to collaborate in the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO). This continental-wide observatory is devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). This platform will allow LAGO collaboration to share data, and computer resources through its different sites. This environment has the possibility to generate synthetic data by simulating the showers through AIRES application and to store/preserve distributed data files collected by the WCD at the LAGO sites. The present article concerns the implementation of a prototype of LAGO-DR adapting DSpace, with a hierarchical structure (i.e. country, institution, followed by collections that contain the metadata and data files), for the captured/simulate...

  3. Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01

    Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

  4. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst

  5. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  6. Calibration and Simulation of the GRB trigger detector of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, M.-H.A.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.;

    2013-01-01

    The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector, called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB and then triggers to determine the direction ...

  7. A GRB Follow-up System at the Xinglong Observatory and Detection of the High-Redshift GRB 060927

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, W; Zhai, M; Xin, L; Qiu, Y; Wang, J; Lü, X; Wei, J; Hu, J; 10.1088/1009-9271/8/6/08

    2009-01-01

    A gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical photometric follow-up system at the Xinglong Observatory of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) has been constructed. It uses the 0.8-m Tsinghua-NAOC Telescope (TNT) and the 1-m EST telescope, and can automatically respond to GRB Coordinates Network (GCN)alerts. Both telescopes slew relatively fast, being able to point to a new target field within about 1 min upon a request. Whenever available, the 2.16-m NAOC telescope is also used. In 2006, the system responded to 15 GRBs and detected seven early afterglows. In 2007, six GRBs have been detected among 18 follow-up observations. TNT observations of the second most distant GRB 060927 (z=5.5) are shown, which started as early as 91s after the GRB trigger. The afterglow was detected in the combined image of first 19x20s unfiltered exposures. This GRB follow-up system has joined the East-Asia GRB Follow-up Observation Network (EAFON).

  8. Aperture calculation of the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Armengaud, E.; Aublin, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Chou, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Hamilton, J.C.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Medina, C.; Navarra, G.; Parizot, E.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-08-01

    We determine the instantaneous aperture and integrated exposure of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory, taking into account the trigger efficiency as a function of the energy, arrival direction (with zenith angle lower than 60 degrees) and nature of the primary cosmic-ray. We make use of the so-called Lateral Trigger Probability function (or LTP) associated with an extensive air shower, which summarizes all the relevant information about the physics of the shower, the water tank Cherenkov detector, and the triggers.

  9. Multi-band optical follow-up observations of GRB 020813 at KISO and Bisei observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Miyata, T; Mito, H; Kawabata, T; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Yoshida, A; Tamagawa, T; Makishima, K

    2003-01-01

    Observations were made of the optical afterglow of GRB020813 (Fox, Blake & Price, 2002) with the KISO observatory 1.05 m Schmidt telescope and the Bisei astronomical observatory 1.01 m telescope. Four-band ($B, V, R$, and $I$) photometric data points were obtained from 2002, August 13 10:52 to 16:46 UT, or 0.346$-$0.516 days after the burst. In order to investigate the early-time ($<$1 day) evolution of the afterglow, four-band light curves were produced by analyzing the data taken at these two astronomical observatories, as well as publicly released data taken by the Magellan Baade telescope (Gladders and Hall, 2002c). The light curves can be approximated by a broken power law, of which the indices are approximately 0.46 and 1.33 before and after a break at $\\sim$0.2 days, respectively. The optical spectral index stayed approximately constant at $\\sim$0.9 over 0.17 $\\sim$ 4.07 days after the burst. Since the temporal decay index after the break and the spectral index measured at that time are both con...

  10. Search for gamma-rays from the unusually bright GRB 130427A with the HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; BenZvi, S Y; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harding, J P; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-García, R; Malone, K; Marinelli, A; Marinelli, S S; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Torres, E Mendoza; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T O; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Ponce, E; Pretz, J; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Sandoval, A; Schneider, M; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Woodle, K Sparks; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H; Álvarez, J D

    2014-01-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift $z\\lesssim0.5$, featuring the highest energy photon so far detected from a GRB and the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory is a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. It features two data acquisition (DAQ) systems - one designed to readout full air-shower events (main DAQ) and the other one counting the signals in each photomultiplier tube (scaler DAQ). The burst occurred at a zenith angle of $57^\\circ$, when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector and collecting data with the scaler DAQ only. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, 8 different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC de...

  11. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT GRB 130427A WITH THE HAWC GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Alfaro, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R. [CEFyMAP, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Cotti, U.; De León, C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baughman, B. M.; Braun, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Municipio de Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Rosales, M. Bonilla; Carramiñana, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. (Mexico); Castillo, M.; Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: dirk.lennarz@gatech.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC collaboration; and others

    2015-02-20

    The first limits on the prompt emission from the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A in the >100 GeV energy band are reported. GRB 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift z ≲ 0.5 and featured the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The energy spectrum extends at least up to 95 GeV, clearly in the range observable by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory, a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. The burst occurred under unfavorable observation conditions, low in the sky and when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, eight different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC detector, which will be completed soon. The detection rate of the full HAWC detector may be as high as one to two GRBs per year. A detection could provide important information regarding the high energy processes at work and the observation of a possible cut-off beyond the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range could be the signature of gamma-ray absorption, either in the GRB or along the line of sight due to the extragalactic background light.

  12. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT GRB 130427A WITH THE HAWC GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first limits on the prompt emission from the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A in the >100 GeV energy band are reported. GRB 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift z ≲ 0.5 and featured the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The energy spectrum extends at least up to 95 GeV, clearly in the range observable by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory, a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. The burst occurred under unfavorable observation conditions, low in the sky and when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, eight different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC detector, which will be completed soon. The detection rate of the full HAWC detector may be as high as one to two GRBs per year. A detection could provide important information regarding the high energy processes at work and the observation of a possible cut-off beyond the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range could be the signature of gamma-ray absorption, either in the GRB or along the line of sight due to the extragalactic background light

  13. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  14. Apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, R C

    2014-01-01

    Microwave Scanning Antennas, Volume I: Apertures is a comprehensive account of phased arrays, multiple beam arrays, time domain and synthetic apertures, and adaptive antennas. Advances in continuous apertures and near field theory are discussed. Low noise and monopulse apertures, optical scanners, and large radomes are also covered, along with radio astronomy instruments and associated theory.Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of aperture theory as well as aperture distributions and near field theory. The second and third chapters deal with mechanically steered and

  15. CALISTO - A Novel Architecture for the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Goldsmith, P.; Benford, D.

    2007-12-01

    Following the success of Spitzer, and in expectation of success with JWST and Herschel, the astronomical community is looking ahead to a large aperture far infrared mission that can build on the scientific results of these missions. This expectation was formalized by the 2000 Decadal recommendation for design studies on a SAFIR - a single aperture far infrared observatory. A JWST-inspired architecture for SAFIR was considered in a Vision Mission study several years ago. We present here a exciting new architecture for this important mission that offers several advantages. This CALISTO (Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory) architecture, originally developed by JPL, builds on the thermally optimized passive cooling design of the Vision Mission version of SAFIR, and focal plane instrument strategies as well, but is based on a 4x6m ellipsoidal primary that greatly simplifies deployment out of an ELV launch shroud. Used off-axis, this design is much less affected by scattered (e.g. galactic plane and ZODI) emission than previous architectures, providing astronomical background-limited facility over much of the sky. Technologies for such a large mirror, diffraction-limited at 20µm, are now becoming credible. Using the large focal plane to host envisioned large format sensor arrays operating with high spatial resolution, CALISTO will resolve the far infrared extragalactic background, and trace the chemical evolution of galaxies. Simple models suggest that detection of the first structure in the universe, marked by cooling primordial clouds of molecular hydrogen at high z, may be achievable with such a telescope. Further building on the work of Spitzer, CALISTO will trace the development of planetary systems, probing the inner structure of star forming disks, and reveal the structure of nearby solar systems using the structure of debris disks that surround them. We review in this paper the science goals and engineering challenges for this mission.

  16. Trigger and aperture of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. [National Technological University, Faculty Mendoza (CONICET/CNEA), Mendoza (Argentina); Abreu, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahn, E.J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ambrosio, M. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Anticic, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Anzalone, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo (INAF), Palermo (Italy); Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Arganda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Arisaka, K. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Assis, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aublin, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France)

    2010-01-21

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single detector, amongst a large background (mainly random single cosmic ray muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences. Such trigger makes the surface detector array fully efficient for the detection of EAS with energy above 3x10{sup 18}eV, for all zenith angles between 0 deg. and 60 deg., independently of the position of the impact point and of the mass of the primary particle. In these range of energies and angles, the exposure of the surface array can be determined purely on the basis of the geometrical acceptance.

  17. Trigger and Aperture of the Surface Detector Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single detector, amongst a large background (mainly random single cosmic ray muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences. Such trigger makes the surface detector array fully efficient for the detection of EAS with energy above $3\\times 10^{18}$ eV, for all zenith angles between 0$^\\circ$ and 60$^\\circ$, independently of the position of the impact point and of the mass of the primary particle. In these range of energies and angles, the exposure of the surface array can be determined purely on the basis of the geometrical acceptance.

  18. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  19. The optical identifcation of events with poorly defined locations: The case of the Fermi GBM GRB140801A

    CERN Document Server

    Lipunov, V M; Pruzhinskaya, M V; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Pelassa, V; Tsvetkova, A E; Sokolov, I V; Kann, D A; Xu, Dong; Gorbovskoy, E S; Krushinski, V V; Kornilov, V G; Balanutsa, P V; Boronina, S V; Budnev, N M; Cano, Z; Castro-Tirado, A J; Chazov, V V; Connaughton, V; Delvaux, C; Frederiks, D D; Fynbo, J F U; Gabovich, A V; Goldstein, A; Greiner, J; Gress, O A; Ivanov, K I; Jakobsson, P; Klose, S; Knust, F; Komarova, V N; Konstantinov, E; Krylov, A V; Kuvshinov, D A; Kuznetsov, A S; Lipunova, G V; Moskvitin, A S; Pal'shin, V D; Pandey, S B; Poleshchuk, V A; Schmidl, S; Sergienko, Yu P; Sinyakov, E V; Schulze, S; Sokolov, V V; Sokolova, T N; Sparre, M; Thone, C C; Tlatov, A G; Tyurina, N V; Ulanov, M V; Yazev, S A; Yurkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    We report the early discovery of the optical afterglow of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 140801A in the 137 deg$^2$ 3-$\\sigma$ error-box of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). MASTER is the only observatory that automatically react to all Fermi alerts. GRB 140801A is one of the few GRBs whose optical counterpart was discovered solely from its GBM localization. The optical afterglow of GRB 140801A was found by MASTER Global Robotic Net 53 sec after receiving the alert, making it the fastest optical detection of a GRB from a GBM error-box. Spectroscopy obtained with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6-m BTA of SAO RAS reveals a redshift of $z=1.32$. We performed optical and near-infrared photometry of GRB 140801A using different telescopes with apertures ranging from 0.4-m to 10.4-m. GRB 140801A is a typical burst in many ways. The rest-frame bolometric isotropic energy release and peak energy of the burst is $E_\\mathrm{iso} = 5.54_{-0.24}^{+0.26} \\times 10^{52}$ erg and $E_\\mathrm{p, rest}\\simeq280$ keV,...

  20. GRB 090313

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ugarte Postigo...[}, A.; Goldoni, P.; Thöne, Christina;

    2010-01-01

    % illuminated Moon was just 30 degrees away from the field. In spite of the adverse conditions, we obtained a spectrum that, for the first time in GRB research, simultaneously covers the range from 5700 to 23¿000 Å. Results. The spectrum shows multiple absorption features at a redshift of 3.3736, which we......Context. X-shooter is the first second-generation instrument to become operative at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a broad-band medium-resolution spectrograph designed with gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectroscopy as one of its main science drivers. Aims. During the first...

  1. GRB 060117: Reverse + forward shock solution

    CERN Document Server

    Jel'inek, M; Kubánek, P; Hudec, R; Nekola, M F; Rídky, J; Grygar, J; Jel\\'inek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Kub\\'anek, Petr; Hudec, Ren\\'e; Nekola, Martin F.; Ridky, Jan; Grygar, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We present a discovery and observation of an extraordinarily bright prompt optical emission of the GRB 060117 obtained by a wide-field camera atop the robotic telescope FRAM of the Pierre Auger Observatory from 2 to 10 minutes after the GRB. We found rapid average temporal flux decay of alpha = -1.7 +/- 0.1 and a peak brightness R = 10.1 mag. We interpret the shape of the lightcurve as a transition between reverse and forward shock emission.

  2. GRB 051008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volnova, A. A.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Gorosabel, J.;

    2014-01-01

    due to the presence of a clear, strong Lyman-break feature. The host galaxy is a small starburst galaxy with moderate intrinsic extinction (AV = 0.3) and has a star formation rate of ∼60 M⊙ yr−1 typical for LBGs. It is one of the few cases where a GRB host has been found to be a classical LBG. Using...

  3. Long and short GRB

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    We report evidence from the 3B Catalogue that short (T_90 10 s) GRB represent different populations and processes: Their spectral behavior is qualitatively different, with short bursts harder in the BATSE range, but chiefly long bursts detected at higher photon energies; \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.385 \\pm 0.019 for short GRB but \\langle V/V_max \\rangle = 0.282 \\pm 0.014 for long GRB, differing by 0.103 \\pm 0.024. Long GRB may be the consequence of accretion-induced collapse, but this mechanism fails for short GRB, for which we suggest colliding neutron stars.

  4. Prompt Optical Detection of GRB 050401 with ROTSE-IIIa

    CERN Document Server

    Rykoff, E S; Krimm, H A; Aharonian, F; Akerlof, C W; Alatalo, K; Ashley, M C B; Barthelmy, S D; Gehrels, N; Guver, T; Horns, D; Kiziloglu, U; McKay, T A; Ozel, M; Phillips, A; Quimby, R M; Rujopakarn, W; Schaefer, B E; Smith, D A; Swan, H F; Vestrand, W T; Wheeler, J C; Wren, J

    2005-01-01

    The ROTSE-IIIa telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, detected prompt optical emission from Swift GRB 050401. In this letter, we present observations of the early optical afterglow, first detected by the ROTSE-IIIa telescope 33 s after the start of gamma-ray emission, contemporaneous with the brightest peak of this emission. This GRB was neither exceptionally long nor bright. This is the first prompt optical detection of a GRB of typical duration and luminosity. We find that the early afterglow decay does not deviate significantly from the power-law decay observable at later times, and is uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission. We compare this detection with the other two GRBs with prompt observations, GRB 990123 and GRB 041219a. All three bursts exhibit quite different behavior at early times.

  5. GRB Prompt Optical Observations by Master and Lomonosov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbovskoy, Evgeny

    We present the results of the prompt, early and afterglow optical observations of five γ-ray bursts (GRBs): GRB 100901A, GRB 100902A, GRB 100905A, GRB 100906A and GRB 101020A. These observations were made with the Mobile Astronomical System of TElescope-Robots in Russia (MASTER-II Net), the 1.5-m telescope of the Sierra Nevada Observatory and the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope. For two sources, GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, we detected optical counterparts and obtained light curves starting before the cessation of γ-ray emission, at 113 and 48 s after the trigger, respectively. Observations of GRB 100906A were conducted in two polarizing filters. Observations of the other three bursts gave the upper limits on the optical flux; their properties are briefly discussed. A more detailed analysis of GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, supplemented by Swift data, provides the following results and indicates different origins for the prompt optical radiation in the two bursts. The light-curve patterns and spectral distributions suggest that there is a common production site for the prompt optical and high-energy emission in GRB 100901A. The results of the spectral fits for GRB 100901A in the range from optical to X-ray favour power-law energy distributions and a consistent value of the optical extinction in the host galaxy. GRB 100906A produced a smoothly peaking optical light curve, suggesting that the prompt optical radiation in this GRB originated in a front shock. This is supported by a spectral analysis. We have found that the Amati and Ghirlanda relations are satisfied for GRB 100906A. We obtain an upper limit on the value of the optical extinction on the host of GRB 100906A. Also we consider prompt observation of dark gamma ray bursts for which on very widefield cameras MASTER-VWF and MASTER-II telescopes upper limits were received. We represent SHOCK experiment onboard the spacecraft Lomonosov.

  6. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory’s space GRB mission and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using...

  7. The GRB-SN connection: GRB030329 and XRF030723

    OpenAIRE

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Moller, P.; Gorosabel, J.; S. Guziy; Woosley, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grundahl, F.; Jensen, B. L.; Andersen, M. I.; Vreeswijk, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; collaboration, the GRACE

    2004-01-01

    The attempt to secure conclusive, spectroscopic evidence for the GRB/SN connection has been a central theme in most GRB observing time proposals since the discovery of the very unusual GRB980425 associated with the peculiar type Ib/c SN1998bw. GRB030329 provided this evidence to everybody's satisfaction. In this contribution we show the results of a spectroscopic campaign of the supernova associated with GRB030329 carried out at ESOs Very Large Telescope. We also present preliminary results f...

  8. A multi band study of the optically dark GRB 051028

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Yuji; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Ip, Wing-Huen; Qiu, Yulei; Masuno, Keisuke; Tashiro, Makoto; Abe, Keichi; Onda, Kaori; Kodaka, Natsuki; Kuwahara, Makoto; Tamagawa, Toru; Usui, Fumihiko; Ioka, Kunihito; Lee, Yi-Hsi; Wei, Jianyan; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Weikang; Makishima, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Observations were made of the optical afterglow of GRB 051028 with the Lulin observatory's 1.0 m telescope and the WIDGET robotic telescope system. R band photometric data points were obtained on 2005 October 28 (UT), or 0.095-0.180 days after the burst. There is a possible plateau in the optical light curve around 0.1 days after the burst; the light curve resembles optically bright afterglows (e.g. GRB 041006, GRB 050319, GRB060605) in shape of the light curve but not in brightness. The brightness of the GRB 051028 afterglow is 3 magnitudes fainter than that of one of the dark events, GRB 020124. Optically dark GRBs have been attributed to dust extinction within the host galaxy or high redshift. However, the spectrum analysis of the X-rays implies that there is no significant absorption by the host galaxy. Furthermore, according to the model theoretical calculation of the Ly$\\alpha$ absorption to find the limit of GRB 051028's redshift, the expected $R$ band absorption is not high enough to explain the darkn...

  9. The bright optical flash from GRB 060117

    CERN Document Server

    Jel'inek, M; Kubánek, P; Hudec, R; Nekola, M; Grygar, J; Castro-Tirado, A J; Gorosabel, J; Hrabovsk'y, M; Mandat, D; Nosek, D; Palatka, M; Pandey, S B; Pech, M; Schovanek, P; De Postigo, A U; Vítek, S; Jel\\'inek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Kub\\'anek, Petr; Hudec, Ren\\'e; Nekola, Martin; R}\\'idk\\'y, Jan {; Grygar, Ji{r}\\'i; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Gorosabel, Javier; Hrabovsk\\'y, Miroslav; Mand\\'at, Du{s}an; Nosek, Dalibor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pandey, Shashi B.; Pech, Miroslav; Schov\\'anek, Petr; S}m\\'ida, Radom\\'ir {; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; V\\'itek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    We present a discovery and observation of an extraordinarily bright prompt optical emission of the GRB 060117 obtained by a wide-field camera atop the robotic telescope FRAM of the Pierre Auger Observatory from 2 to 10 minutes after the GRB. We found rapid average temporal flux decay of alpha = -1.7 +- 0.1 and a peak brightness R = 10.1 mag. Later observations by other instruments set a strong limit on the optical and radio transient fluxes, unveiling an unexpectedly rapid further decay. We present an interpretation featuring a relatively steep electron-distribution parameter p ~ 3.0 and providing a straightforward solution for the overall fast decay of this optical transient as a transition between reverse and forward shock.

  10. Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures. V. Hybrid Shaped Pupil designs for imaging Earth-like planets with future space observatories

    CERN Document Server

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Carlotti, Alexis; Stark, Christopher C; Perrin, Marshall D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of solutions for Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs (APLC) with segmented aperture telescopes to remove broadband diffracted light from a star with a contrast level of $10^{10}$. These new coronagraphs provide a key advance to enabling direct imaging and spectroscopy of Earth twins with future large space missions. Building on shaped pupil (SP) apodization optimizations, our approach enables two-dimensional optimizations of the system to address any aperture features such as central obstruction, support structures or segment gaps. We illustrate the technique with a design that could reach $10^{10}$ contrast level at 34\\,mas for a 12\\,m segmented telescope over a 10\\% bandpass centered at a wavelength $\\lambda_0=$500\\,nm. These designs can be optimized specifically for the presence of a resolved star, and in our example, for stellar angular size up to 1.1\\,mas. This would allow probing the vicinity of Sun-like stars located beyond 4.4\\,pc, therefore fully retiring this concern. If the fr...

  11. Is GRB 100418A a Cosmic Twin of GRB 060614?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lan-Wei Jia; Hou-Jun Lü; Shu-Jin Hou; En-Wei Liang

    2011-03-01

    GRB 100418A is a long burst at = 0.624 without detection of associated supernova (SN).We present a detailed analysis on this event and discuss possible origins of its multi-wavelength emission. The temporal features of this event is similar to GRB 060614, a well-known nearby long GRB without SN association (possibly a Type I GRB), indicating that the two events may be cosmic twins. However, both the circumburst medium density and the GRB classification based on the gamma-ray energy and spectrum suggest that GRB 100418A would be a Type II GRB. These results make a great puzzle on the progenitors of this kind of events, if they belong to the same population.

  12. Optical Photometry of the GRB 010222 Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Cowsik, R; Anupama, G C; Bhatt, B C; Sahu, D K; Ambika, S; Bhargavi, S G

    2001-01-01

    The optical afterglow of GRB 010222 was observed using the recently installed 2-m telescope at the Indian Astronomical Observatory Hanle and the telescopes at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur, beginning ~0.6 day after the detection of the event. The results based on these photometric observations combined with others reported in the literature are presented in this paper. The R band light curve shows an initial decline of intensities proportional to t^{-0.608} which steepens, after 10.6 hours, to t^{-1.24}. Following the model of collimated outflow, the early break in the light curve implies a very narrow beam angle ~3 deg. The two decay rates are consistent with the standard jet model in a uniform density ambient medium, but require a hard spectrum of electron power density with ~1.5. The early spectral energy distribution derived using published fluxes in different bands and our R band light curve suggests that the ambient density is very low: n ~1 cm^-3. GRB 010222 is thus an example of a highly collim...

  13. Space γ-observatory GAMMA-400 Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Topchiev, N. P.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    nuclei and gamma-quanta in energy range E>1.0 GeV. But using lateral aperture it is possible to detect low-energy gammas in the ranges 0.2 - 10 MeV and 10 MeV - 1.0 GeV with energy resolution 8% - 2% and 2% correspondingly accordingly to GAMMA-400 "Technical Project" stage results. Angular resolution in the lateral aperture provides only for low-energy gamma-quanta from non-stationary events (GRB, solar flares and so on) due segments of CC2 count rate analysis. GAMMA-400 γ-ray telescope will be installed onboard the Russian Space Observatory GAMMA-400. The lifetime of the space observatory will be at least seven years. The launch of the space observatory is scheduled for the early 2020s.

  14. Open Questions in GRB Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Open questions in GRB physics are summarized as of 2011, including classification, progenitor, central engine, ejecta composition, energy dissipation and particle acceleration mechanism, radiation mechanism, long term engine activity, external shock afterglow physics, origin of high energy emission, and cosmological setting. Prospects of addressing some of these problems with the upcoming Chinese-French GRB mission, SVOM, are outlined.

  15. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  16. SRG/eROSITA prospects for detection of GRB afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Khabibullin, I I; Sunyaev, R A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the eROSITA telescope on board the \\emph{Spectrum-X-Gamma} observatory to detect gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows during its 4-year all-sky survey. The expected rate of afterglows associated with long-duration GRBs without any information on the bursts proper that can be identified by a characteristic power-law light curve in the eROSITA data is 4--8 events per year. An additional small number, $\\lesssim 2$ per year, of afterglows may be associated with short GRBs, ultra hard (GeV) GRBs and X-ray flashes. eROSITA can thus provide the first unbiased (unaffected by GRB triggering) sample of $\\lesssim 40$ X-ray afterglows, which can be used for statistical studies of GRB afterglows and for constraining the shape of the GRB $\\log N$--$\\log S$ distribution at its low-fluence end. The total number of afterglows detected by eROSITA may be yet higher due to orphan afterglows and failed GRBs. The actual detection rate could thus provide interesting constraints on the properties of rel...

  17. The Redshift of the Optical Transient Associated with GRB 010222

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, S; Garnavich, P M; Calkins, M L; Kilgard, R E; Matheson, T; McDowell, J C; Roll, J B; Stanek, K Z; Jha, Saurabh; Pahre, Michael A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Calkins, Michael L.; Kilgard, Roy E.; Matheson, Thomas; Dowell, Jonathan C. Mc; Roll, John B.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.

    2001-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) 010222 is the brightest GRB detected to date by the BeppoSAX satellite. Prompt identification of the associated optical transient (OT) allowed for spectroscopy with the Tillinghast 1.5m telescope at F. L. Whipple Observatory while the source was still relatively bright (R ~ 18.6 mag), within five hours of the burst. The OT shows a blue continuum with many superimposed absorption features corresponding to metal lines at z = 1.477, 1.157, and possibly also at 0.928. The redshift of GRB 010222 is therefore unambiguously placed at z >= 1.477. The high number of Mg II absorbers and especially the large equivalent widths of the Mg II, Mg I, and Fe II absorption lines in the z = 1.477 system further argue either for a very small impact parameter or that the z = 1.477 system is the GRB host galaxy itself. The spectral index of the OT is relatively steep, beta = 0.89 +/- 0.03, and this cannot be caused by dust with a standard Galactic extinction law in the z = 1.477 absorption system. This sp...

  18. Polarimetric observations of GRB 011211

    OpenAIRE

    S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Lazzati, D.; Malesani, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.; Cimatti, A.; Di Serego, S.; Fiore, F.; Kawai, N.; S. Ortolani; Pasquini, L.; Ricker, G.; P. Saracco(INFN, Sezione di Genova); Tagliaferri, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present and discuss polarimetric observations performed with the VLT-UT3 (Melipal) on the afterglow of GRB 011211, ~35 hours after the burst onset. The observations yielded a 3-sigma upper limit of P

  19. GROND observations of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, P.; Kann, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the field of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103 (Swift trigger 700791; D'Ai et al., GCN #19547. ATel #9180) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) mounted at the 2.2 m MPG telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

  20. A case of mistaken identity? GRB060912A and the nature of the long-short GRB divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Hurkett, C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Gorosabel, J.; Vreeswijk, P.; Rol, E.; Chapman, R.; Gehrels, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Priddey, R. S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Starling, R.; vanden Berk, D.; Wiersema, K.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the origin of the GRB060912A, which has observational properties that make its classification as either a long or short burst ambiguous. Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are thought to have typically lower energies than long-duration bursts, can be found in galaxies with populations of all ages and are likely to originate from different progenitors to the long-duration bursts. However, it has become clear that duration alone is insufficient to make a distinction between the two populations in many cases, leading to a desire to find additional discriminators of burst type. GRB060912A had a duration of 6s and occurred only ~10arcsec from a bright, low-redshift (z = 0.0936) elliptical galaxy, suggesting that this may have been the host, which would favour it being a short burst. However, our deep optical imaging and spectroscopy of the location of GRB060912A using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) shows that GRB060912A more likely originates in a distant star-forming galaxy at z = 0.937, and is most likely a long burst. This demonstrates the risk in identifying bright, nearby galaxies as the hosts of given gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) without further supporting evidence. Further, it implies that, in the absence of secure identifications, `host' type, or more broadly discriminators that rely on galaxy redshifts, may not be good indicators of the true nature of any given GRB. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 077.D-0691. E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk

  1. The Early Optical Afterglow of GRB 030418 and Progenitor Mass Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Rykoff, E S; Price, P A; Akerlof, C W; Ashley, M C B; Bizyaev, D V; Garradd, G J; McKay, T A; McNaught, R H; Phillips, A; Quimby, R; Schaefer, B; Schmidt, B; Vestrand, W T; Wheeler, J C; Wren, J

    2004-01-01

    The ROTSE-IIIa telescope and the SSO-40 inch telescope, both located at Siding Spring Observatory, imaged the early time afterglow of GRB 030418. In this report we present observations of the early afterglow, first detected by the ROTSE-IIIa telescope 211 s after the start of the burst, and only 76 s after the end of the gamma-ray activity. We detect optical emission that rises for ~600 s, slowly varies around R=17.3 mag for ~1400 s, and then fades as a power law of index alpha=-1.36. Additionally, the ROTSE-IIIb telescope, located at McDonald Observatory, imaged the early time afterglow of GRB 030723. The behavior of this light curve was qualitatively similar to that of GRB 030418, but two magnitudes dimmer. These two afterglows are dissimilar to other afterglows such as GRB 990123 and GRB 021211. We investigate whether the early afterglow can be attributed to a synchrotron break in a cooling synchrotron spectrum as it passes through the optical band, but find this model is unable to accurately describe the ...

  2. The GRB early optical flash from internal shock: application to GRB990123, GRB041219a and GRB060111b

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, D M

    2006-01-01

    With the successful launch of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer, people expected the prompt optical flash like GRB990123 would be easily detected. However the fact that early optical flash have not been detected for a number of GRBs indicates the reverse shock must be suppressed. Here we explore the possibility that the optical flash may arise from the internal shock. We find that, under certain circumstance, the optical flash of GRB990123 and GRB060111b can really be explained by the internal shock. For GRB041219a, the prompt optical emission was correlated with the gamma-ray emission, we explain this feature also in the internal shock scenario, the optical emission is the low energy extension of the gamma-ray emission, and we can restrict its redshift $z\\sim 0.2$. As for GRB050904, we have shown in previous paper that the optical flash was produced by synchrotron radiation and the X-ray flare was produced by the synchrotron-self-Compton mechanism. Therefore we conclude that the early optical flash of GRBs ...

  3. The H.E.S.S. II GRB Program

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, R D; Füssling, M; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Mitchell, A M W; Pühlhofer, G; Rowell, G; Wagner, S; Bissaldi, E; O'Brien, P; Tam, P H T

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are some of the most energetic and exotic events in the Universe, however their behaviour at the highest energies (>10 GeV) is largely unknown. Although the Fermi-LAT space telescope has detected several GRBs in this energy range, it is limited by the relatively small collection area of the instrument. The H.E.S.S. experiment has now entered its second phase by adding a fifth telescope of 600 m$^{2}$ mirror area to the centre of the array. This new telescope increases the energy range of the array, allowing it to probe the sub-100 GeV range while maintaining the large collection area of ground based gamma-ray observatories, essential to probing short-term variability at these energies. We will present a description of the GRB observation scheme used by the H.E.S.S. experiment, summarising the behaviour and performance of the rapid GRB repointing system, the conditions under which potential GRB repointings are made and the data analysis scheme used for these observations.

  4. The detailed optical light curve of GRB 030329

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Yu M; Gal-Yam, A; Leibowitz, E M; Poznanski, D; Kaspi, S; Polishook, D; Kulkarni, S R; Fox, D W; Berger, E; Mirabal, N; Halpern, J; Bureau, M; Fathi, K; Price, P A; Peterson, B A; Frebel, A; Schmidt, B; Orosz, J A; Fitzgerald, J B; Bloom, J S; Van Dokkum, P G; Bailyn, C D; Buxton, M M; Barsony, M

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) We present densely sampled BVRI light curves of the optical transient associated with the gamma-ray burst GRB 030329, the result of a coordinated observing campaign conducted at five observatories. Augmented with published observations of this GRB, the compiled optical dataset contains 2687 photometric measurements, obtained between 78 minutes and 79 days after the burst. We show that the underlying supernova 2003dh evolved faster than, and was probably somewhat fainter than the type Ic SN 1998bw, associated with GRB 980425. We find that our data can be described by a broken power-law decay perturbed by a complex variable component. The early- and late-time decay slopes are determined to be ~1.1 and ~2, respectively. Assuming this single power-law model, we constrain the break to lie between ~3 and ~8 days after the burst. This simple, singly-broken power-law model, derived only from the analysis of our optical observations, may also account for available multi-band data, provided that the break ha...

  5. Hubble Space Telescope STIS Observations of GRB 000301C: CCD Imaging and Near-Ultraviolet MAMA Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smette; A.S. Fruchter; Th.R. Gull; K.C. Sahu; L. Petro; H. Ferguson; J. Rhoads; D.J. Lindler; R.A.M.J. Wijers

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the gamma-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R~=21.50+/-0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. An 8000 s, 1150 Å

  6. Identifying the host galaxy of the short GRB 100628A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Palazzi, E.; Greiner, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Kann, D. A.; Hunt, L. K.; Malesani, D.; Rossi, A.; Savaglio, S.; Schulze, S.; Xu, D.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Ferrero, P.; Filgas, R.; Hartmann, D. H.; Krühler, T.; Knust, F.; Masetti, N.; Olivares E., F.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Schmidl, S.; Tanga, M.; Updike, A. C.; Varela, K.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the results of a comprehensive observing campaign to reveal the host galaxy of the short GRB 100628A. This burst was followed by a faint X-ray afterglow but no optical counterpart was discovered. However, inside the X-ray error circle a potential host galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.102 was soon reported in the literature. If this system is the host, then GRB 100628A was the cosmologically most nearby unambiguous short burst with a measured redshift so far. We used the multi-colour imager GROND at the ESO/La Silla MPG 2.2 m telescope, ESO/VLT spectroscopy, and deep Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum observations together with publicly available Gemini imaging data to study the putative host and the galaxies in the field of GRB 100628A. We confirm that inside the X-ray error circle the most probable host-galaxy candidate is the morphologically disturbed, interacting galaxy system at z = 0.102. The interacting galaxies are connected by a several kpc long tidal stream, which our VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy reveals strong emission lines of [O ii], [O iii], Hα and Hβ, characteristic for the class of extreme emission-line galaxies and indicative of ongoing star formation. The latter leaves open the possibility that the GRB progenitor was a member of a young stellar population. However, we indentify a second host-galaxy candidate slightly outside the X-ray error circle. It is a radio-bright, luminous elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.311. With a K-band luminosity of 2 × 1011L⊙ this galaxy resembles the probable giant elliptical host of the first well-localized short burst, GRB 050509B. If this is the host, then the progenitor of GRB 100628A was a member of an old stellar population. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme 087.D-0503 and 290.D-5194; PI: A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu; 090.A-0825; PI: D. Malesani), GROND (PI: J. Greiner), and ATCA (Program C

  7. The UFFO (Ultra Fast Flash Observatory) Pathfinder: Science and Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, P.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.;

    Hundreds of gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical light curves have been measured since the discovery of optical afterglows. However, even after nearly 7 years of operation of the Swift Observatory, only a handful of measurements have been made soon (within a minute) after the gamma ray signal. This lack...

  8. The red optical afterglow of GRB 030725

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, G; Gorosabel, J; Jensen, B L; Fynbo, J P U; Hjorth, J; Jorgensen, S F; Monard, B; Vinter, C

    2005-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the optical counterpart of the long-duration Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) 030725, which triggered the HETE FREGATE and WXM instruments on July 25th, 2003, and lasted more than 160s. An optical counterpart was identified at the Bronberg Observatory in South Africa about 7 hours after the burst occurred. The optical afterglow (OA) was observed between 4 and 15 days after the burst with the 1.54m Danish telescope at La Silla in the V, Rc, and Ic bands. We fit a broken power law to the data and determine a break time in the light curve between 16 hours and 4.7 days after the first detection of the burst. The decay slope is alpha1 = -0.59 +0.59/-0.44 before and alpha2 = -1.43 +/- 0.06 after the break. A bump may be present in the light curve, only significant at the 2-sigma level, 13.9 days after the main burst. The spectral slope of the OA, measured 12 days after the burst, is -2.9 +/- 0.6 , i.e. it falls in the extreme red end of the distribution of previous OA spectral slopes. Observa...

  9. A next generation Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO-100) for IR/optical observations of the rise phase of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observatory responds to GRB triggers with optical observations in ~ 100 s, butcannot respond faster than ~ 60 s. While some rapid-response ground-based telescopes have responded quickly, thenumber of sub-60 s detections remains small. In 2013 June, the Ultra-Fast F...

  10. Interdisciplinary science with large aperture detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiencke Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Large aperture detector systems to measure high energy cosmic rays also offer unique opportunities in other areas of science. Disciplines include geophysics such as seismic and volcanic activity, and atmospheric science ranging from clouds to lightning to aerosols to optical transients. This paper will discuss potential opportunities based on the ongoing experience of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. The UFFO (Ultra Fast Flash Observatory) Pathfinder: Science and Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P; Ahn, K; Barrillon, P; Blin-Bondil, S; Brandt, S; Budtz-Jorgensen, C; Castro-Tirado, A J; Choi, H S; Choi, Y J; Connell, P; Dagoret-Campagne, S; De La Taille, C; Eyles, C; Grossan, B; Hermann, I; Huang, M -H A; Jeong, S; Jung, A; Kim, J E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y W; Lee, J; Lim, H; Linder, E V; Liu, T -C; Lund, Niels; Min, K W; Na, G W; Nam, J W; Nam, K; Panayuk, M I; Park, I H; Re-Glero, V; Rodrigo, J M; Smoot, G F; Suh, Y D; Svelitov, S; Vedenken, N; Wang, M -Z; Yashin, I; Zhao, M H

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical light curves have been measured since the discovery of optical afterglows. However, even after nearly 7 years of operation of the Swift Observatory, only a handful of measurements have been made soon (within a minute) after the gamma ray signal. This lack of early observations fails to address burst physics at short time scales associated with prompt emissions and progenitors. Because of this lack of sub-minute data, the characteristics of the rise phase of optical light curve of short-hard type GRB and rapid-rising GRB, which may account for ~30% of all GRB, remain practically unknown. We have developed methods for reaching sub-minute and sub-second timescales in a small spacecraft observatory. Rather than slewing the entire spacecraft to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position, we use rapidly moving mirror to redirect our optical beam. As a first step, we employ motorized slewing mirror telescope (SMT), which can point to the event within 1s, in the UFFO Path...

  12. A Trio of GRB-SNe: GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A / SN 2013ez and GRB 130831A / SN 2013fu

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, Z; Pozanenko, A; Butler, N; Thone, C C; Guidorzi, C; Kruhler, T; Gorosabel, J; Jakobsson, P; Leloudas, G; Malesani, D; Hjorth, J; Melandri, A; Mundell, C; Wiersema, K; D'Avanzo, P; Schulze, S; Gomboc, A; Johansson, A; Zheng, W; Kann, D A; Knust, F; Varela, K; Akerlof, C W; Bloom, J; Burkhonov, O; Cooke, E; de Diego, J A; Dhungana, G; Farina, C; Ferrante, F V; Flewelling, H A; Fox, O D; Fynbo, J; Gehrels, N; Georgiev, L; Gonzalez, J J; Greiner, J; Guver, T; Hartoog, O; Hatch, N; Jelinek, M; Kehoe, R; Klose, S; Klunko, E; Kopac, D; Kutyrev, A; Krugl, Y; Lee, W H; Levan, A; Linkov, V; Matkin, A; Minikulov, N; Molotov, I; Prochaska, J Xavier; Richer, M G; Roman-Zuniga, C G; Rumyantsev, V; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Steele, I; Tanvir, N R; Volnova, A; Watson, A M; Xu, D; Yuan, F

    2014-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry for three gamma-ray burst supernovae (GRB-SNe): GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A / SN 2013ez and GRB 130831A / SN 2013fu. In the case of GRB 130215A / SN 2013ez, we also present optical spectroscopy at t-t0=16.1 d, which covers rest-frame 3000-6250 Angstroms. Based on Fe II (5169) and Si (II) (6355), our spectrum indicates an unusually low expansion velocity of 4000-6350 km/s, the lowest ever measured for a GRB-SN. Additionally, we determined the brightness and shape of each accompanying SN relative to a template supernova (SN 1998bw), which were used to estimate the amount of nickel produced via nucleosynthesis during each explosion. We find that our derived nickel masses are typical of other GRB-SNe, and greater than those of SNe Ibc that are not associated with GRBs. For GRB 130831A / SN 2013fu, we use our well-sampled R-band light curve (LC) to estimate the amount of ejecta mass and the kinetic energy of the SN, finding that these too are similar to other GRB-...

  13. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiks, D D; Svinkin, D S; Pal'shin, V D; Mangano, V; Oates, S; Aptekar, R L; Golenetskii, S V; Mazets, E P; Oleynik, Ph P; Tsvetkova, A E; Ulanov, M V; Kokomov, A V; Cline, T L; Burrows, D N; Krimm, H A; Pagani, C; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Mitrofanov, I G; Golovin, D; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Enos, H; Starr, R; von Kienlin, A; Rau, A; Zhang, X; Goldstein, J

    2013-01-01

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long GRB detected by Konus-WIND during its 19 years of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final IPN localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderare $E_{peak}$ of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z=0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release $E_{iso}=(2.1\\pm0.1)\\times10^{54}$ erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity $L_{iso}=(4.7\\pm0.2)\\times10^{54}$erg s$^{-1}$. A tail of the soft gamma-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. Swift/XRT and Swift/UVOT observed the bright af...

  14. Classification of Variable Objects for Search for GRB Candidates on Bamberg Photographic Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on an ongoing study based on blink-comparison of more than 5000 Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Patrol Plates performed within a continuation of a student high school project (Jugend Forscht. After a detailed analyses and classification, 6 non-classified objects were identified as emulsion defects, 19 as asteroids, 37 as variable stars, and 6 as real OT-GRB candidates.

  15. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  16. Challenging GRB models through the broadband dataset of GRB060908

    CERN Document Server

    Covino, S; Conciatore, M L; D'Elia, V; Palazzi, E; Thöne, C C; Vergani, S D; Wiersema, K; Brusasca, M; Cucchiara, A; Cobb, B E; Fernandez-Soto, A; Kann, D A; Malesani, D; Tanvir, N R; Antonelli, L A; Bremer, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Molinari, E; Nicastro, L; Stefanon, M; Testa, V; Tosti, G; Vitali, F; Amati, L; Chapman, R; Conconi, P; Cutispoto, G; Fynbo, J P U; Goldoni, P; Henriksen, C; Horne, K D; Malaspina, G; Meurs, E J A; Pian, E; Stella, L; Tagliaferri, G; Ward, P; Zerbi, F M

    2010-01-01

    Context: Multiwavelength observations of gamma-ray burst prompt and afterglow emission are a key tool to disentangle the various possible emission processes and scenarios proposed to interpret the complex gamma-ray burst phenomenology. Aims: We collected a large dataset on GRB060908 in order to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the prompt emission as well as the early and late afterglow. Methods: Data from Swift-BAT, -XRT and -UVOT together with data from a number of different ground-based optical/NIR and millimeter telescopes allowed us to follow the afterglow evolution from about a minute from the high-energy event down to the host galaxy limit. We discuss the physical parameters required to model these emissions. Results: The prompt emission of GRB060908 was characterized by two main periods of activity, spaced by a few seconds of low intensity, with a tight correlation between activity and spectral hardness. Observations of the afterglow began less than one minute after the high-energy event, when it ...

  17. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal' shin, V. D.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Mangano, V.; Burrows, D. N.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, College Park, PA 16801 (United States); Oates, S. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Cline, T. L.; Krimm, H. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pagani, C. [University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Mitrofanov, I. G., E-mail: fred@mail.ioffe.ru [Space Research Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-12-20

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E {sub iso} = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10{sup 54} erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L {sub iso} = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}. A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ∼ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ∼ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early

  18. Keele Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Albinson, James; Bagnall, Alan; Bryant, Lian; Caisley, Dave; Doody, Stephen; Johnson, Ian; Klimczak, Paul; Maddison, Ron; Robinson, StJohn; Stretch, Matthew; Webb, John

    2015-08-01

    Keele Observatory was founded by Dr. Ron Maddison in 1962, on the hill-top campus of Keele University in central England, hosting the 1876 Grubb 31cm refractor from Oxford Observatory. It since acquired a 61cm research reflector, a 15cm Halpha solar telescope and a range of other telescopes. Run by a group of volunteering engineers and students under directorship of a Keele astrophysicist, it is used for public outreach as well as research. About 4,000 people visit the observatory every year, including a large number of children. We present the facility, its history - including involvement in the 1919 Eddington solar eclipse expedition which proved Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity - and its ambitions to erect a radio telescope on its site.

  19. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Bouvier, A; Tajima, H; Longo, F

    2013-01-01

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from GRBs are known since the EGRET observations during the 1990's and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy photons (E>30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z=1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the ...

  20. Discovery of GRB 020405 and its Underlying Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Bloom, J S; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; McCarthy, P; Reichart, D E; Sari, R; Yost, S A; Jerjen, H; Flint, K; Phillips, A; Warren, B E; Axelrod, T S; Chevalier, R A; Halpern, J P; Holtzmann, J A; Kimble, R A; Schmidt, B P; Wheeler, J C; Frontera, F; Costa, E; Piro, L; Hurley, K; Cline, T; Guidorzi, C; Montanari, E; Mazets, E; Golenetskii, S V; Mitrofanov, I G; Anfimov, D; Kozyrev, A B; Litvak, M; Sanin, A; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Shinohara, C; Gal-Yam, A; Ofek, E O; Lipkin, Yu M

    2002-01-01

    We present the discovery of GRB 020405 made with the Inter-Planetary Network (IPN). With a duration of 60 s, the burst appears to be a typical long duration event. We observed the 75-square acrminute IPN error region with the Mount Stromlo Observatory's 50-inch robotic telescope and discovered a transient source which subsequently decayed and was also associated with a variable radio source. We identify this source as the afterglow of GRB 020405. Subsequent observations by other groups found varying polarized flux and established a redshift of 0.690 to the host galaxy. Motivated by the low redshift we triggered observations with WFPC2 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Modeling the early ground-based data with a jet model, we find a clear red excess over the decaying optical lightcurves that is present between day 10 and day 50 (the last HST epoch). This "bump" has the spectral and temporal features expected of an underlying supernova (SN). In particular, the red color of the putative SN is similar to...

  1. A double component in GRB 090618: a proto-black hole and a genuinely long gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L.; Ruffini, R.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Bianco, C. L.; Caito, L.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Rueda, J. A.; Nandi, A.; Patricelli, B.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The joint X-ray and gamma-ray observations of GRB 090618 by very many satellites offer an unprecedented possibility of testing crucial aspects of theoretical models. In particular, they allow us to test (a) in the process of gravitational collapse, the formation of an optically thick e+e--baryon plasma self-accelerating to Lorentz factors in the range 200 AGILE, RT-2, and Suzaku, as well as from on-ground optical observatories. Methods: We analyzed the emission from GRB 090618 using several spectral models, with special attention to the thermal and power-law components. We determined the fundamental parameters of a canonical GRB within the context of the fireshell model, including the identification of the total energy of the e+e- plasma, Etote+e-, the proper GRB (P-GRB), the baryon load, the density and structure of the CBM. Results: We find evidence of the existence of two different episodes in GRB 090618. The first episode lasts 50 s and is characterized by a spectrum consisting of a thermal component, which evolves between kT = 54 keV and kT = 12 keV, and a power law with an average index γ = 1.75 ± 0.04. The second episode, which lasts for ~100 s, behaves as a canonical long GRB with a Lorentz gamma factor at transparency of Γ = 495, a temperature at transparency of 29.22 keV and with a characteristic size of the surrounding clouds of Rcl ~ 1015-16 cm and masses of ~1022-24 g. Conclusions: We support the recently proposed two-component nature of GRB 090618, namely, episode 1 and episode 2, with a specific theoretical analysis. We furthermore illustrate that episode 1 cannot be considered to be either a GRB or a part of a GRB event, but it appears to be related to the progenitor of the collapsing bare core, leading to the formation of the black hole, which we call a "proto-black hole". Thus, for the first time, we are witnessing the process of formation of a black hole from the phases just preceding the gravitational collapse all the way up to the

  2. LCOGT Network Observatory Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, Andrew; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; de Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-01-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  3. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 090217A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ∼1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  4. GRB 070518: A Gamma-ray Burst with Optically Dim Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, L P; Wang, J; Deng, J S; Urata, Y; Qiu, Y L; Huang, K Y; Hu, J Y; Wei, J Y

    2009-01-01

    We present our optical observations of {\\em Swift} GRB 070518 afterglow obtained at the 0.8-m Tsinghua University-National Astronomical Observatory of China telescope (TNT) at Xinglong Observatory. Our follow-up observations were performed from 512 sec after the burst trigger. With the upper limit of redshift $\\sim$0.7, GRB 070518 is found to be an optically dim burst. The spectra indices $\\beta_{ox}$ of optical to X-ray are slightly larger than 0.5, which implies the burst might be a dark burst. The extinction $A_{V}$ of the host galaxy is 3.2 mag inferred from the X-ray hydrogen column density with Galactic extinction law, and 0.3 mag with SMC extinction law. Also, it is similar to three other low-redshift optically dim bursts, which belong to XRR or XRF, and mid-term duration($T_{90}<10$, except for GRB 070419A, $T_{90}$=116s). Moreover, its $R$ band afterglow flux is well fitted by a single power-law with an index of 0.87. The optical afterglow and the X-ray afterglow in the normal segment might have t...

  5. Astronomical Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Khanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This photograph was taken at Jantar Mantar, one of India’s most famous astronomical observatories, located in Central Delhi. It was built in 1724 by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur, who then went on to build other observatories in Jaipur, Varanasi, and Mathura. It was used to make astronomical tables and predict movements of the planets and the sun. Its name is derived from yantra meaning instruments and mantar meaning formula.Due to the construction of several high rise buildings around the monument, it is no longer used for astronomical purposes. It however continues to be one of the biggest tourist attractions of the capital city. 

  6. The GRB/XRF-SN Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly relativistic and narrowly collimated jets ejected in core collapse supernova (SN) explosions akin to SN 1998bw. We review the history of the GRB-SN association idea and its observational verification. We summarize the present evidence for a GRB/XRF-SN association. We comment on the possibility that most, perhaps all, SN explosions produce GRBs, including SNe of Type Ia which may produce short GRBs/XRFs. We list the major open questions that follow from a GRB/XRF-SN association. Possible uses of the GRB-SN association in cosmology are pointed out.

  7. GRB 130427A: a Nearby Ordinary Monster

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; Nava, L; Mundell, C G; Kawai, N; Campana, S; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; Cusumano, G; Evans, P A; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Guidorzi, C; Kobayashi, S; Kuin, P; La Parola, V; Mangano, V; Oates, S; Sakamoto, T; Serino, M; Virgili, F; Zhang, B -B; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A; Bernardini, M G; Bersier, D; Burrows, D; Calderone, G; Capalbi, M; Chiang, J; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; De Pasquale, M; Fugazza, D; Gehrels, N; Gomboc, A; Harrison, R; Hanayama, H; Japelj, J; Kennea, J; Kopac, D; Kouveliotou, C; Kuroda, D; Levan, A; Malesani, D; Marshall, F; Nousek, J; O'Brien, P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Page, K L; Page, M; Perri, M; Pritchard, T; Romano, P; Saito, Y; Sbarufatti, B; Salvaterra, R; Steele, I; Tanvir, N; Vianello, G; Weigand, B; Wiersema, K; Yatsu, Y; Yoshii, T; Tagliaferri, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars, and are typically found in the distant Universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity ($L\\sim 3 \\times 10^{53}$ erg s$^{-1}$) and its relative proximity ($z=0.34$), GRB 130427A was a unique event that reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-m Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early Universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  8. Magnetic energy injection in GRB 080913

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    GRB 080913,with a spectroscopically determined redshift of z=6.7,was the record holder for being the most remote stellar object before the discovery of the recent gamma-ray burst GRB 090423,whose redshift is about 8.2.The gradually accumulated high redshift GRB sample has shed light on the origin and physical properties of GRBs during the cosmic re-ionization epoch.Here,we present a detailed numerical fit to the multi-wavelength data of the optical afterglow of GRB 080913 and then constrain its circumburst environment and the other model parameters.We conclude that the late optical/X-ray plateau at about one day since the burst is due to the Poynting-flux dominated injection from the central engine which is very likely a massive spinning black hole with super strong magnetic fields.

  9. GRB 130427A: A Nearby Ordinary Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Mundell, C. G.; Kawai, N.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Cummings, J. R.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Ghirlander, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuin, P.; La Parola, V.; Mangano, V.; Oates, S.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F.; Wiegand, B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars and are typically found in the distant universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity (L approx. 3 x 10(exp 53) ergs/s and its relative proximity (z = 0.34), GRB 130427A reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here, we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-meter Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes, and by other ground-based facilities, highlighting the evolution of the burst emission from the prompt to the afterglow phase. The properties of GRB 130427A are similar to those of the most luminous, high-redshift GRBs, suggesting that a common central engine is responsible for producing GRBs in both the contemporary and the early universe and over the full range of GRB isotropic energies.

  10. Aperture optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This contribution reviews the studies on subwavelength aperture antennas in the optical regime, paying attention to both the fundamental investigations and the applications. Section 2 reports on the enhancement of light-matter interaction using three main types of aperture antennas: single subwavelength aperture, single aperture surrounded by shallow surface corrugations, and subwavelength aperture arrays. A large fraction of nanoaperture applications is devoted to the field of biophotonics to improve molecular sensing, which are reviewed in Section 3. Lastly, the applications towards nano-optics (sources, detectors and filters) are discussed in Section 4.

  11. Radio Observations of GRB Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, E R; Davies, Luke J M

    2014-01-01

    We present 5.5 and 9.0 GHz observations of a sample of seventeen GRB host galaxies at 0.5GRB 100418A) likely due to lingering afterglow emission. We suggest that the previously-reported radio afterglow of GRB 100621A may instead be due to host galaxy flux. We see no strong evidence for redshift evolution in the typical star formation rate of GRB hosts, but note that the fraction of `dark' bursts with detections is higher than would be expected given constraints on the more typical long GRB population. We also determine the average radio-derived star formation rates of core collapse supernovae at comparable redshift, and show that these are still well below the limits obtained for GRB hosts, and show evidence for a rise in typical star formation rate with redshift in supernova hosts.

  12. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  13. Ice Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  14. Solving the missing GRB neutrinos and the GRB-SN puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We argue that any GRB model where the progenitor is made by high relativistic hadronic interactions shock waves, and later on by electron-pairs feeding gamma jets, is necessarily leading to an average high neutrino over photon fluency ratio well above unity, mostly above several thousands. The present observed average highest energy ICECUBE neutrino energy fluency is at most comparable to the gamma-X in GRB one. Therefore no hadronic GRB, Fireball or even any earliest hadronic thin precessing Jet, may fit the observation. We therefore imagine a novel electronic thin spinning and precessing jet, fed in late binary system, able to avoid the overcrowded neutrino tails foreseen in hadronic GRB models. In some occasion such an electronic model may lead to an explosion that shines during a GRB with an (apparent) late SN-like event.

  15. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (uffo) for Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.;

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small sp...

  16. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for observation of early photons from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.;

    2012-01-01

    We describe the space project of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) which will observe early optical photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a sub-second optical response, for the first time. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and trans...

  17. GRB/GW Association: Long–Short GRB Candidates, Time Lag, Measuring Gravitational Wave Velocity, and Testing Einstein’s Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Yi-Ming; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are widely believed to be powered by the mergers of compact binaries, such as binary neutron stars or possibly neutron star–black hole binaries. Though the prospect of detecting SGRBs with gravitational wave (GW) signals by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)/VIRGO network is promising, no known SGRB has been found within the expected advanced LIGO/VIRGO sensitivity range for binary neutron star systems. We find, however, that the two long–short GRBs (GRB 060505 and GRB 060614) may be within the horizon of advanced GW detectors. In the upcoming era of GW astronomy, the merger origin of some long–short GRBs, as favored by the macronova signature displayed in GRB 060614, can be unambiguously tested. The model-dependent time lags between the merger and the onset of the prompt emission of the GRB are estimated. The comparison of such time lags between model predictions and the real data expected in the era of the GW astronomy would be helpful in revealing the physical processes taking place at the central engine (including the launch of the relativistic outflow, the emergence of the outflow from the dense material ejected during the merger, and the radiation of gamma rays). We also show that the speed of GWs, with or without a simultaneous test of Einstein’s equivalence principle, can be directly measured to an accuracy of ∼ 3× {10}-8 {cm} {{{s}}}-1 or even better in the advanced LIGO/VIRGO era.

  18. GRB 081007 AND GRB 090424: THE SURROUNDING MEDIUM, OUTFLOWS, AND SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Zhiping; Covino, Stefano; Fugazza, Dino; Melandri, Andrea; Campana, Sergio; D' Avanzo, Paolo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Della Valle, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Ferrero, Patrizia [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Malesani, Daniele; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Hjorth, Jens [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pian, Elena [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Salvaterra, Ruben [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bersier, David [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Cano, Zach [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Gorosabel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Gomboc, Andreja [Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, Cristiano [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Haislip, Joshua B., E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    We discuss the results of the analysis of multi-wavelength data for the afterglows of GRB 081007 and GRB 090424, two bursts detected by Swift. One of them, GRB 081007, also shows a spectroscopically confirmed supernova, SN 2008hw, which resembles SN 1998bw in its absorption features, while the maximum magnitude may be fainter, up to 0.7 mag, than observed in SN 1998bw. Bright optical flashes have been detected in both events, which allows us to derive solid constraints on the circumburst-matter density profile. This is particularly interesting in the case of GRB 081007, whose afterglow is found to be propagating into a constant-density medium, yielding yet another example of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) clearly associated with a massive-star progenitor which did not sculpt the surroundings with its stellar wind. There is no supernova component detected in the afterglow of GRB 090424, likely due to the brightness of the host galaxy, comparable to the Milky Way. We show that the afterglow data are consistent with the presence of both forward- and reverse-shock emission powered by relativistic outflows expanding into the interstellar medium. The absence of optical peaks due to the forward shock strongly suggests that the reverse-shock regions should be mildly magnetized. The initial Lorentz factor of outflow of GRB 081007 is estimated to be {Gamma} {approx} 200, while for GRB 090424 a lower limit of {Gamma} > 170 is derived. We also discuss the prompt emission of GRB 081007, which consists of just a single pulse. We argue that neither the external forward-shock model nor the shock-breakout model can account for the prompt emission data and suggest that the single-pulse-like prompt emission may be due to magnetic energy dissipation of a Poynting-flux-dominated outflow or to a dissipative photosphere.

  19. HST\\/STIS observations of GRB000301C CCD imaging and NUV MAMA spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Smette, A; Gull, T R; Sahu, K C; Petro, L; Ferguson, H; Rhoads, J E; Lindler, D; Gibbons, R A; Hogg, D W; Kouveliotou, C; Livio, M; Macchetto, D; Metzger, M R; Pedersen, H; Pian, E; Thorsett, S E; Wijers, R A M J; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Hjorth, J; Jensen, B L; Levine, A; Smith, D A; Cline, T; Hurley, K; Trombka, J I

    2000-01-01

    We present HST/STIS observations of the optical counterpart (OT) of the gamma-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained on 2000 March 6, five days after the burst. CCD clear aperture imaging reveals a R ~ 21.50+/-0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. An 8000 s, 1150 18 on the line-of-sight to the OT. This value is conservatively a lower limit to the GRB redshift. However, the facts that large N(HI) system are usually considered as progenitors of present day galaxies and that other OTs are found associated with star forming galaxies strongly suggest that it is the GRB redshift. In any case, this represents the largest direct redshift determination of a gamma-ray burster to date. Our data are compatible with an OT spectrum represented by a power-law with an intrinsic index \\alpha = 1.2((f_nu \\propto nu^-alpha) and no extinction in the host galaxy or with alpha = 0.5 and extinction by a SMC-like dust in the OT rest-frame with A_V = 0.15. The large N(HI) and the lack of detected host is similar to the situation for d...

  20. The ``Christmas burst'' GRB 101225A revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Kann, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Long GRBs are related to the death of massive stars and reveal themselves through synchrotron emission from highly relativistic jets. The `Christmas Burst' GRB 101225A was an exceptionally long GRB with a thermal afterglow, very different from the standard GRB. Initially, no spectroscopic redshift could be obtained and SED modeling yielded z=0.33. A plausible model was a He-NS star merger where the He-star had ejected part of its envelope in the common envelope phase during inspiral. The interaction between the jet and the previously ejected shell can explains the thermal emission. We obtained deep spectroscopy of the host galaxy which leads to a correction of the redshift to z=0.847. Despite the higher redshift, our model is still valid and theoretically better justified than the alternative suggestion of a blue supergiant progenitor proposed by Levan et al. (2014) for several ``ultra-long'' GRBs.

  1. Variable-aperture screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  2. Mastering Apple Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Written in a conversational style, the author will share his knowledge on advanced Aperture topics with detailed discussions of advanced topics, the theory behind some of those topics and lots of hints and tips for ways to improve your workflow.Photographer's who have a basic understanding of Aperture

  3. Rotating Aperture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  4. The GRB/XRF-SN Association

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, Arnon

    2004-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly relativistic and narrowly collimated jets ejected in core collapse supernova (SN) explosions akin to SN 1998bw. We review the history of the GRB-SN association idea and its observational verification. We summarize the present evidence for a GRB/XRF-SN association. We comment on the possibility that most, perhaps all, SN explosions produce GRBs, including SNe of Type Ia which m...

  5. GRB 091024A and the nature of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind (KW), Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ∼1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2 m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and the Sonoita Research Observatory. We also observed the burst with 8 and 10 m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 ± 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and γ-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (RB ≈ 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the KW data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (≳1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.

  6. Multiwavelength Observations of GRB 110731A: GeV Emission from Onset to Afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M.; Connaughton, V.; Foley, S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kann, D. A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Krühler, T.; Fukui, A.; Sako, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Oates, S. R.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Littlejohns, O.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. The observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet Γ ~ 500-550.

  7. GRB 110715A: The peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Jóhannesson, G; Murphy, Tara; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Gorosabel, J; Kann, D A; Krühler, T; Oates, S R; Japelj, J; Thöne, C C; Lundgren, A; Perley, D A; Malesani, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Castro-Tirado, A J; D'Elia, V; Fynbo, J P U; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hu, Y -D; Jelínek, M; Jeong, S; Kamble, A; Klose, S; Kuin, N P M; Llorente, A; Martín, S; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Sparre, M; Sudilovsky, V; Tello, J C; Updike, A; Wiersema, K; Zhang, B -B

    2016-01-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 seconds after the burst and extending up to 74 days later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use optical and near infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift $z$ = 0.8225, which reveal a host galaxy environment with low ionization, column density and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broadband afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best fit parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the ...

  8. GRB 091024A and the nature of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Harrison, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Steele, I. A.; Mottram, C. J.; Clay, N. R. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Pal' shin, V. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Margutti, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Melandri, A. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Henden, A. [AAVSO, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Updike, A. C. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cucchiara, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levan, A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Cano, Z., E-mail: F.J.Virgili@ljmu.ac.uk [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); and others

    2013-11-20

    We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind (KW), Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ∼1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2 m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and the Sonoita Research Observatory. We also observed the burst with 8 and 10 m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 ± 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and γ-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (R{sub B} ≈ 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the KW data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (≳1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.

  9. Detailed Afterglow Modeling and Host Galaxy Properties of the Dark GRB 111215A

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, A J; Pooley, G G; Wiersema, K; Kruhler, T; Perley, D A; Starling, R L C; Curran, P A; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Strom, R G; Kouveliotou, C; Hartoog, O E; Xu, D; Fynbo, J P U; Jakobsson, P

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 111215A was bright at X-ray and radio frequencies, but not detected in the optical or near-infrared (nIR) down to deep limits. We have observed the GRB afterglow with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Arcminute Microkelvin Imager at radio frequencies, with the William Herschel Telescope and Nordic Optical Telescope in the nIR/optical, and with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have combined our data with the Swift X-Ray Telescope monitoring, and radio and millimeter observations from the literature to perform broadband modeling, and determined the macro- and microphysical parameters of the GRB blast wave. By combining the broadband modeling results with our nIR upper limits we have put constraints on the extinction in the host galaxy. This is consistent with the optical extinction we have derived from the excess X-ray absorption, and higher than in other dark bursts for which similar modeling work has been performed. We also present deep imaging of the host galaxy with the Kec...

  10. The Ultimate Light Curve of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425

    CERN Document Server

    Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Candia, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    We present multicolor light curves of SN 1998bw which appeared in ESO184-G82 in close temporal and spacial association with GRB 980425. They are based on observations done at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and data from the literature. The CTIO photometry reaches ~86 days after the GRB in $U$ and ~160 days after the GRB in BV(RI)_C. The observations in U extend by about 30 days the previously known coverage, and determine the slope of the early exponential tail. We calibrate a large set of local standards in common with those of previous studies and use them to transform published observations of the SN to our realization of the standard photometric system. We show that the photometry from different sources merges smoothly and provide a unified set of 300 observations of the SN in five bands. Using the extensive set of spectra in public domain we compute extinction and K corrections, and build quasi-bolometric unreddened rest frame light curves. We provide low degree piecewise spline fits to these li...

  11. Mutantes de Grb7 y Grb7V con actividad antiangiogénica y su uso en procedimientos biomédicos

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobo, Antonio; Sánchez Torres, Juan; Moreno García, María Jesús; Stanimirovic, Danica

    2006-01-01

    Mutantes de Grb7 y Grb7V con actividad antiangiogénica y su uso en procedimientos biomédicos. La invención proporciona mutantes de la proteína adaptadora Grb7 humana y de su variante natural Grb7V, ambas carentes de un dominio funcional implicado en la unión de la calmodulina, Grb7 y Grb7V , y medios condicionados derivados de células transfectadas por Grb7 y Grb7V con actividad biológica, incluyendo entre otras la modulación positiva o negativa de la angiogénesis, l...

  12. Hyper-accreting black hole as GRB central engine. I: Baryon loading in GRB jets

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing; Liang, En-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A hyper-accreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate of central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by $\

  13. Could the GRB-Supernovae GRB 031203 and XRF 060218 be Cosmic Twins?

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Lu

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) / X-ray flash (XRF) events GRB 031203, discovered by INTEGRAL, and XRF 060218, discovered by Swift, represent two of only five GRB-SNe with optical spectroscopic confirmation of their SN components. Yet their observed high-energy properties offer a sharp contrast: While GRB 031203 was detected as a short 40-s burst with a spectrum peaking at E_peak > 190 keV, XRF 060218 was a T_90 ~ 2100-s long, smoothly-evolving burst with peak energy E_peak = 4.9 keV. At the same time, the properties of the two expanding dust-scattered X-ray halos observed in a fast-response XMM-Newton observation of GRB 031203 reveal that this event was accompanied by an "X-ray blast" with fluence comparable to or greater than that of the prompt gamma-ray event. Taking this observation as our starting point, we investigate the likely properties of the X-ray blast from GRB 031203 via detailed modeling of the XMM data, discovering a third halo due to scattering off a more distant dust sheet at d_3 = 9.94 +/- 0.39 kp...

  14. GRB 081007 and GRB 090424: the surrounding medium, outflows and supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Della Valle, Massimo; Ferrero, Patrizia; Fugazza, Dino; Malesani, Daniele; Melandri, Andrea; Pian, Elena; Salvaterra, Ruben; Bersier, David; Campana, Sergio; Cano, Zach; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fynbo, Johan P U; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Haislip, Joshua B; Hjorth, Jens; LaCluyze, Aaron P; Marconi, Gianni; Mazzali, Paolo A; Piranomonte, Silvia; Reichart, Daniel E; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tanvir, Nial R; Valenti, Stefano; Vergani, Susanna D; Vestrand, Thomas; Walker, Emma S; Wozniak, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the results of the analysis of multi-wavelength data for the afterglows of GRB 081007 and GRB 090424, two bursts detected by Swift. One of them, GRB 081007, also shows a spectroscopically confirmed supernova, SN 2008hw, which resembles SN 1998bw in its absorption features, while the maximum luminosity is only about half as large as that of SN 1998bw. Bright optical flashes have been detected in both events, which allows us to derive solid constraints on the circumburst-matter density profile. This is particularly interesting in the case of GRB 081007, whose afterglow is found to be propagating into a constant-density medium, yielding yet another example of a GRB clearly associated with a massive star progenitor which did not sculpt the surroundings with its stellar wind. There is no supernova component detected in the afterglow of GRB 090424, likely due to the brightness of the host galaxy, comparable to the Milky Way. We show that the afterglow data are consistent with the presence of both forward...

  15. GRB 080913 at redshift 6.7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.;

    2009-01-01

    We report on the detection by Swift of GRB 080913, and subsequent optical/near-infrared follow-up observations by GROND, which led to the discovery of its optical/NIR afterglow and the recognition of its high-z nature via the detection of a spectral break between the i' and z' bands. Spectroscopy...

  16. GRB 011121 A Massive Star Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Reichart, D E; Kulkarni, S R; Subramanian, R; Wark, R M; Wieringa, M H; Frail, D A; Bailey, J; Boyle, B; Corbett, E A; Gunn, K; Ryder, S D; Seymour, N; Koviak, K; McCarthy, P; Phillips, M; Axelrod, T S; Bloom, J S; Djorgovski, S G; Fox, D W; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; Hurley, K; Sari, R; Schmidt, B P; Yost, S A; Brown, M J I; Cline, T; Frontera, F; Guidorzi, C; Montanari, E

    2002-01-01

    Of the cosmological gamma-ray bursts, GRB 011121 has the lowest redshift, z=0.36. More importantly, the multi-color excess in the afterglow detected in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) light curves is compelling observational evidence for an underlying supernova. Here we present near-infrared and radio observations of the afterglow. We undertake a comprehensive modeling of these observations and those reported in the literature and find good evidence favoring a wind-fed circumburst medium. In detail, we infer the progenitor had a mass loss rate of Mdot ~ 10^-7 / v_w3 Mo/yr where v_w3 is the speed of the wind from the progenitor in units of 10^3 km/s. This mass loss rate is similar to that inferred for the progenitor of SN 1998bw which has been associated with GRB 980425. Our data, taken in conjunction with the HST results of Bloom et al. (2002), provide a consistent picture: the long duration GRB 011121 had a massive star progenitor which exploded as a supernova at about the same time as the GRB event.

  17. The short GRB 051210 observed by Swift

    OpenAIRE

    La Parola, V.; Mangano, V.; B. Zhang; Cusumano, G.; Mineo, T.; Troja, E.; Burrows, D.N.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Perri, M; Romano, P; Tagliaferri, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the short GRB051210 detected by the Swift-BAT. The light curve, on which we focus mainly, shows a hint of extended emission in the BAT energy range, a steep decay of the X-ray emission, without any flattening or break, and two small flares in the first 300 sec. The emission fades out after ~1000 s.

  18. Detailed afterglow modelling and host galaxy properties of the dark GRB 111215A

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Levan, A. J.; Pooley, G. G.; Wiersema, K.; Krühler, T.; Perley, D. A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Strom, R. G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Xu, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.

    2015-02-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 111215A was bright at X-ray and radio frequencies, but not detected in the optical or near-infrared (nIR) down to deep limits. We have observed the GRB afterglow with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Arcminute Microkelvin Imager at radio frequencies, with the William Herschel Telescope and Nordic Optical Telescope in the nIR/optical, and with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have combined our data with the Swift X-Ray Telescope monitoring, and radio and millimetre observations from the literature to perform broad-band modelling, and determined the macro- and microphysical parameters of the GRB blast wave. By combining the broad-band modelling results with our nIR upper limits we have put constraints on the extinction in the host galaxy. This is consistent with the optical extinction we have derived from the excess X-ray absorption, and higher than in other dark bursts for which similar modelling work has been performed. We also present deep imaging of the host galaxy with the Keck I telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which resulted in a well-constrained photometric redshift, giving credence to the tentative spectroscopic redshift we obtained with the Keck II telescope, and estimates for the stellar mass and star formation rate of the host. Finally, our high-resolution HST images of the host galaxy show that the GRB afterglow position is offset from the brightest regions of the host galaxy, in contrast to studies of optically bright GRBs.

  19. VAMOS: a Pathfinder for the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Ángeles, F; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Avila-Aroche, A; Solares, H A Ayala; Badillo, C; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Belmont, E; Benítez, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Bernal, A; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cabrera, I; Carramiñana, A; Castañeda-Martínez, L; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Azuara, A; Diaz-Cruz, L; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; Dultzin, D; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; García-Torales, G; Garfias, F; González, A; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Guzmán-Cerón, C; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harding, J P; Hernández-Cervantes, L; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Langarica, R; Lara, A; Lara, G; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-Garcia, R; Marinelli, A; Martínez, L A; Martínez, H; Martínez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Martos, M; Matthews, J A J; McEnery, J; Torres, E Mendoza; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Page, D P; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Ramírez, I; Renter, A; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Ruiz-Sala, F; Ruiz-Velasco, E L; Ryan, J; Sacahui, J R; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Woodle, K Sparks; Springer, R W; Suarez, F; Taboada, I; Tepe, A; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Tinoco, S; Ukwatta, T N; Galicia, J F Valdés; Vanegas, P; Vázquez, A; Villaseñor, L; Wall, W; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2014-01-01

    VAMOS was a prototype detector built in 2011 at an altitude of 4100m a.s.l. in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of VAMOS was to finalize the design, construction techniques and data acquisition system of the HAWC observatory. HAWC is an air-shower array currently under construction at the same site of VAMOS with the purpose to study the TeV sky. The VAMOS setup included six water Cherenkov detectors and two different data acquisition systems. It was in operation between October 2011 and May 2012 with an average live time of 30%. Besides the scientific verification purposes, the eight months of data were used to obtain the results presented in this paper: the detector response to the Forbush decrease of March 2012, and the analysis of possible emission, at energies above 30 GeV, for long gamma-ray bursts GRB111016B and GRB120328B.

  20. APT: Aperture Photometry Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Russ

    2012-08-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It has a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. Mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image draws a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and computes the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs, including image histogram, and aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has functions for customizing calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel “picking” and “zapping,” and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model, accessed via the radial-profile-plot panel, allows recovery of source intensity from pixels with missing data and can be especially beneficial in crowded fields.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.;

    2001-01-01

    interpret this as the H I Lyman break at z = 2.067 +/- 0.025, indicating the presence of a cloud with an H I column density log N-HI(cm(2)) > 18 on the line of sight to the OT. This measured redshift is conservatively a lower limit to the GRB redshift. However, as all other GRBs that have deep Hubble Space......We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy...

  2. Multi-color Shallow Decay and Chromatic Breaks in the GRB 050319 Optical Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, K Y; Kuo, P H; Ip, W H; Ioka, K; Aoki, T; Chen, C W; Chen, W P; Isogai, M; Lin, H C; Makishima, K; Mito, H; Miyata, T; Nakada, Y; Nishiura, S; Onda, K; Qiu, Y; Soyano, T; Tamagawa, T; Tarusawa, K; Tashiro, M; Yoshioka, T

    2006-01-01

    Multi-wavelength B, V, R, I observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 050319 were performed by the 1.05-m telescope at Kiso Observatory and the 1.0-m telescope at Lulin Observatory from 1.31 hours to 9.92 hours after the burst. Our R band lightcurves, combined with other published data, can be described by the smooth broken power-law function, with $\\alpha_1$ = -0.84 $\\pm$0.02 to $\\alpha_2$ = -0.48$\\pm$0.03, 0.04 days after the GRB. The optical lightcurves are characterized by shallow decays-- as was also observed in the X-rays-- which may have a similar origin, related to energy injection. However, our observations indicate that there is still a puzzle concerning the chromatic breaks in the R band lightcurve (at 0.04 days) and the X-ray lightcurve (at 0.004 days) that remains to be solved.

  3. Modeling the early multiwavelength emission in GRB130427A

    CERN Document Server

    Fraija, Nissim; Veres, Péter

    2016-01-01

    One of the most powerful gamma-ray bursts, GRB 130427A was swiftly detected from GeV $\\gamma$-rays to optical wavelengths. In the GeV band, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observed the highest-energy photon ever recorded of 95 GeV, and a bright peak in the early phase followed by emission temporally extended for more than 20 hours. In the optical band, a bright flash with a magnitude of $7.03\\pm 0.03$ in the time interval from 9.31 s to 19.31 s after the trigger was reported by RAPTOR in r-band. We study the origin of the GeV $\\gamma$-ray emission, using the multiwavelength observation detected in X-ray and optical bands. The origin of the temporally extended LAT, X-ray and optical flux is naturally interpreted as synchrotron radiation and the 95-GeV photon and the integral flux upper limits placed by the HAWC observatory are consistent with synchrotron self-Compton from an adiabatic forward shock propagating into the stellar wind of its progenitor. The extreme LAT ...

  4. ISO detection of a 60 micron source near GRB970508

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlon, L O; Metcalfe, L; McBreen, B; Altieri, B; Castro-Tirado, A J; Claret, A; Costa, E; Delaney, M; Feroci, M; Frontera, F; Galama, T J; Gorosabel, J; Groot, P J; Heise, J; Kessler, M F; Kouveliotou, C; Palazzi, E; Van Paradijs, J; Piro, L; Smith, N

    2000-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory observed the field of the $\\gamma$--ray burst GRB 970508 with the CAM and PHT instruments on May 21 and 24, 1997 and with PHT in three filters in November 1997. A source at 60 $\\mu$m (flux in May of $66\\pm 10$ mJy) was detected near the position of the host galaxy of this $\\gamma$--ray burst. The source was detected again in November 1997, at a marginally lower flux ($43\\pm 13$ mJy). A Galactic cirrus origin and a stellar origin for the emission can be ruled out on the basis of the infrared colours. The marginal evidence for variability in the 60 $\\mu$m flux between May and November is not sufficient to warrant interpretation of the source as transient fireball emission. However, the infrared colours are physically reasonable if attributed to conventional dust emission from a single blackbody source. The probability of detecting a 60 $\\mu$m by chance in a PHT beam down to a detection limit of 50 mJy is $\\sim 5\\times 10^{-3}$. If the source is at the redshift of the host galaxy o...

  5. The 'Supercritical Pile' GRB Model: Afterglows and GRB, XRR, XRF Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present the general notions and observational consequences of the "Supercritical Pile" GRB model; the fundamental feature of this model is a detailed process for the conversion of the energy stored in relativistic protons in the GRB Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) into relativistic electrons and then into radiation. The conversion is effected through the $p \\, \\gamma \\rightarrow p \\, e circumflex + e circumflex -$ reaction, whose kinematic threshold is imprinted on the GRB spectra to provide a peak of their emitted luminosity at energy \\Ep $\\sim 1$ MeV in the lab frame. We extend this model to include, in addition to the (quasi--)thermal relativistic post-shock protons an accelerated component of power law form. This component guarantees the production of $e circumflex +e circumflex- - $pairs even after the RBW has slowed down to the point that its (quasi-) thermal protons cannot fulfill the threshold of the above reaction. We suggest that this last condition marks the transition from the prompt to the afterglow GRB phase. We also discuss conditions under which this transition is accompanied by a significant drop in the flux and could thus account for several puzzling, recent observations. Finally, we indicate that the same mechanism applied to the late stages of the GRB evolution leads to a decrease in \\Ep $\\propto \\Gamma circumflex 2(t)\\propto t circumflex {-3/4}$, a feature amenable to future observational tests.

  6. Evidence of polarisation in the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRB 930131 and GRB 960924

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, D R; Bird, A J; Clark, D J; Dean, A J; McConnell, M L; Moran, L; Shaw, S E; Sguera, V

    2005-01-01

    The true nature of the progenitor to GRBs remains elusive; one characteristic that would constrain our understanding of the GRB mechanism considerably is gamma-ray polarimetry measurements of the initial burst flux. We present a method that interprets the prompt GRB flux as it Compton scatters off the Earth's atmosphere, based on detailed modelling of both the Earth's atmosphere and the orbiting detectors. The BATSE mission aboard the \\textit{CGRO} monitored the whole sky in the 20 keV - 1 MeV energy band continuously from April 1991 until June 2000. We present the BATSE Albedo Polarimetry System (BAPS), and show that GRB 930131 and GRB 960924 provide evidence of polarisation in their prompt flux that is consistent with degrees of polarisation of $\\Pi>35$% and $\\Pi>50$% respectively. While the evidence of polarisation is strong, the method is unable to strongly constrain the degree of polarisation beyond a systematics based estimation. Hence the implications on GRB theory are unclear, and further measurements...

  7. The weak INTEGRAL bursts GRB040223 and GRB040624: an emerging population of dark afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Filliatre, P; D'Avanzo, P; De Luca, A; Gotz, D; McGlynn, S; McBreen, S; Fugazza, D; Antonelli, A; Campana, S; Chincarini, G; Cucchiara, A; Valle, M D; Foley, S; Goldoni, P; Hanlon, L; Israel, G; McBreen, B; Mereghetti, S; Stella, L; Tagliaferri, G

    2005-01-01

    We report here gamma-ray, X-ray and near-infrared observations of GRB040223 along with gamma-ray and optical observations of GRB040624. GRB040223 was detected by INTEGRAL close to the Galactic plane and GRB040624 at high Galactic latitude. Analyses of the prompt emission detected by the IBIS instrument on INTEGRAL are presented for both bursts. The two GRBs have long durations, slow pulses and are weak. The gamma-ray spectra of both bursts are best fit with steep power-laws, implying they are X-ray rich. GRB040223 is among the weakest and longest of INTEGRAL GRBs. The X-ray afterglow of this burst was detected 10 hours after the prompt event by XMM-Newton. The measured spectral properties are consistent with a column density much higher than that expected from the Galaxy, indicating strong intrinsic absorption. We carried out near-infrared observations 17 hours after the burst with the NTT of ESO, which yielded upper limits. Given the intrinsic absorption, we find that these limits are compatible with a simpl...

  8. "Anomalous" Optical GRB Afterglows are Common: Two z~4 Bursts, GRB 060206 and 060210

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z; Calkins, M L; Dai, X; Dobrzycki, A; Garnavich, P M; Hao, H; Howk, C; Matheson, T; Prieto, J L; Serven, J; Worthey, G

    2006-01-01

    We report on two recent z~4 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), GRB 060206 and GRB 060210, for which we have obtained well-sampled optical light curves. Our data, combined with early optical data reported in the literature, shows unusual behavior for both afterglows. In R-band GRB 060206 (z=4.045) experienced a slow early decay, followed by a rapid increase in brightness by factor ~2.5 about 1 hour after the burst. Its afterglow then faded in a broken power-law fashion, with a smooth break at t_b=0.6 days, but with additional, less dramatic (~10%) ``bumps and wiggles'', well detected in the densely sampled light curve. The R-band afterglow of GRB 060210 (z=3.91) is also unusual: the light curves was more or less flat between 60 and 300 sec after the burst, followed by ~70% increase at ~600 sec after the burst, after which the light curve declined as a \\~t^{-1.3} power-law. The early X-ray light curve of GRB 060210 exhibited two sharp flares, but later X-ray emission fades in the same fashion as the optical light curve. ...

  9. A Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with the Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329 Using the LIGO Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80-2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than 150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational wave signal strength larger than a pre-determined threshold. We report frequency dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around 250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h_RSS = 6E-21 Hz^{-1/2}. Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and GRBs...

  10. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  11. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  12. Aperture Photometry Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Russ R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Rebull, Luisa M.; Masci, Frank J.; Fowler, John W.; Helou, George; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.

    2012-07-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It is a graphical user interface (GUI) designed to allow the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. The finely tuned layout of the GUI, along with judicious use of color-coding and alerting, is intended to give maximal user utility and convenience. Simply mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image will instantly draw a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and will compute the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs with just the push of a button, including image histogram, x and y aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has many functions for customizing the calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel "picking" and "zapping," and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model

  13. Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  14. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  15. Structural and Functional Studies of the Ras-Associating and Pleckstrin Homology Domains of Grb10 and Grb14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depetris, R.; Wu, J; Hubbard, S

    2009-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-binding proteins Grb7, Grb10 and Grb14 are adaptor proteins containing a Ras-associating (RA) domain, a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a family-specific BPS (between PH and SH2) region and a C-terminal Src-homology-2 domain. Previous structural studies showed that the Grb14 BPS region binds as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor to suppress insulin signaling. Here we report the crystal structure of the RA and PH domains of Grb10 at 2.6-A resolution. The structure reveals that these two domains, along with the intervening linker, form an integrated, dimeric structural unit. Biochemical studies demonstrated that Grb14 binds to activated Ras, which may serve as a timing mechanism for downregulation of insulin signaling. Our results illuminate the membrane-recruitment mechanisms not only of Grb7, Grb10 and Grb14 but also of MIG-10, Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule, lamellipodin and Pico, proteins involved in actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement that share a structurally related RA-PH tandem unit.

  16. Performance of the fluorescence detectors of the pierre auger observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Jose A.; /Adelaide U.

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory have been operating in a stable manner since January 2004. After a brief review of the physical characteristics of the detectors, the associated atmospheric monitoring, the calibration infrastructure and the detector aperture, we will describe the steps required for the reconstruction of fluorescence event data, with emphasis on the shower profile parameters and primary energy.

  17. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  18. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  19. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Horst; A. Kamble; R.A.M.J. Wijers; L. Resmi; D. Bhattacharya; E. Rol; R. Strom; C. Kouveliotou; T. Oosterloo; C.H. Ishwara-Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a three-year monitoring campaig

  20. The "Supercritical Pile" GRB Model: Afterglows and GRB, XRR, XRF Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Kazanas, D; Georganopoulos, M; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Mastichiadis, Apostolos; Georganopoulos, Markos

    2006-01-01

    We present the general notions and observational consequences of the "Supercritical Pile" GRB model; the fundamental feature of this model is a detailed process for the conversion of the energy stored in relativistic protons in the GRB Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) into relativistic electrons and then into radiation. The conversion is effected through the $p \\gamma \\to p e^+e^-$ reaction, whose kinematic threshold is imprinted on the GRB spectra to provide a peak of their emitted luminosity at energy \\Ep $\\sim 1$ MeV in the lab frame. We extend this model to include, in addition to the (quasi--)thermal relativistic post-shock protons an accelerated component of power law form. This component guarantees the production of $e^+e^- -$pairs even after the RBW has slowed down to the point that its (quasi--)thermal protons cannot fulfill the threshold of the above reaction. We suggest that this last condition marks the transition from the prompt to the afterglow GRB phase. We also discuss conditions under which thi...

  1. Physical rarameters of GRB 970508 and GRB 971214 from their afterglow synchrotron emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M.J. Wijers; T.J. Galama

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated synchrotron spectra of relativistic blast waves and find predicted characteristic frequencies that are more than an order of magnitude different from previous calculations. For the case of an adiabatically expanding blast wave, which is applicable to observed gamma-ray burst (GRB)

  2. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase. PMID:17293318

  3. Complex Aperture Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Owladeghaffari, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    A complex network approach on a rough fracture is developed. In this manner, some hidden metric spaces (similarity measurements) between apertures profiles are set up and a general evolutionary network in two directions (in parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction) is constructed. Evaluation of the emerged network shows the connectivity degree (distribution) of network, after a transition step; fall in to the stable states which are coincided with the Gaussian distribution. Based on this event and real observations of the complex network changes, an algorithm (COmplex Networks on Apertures: CONA) is proposed in which evolving of a network is accomplished using preferential detachments and attachments of edges (based on a competition and game manner) while the number of nodes is fixed. Also, evolving of clustering coefficients and number of edges display similar patterns as well as are appeared in shear stress, hydraulic conductivity and dilation changes, which can be engaged to estimate shear strengt...

  4. Swift Observations of GRB 051109B

    CERN Document Server

    Troja, E; LaParola, V; Mangano, V; Mineo, T

    2007-01-01

    We present Swift observations of GRB 051109B, a soft long burst triggered by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The soft photon index of the prompt emission suggest it is a X-ray Flash (XRF) or, at least, a X-ray Rich (XRR) burst. The X-ray lightcurve displays the canonical shape of many other GRBs, a double b roken power law with a small flare superimposed at ~T_0+1500 s, and its extrapolation to early times smoothly joins with the BAT lightcurve. On the basis of the derived optical to X-ray flux ratio, it cannot be classified as a dark burst.

  5. Polarization Evolution of the GRB 020405 Afterglow

    OpenAIRE

    S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Malesani, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Lazzati, D.; Alighieri, S. di Serego; Stefanon, M.; Cimatti, A.; Della Valle, M.; Fiore, F.; Goldoni, P.; Kawai, N.; Israel, G. L.; Floc'h, E. Le; Mirabel, I. F.; Ricker, G.

    2002-01-01

    Polarization measurements for the optical counterpart to GRB 020405 are presented and discussed. Our observations were performed with the VLT-UT3 (Melipal) during the second and third night after the gamma-ray burst discovery. The polarization degree (and the position angle) appears to be constant between our two observations at a level around (1.5 - 2)%. The polarization can be intrinsic but it is not possible to unambiguously exclude that a substantial fraction of it is induced by dust in t...

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radiometer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture synthesis is a new technology for passive microwave remote sensing from space which has the potential to overcome the limitations set in the past by antenna size. This is an interferometric technique in which pairs of small antennas and signal processing are used to obtain the resolution of a single large antenna. The technique has been demonstrated successfully at L-band with the aircraft prototype instrument, ESTAR. Proposals have been submitted to demonstrate this technology in space (HYDROSTAR and MIRAS).

  7. A Small, Rapid Optical-IR Response Gamma-Ray Burst Space Observatory Concept: The NGRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossan, B.; Kumar, P.; Perley, D.; Smoot, G. F.

    2014-10-01

    After Swift, there is no sure plan to furnish a replacement for the rapidly disseminated, high-precision GRB positions it provides, nor a new type of observatory to probe new GRB parameter space. We propose a new GRB mission concept, the Next Generation Rapid Optical-NIR (near infrared) Response GRB Observatory (NGRG) concept, and demonstrate, through analysis of Swift BAT data, studies of new GRB samples, and extinction predictions, that a relatively modest size observatory will produce valuable new measurements and good GRB detection rates. As with Swift, GRBs are initially located with a coded-mask X-ray camera. However, the NGRG has two distinguishing features: first, a beam-steering system to begin optical observations within ~1 s after location; second, in addition to the optical camera, a separate near-IR (NIR) camera viewing the same field, greatly increasing sensitivity to extinguished bursts. These features yield the unique capability of exploring the rise phase of GRB optical-NIR emission. Thus far, among GRBs with optical afterglow detections, a peak is measured in only ~26-40% of the light curves. The rise time for prompt, or pre-afterglow, optical emission is rarely measured, as is the transition to afterglow emission. Prompt or pre-afterglow NIR emission is even less frequently measured. Rapid-response measurements give new tools for exploration of many science topics, including optical emission mechanisms (synchrotron vs. SSC, photospheric emission) and jet characteristics (reverse vs. forward shock emission, baryon-dominated vs. magnetic dominated). The rapid-response capability also allows measurement of dynamic evolution of extinction due to vaporization of progenitor system dust. This dynamic dust measurement is the only tool we know of to separate the effects of star-system-scale dust and galactic-structure-scale dust; it is remarkable that this probe of small-scale phenomena can be used at the high redshifts where GRBs are observed. In this

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The BATSE 5B GRB spectral catalog (Goldstein+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A.; Preece, R. D.; Mallozzi, R. S.; Briggs, M. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Burgess, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was placed into low Earth orbit (~400 km) by the space shuttle Atlantis on 1991 April 5. BATSE was one of four experiments on board the 17 ton satellite. It was an eight-module all-sky detector system designed to study gamma-rays in the energy band of ~10keV-20MeV. During its entire 3323 days of operation (an effective exposure of ~2390 days in the GRB triggering energy band), BATSE triggered on 2704 GRBs, 2145 of which are presented in this catalog. We chose five spectral models to fit the spectra of GRBs in our selection sample. These models include a single power law (PL), Band's GRB function (Band et al. 1993ApJ...413..281B) (BAND), an exponential cut-off power-law (COMP), a smoothly connected broken power law (SBPL), and a Log10 Gaussian (GLOGE). All models are formulated in units of photon flux with energy (E) in keV and multiplied by a normalization constant A (ph/s/cm2/keV). See section 4 for the details of each model. (10 data files).

  9. Very early multi-color observations of the plateau phase of GRB 041006 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Qiu, Y L; Hu, J; Kuo, P H; Tamagawa, T; Ip, W H; Kinoshita, D; Fukushi, H; Isogai, M; Miyata, T; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Mito, H; Onda, K; Ibrahimov, M; Pozanenko, A; Makishima, K

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 041006 with the Kiso Observatory 1.05 m Schmidt telescope, the Lulin Observatory 1.0 m telescope and the Xinglong Observatory 0.6 m telescope. Three-bands (B, V and R) of photometric data points were obtained on 2004 October 6, 0.025-0.329 days after the burst. These very early multi band light curves imply the existence of a color dependent plateau phase. The B-band light curve shows a clear plateau at around 0.03 days after the burst. The R band light curve shows the hint of a plateau, or a possible slope change, at around 0.1 days after the burst. The overall behavior of these multi-band light curves may be interpreted in terms of the sum of two separate components, one showing a monotonic decay the other exhibiting a rising and a falling phase, as described by the standard afterglow model.

  10. UHECR acceleration at GRB internal shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Globus, Noemie; Mochkovitch, Robert; Parizot, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    We study the acceleration of CR protons and nuclei at GRB internal shocks. Physical quantities and their time evolution are estimated using the internal shock modeling implemented by Daigne & Mochkovitch 1998. We consider different hypotheses about the way the energy dissipated at internal shocks is shared between accelerated CR, e- and B field. We model CR acceleration at mildly relativistic shocks, including all the significant energy loss processes. We calculate CR and neutrino release from single GRBs, assuming that nuclei heavier than protons are present in the relativistic wind. Protons can only reach maximum energies of ~ 10^19.5 eV, while intermediate and heavy nuclei are able to reach values of ~ 10^20 eV and above. The spectra of nuclei escaping from the acceleration site are found to be very hard while the combined spectrum of protons and neutrons is much softer. We calculate the diffuse UHECR flux expected on Earth using the GRB luminosity function from Wanderman & Piran 2010. Only the mod...

  11. The Optical Afterglow of GRB 011211

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, S T; Gladders, M D; Barrientos, L F; Berlind, P; Bersier, D F; Garnavich, P M; Jha, S; Stanek, K Z; Holland, Stephen T.; Gladders, Michael D.; Bersier, David; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh

    2002-01-01

    We present early-time optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 011211. The spectrum contains several narrow metal lines which are consistent with the burst occurring at a redshift of 2.140 +/- 0.001. The optical afterglow decays as a power law with a slope of 0.83 +/- 0.04 for approximately the first two days after the burst at which time there is evidence for a break. The slope after the break is greater than approximately 1.4. There is evidence for rapid variations in the R-band light approximately 0.5 days after the burst, which suggests that there are density fluctuations near the GRB on spatial scales of approximately 30 to 200 AU. The magnitude of the break in the light curve, and the observed fluence, suggest that the burst expanded into an ambient medium that is homogeneous on large scales with a local particle density between approximately 0.1 and 10 per cubic cm. The total energy in the burst was 1.6-2.4 x 10^50 erg, consistent with the ``standard'' val...

  12. The Observable Signatures of GRB Cocoons

    CERN Document Server

    Nakar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    As a long GRB jet propagates within the surrounding stellar atmosphere it creates a cocoon composed of an outer Newtonian shocked stellar material and an inner (possibly relativistic) shocked jet material. The jet deposits $10^{51}-10^{52}$ erg into this cocoon. This energy is comparable to the GRB's energy and to the energy of the accompanying supernova, yet its signature has been largely neglected so far. A fraction of the cocoon energy is released during its expansion following the breakout from the star and later as it interacts with the surrounding matter. We explore here the possible signatures of the cocoon emission and outline a framework to calculate them from the conditions of the cocoon at the time of the jet breakout. We show that the cocoon signature depends strongly on the level of mixing between the shocked jet and shocked stellar material that fills it, which is currently unknown. We find that if there is no mixing at all then the $\\gamma$-ray emission from the cocoon is so bright that it shou...

  13. GRB as a counterpart for Gravitational Wave detection in LCGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Short Gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors are considered as merger of compact star binaries which consist of neutron stars or blackholes. These compact star binaries will radiate a strong gravitational wave in their coalescence, and gravitational wave detectors aim to detect them. We studied the chance probability of coincidence between GRB and GW detection in LCGT detector. Due to omni-directional acceptance of GW detectors, about 75% of GRB events which closer than cosmological redshift z<0.1 are expected to confirm by GW detection.

  14. On the nature of the short-duration GRB 050906

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Jakobsson, P.; Chapman, R.; Hjorth, J.; Priddey, R. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hurley, K.; Jensen, B. L.; Johnson, R.; Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jarvis, M.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.

    2008-02-01

    We present deep optical and infrared (IR) observations of the short-duration GRB 050906. Although no X-ray or optical/IR afterglow was discovered to deep limits, the error circle of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) (as derived from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope, or BAT) is unusual in containing the relatively local starburst galaxy IC328. This makes GRB 050906 a candidate burst from a soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR), similar to the giant flare from SGR 1806-20. The probability of chance alignment of a given BAT position with such a galaxy is small (levan@warwick.ac.uk

  15. An HST study of three very faint GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaunsen, A.O.; Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.;

    2003-01-01

    As part of the HST/STIS GRB host survey program we present the detection of three faint gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies based on an accurate localisation using ground-based data of the optical afterglows (OAs). A common property of these three hosts is their extreme faintness. The location...... at which GRBs occur with respect to their host galaxies and surrounding environments are robust indicators of the nature of GRB progenitors. The bursts studied here are among the four most extreme outliers, in terms of relative distance from the host center, in the recent comprehensive study of Bloom et al...

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION MODEL OF THE 'NAKED-EYE BURST' GRB 080319B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Linnemann, J. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3245 BioMedical Physical Sciences Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Allen, B. T.; Chen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Aune, T. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); DeYoung, T. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M. [Group P-23, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ellsworth, R. W. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Gonzalez, M. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F., Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Granot, J. [Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, POB 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Huentemeyer, P. H. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    On 2008 March 19, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever recorded was detected by several ground- and space-based instruments spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. With a peak visual magnitude of 5.3, GRB 080319B was dubbed the 'naked-eye' GRB, as an observer under dark skies could have seen the burst without the aid of an instrument. Presented here are results from observations of the prompt phase of GRB 080319B taken with the Milagro TeV observatory. The burst was observed at an elevation angle of 47 Degree-Sign . Analysis of the data is performed using both the standard air shower method and the scaler or single-particle technique, which results in a sensitive energy range that extends from {approx}5 GeV to >20 TeV. These observations provide the only direct constraints on the properties of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080319B at these energies. No evidence for emission is found in the Milagro data, and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux above 10 GeV are derived. The limits on emission between {approx}25 and 200 GeV are incompatible with the synchrotron self-Compton model of gamma-ray production and disfavor a corresponding range (2 eV-16 eV) of assumed synchrotron peak energies. This indicates that the optical photons and soft ({approx}650 keV) gamma rays may not be produced by the same electron population.

  17. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  18. Development of wide-band GRB detectors and the GRB monitor for the CALET Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nakahira, Satoshi; Sugita, Satoshi; Tomida, Hiroshi; Torii, Shoji

    Many previous observations revealed radiations from GRBs to be widely emitted in electromagnetic energy band form less than a keV to over a GeV range, and peak-energies of νFν spectra to be distributed rather more widely than expected before. Those includes soft events explored by Ginga, BeppoSAX and HETE-2, and delayed GeV emissions and additional hard continuum detected by EGRET. It is very important to have a GRB monitor in space to be sensitive to photons in continuously wide energy range. We are developing wide-band GRB detectors utilizing several kinds of scintillator and X-ray CCD for future space missions. One of these detectors is that proposed as a GRB Monitor for the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) mission that was selected for Phase A/B studies as a next experiment for JEM-EF of ISS. The GRB Monitor (GBM) is a part of this experiment to extend scientific products achieved by CALET which can detect gamma-rays in a range from about 20MeV to TeV by itself and is potentially sensitive to hard radiations from GRBs. GBM is designed as multiple scintillation counters made of BGO and LaBr3 (Ce) to detect GRBs in a few keV to about 20MeV range alone, and to cover the energy band continuously up-to TeV region together with the CALET's main instruments, Imaging Calorimeter (IMC) and Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC); one can expect sensitive range of nine orders of magnitude for GRBs inside the IMC's FOV of about 1.8 str. We present current status of our study including preliminary experimental results for LaBr3 (Ce) using a proton accelerator, and the design and expected ability of CALET-GBM.

  19. GRB 060218 and the binaries as progenitors of GRB-SN systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Guida, Roberto; Ruffini, Remo

    2007-01-01

    (shortened) We study the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) 060218: a particularly close source at z=0.033 with an extremely long duration, namely T_{90} ~ 2000 s, related to SN 2006aj. [...] I present the fitting time consuming procedure. In order to show its sensitivity I also present two examples of fits with the same value of B and different value of E_{e^\\pm}^{tot}. We fit the X- and \\gamma-ray observations by Swift of GRB 060218 in the 0.1-150 keV energy band during the entire time of observations from 0 all the way to 10^6 s within a unified theoretical model. The free parameters of our theory are only three, namely the total energy E_{e\\pm}^{tot} of the e^\\pm plasma, its baryon loading B \\equiv M_Bc^2/E_{e\\pm}^{tot}, as well as the CircumBurst Medium (CBM) distribution. We justify the extremely long duration of this GRB by a total energy E_{e\\pm}^{tot} = 2.32\\times 10^{50} erg, a very high value of the baryon loading B=1.0\\times 10^{-2} and the effective CircumBurst Medium (CBM) density which shows a radial depend...

  20. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  1. Probing the Nature of High-z Short GRB 090426 with Its Early Optical and X-ray Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Liping; Wei, Jianyan; Zhang, Bing; Lv, Houjun; Zheng, Weikang; Urata, Yuji; Im, Myungshin; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Yulei; Deng, Jinsong; Huang, Kuiyun; Hu, Jingyao; Jeon, Yiseul; Li, Huali; Han, Xuhui

    2010-01-01

    Swift GRB 090426 is a short duration burst T_{90}~0.33 seconds in the burst frame at z=2.609) with analogous properties on its host galaxy and spectrum-energy correlation to typical long duration GRBs from collapses of massive stars (Type II GRBs). We present its early optical observations with 0.8-m TNT telescope at Xinglong observatory and 1-m telescope at Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory LOAO in Arizona. Our well-sampled optical afterglow lightcurve covered from ~90 seconds to ~10^4 seconds post the GRB trigger shows two energy injection phases ended at ~230 seconds and ~7100 seconds, respectively. The decay slopes post the injection phases are consistent with each other (\\alpha ~1.22). The X-ray afterglow lightcurve seems to trace the optical one, although the second energy injection phase was missed due to the orbit constrain of Swift satellite. The spectral index of the X-rays is ~1.0 without temporal evolution. The X-ray emission is consistent with the forward shock models. Both the X-ray and o...

  2. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  3. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlgren, Björn; Nymark, Tanja; Ryde, Felix; Pe'er, Asaf

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM ($\\textit{Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model}$), a table model for ${\\scriptsize XSPEC}$. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipatio...

  4. Detectability of GRB optical afterglows with Gaia satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Japelj, J

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of Gaia satellite, detection of many different types of transient sources will be possible, one of them being optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using the knowledge of the satellites dynamics and properties of GRB optical afterglows we performed a simulation in order to estimate an average GRB detection rate with Gaia. Here we present the simulation results for two types of GRB optical afterglows, differing in the observer's line-of-sight compared to a GRB jet axis: regular (on-axis) and orphan afterglows. Results show that for on-axis GRBs, less than 10 detections in five years of foreseen Gaia operational time are expected. The orphan afterglows simulation results are more promising, giving a more optimistic number of several tens of detections in five years.

  5. A new approach of analyzing GRB light curves

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, B.; Horváth, I.; Balázs, L. G.

    2006-01-01

    We estimated the Txx quantiles of the cumulative GRB light curves using our recalculated background. The basic information of the light curves was extracted by multivariate statistical methods. The possible classes of the light curves are also briefly discussed.

  6. The Spectroscopic Variability of GRB 021004

    CERN Document Server

    Matheson, T; Foltz, C; West, S; Williams, G; Falco, E E; Calkins, M L; Castander, F J; Gawiser, E; Jha, S; Bersier, D F; Stanek, K Z

    2003-01-01

    We present spectra of the optical transient (OT) associated with GRB 021004. The spectra show a blue continuum with superposed absorption features and one emission line. There are two intervening metal-line systems at z = 1.380 and z = 1.602 and one very strong absorption system at a redshift of z = 2.323. Ly_alpha emission is also seen at this redshift. While the spectrum of the OT overall cannot be simply described with a power law, the spectral index over the range 5500-8850 A is steep, F_nu prop nu^(-0.96 +/- 0.03). Comparison of spectra from multiple epochs shows a distinct color evolution with the OT becoming redder with time, implying a B-V increase of ~0.2-0.3 mag over the first three days. This is the first clear example of color change in an OT detected spectroscopically.

  7. Properties of GRB Lightcurves from Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Beniamini, Paz

    2015-01-01

    The energy dissipation mechanism within Gamma ray bursts' (GRBs) ultra-relativistic outflows that drive the prompt $\\gamma$-ray emission remains uncertain. Two leading candidates are internal shocks and magnetic reconnection. While the emission from internal shocks has been extensively studied, that from reconnection still has few quantitative predictions. We study the prompt GRB emission from magnetic reconnection and compare its expected temporal and spectral properties to observations. The main difference from internal shocks is that for magnetic reconnection one expects relativistic bulk motions with a Lorentz factor of $\\Gamma'\\gtrsim$a few in the mean rest frame of the outflow - the comoving frame. We consider a thin spherical shell (or reconnection layer) expanding at a bulk Lorentz factor $\\Gamma\\gg 1$ in which the emitting material moves with $\\Gamma'$ in the comoving frame along this layer in two anti-parallel directions (e.g. of the reconnecting field lines). The resulting relativistic beaming of t...

  8. The host galaxy of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.;

    2004-01-01

    galaxy types shows that the host is similar to a moderately kreddened starburst galaxy with a young stellar population. The estimated internal extinction in the host is A(V) = 0.15 +/- 0.1 and the star-formation rate (SFR) from the UV continuum is 1.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot yr(-1) (not corrected...... for the effects of extinction). Other galaxy template spectra than starbursts failed to reproduce the observed SED. We also present VLT spectra leading to the detection of Halpha from the GRB host galaxy. A SFR of 2.8 +/- 0.7 M-circle dot yr(-1) is inferred from the Halpha line flux, and the presence of a young...

  9. Interaction of GRB Fireballs with Ambient Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, A M

    2003-01-01

    The customary picture of the fireball deceleration by an external medium neglects two physical agents in the problem that are important at radii R<10^{17} cm: a radiative precursor (the prompt GRB) and a relativistic front of free neutrons. The radiative precursor preaccelerates the medium and loads it with e+- pairs. This provides a new explanation for the early optical flashes in GRBs. The front of free neutrons must form in a standard baryonic fireball and change the mechanism of the fireball deceleration. The neutron effect, however, disappears if the fireball is strongly dominated by the Poynting flux. The neutrons thus provide a unique link between the progenitor physics and the observed external blast wave. The explosion mechanism at R<10^{17} cm is testable with upcoming observations of early afterglows.

  10. Survival analysis of the optical brightness of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, I I; Bagoly, Z; Toth, L V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the unbiased optical brightness distribution which was calculated from the survival analysis of host galaxies and its relationship with the Swift GRB data of the host galaxies observed by the Keck telescopes. Based on the sample obtained from merging the Swift GRB table and the Keck optical data we also studied the dependence of this distribution on the data of the GRBs. Finally, we compared the HGs distribution with standard galaxies distribution which is in the DEEP2 galaxies catalog.

  11. GRB afterglow light curves from realistic density profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Mimica, Petar; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    The afterglow emission that follows gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) contains valuable information about the circumburst medium and, therefore, about the GRB progenitor. Theoretical studies of GRB blast waves, however, are often limited to simple density profiles for the external medium (mostly constant density and power-law R^{-k} ones). We argue that a large fraction of long-duration GRBs should take place in massive stellar clusters where the circumburst medium is much more complicated. As a case s...

  12. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  13. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke;

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  14. UVES/VLT high resolution spectroscopy of GRB 050730 afterglow: probing the features of the GRB environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Sbordone, L.; Stella, L.; Antonelli, L.A.; Fontana, A.; Giannini, T.; Guetta, D.; Israel, G.; Testa, V. [INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, I-00044 Frascati, (Italy); Meurs, E.J.A.; Vergani, S.D.; Ward, P. [Dunsink Observ, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Molinari, E.; Moretti, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, I-23807 Merate, LC, (Italy); Chincarini, G. [Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, (Italy); Melandri, A. [Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astron Res Inst, Birkenhead, Merseyside, (United Kingdom); Norci, L.; Vergani, S.D. [Dublin City Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Pellizza, L.; Filliatre, P. [Dublin City Univ, NCPST, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Perna, R.; Lazzati, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Aims. The aim of this paper is to study the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. Methods. To this purpose we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations (R = 20000-45000, corresponding to 14 kms{sup -1} at 4200 Angstroms and 6.6 kms{sup -1} at 9000 Angstroms of the optical afterglow of GRB050730, obtained with UVES-VLT {approx} 4 h after the GRB trigger. Results. The spectrum shows that the ISM of the GRB host galaxy at z = 3.967 is complex, with at least five components contributing to the main absorption system. We detect strong CII*, SiII*, OI* and FeII* fine structure absorption lines associated to the second and third component. Conclusions. For the first three components we derive information on the relative distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Component 1, which has the longest wavelength, highest positive velocity shift, does not present any fine structure nor low ionization lines; it only shows very high ionization features, such as C IV and O VI, suggesting that this component is very close to the GRB site. From the analysis of low and high ionization lines and fine structure lines, we find evidences that the distance of component 2 from the site of the GRB explosion is 10-100 times smaller than that of component 3. We evaluated the mean metallicity of the z = 3.967 system obtaining values approximate to 10{sup -2} of the solar metallicity or less. However, this should not be taken as representative of the circum-burst medium, since the main contribution to the hydrogen column density comes from the outer regions of the galaxy while that of the other elements presumably comes from the ISM closer to the GRB site. Furthermore, difficulties in evaluating dust depletion correction can modify significantly these values. The mean [C/Fe] ratio agrees well with that expected by single star-formation event models. Interestingly the [C/Fe] of component 2 is

  15. Sequential Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution...

  16. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Thöne, C. C.; Christensen, L.; Gorosabel, J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Schulze, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Wiersema, K.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Leloudas, G.; Zafar, T.; Malesani, D.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy at almost any redshift. Aims: We describe the distribution of rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of the most prominent absorption features in GRB afterglow spectra, providing the means to compare individual spectra to the sample and identify its peculiarities. Methods: Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame EWs distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 Å. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features in a GRB spectrum as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of their column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. Results: We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of the LSP with the redshift. There is a weak correlation between the ionisation of the absorbers and the energy of the GRB, indicating that, either the GRB event is responsible for part of the ionisation, or that galaxies with high-ionisation media produce more energetic GRBs. Spectral features in GRB spectra are, on average, 2.5 times stronger than those seen in QSO intervening damped Lyman-α (DLA) systems and slightly more ionised. In particular we find a larger excess in the EW of C ivλλ1549 relative to QSO DLAs, which could be related to an excess of Wolf-Rayet stars in the environments of GRBs. From the CoG fitting we obtain an average number of components in the

  17. Boulder Magnetic Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  18. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  19. Sparse synthetic aperture radar imaging with optimized azimuthal aperture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Cao; WANG MinHang; LIAO GuiSheng; ZHU ShengQi

    2012-01-01

    To counter the problem of acquiring and processing huge amounts of data for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using traditional sampling techniques,a method for sparse SAR imaging with an optimized azimuthal aperture is presented.The equivalence of an azimuthal match filter and synthetic array beamforming is shown so that optimization of the azimuthal sparse aperture can be converted to optimization of synthetic array beamforming.The azimuthal sparse aperture,which is composed of a middle aperture and symmetrical bilateral apertures,can be obtained by optimization algorithms (density weighting and simulated annealing algorithms,respectively).Furthermore,sparse imaging of spectrum analysis SAR based on the optimized sparse aperture is achieved by padding zeros at null samplings and using a non-uniform Taylor window. Compared with traditional sampling,this method has the advantages of reducing the amount of sampling and alleviating the computational burden with acceptable image quality.Unlike periodic sparse sampling,the proposed method exhibits no image ghosts.The results obtained from airborne measurements demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  20. e-EVN detections of GRB130427A and GRB130702A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; van der Horst, A. J.; Yang, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Granot, J.

    2013-08-01

    We observed GRB130427A (GCN #14448, #14455, #14471, #14480, #14494) at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network on 2013 May 3 from 15:50 UT till 02:20 UT the next day. All e-EVN stations in Europe, and the telescopes in Shanghai, Hartebeesthoek and Arecibo participated in the observations. The aggregate bitrate was 1024 Mbps for most telescopes. Shanghai and Arecibo observed the same bandwidth but at a lower bitrate of 512 Mbps and using 1-bit sampling.

  1. The Burst Cluster: Dark Matter in a Cluster Merger Associated with the Short Gamma-Ray Burst, GRB 050509B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, H.; Sarazin, C. L.; Lopez, L. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Rol, E.; van der Horst, A. J.; Fynbo, J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Grupe, D.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Michałowski, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous "Bullet cluster," and we conclude that this "Burst cluster" adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the origin of short GRBs

  2. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sarazin, C. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Lopez, L. A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Patel, S. K. [Optical Sciences Corporation, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 650, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fynbo, J.; Michalowski, M. J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E., E-mail: hdahle@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the

  3. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue....... Clinical scans were conducted in collaboration with medical professionals at Copenhagen University. In a series of double blinded trials, image quality and recognition of pathology using SASB with THI was compared with conventional THI. The results of the clinical trial documented, that SASB with THI...

  4. GRB 141221A: gone is the wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bardho, O; Rossi, A; Amati, L; Haislip, J; Klotz, A; Palazzi, E; Reichart, D; Trotter, A S; Boer, M

    2016-01-01

    GRB 141221A was observed from infrared to soft gamma-ray bands. Here, we investigate its properties, in light of the standard model. We find that the optical light curve of the afterglow of this burst presents an unusual steep/quick rise. The broad band spectral energy distribution taken near the maximum of the optical emission presents either a thermal component or a spectral break. In the former case, the properties of the afterglow are then very unusual, but could explain the lack of apparent jet breaks in the Swift light curves. In the latter case, the afterglow properties of this burst are more usual, and we can see in the light curves the passing through of the injection and cooling frequencies within the optical bands, not masked by a reverse shock. This model also excludes the presence of a stellar wind, challenging either the stellar progenitor properties, or the very stellar nature of the progenitor itself. In all cases, this burst may be a part of a Rosetta stone that could help to explain some of ...

  5. The Broadband Afterglow of GRB980703

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Berger, E; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Kulkarni, S R; Taylor, G B; Bloom, J S; Fox, D W; Moriarty-Schieven, G H; Price, P A

    2003-01-01

    We present radio observations of the afterglow of the bright gamma-ray burst GRB980703 made between one day and one year after the burst. These data are combined with published late-time radio measurements and existing optical, near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray observations to create a comprehensive broadband dataset for modeling the physical parameters of the outflow. While a wind-stratified medium cannot be ruled out statistically, it requires a high fraction of the shock energy in the electrons, and so is not favored on theoretical grounds. Instead, the data are consistent with a fireball model in which the ejecta are collimated and expanding into a constant density medium. The radio data cannot be fit with an isotropic shock but instead require a jet break at ~ 3.5 days, not seen at optical wavelengths due to the presence of a a bright host galaxy. The addition of the full radio dataset constrains the self-absorption frequency, giving an estimate of the circumburst density of n ~ 30 cm^-3, a value which diffe...

  6. A Reverse Shock in GRB 160509A

    CERN Document Server

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Fong, Wen-fai; Margutti, Raffaella; Shivvers, Isaac; Williams, Peter K G; Kopac, Drejc; Kobayashi, Shiho; Mundell, Carole; Gomboc, Andreja; Zheng, WeiKang; Menten, Karl M; Graham, Melissa L; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2016-01-01

    We present the second multi-frequency radio detection of a reverse shock in a $\\gamma$-ray burst. By combining our extensive radio observations of the Fermi-LAT GRB 160509A at $z = 1.17$ up to $20$ days after the burst with Swift X-ray observations and ground-based optical and near-infrared data, we show that the afterglow emission comprises distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions: the reverse shock emission dominates in the radio band at $\\lesssim10~$days, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-ray, optical, and near-infrared bands. Through multi-wavelength modeling, we determine a circumburst density of $n_0\\approx10^{-3}~$cm$^{-3}$, supporting our previous suggestion that a low-density circumburst environment is conducive to the production of long-lasting reverse shock radiation in the radio band. We infer the presence of a large excess X-ray absorption column, $N_{\\rm H} \\approx 1.5\\times10^{22}~$cm$^{-2}$, and a high rest-frame optical extinction, $A_{\\rm V}\\approx3.4~$mag. We...

  7. Slope evolution of GRB correlations and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Piedipalumbo, Ester; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Gamma -ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts $z>9.4$ can be used as possible probes to test cosmological models. Here we show how changes of the slope of the {\\it luminosity $L^*_X$ -break time $T^*_a$} correlation in GRB afterglows, hereafter the LT correlation, affect the determination of the cosmological parameters. With a simulated data set of 101 GRBs with a central value of the correlation slope that differs on the intrinsic one by a $5\\sigma$ factor, we find an overstimated value of the matter density parameter, $\\Omega_M$, compared to the value obtained with SNe Ia, while the Hubble constant, $H_0$, best fit value is still compatible in 1$\\sigma$ compared to other probes. We show that this compatibility of $H_0$ is due to the large intrinsic scatter associated with the simulated sample. Instead, if we consider a subsample of high luminous GRBs ($HighL$), we find that both the evaluation of $H_0$ and $\\Omega_M$ are not more compatible in 1$\\sigma$ and $\\Omega_M$ is underestimated by the $13\\%$. Ho...

  8. A Fe K Line in GRB 970508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protassov, R.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Kashyap, V.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2000-12-01

    We examine the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 970508, analyzed for Fe line emission by Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73). This is a difficult and extremely important measurement: the detection of x-ray afterglows from γ -ray bursts is at best a tricky business, relying on near-real satellite time response to unpredictable events; and a great deal of luck in catching a burst bright enough for a useful spectral analysis. Detecting a clear atomic (or cyclotron) line in the generally smooth and featureless afterglow (or burst) emission not only gives one of the few very specific keys to the physics local to the emission region, but also provides clues or confirmation of its distance (via redshift). Unfortunately, neither the likelihood ratio test or the related F-statistic commonly used to detect spectral lines adhere to their nominal Chi square and F-distributions. Thus we begin by calibrating the F-statistic used in Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73) via a simulation study. The simulation study relies on a completely specified source model, i.e. we do Monte Carlo simulations with all model parameters fixed (so--called ``parametric bootstrapping''). Second, we employ the method of posterior predictive p-values to calibrate a LRT statistic while accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters of the source model. Our analysis reveals evidence for the Fe K line.

  9. GRB090426: the farthest short gamma-ray burst?

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, L A; Perna, R; Amati, L; Covino, S; Cutini, S; Elia, V D; Gallozzi, S; Grazian, A; Palazzi, E; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Spiro, S; Stella, L; Testa, V; Chincarini, G; Di Paola, A; Fiore, F; Fugazza, D; Giallongo, E; Maiorano, E; Masetti, N; Pedichini, F; Salvaterra, R; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S

    2009-01-01

    Aims. With an observed and rest-frame duration of < 2s and < 0.5s, respectively, GRB090426 could be classified as a short GRB. The prompt detection, both from space and ground-based telescopes, of a bright optical counterpart to this GRB offered a unique opportunity to complete a detailed study. Methods. Based on an extensive ground-based observational campaign, we obtained the spectrum of the optical afterglow of GRB090426, measuring its redshift and obtaining information about the medium in which the event took place. We completed follow-up observation of the afterglow optical light curve down to the brightness level of the host galaxy that we firmly identified and studied. We also retrieved and analyzed all the available high-energy data of this event, and compared the results with our findings in the optical. This represents one of the most detailed studies of a short-duration event presented so far. Results. The time properties qualify GRB090426 as a short burst. In this case, its redshift of z = 2...

  10. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol Duran, R.; Giannios, D.

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow (supernova remnant emission), which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the ˜10-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of ˜ mJy. Detection of the SN-powered radio emission will greatly advance our knowledge of particle acceleration in ˜0.1c shocks.

  11. Radio rebrightening of the GRB afterglow by the accompanying supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, Rodolfo Barniol

    2015-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet powers the afterglow emission by shocking the surrounding medium, and radio afterglow can now be routinely observed to almost a year after the explosion. Long-duration GRBs are accompanied by supernovae (SNe) that typically contain much more energy than the GRB jet. Here we consider the fact that the SN blast wave will also produce its own afterglow, which will peak at much later time (since it is non-relativistic), when the SN blast wave transitions from a coasting phase to a decelerating Sedov-Taylor phase. We predict that this component will peak generally a few tens of years after the explosion and it will outshine the GRB powered afterglow well-before its peak emission. In the case of GRB 030329, where the external density is constrained by the $\\sim 10$-year coverage of the radio GRB afterglow, the radio emission is predicted to start rising over the next decade and to continue to increase for the following decades up to a level of $\\sim 0.5$ mJy. Detection of the SN-powere...

  12. GRB 080517: A local, low luminosity GRB in a dusty galaxy at z=0.09

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, E R; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; van der Horst, A; Mundell, C G; Guidorzi, C

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxy of Swift-detected GRB 080517. From our optical spectroscopy, we identify a redshift of z = 0.089 +/- 0.003, based on strong emission lines, making this a rare example of a very local, low luminosity, long gamma ray burst. The galaxy is detected in the radio with a flux density of S(4.8GHz) =0.22 +/- 0.04mJy - one of relatively few known GRB hosts with a securely measured radio flux. Both optical emission lines and a strong detection at 22 um suggest that the host galaxy is forming stars rapidly, with an inferred star formation rate ~16 Msun/yr and a high dust obscuration (E(B-V )>1, based on sight-lines to the nebular emission regions). The presence of a companion galaxy within a projected distance of 25 kpc, and almost identical in redshift, suggests that star formation may have been triggered by galaxy-galaxy interaction. However, fitting of the remarkably flat spectral energy distribution from the ultraviolet through to the infrar...

  13. The flux-E_p relation within GRB060218 in comparison with typical GRB pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray/X-ray emission of gamma-ray burst(GRB) 060218 was simultaneously observed by the Burst Alert Telescope(BAT) and X-ray Telescope(XRT) onboard Swift.Its peak energy of the joint νfν spectrum(Ep) clearly evolves with time from tens of keV to-1 keV,crossing both the BAT and XRT bands.The best fit yields log Ep=(4.61± 0.23)+(-1.29±0.08) log t,with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a chance probability of p<10-4.We derive its bolometric flux(F)in the 0.01-10 4 keV band,and find that its F-Ep relation,with a power-law index of 0.37,is much shallower than that observed in typical GRB pulses.Discussion of this shallowness is presented.

  14. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalillo, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  15. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  16. GRB Cosmology and the First Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are unique probes of the cosmic star formation history and the state of the intergalactic medium up to the redshifts of the first stars. In particular, the ongoing {\\it Swift} mission might be the first observatory to detect individual Population~III stars, provided that the massive, metal-free stars were able to trigger GRBs. {\\it Swift} will empirically constrain the redshift at which Population~III star formation was terminated, thus providing crucial input to model...

  17. Observations of GRB X-ray afterglows with SODART/SRG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Lund, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik;

    1998-01-01

    for detecting GRBs, and the powerful pointed SODART telescopes will be a unique tool for studying the long-term behavior of GRB afterglows. It is shown that SODART will be able to follow the temporal and spectral development of a GRB similar to the now famous GRB 970228 event for well over 20 days in order...

  18. The EINSTEIN Observatory Detection of Faint X-Ray Flashes

    CERN Document Server

    Gotthelf, E V; Helfand, D J

    1996-01-01

    We report on the result of an extensive search for X-ray counterparts to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using data acquired with the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on-board the Einstein Observatory. We examine background sky fields from all pointed observations for short timescale (~10 sec) transient X-ray phenomena not associated a-priori with detectable point sources. A total of 1.5 X 10^7 seconds of exposure time was searched on arc-minute spatial scales down to a limiting sensitivity of 10^-11 erg/cm^2/sec in the 0.2-3.5 keV IPC band. Forty-two highly significant X-ray flashes (Poisson probability < 10^-7 of being produced by statistical fluctuations) are discovered, of which eighteen have spectra consistent with an extragalactic origin and lightcurves similar to the Ginga-detected X-ray counterparts to GRB. Great care is taken to identify and exclude instrumental and observational artifacts; we develop a set of tests to cull events which may be associated with spacecraft or near-Earth space backgrounds. T...

  19. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly to...... optimal for lesion detection. Synthetic aperture data are acquired from unfocused emissions and 154 compound images are constructed by synthesizing different aperture configurations with more or less compounding, all maintaining a constant resolution across depth corresponding to an f-number of 2.0 for...... transmit and receive. The same configurations are used for scanning a phantom with cysts, and it is demonstrated how an improved cysts contrast follows from an aperture configuration, which gives a higher value for the performance measure extracted from the phantom without cysts. A correlation value R = 0...

  20. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, V.; Seller, R.; L. Dudas; Kazi, K.; Miko, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  1. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic...... from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...... tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance...

  2. Fast-response optical and near-infrared GRB science with RATIR and RIMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, John; RIMAS Collaboration, RATIR project Team

    2016-01-01

    As the Universe's most luminous transient events, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are observed at cosmological distances. The afterglow emission generated by the burst's interaction with the surrounding medium presents the opportunity to study the local environment, as well as intervening systems. The transient nature of these events requires observations starting within minutes of the GRB to maximize the scientific opportunities.This dissertation work comprises efforts to advance the field with a new instrument, the Rapid Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (RIMAS). The optical design is complicated by the broad band coverage (0.97 to 2.39 microns) and the necessity of transmissive optics due to space and weight limitations on the telescope. Additionally, the entire optical system must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to decrease the background from thermal emission. The completed instrument will be permanently installed on Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The fast slew time of the telescope, combined with the instrument's ability to image in two bands simultaneously and switch to spectroscopic configurations in under a minute will allow observers to obtain photometric data within minutes and spectra within ~ ten minutes.In addition to instrumentation work on RIMAS's optics, early time photometric light curves have been studied primarily using data from the Reionization and Transients Infrared/Optical Project (RATIR). Early time photometric data in six optical and near-infrared (NIR) bands has allowed a study of color evolution in the early to late time SEDs. This study probes possible impacts of the GRB on the local medium as well as intrinsic changes in the afterglow emission.This work is made possible by the RATIR and RIMAS collaborations as well as financial support by the NSF.

  3. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled‐source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de‐risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect. In this paper, we apply the concept of synthetic aperture to CSEM data. Synthetic aperture allows us to design sources with specific radiation patterns for different purposes. The ability to detec...

  4. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  5. The Collaborative Heliophysics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, N.; Freeland, S.; Cheung, M.; Bose, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Collaborative Heliophysics Observatory (CHO) would provide a robust framework and enabling tools to fully utilize the VOs for scientific discovery and collaboration. Scientists across the realm of heliophysics would be able to create, use and share applications -- either as services using familiar tools or through intuitive workflows -- that orchestrate access to data across all virtual observatories. These applications can be shared freely knowing that proper recognition of data and processing components are acknowledged; that erroneous use of data is flagged; and that results from the analysis runs will in themselves be shared Ð all in a transparent and automatic fashion. In addition, the CHO would incorporate cross-VO models and tools to weave the various virtual observatories into a unified system. These provide starting points for interactions across the solar/heliospheric and heliospheric/magnetospheric boundaries.

  6. World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission: state of art 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Gomez De Castro, Ana; Shustov, Boris M.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 300 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy and long slit low-resolution spectroscopy with the WUVS instrument; moreover UV imaging will be available with cameras. WSO-UV is a Russian led mission that will be operating in high Earth orbit (geosynchronous with inclination 51.^o6) for five+five years grating access to the UV range to the world-wide astronomical community in the post-Hubble era. Spain is a major partner to the project. Updated information of the WSO-UV project is provided periodically in the COSPAR meetings. Henceforth, this review provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last COSPAR Assembly.

  7. XMM-Newton and Swift observations prove GRB 090709A to be a distant, standard, long GRB

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Israel, G L; Götz, D; Novara, F; Tiengo, A; Mereghetti, S

    2009-01-01

    GRB 090709A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) discovered by Swift, featuring a bright X-ray afterglow as well as a faint infrared transient with very red and peculiar colors. The burst attracted a large interest because of a possible quasi-periodicity at P=8.1 s in the prompt emission, suggesting that it could have a different origin with respect to standard, long GRBs. In order to understand the nature of this burst, we obtained a target of opportunity observation with XMM-Newton. X-ray spectroscopy, based on XMM-Newton and Swift data, allowed us to model the significant excess in photoelectric absorption with respect to the Galactic value as due to a large column density (about 6.5E+22 cm^-2) in the GRB host, located at z=4.2. Such a picture is also consistent with the infrared transient's properties. Re-analysis of the prompt emission, based on INTEGRAL and on Swift data, excludes any significant modulation at P=8.1 s. Thus, we conclude that GRB 090709A is a distant, standard, long GRB.

  8. GRB Cosmology and Self-organized Criticality in GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have isotropic energy up to $10^{54}$ erg, would be the ideal tool to study the properties of early universe: including dark energy, star formation rate, and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. We will briefly review the progress on the field of GRB cosmology. Meanwhile, X-ray flares, which may have important clues to the central engine, are common phenomena in the GRB afterglows. We present statistical results of X-ray flares, i.e., energy, duration time and waiting time distributions, and compare the results with solar flares. The similarity between the two kinds of flares are found, which may indicates that the physical mechanism of GRB X-ray flares is magnetic reconnection.

  9. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    CERN Document Server

    Wiersema, K; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Farina, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovski, V; Willingale, R

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet, when measured minutes after the burst, and the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after burst in GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and negligable circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blastwave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized optical light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.1...

  10. GRB 010921 Strong Limits on an Underlying Supernova from HST

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Schmidt, B P; Galama, T J; Bloom, J S; Berger, E; Frail, D A; Djorgovski, S G; Fox, D W; Henden, A A; Klose, S; Harrison, F A; Reichart, D E; Sari, R; Yost, S A; Axelrod, T S; McCarthy, P; Holtzmann, J A; Halpern, J P; Kimble, R A; Wheeler, J C; Chevalier, R A; Hurley, K; Ricker, G R; Costa, E; Frontera, F; Piro, L

    2003-01-01

    GRB 010921 was the first HETE-2 GRB to be localized via its afterglow emission. The low-redshift of the host galaxy, z=0.451, prompted us to undertake intensive multi-color observations with the Hubble Space Telescope with the goal of searching for an underlying supernova component. We do not detect any coincident supernova to a limit 1.34 mag fainter than SN 1998bw at 99.7% confidence, making this one of the most sensitive searches for an underlying SN. Analysis of the afterglow data allow us to infer that the GRB was situated behind a net extinction (Milky Way and the host galaxy) of A_V ~ 1.8 mag in the observer frame. Thus, had it not been for such heavy extinction our data would have allowed us to probe for an underlying SN with brightness approaching those of more typical Type Ib/c supernovae.

  11. Optical light curve of GRB 121011A: a textbook for the onset of GRB afterglow in a mixture of ISM and wind-type medium

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Li-Ping; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We reported the optical observations of GRB 121011A by 0.8-m TNT telescope at Xinglong observatory, China. The light curve of optical afterglow shows a smooth and featureless bump during the epoch of $\\sim$130 sec and $\\sim$5000 sec with a rising index of $1.57\\pm0.28$ before the break time of $539\\pm44$ sec, and a decaying index of about $1.29\\pm0.07$ up to the end of our observations. Meanwhile, the X-ray light curve decays in a single power-law with a slop of about $1.51\\pm0.03$ observed by $XRT$ onboard ${\\rm} Swift$ from 100 sec to about 10000 sec after the burst trigger. The featureless optical light curve could be understood as an onset process under the external-shock model. The typical frequency has been below or near the optical one before the deceleration time, and the cooling frequency is located between the optical and X-ray wavelengths. The external medium density has a transition from a mixed stage of ISM and wind-type medium before the peak time to the ISM at the later phase. The joint-analysi...

  12. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boger, J.; Hahn, R.L.; Rowley, J.K.; Carter, A.L.; Hollebone, B.; Kessler, D.; Blevis, I.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; DeKok, A.; Farine, J.; Grant, D.R.; Hargrove, C.K.; Laberge, G.; Levine, I.; McFarlane, K.; Mes, H.; Noble, A.T.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Shatkay, M.; Shewchuk, C.; Sinclair, D.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Deal, R.; Earle, E.D.; Gaudette, E.; Milton, G.; Sur, B.; Bigu, J.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cluff, D.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Haq, R.U.; Hewett, J.; Hykawy, J.G.; Jonkmans, G.; Michaud, R.; Roberge, A.; Roberts, J.; Saettler, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Seifert, H.; Sweezey, D.; Tafirout, R.; Virtue, C.J.; Beck, D.N.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, X.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Dycus, F.W.; Gonzalez, J.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Kajiyama, Y.; Koehler, G.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Moebus, M.C.; Norman, E.B.; Okada, C.E.; Poon, A.W.P.; Purgalis, P.; Schuelke, A.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Turner, S.; Zlimen, I.; Anaya, J.M.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Hime, A.; McGirt, A.F.; Miller, G.G.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.; Anglin, J.D.; Bercovitch, M.; Davidson, W.F.; Storey, R.S.; Biller, S.; Black, R.A.; Boardman, R.J.; Bowler, M.G.; Cameron, J.; Cleveland, B.; Ferraris, A.P.; Doucas, G.; Heron, H.; Howard, C.; Jelley, N.A. E-mail: N.Jelley1@physics.ox.ac.uk; Knox, A.B.; Lay, M.; Locke, W.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Moorhead, M.; Omori, M.; Tanner, N.W.; Taplin, R.K.; Thorman, M.; Wark, D.L.; West, N.; Barton, J.C.; Trent, P.T.; Kouzes, R.; Lowry, M.M.; Bell, A.L.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.; Dayon, M.; Duncan, F.; Erhardt, L.S.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Ford, R.; Hallin, A.; Hamer, A.; Hart, P.M.; Harvey, P.J.; Haslip, D.; Hearns, C.A.W.; Heaton, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Jillings, C.J.; Korpach, E.P.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; Liu, M.-Q.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; MacArthur, J.D.; McLatchie, W.; Moffat, B.A.; Noel, S.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Stevenson, R.L.; Zhu, X.; Gil, S.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Komar, R.J.; Nally, C.W. [and others

    2000-07-11

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a second-generation water Cherenkov detector designed to determine whether the currently observed solar neutrino deficit is a result of neutrino oscillations. The detector is unique in its use of D{sub 2}O as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by comparison of the charged- and neutral-current interaction rates. In this paper the physical properties, construction, and preliminary operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are described. Data and predicted operating parameters are provided whenever possible.

  13. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, J; Rowley, J K; Carter, A L; Hollebone, B; Kessler, D; Blevis, I; Dalnoki-Veress, F; De Kok, A; Farine, J; Grant, D R; Hargrove, C K; Laberge, G; Levine, I; McFarlane, K W; Mes, H; Noble, A T; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Shatkay, M; Shewchuk, C; Sinclair, D; Clifford, E T H; Deal, R; Earle, E D; Gaudette, E; Milton, G; Sur, B; Bigu, J; Cowan, J H M; Cluff, D L; Hallman, E D; Haq, R U; Hewett, J L; Hykawy, J G; Jonkmans, G; Michaud, R; Roberge, A; Roberts, J; Saettler, E; Schwendener, M H; Seifert, H; Sweezey, D; Tafirout, R; Virtue, C J; Beck, D N; Chan, Y D; Chen, X; Dragowsky, M R; Dycus, F W; González, J; Isaac, M C P; Kajiyama, Y; Köhler, G W; Lesko, K T; Moebus, M C; Norman, E B; Okada, C E; Poon, A W P; Purgalis, P; Schülke, A; Smith, A R; Stokstad, R G; Turner, S; Zlimen, I; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Esch, E I; Fowler, M M; Goldschmidt, A; Hime, A; McGirt, A F; Miller, G G; Teasdale, W A; Wilhelmy, J B; Wouters, J M; Anglin, J D; Bercovitch, M; Davidson, W F; Storey, R S; Biller, S; Black, R A; Boardman, R J; Bowler, M G; Cameron, J; Cleveland, B; Ferraris, A P; Doucas, G; Heron, H; Howard, C; Jelley, N A; Knox, A B; Lay, M; Locke, W; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Moorhead, M E; Omori, Mamoru; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Wark, D L; West, N; Barton, J C; Trent, P T; Kouzes, R; Lowry, M M; Bell, A L; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M; Dayon, M; Duncan, F; Erhardt, L S; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Ford, R; Hallin, A; Hamer, A; Hart, P M; Harvey, P J; Haslip, D; Hearns, C A W; Heaton, R; Hepburn, J D; Jillings, C J; Korpach, E P; Lee, H W; Leslie, J R; Liu, M Q; Mak, H B; McDonald, A B; MacArthur, J D; McLatchie, W; Moffat, B A; Noel, S; Radcliffe, T J; Robertson, B C; Skensved, P; Stevenson, R L; Zhu, X; Gil, S; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Komar, R J; Nally, C W; Ng, H S; Waltham, C E; Allen, R C; Buhler, G; Chen, H H; Aardsma, G; Andersen, T; Cameron, K; Chon, M C; Hanson, R H; Jagam, P; Karn, J; Law, J; Ollerhead, R W; Simpson, J J; Tagg, N; Wang, J X; Alexander, C; Beier, E W; Cook, J C; Cowen, D F; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Mayers, G; McDonald, D S; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Pearce, R J; Van de Water, R G; Van Berg, R; Wittich, P; Ahmad, Q R; Beck, J M; Browne, M C; Burritt, T H; Doe, P J; Duba, C A; Elliott, S R; Franklin, J E; Germani, J V; Green, P; Hamian, A A; Heeger, K M; Howe, M; Meijer-Drees, R; Myers, A; Robertson, R G H; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Van Wechel, T; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a second generation water Cherenkov detector designed to determine whether the currently observed solar neutrino deficit is a result of neutrino oscillations. The detector is unique in its use of D2O as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by comparison of the charged- and neutral-current interaction rates. In this paper the physical properties, construction, and preliminary operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are described. Data and predicted operating parameters are provided whenever possible.

  14. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a second-generation water Cherenkov detector designed to determine whether the currently observed solar neutrino deficit is a result of neutrino oscillations. The detector is unique in its use of D2O as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by comparison of the charged- and neutral-current interaction rates. In this paper the physical properties, construction, and preliminary operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are described. Data and predicted operating parameters are provided whenever possible

  15. GRB 090902B: AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical-infrared afterglow of the Large Area Telescope (LAT)-detected long-duration burst, GRB 090902B, has been observed by several instruments. The earliest detection by ROTSE-IIIa occurred 80 minutes after detection by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, revealing a bright afterglow and a decay slope suggestive of a reverse shock origin. Subsequent optical-IR observations followed the light curve for 6.5 days. The temporal and spectral behavior at optical-infrared frequencies is consistent with synchrotron fireball model predictions; the cooling break lies between optical and XRT frequencies ∼1.9 days after the burst. The inferred electron energy index is p = 1.8 ± 0.2, which would however imply an X-ray decay slope flatter than observed. The XRT and LAT data have similar spectral indices and the observed steeper value of the LAT temporal index is marginally consistent with the predicted temporal decay in the radiative regime of the forward shock model. Absence of a jet break during the first 6 days implies a collimation-corrected γ-ray energy Eγ > 2.2 x 1052 erg, one of the highest ever seen in a long-duration gamma-ray bursts. More events combining GeV photon emission with multiwavelength observations will be required to constrain the nature of the central engine powering these energetic explosions and to explore the correlations between energetic quanta and afterglow emission.

  16. Early polarization observations of the optical emission of gamma-ray bursts: GRB150301B and GRB150413A

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbovskoy, E S; Buckley, D; Kornilov, V G; Balanutsa, P V; Tyurina, N V; Kuznetsov, A S; Kuvshinov, D A; Gorbunov, I A; Vlasenko, D; Popova, E; Chazov, V V; Potter, S; Kotze, M; Kniazev, A; Gress, O A; Budnev, N M; Ivanov, K I; Yazev, S A; Tlatov, A G; Senik, V A; Dormidontov, D V; Parhomenko, A V; Krushinski, V V; Zalozhnich, I S; Castro-Tirado, R Alberto; Sanchez-Ramrez, R; Sergienko, Yu P; Gabovich, A; Yurkov, V V; Levato, H; Saffe, C; Mallamaci, C; Lopez, C; Podest, F

    2015-01-01

    We report early optical linear polarization observations of two gamma-ray bursts made with the MASTER robotic telescope network. We found the minimum polar- ization for GRB150301B to be 8% at the beginning of the initial stage, whereas we detected no polarization for GRB150413A either at the rising branch or after the burst reached the power-law afterglow stage. This is the earliest measurement of the polarization (in cosmological rest frame) of gamma-ray bursts. The primary intent of the paper is to discover optical emission and publish extremely rare (unique) high- quality light curves of the prompt optical emission of gamma-ray bursts during the non-monotonic stage of their evolution. We report that our team has discovered the optical counterpart of one of the bursts, GRB150413A.

  17. The San Fernando Observatory video Stokes polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P. H.; Zeldin, L. K.; Loftin, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the suitability of the San Fernando Observatory's 61 cm (24 inch) aperture vacuum solar telescope and 3 m (118 inch) focal length vacuum spectroheliograph for Stokes Polarimetry measurements. The polarization characteristics of these two instruments was measured by determining their Mueller matrices as a function of telescope orientation, field angle, wavelength, grating type, and position of the measuring beam in the telescope entrance window. In general, the polarizing and depolarizing properties are small so that inversion of the system Mueller matrix will permit the accurate measurement of Stokes profiles for vector magnetic field determination. A proposed polarimeter design based on the use of a TV camera system to simultaneously scan six different polarization components of a given line profile is described. This design, which uses no rotating optics or electronic modulators and makes efficient use of the available irradiance, promises to yield high quality vector magnetograms.

  18. NPS high resolution synthetic aperture sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Welter, Joseph Donald

    1995-01-01

    This thesis investigated the use of synthetic aperture techniques to achieve a long effective aperture, high resolution, imaging sonar. The approach included a full simulation of the system using the MATLAB programming environment that provided a model for developing six data processing algorithms and a working 25KHz, 1 m baseline, air medium synthetic aperture sonar. The six azimuthal processing techniques included: (1) a normal, real aperture, (2) an unfocussed synthetic aperture, (3) a hyb...

  19. A Search for gravitational waves associated with the gamma ray burst GRB030329 using the LIGO detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.B.; Anderson, W.G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B.C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Hannover, Max Planck Inst. Grav. /Australian

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80-2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than {approx_equal}150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational wave signal strength larger than a pre-determined threshold. We report frequency dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around {approx_equal}250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h{sub RSS} {approx_equal} 6 x 10{sup -21} Hz{sup -1/2}. Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and GRBs.

  20. The obscured hyper-energetic GRB 120624B hosted by a luminous compact galaxy at z = 2.20

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Thoene, C C; D'Avanzo, P; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Melandri, A; Gorosabel, J; Ghirlanda, G; Veres, P; Martin, S; Petitpas, G; Covino, S; Fynbo, J P U; Levan, A J

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions that we can witness in the Universe. Studying the most extreme cases of these phenomena allows us to constrain the limits for the progenitor models. In this Letter, we study the prompt emission, afterglow, and host galaxy of GRB 120624B, one of the brightest GRBs detected by Fermi, to derive the energetics of the event and characterise the host galaxy in which it was produced. Following the high-energy detection we conducted a multi-wavelength follow-up campaign, including near-infrared imaging from HAWKI/VLT, optical from OSIRIS/GTC, X-ray observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and at sub-millimetre/millimetre wavelengths from SMA. Optical/nIR spectroscopy was performed with X-shooter/VLT. We detect the X-ray and nIR afterglow of the burst and determine a redshift of z = 2.1974 +/- 0.0002 through the identification of emission lines of [OII], [OIII] and H-alpha from the host galaxy of the GRB. This implies an energy release of Eiso = (3.0+/-0.2)x10^5...

  1. BeppoSAX attitude operations for GRB follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster describes the attitude dynamics software, Attitude and Orbit Control Ground Support System (AOCGSS), which was developed by TELESPAZIO and integrated in the Operations Control Centre (OCC), in order to support the on ground operations of the Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS). In particular its involvement during the operations performed to carry out the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Follow Up is described

  2. The Distance of GRB is Independent from the Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Fu-gao

    2008-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that the host galaxy of GRB is the source of GRB at present, but it is in fact not obtained a reliable confirmation. However, the fact is still unclear because the host is possibly a background galaxy that has no physical affiliation to the GRB. Here, I show a series of evidences, including three methods, to identify the status of hosts. The correlation analysis shows that there is no correlation between the distance of GRBs and the redshift of hosts although there is a significant correlation between the apparent magnitude of hosts and the redshift; the deductive reasoning shows that many wrong conclusions that violate to the basic principle of physics would inevitably be obtained if the redshift indicates the distance; and the variables separation test proves directly that, however, the distance is independent from the redshift and the values of the fluence and the photon flux can be accurately forecasted for the GRB with higher redshift. On the other hand, the three statistical ...

  3. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF GRB 051103 FROM LIGO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C. [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Abbott, T. D. [California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831 (United States); Abernathy, M. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Adams, C. [LIGO-Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754 (United States); Affeldt, C.; Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Allen, G. S. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ceron, E. Amador; Anderson, W. G. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Amariutei, D.; Arain, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Amin, R. S. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Aston, S. M. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Collaboration: LIGO Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present the results of a LIGO search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with GRB 051103, a short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) whose electromagnetically determined sky position is coincident with the spiral galaxy M81, which is 3.6 Mpc from Earth. Possible progenitors for short-hard GRBs include compact object mergers and soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares. A merger progenitor would produce a characteristic GW signal that should be detectable at a distance of M81, while GW emission from an SGR is not expected to be detectable at that distance. We found no evidence of a GW signal associated with GRB 051103. Assuming weakly beamed {gamma}-ray emission with a jet semi-angle of 30 Degree-Sign , we exclude a binary neutron star merger in M81 as the progenitor with a confidence of 98%. Neutron star-black hole mergers are excluded with >99% confidence. If the event occurred in M81, then our findings support the hypothesis that GRB 051103 was due to an SGR giant flare, making it one of the most distant extragalactic magnetars observed to date.

  4. Constraints on Very High Energy Emission from GRB 130427A

    CERN Document Server

    Aliu, E; Barnacka, A; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Biteau, J; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connaughton, V; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Håkansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; McEnery, J E; Perkins, J S; Veres, P; Zhu, S

    2014-01-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z=0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redsh...

  5. An External Shock Origin of GRB $\\textit{141028A}$

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, J Michael; Ryde, Felix; Omodei, Nicola; Pe'er, Asaf; Racusin, J L; Cucchiara, A

    2015-01-01

    The prompt emission of the long, smooth, and single-pulsed gamma-ray burst, GRB $\\textit{141028A}$, is analyzed under the guise of an external shock model. First, we fit the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum with a two-component photon model, namely synchrotron+blackbody, and then fit the recovered evolution of the synchrotron $\

  6. Photometry and spectroscopy of the GRB 970508 optical counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Benitez, N.;

    1998-01-01

    An optical transient within the error box of the gamma ray burst GRB 970508 was imaged 4 hours after the event. It displayed a strong ultraviolet excess, and reached maximum brightness 2 days later. The optical spectra did not show any emission lines, and no variations on time scales of minutes w...

  7. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Thoene, C C; Christensen, L; Gorosabel, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Schulze, S; Jakobsson, P; Wiersema, K; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Leloudas, G; Zafar, T; Malesani, D; Hjorth, J

    2012-01-01

    The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy. Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 A. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of...

  8. Early danish GRB experiments - And some for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2013-01-01

    by a japanese report of a balloon instrument for GRB studies based on a Rotation Modulation Collimator we at the Danish Space Research Institute started the development of an RMC detector for GRBs, the WATCH wide field monitor. Four WATCH units were flown on the Soviet Granat satellites, and one on ESA's EURECA...

  9. WIDGET: System Performance and GRB Prompt Optical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Yuji; Tamagawa, Toru; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuwahara, Makoto; Lin, Hungmiao; Kageyama, Shoichi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Sugasahara, Takako; Takahara, Kazuki; Kodaka, Natsuki; Abe, Keiichi; Masuno, Keisuke; Onda, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions covering a total field of view of 62 degree x 62 degree every 10 secounds using an unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows exploration of the optical emission before the gamma-ray trigger. The unfiltered magnitude is well converted to the SDSS r' system at a 0.1 mag level. Since 2004, WIDGET has made a total of ten simultaneous and one pre-trigger GRB observations. The efficiency of synchronized observation with HETE-2 is four times better than that of Swift. There has been no bright optical emission similar to that from GRB 080319B. The statistical analysis implies that GRB080319B is a rare event. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the WIDGET system and the simultaneous GRB observations obtained with this instrument.

  10. Implications For The Origin Of GRB 051103 From LIGO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, T D; Abbott, R; Abernathy, M; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barnum, S; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauchrowitz, J; Behnke, B; Bell, A S; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Bose, S; Boyle, M; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Bridges, D O; Brinkmann, M; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummitt, A; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cao, J; Capano, C; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cepeda, C; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Chung, C T Y; Clara, F; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Cornish, N; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Culter, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; Danzmann, K; Das, K; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Dayanga, T; DeBra, D; Degallaix, J; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Palma, I; Diaz, M; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Dorsher, S; Douglas, E S D; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Finn, L S; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Garcia, J; Garofoli, J A; Gholami, I; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Graef, C; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Kelner, M; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, N; Kim, H; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Leong, J; Leonor, I; Li, J; Lindquist, P E; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lormand, M; Lu, P; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Marandi, A; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McKechan, D J A; Meadors, G; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Miller, J; Mino, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohanty, S D; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Nash, T; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nolting, D; Nuttall, L; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; Oldenburg, R G; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Peralta, C; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Podkaminer, J; Pold, J; Postiglione, F; Predoi, V; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C R; Rankins, B; Mohapatra, S R P; Raymond, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a LIGO search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with GRB 051103, a short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) whose electromagnetically determined sky position is coincident with the spiral galaxy M81, which is 3.6 Mpc from Earth. Possible progenitors for short-hard GRBs include compact object mergers and soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares. A merger progenitor would produce a characteristic GW signal that should be detectable at the distance of M81, while GW emission from an SGR is not expected to be detectable at that distance. We found no evidence of a GW signal associated with GRB 051103. Assuming weakly beamed gamma-ray emission with a jet semi-angle of 30 deg we exclude a binary neutron star merger in M81 as the progenitor with a confidence of 98%. Neutron star-black hole mergers are excluded with > 99% confidence. If the event occurred in M81 our findings support the the hypothesis that GRB 051103 was due to an SGR giant flare, making it the most distant extr...

  11. GRB Flares: UV/Optical Flaring (Paper I)

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, C A; De Pasquale, M; Oates, S R

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for the detection of flares in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves and use this algorithm to detect flares in the UV/optical. The algorithm makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to analyze the residuals of the fitted light curve, removing all major features, and to determine the statistically best fit to the data by iteratively adding additional `breaks' to the light curve. These additional breaks represent the individual components of the detected flares: T_start, T_stop, and T_peak. We present the detection of 119 unique flaring periods detected by applying this algorithm to light curves taken from the Second Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) GRB Afterglow Catalog. We analyzed 201 UVOT GRB light curves and found episodes of flaring in 68 of the light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ~2 flares per GRB. Flaring is generally restricted to the first 1000 seconds of the afterglow, but can be observed and detected beyond 10...

  12. Spectroscopy of the short-hard GRB 130603B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Thoene, C. C.; Rowlinson, A.;

    2014-01-01

    Short duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects, such as neutron stars or black holes, which makes them promising sources of gravitational waves. The detection of a 'kilonova'-like signature associated to the Swift-detected GRB 130603B has...

  13. When GRB afterglows get softer, hard components come into play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the ability of simple spectral models to describe the early afterglow emission of GRBs. We found that four spectra, belonging to the GRB060502A, GRB060729, GRB060904B, GRB061H0A prompt-afterglow transition phase, can be modeled neither by a single power-law nor by the Band model. Instead we find that the data present high-energy (>3 keV, in the observer frame) statistically significant excesses with respect to these models In all four cases, the deviations can be modeled well by adding either a second power law or a blackbody component to the usual synchrotron power law spectrum. Although the data do not allow an unequivocal physical interpretation, the importance of this analysis consists in showing that a simple power-law model or a Band model is insufficient to describe the X-ray spectra of a small homogeneous sample of GRBs at the end of their prompt phase [1

  14. The optical afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 000926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Dall, T.H.;

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate with the case of GRB 000926 how Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) can be used as cosmological lighthouses to identify and study star forming galaxies at high redshifts. The optical afterglow of the burst was located with optical imaging at the Nordic Optical Telescope 20.7 hours...

  15. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  16. High resolution non-iterative aperture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraczek, Jeffrey R; McManamon, Paul F; Watson, Edward A

    2016-03-21

    The maximum resolution of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging system is determined by the size of the synthetic aperture. The synthetic aperture is determined by a coordinate shift using the relative positions of the illuminators and receive apertures. Previous methods have shown non-iterative phasing for multiple illuminators with a single receive aperture for intra-aperture synthesis. This work shows non-iterative phasing with both multiple illuminators and multiple receive apertures for inter-aperture synthesis. Simulated results show that piston, tip, and tilt can be calculated using inter-aperture phasing after intra-aperture phasing has been performed. Use of a fourth illuminator for increased resolution is shown. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is used to quantitatively judge increased resolution. PMID:27136816

  17. The dark nature of GRB 130528A and its host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, S; Bremer, M; Winters, J M; Gorosabel, J; Guziy, S; Pandey, S B; Jelínek, M; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Sokolov, Ilya V; Orekhova, N V; Moskvitin, A S; Tello, J C; Cunniffe, R; Lara-Gil, O; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Bai, J; Fan, Y; Wang, C; Park, I H

    2014-01-01

    We study the dark nature of GRB 130528A via the multi-wavelength observations and conclude that the main reason for this is the local extinction inside the host galaxy. Automatic observations were performed at BOOTES-4/MET robotic telescope. We also triggered Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation at the OSN, IRAM PdBI and the GTC+OSIRIS. The host galaxy photometric observations in optical to near-infrared (nIR) wavelengths were achieved through ground large aperture telescopes, such as the 10.4m GTC, the 4.2m WHT, and the 6m BTA telescope. Based on these observations, a spectral energy distributions (SED) model for the host galaxy and afterglow was constructed. We confirmed a clearly fading mm source within the XRT error circle thanks to our millimetre observations at PdBI while no credible optical source was found in early observation at the BOOTES-4/MET and 1.5m OSN telescopes. Spectroscopic observation of this galaxy at the GTC showed faint [OII] 3727\\{AA} emission line at a redshift of 1.250+/-0.001 imp...

  18. An Observatory to Enhance the Preparation of Future California Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, L.; Lederer, S.

    2004-12-01

    With a major grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation, California State University, San Bernardino is establishing a state-of-the-art teaching astronomical observatory. The Observatory will be fundamental to an innovative undergraduate physics and astronomy curriculum for Physics and Liberal Studies majors and will be integrated into our General Education program. The critical need for a research and educational observatory is linked to changes in California's Science Competencies for teacher certification. Development of the Observatory will also complement a new infusion of NASA funding and equipment support for our growing astronomy education programs and the University's established Strategic Plan for excellence in education and teacher preparation. The Observatory will consist of two domed towers. One tower will house a 20" Ritchey-Chretien telescope equipped with a CCD camera in conjunction with either UBVRI broadband filters or a spectrometer for evening laboratories and student research projects. The second tower will house the university's existing 12" Schmidt-Cassegrain optical telescope coupled with a CCD camera and an array of filters. A small aperture solar telescope will be attached to the 12" for observing solar prominences while a milar filter can be attached to the 12" for sunspot viewing. We have been very fortunate to receive a challenge grant of \\600,000 from the W. M. Keck Foundation to equip the two domed towers; we continue to seek a further \\800,000 to meet our construction needs. Funding also provided by the California State University, San Bernardino.

  19. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  20. Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  1. GRBs Optical follow-up observation at Lulin observatory, Taiwan

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, K Y; Ip, W H; Tamagawa, T; Onda, K; Makishima, K

    2005-01-01

    The Lulin GRB program, using the Lulin One-meter Telescope (LOT) in Taiwan started in July 2003. Its scientific aims are to discover optical counterparts of XRFs and short and long GRBs, then to quickly observe them in multiple bands. Thirteen follow-up observations were provided by LOT between July 2003 and Feb. 2005. One host galaxy was found at GRB 031203. Two optical afterglows were detected for GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. In addition, the optical observations of GRB 031203 and a discussion of the non-detection of the optical afterglow of GRB 031203 are also reported in this article.

  2. A Small, Rapid Optical-IR Response Gamma-Ray Burst Space Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grossan, Bruce; Perley, Daniel; Smoot, George F

    2014-01-01

    Here we propose a new gamma-ray burst (GRB) mission, the Next Generation Rapid-Response GRB Observatory (NGRG). As with Swift, GRBs are initially located with a coded-mask X-ray camera. However, the NGRG has two new features: First, a beam-steering system to begin optical observations within ~ 1 s after location; second, a near-IR (NIR) camera viewing the same sky, for sensitivity to extinguished bursts. These features allow measurement of the rise phase of GRB optical-NIR emission. Thus far, the rise time and transition between prompt and afterglow in the optical and NIR are rarely measured. Rapid-response measurements explore many science topics including optical emission mechanisms (synchrotron vs. SSC, photospheric emission) and jet characteristics (reverse vs. forward shock emission, baryon-dominated vs. magnetic dominated). Rapid optical-NIR response can measure dynamic evolution of extinction due to vaporization of dust, and separate star system and galaxy dust extinction. We discuss these measurements...

  3. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  4. A case of mistaken identity? GRB 060912A and the nature of the long -- short GRB divide

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, A J; Chapman, R; Gehrels, N; Gorosabel, J; Hurkett, C; Jakobsson, P; Kouveliotou, C; O'Brien, P T; Osborne, J P; Priddey, R S; Rol, E; Starling, R; Tanvir, N R; Vreeswijk, P M; Wiersema, K

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the GRB 060912A, which has observational properties that make its classification as either a long or short burst ambiguous. Short duration GRBs (SGRBs) are thought to have typically lower energies than long duration bursts, can be found in galaxies with populations of all ages and are likely to originate from different progenitors to the long duration bursts. However, it has become clear that duration alone is insufficient to make a distinction between the two populations in many cases, leading to a desire to find additional discriminators of burst type. GRB 060912A had a duration of 6 s and occurred only ~10 arcsec from a bright, low redshift ($z=0.0936$) elliptical galaxy, suggesting that this may have been the host, which would favour it being a short-burst. However, our deep optical imaging and spectroscopy of the location of GRB 060912A using the VLT shows that GRB 060912A more likely originates in a distant star forming galaxy at z=0.937, and is most likely a long burst. Thi...

  5. GRB 090510: a genuine short-GRB from a binary neutron star coalescing into a Kerr-Newman black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Enderli, M; Muccino, M; Aimuratov, Y; Bianco, C L; Cherubini, C; Kovacevic, M; Moradi, R; Penacchioni, A V; Pisani, G B; Rueda, J A; Wang, Y

    2016-01-01

    In a new classification of merging binary neutron stars (NSs) we separate short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in two sub-classes. The ones with $E_{\\rm iso}\\lesssim10^{52}$ erg coalesce to form a massive NS and are indicated as short gamma-ray flashes (S-GRFs). The hardest, with $E_{\\rm iso}\\gtrsim10^{52}$ erg, coalesce to form a black hole (BH) and are indicated as genuine short-GRBs (S-GRBs). Within the fireshell model, S-GRBs exhibit three different components: the P-GRB emission, observed at the transparency of a self-accelerating baryon-$e^+e^-$ plasma; the prompt emission, originating from the interaction of the accelerated baryons with the circumburst medium; the high-energy (GeV) emission, observed after the P-GRB and indicating the formation of a BH. GRB 090510 gives the first evidence for the formation of a Kerr-Newman BH. Its P-GRB spectrum can be fitted by a convolution of thermal spectra whose origin can be traced back to an axially symmetric dyadotorus. A large value of the angular momentum of the new...

  6. The properties of the 2175AA extinction feature discovered in GRB afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Eliasdottir, Ardis; Fynbo, Johan P U; Kruhler, Thomas; Schady, Patricia; Leloudas, Giorgos; Jakobsson, Pall; Thone, Christina C; Perley, Daniel A; Morgan, Adam N; Bloom, Joshua; Greiner, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    The unequivocal, spectroscopic detection of the 2175 bump in extinction curves outside the Local Group is rare. To date, the properties of the bump have been examined in only two GRB afterglows (GRB 070802 and GRB 080607). In this work we analyse in detail the detections of the 2175 extinction bump in the optical spectra of the two further GRB afterglows: GRB 080605 and 080805. We gather all available optical/NIR photometric, spectroscopic and X-ray data to construct multi-epoch SEDs for both GRB afterglows. We fit the SEDs with the Fitzpatrick & Massa (1990) model with a single or broken PL. We also fit a sample of 38 GRB afterglows, known to prefer a SMC-type extinction curve, with the same model. We find that the SEDs of GRB 080605 and GRB 080805 at two epochs are fit well with a single PL with a derived extinction of A_V = 0.52(+0.13 -0.16) and 0.50 (+0.13 -0.10), and 2.1(+0.7-0.6) and 1.5+/-0.2 respectively. While the slope of the extinction curve of GRB 080805 is not well-constrained, the extinction...

  7. Lyot coronagraph design study for large, segmented space telescope apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; St. Laurent, Kathryn E.; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Stark, Christopher C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, Stuart; Carlotti, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Recent efforts combining the optimization techniques of apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs (APLC) and shaped pupils have demonstrated the viability of a binary-transmission mask architecture for extremely high contrast (10-10) exoplanet imaging. We are now building on those innovations to carry out a survey of Lyot coronagraph performance for large, segmented telescope apertures. These apertures are of the same kind under considera- tion for NASA's Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) observatory concept. To map the multi-dimensional design parameter space, we have developed a software toolkit to manage large sets of mask optimization programs and execute them on a computing cluster. Here we summarize a preliminary survey of 500 APLC solutions for 4 reference hexagonal telescope apertures. Several promising designs produce annular, 10-10 contrast dark zones down to inner working angle 4λ0=D over a 15% bandpass, while delivering a half-max PSF core throughput of 18%. We also report our progress on devising solutions to the challenges of Lyot stop alignment/fabrication tolerance that arise in this contrast regime.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rosner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  9. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...

  10. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  11. Erratum: The Late Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990712

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, J.; Holland, S.; Courbin, F.; Dar, A.; Olsen, L. F.; Scodeggio, M.

    2000-08-01

    In the Letter ``The Late Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 990712'' by J. Hjorth, S. Holland, F. Courbin, A. Dar, L. F. Olsen, & M. Scodeggio (ApJ, 534, L147 [2000]), there was an error in the flux calibration of the spectrum. The y-axis scale of Figure 2 and the fluxes in the last column of Table 1 should be multiplied by a factor of 3.47 to read 2.25, 0.86, 1.61, and 3.79×10-16 ergs s-1 cm-2. The error affects the luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) presented in the third and fourth paragraphs of § 5 as follows. In the third paragraph, the total SFR based on the continuum flux should be 0.91-1.41 Msolar yr-1 instead of 0.29-0.45 the [O II] luminosity should be L3727=1.5×1041 ergs s-1 instead of 6.3×1040 and the implied [O II] SFR should be 2.12+/-0.60 Msolar yr-1 instead of 0.88+/-0.25. Consequently, the last two sentences of this paragraph are revised to read ``The derived SFR (from the [O II] flux) is about half of the SFR found by Bloom et al. (1999b) for the host of GRB 990123 and 2-3 times that of the host of GRB 970508 (Bloom et al. 1998). The specific SFR per unit luminosity of the GRB 990712 host galaxy is comparable to that of the host galaxies of GRB 990123 and GRB 970508.'' In the fourth paragraph, the total V-band flux in the feature should be 0.405+/-0.004 μJy instead of 0.323+/-0.003 the power-law spectral index should be β=-2.57 instead of -2.93 and the SFR in the feature should be 0.11-0.17 Msolar instead of 0.03-0.05. The main results and conclusions of the original Letter are unaffected by the error. The authors thank P. M. Vreeswijk for bringing this error to their attention.

  12. Effect of GRB spectra on the empirical luminosity correlations and the GRB Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Chang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a wide energy range can usually be well described by the Band function, which is a two smoothly jointed power laws cutting at a breaking energy. Below the breaking energy, the Band function reduces to a cut-off power law, while above the breaking energy it is a simple power law. However, for some detectors (such as the Swift-BAT) whose working energy is well below or just near the breaking energy, the observed spectra can be fitted to cut-off power law with enough precision. Besides, since the energy band of Swift-BAT is very narrow, the spectra of most GRBs can be fitted well even using a simple power law. In this paper, with the most up-to-date sample of Swift-BAT GRBs, we study the effect of different spectral models on the empirical luminosity correlations, and further investigate the effect on the reconstruction of GRB Hubble diagram. We mainly focus on two luminosity correlations, i.e., the Amati relation and Yonetoku relation. We calculate these two luminosity ...

  13. Portable coastal observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  14. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  15. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  16. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  17. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  18. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  19. GRB beaming and gravitational-wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. These estimates rely crucially on the growing consensus that short gamma-ray bursts are associated with the merger of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole, but otherwise make no assumptions beyond the observed rate of short GRBs. In particular, our results do not assume coincident gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. We show that the non-detection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the progenitor masses and beaming angles of gamma-ray bursts. For future detectors, we find that the first detection of a NS-NS binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of a modest network of observatories (e.g., only LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at modest sensitivities (e.g., ad...

  20. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-Ray Bursts. II. Type I GRB versus Type II GRB Optical Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Covino, S.; Butler, N. R.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Wilson, A. C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Israel, G. L.; Mannucci, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Schulze, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wiersema, K.

    2011-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been separated into two classes, originally along the lines of duration and spectral properties, called "short/hard" and "long/soft." The latter have been conclusively linked to the explosive deaths of massive stars, while the former are thought to result from the merger or collapse of compact objects. In recent years, indications have been accumulating that the short/hard versus long/soft division does not map directly onto what would be expected from the two classes of progenitors, leading to a new classification scheme called Type I and Type II which is based on multiple observational criteria. We use a large sample of GRB afterglow and prompt-emission data (adding further GRB afterglow observations in this work) to compare the optical afterglows (or the lack thereof) of Type I GRBs with those of Type II GRBs. In comparison to the afterglows of Type II GRBs, we find that those of Type I GRBs have a lower average luminosity and show an intrinsic spread of luminosities at least as wide. From late and deep upper limits on the optical transients, we establish limits on the maximum optical luminosity of any associated supernova (SN), confirming older works and adding new results. We use deep upper limits on Type I GRB optical afterglows to constrain the parameter space of possible mini-SN emission associated with a compact-object merger. Using the prompt-emission data, we search for correlations between the parameters of the prompt emission and the late optical afterglow luminosities. We find tentative correlations between the bolometric isotropic energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at a fixed time after the trigger (positive), and between the host offset and the luminosity (negative), but no significant correlation between the isotropic energy release and the duration of the GRBs. We also discuss three anomalous GRBs, GRB 060505, GRB 060614, and GRB 060121, in light of their optical afterglow luminosities. Based in part

  1. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Barcaroli, Leonardo; D'Amico, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló; Rosati, Giacomo

    2016-10-01

    Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of study naturally lends itself to the introduction of a "false alarm probability", which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of GRB 110625A

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, P H Thomas; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that emit photons at GeV energies form a small but significant population of GRBs. However, the number of GRBs whose GeV-emitting period is simultaneously observed in X-rays remains small. We report gamma-ray observations of GRB 110625A using Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy range 100 MeV to 20 GeV. Gamma-ray emission at these energies was clearly detected using data taken between 180s and 580s after the burst, an epoch after the prompt emission phase. The GeV light curve differs from a simple power-law decay, and probably consists of two emission periods. Simultaneous Swift/XRT observations did not show flaring behaviors as in the case of GRB 100728A. We discuss the possibility that the GeV emission is the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of underlying ultraviolet flares.

  3. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; D'Amico, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló; Rosati, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of studies naturally lends itself to the introduction of a "false alarm probability", which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  4. GRB 010921 Discovery of the First HETE Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Berger, E; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Mahabal, A A; Fox, D W; Harrison, F A; Bloom, J S; Yost, S A; Reichart, D E; Henden, A A; Ricker, G R; Van der Spek, R; Hurley, K; Atteia, J L; Kawai, N; Fenimore, E E; Graziani, C

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical and radio afterglow of GRB 010921, the first gamma-ray burst afterglow to be found from a localization by the High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) satellite. We present optical spectroscopy of the host galaxy which we find to be a dusty and apparently normal star-forming galaxy at z = 0.451. The unusually steep optical spectral slope of the afterglow can be explained by heavy extinction, A_V > 0.5 mag, along the line of sight to the GRB. Dust with similar A_V for the the host galaxy as a whole appears to be required by the measurement of a Balmer decrement in the spectrum of the host galaxy. Thanks to the low redshift, continued observations of the afterglow will enable the strongest constraints, to date, on the existence of a possible underlying supernova.

  5. On GRB Physics Revealed by FERMI/LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications of Fermi/LAT observations on several aspects of gamma-ray burst (GRB) physics, including the radiation process, the emission sites, the bulk Lorentz factor, and the pre-shock magnetic field: (1) MeV-range emission favors synchrotron process but the highest energy (>10GeV) emission may not be synchrotron origin, more likely inverse Compton origin; (2) GRB should have multi-zone emission region, with MeV emission produced at smaller radii while optical and >100MeV emission at larger radii; (3) the bulk Lorentz factor can be a few 100's, much lower than 10^3, in multi-zone model; (4) the upstream magnetic field of afterglow shock is strongly amplified to be at least in mG scale.

  6. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  7. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    This booklet is devoted to NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory and is aimed at people interested in astronomy and BAO, pupils and students, BAO visitors and others. The booklet is made as a visiting card and presents concise and full information about BAO. A brief history of BAO, the biography of the great scientist Viktor Ambartsumian, brief biographies of 13 other deserved scientists formerly working at BAO (B.E. Markarian, G.A. Gurzadyan, L.V. Mirzoyan, M.A. Arakelian, et al.), information on BAO telescopes (2.6m, 1m Schmidt, etc.) and other scientific instruments, scientific library and photographic plate archive, Byurakan surveys (including the famous Markarian Survey included in the UNESCO Memory of the World International Register), all scientific meetings held in Byurakan, international scientific collaboration, data on full research staff of the Observatory, as well as former BAO researchers, who have moved to foreign institutions are given in the booklet. At the end, the list of the most important books published by Armenian astronomers and about them is given.

  8. The study on aperture configuration of optical synthetic aperture imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A model based on Fourier domain consideration on aperture configuration of optical synthetic aperture imaging system is introduced in this paper. The derivation of the model is directly linked to the restoration error of the original object from the recorded image. The aperture configuration is a function of the maximum frequency of interest, and takes into account the diameter of the aperture. The simulative results of genetic algorithms illustrate the usefulness of this model for designing a synthetic aperture optical imaging system, and the aperture configuration of a good synthetic aperture optical imaging system should be non-redundant.

  9. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgess, J. Michael; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chaplin, V.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cleveland, W.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Collazzi, A.; Cominsky, L. R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeKlotz, M.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Diekmann, A.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Gibby, M.; Giglietto, N.; Giles, M.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Paneque, D.; Pelassa, V.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sartori, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Younes, G.; Yu, H.-F.; Zhu, S. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Byrne, D.; Foley, S.; Goldstein, A.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Xiong, S.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Cummings, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest γ-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  10. Spectroscopic Observations of the Bright Afterglow of GRB021004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona

    2001-09-01

    One of the holy grails of gamma-ray burst research is to detect X-ray line signatures from an afterglow with high statistical significance. Of all possible observations, this perhaps offers the best chance of constraining the GRB mechanism and environment, and could provide the "smoking gun" signature connecting GRBs to massive stellar deaths. In order to accomplish this, we know long observations within one day of the event are necessary.

  11. A SUPRAMASSIVE MAGNETAR CENTRAL ENGINE FOR GRB 130603B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, Yun-Wei [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Xu, Dong [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Wu, Xue-Feng [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We show that the peculiar early optical emission and, in particular, the X-ray afterglow emission of the short-duration burst GRB 130603B can be explained by continuous energy injection into the blastwave from a supramassive magnetar central engine. The observed energetics and temporal/spectral properties of the late infrared bump (i.e., the {sup k}ilonova{sup )} are also found to be consistent with emission from the ejecta launched during a neutron star (NS)-NS merger and powered by a magnetar central engine. The isotropic-equivalent kinetic energies of both the gamma-ray burst (GRB) blastwave and the kilonova are approximately E{sub k} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, consistent with being powered by a near-isotropic magnetar wind. However, this relatively small value requires that most of the initial rotational energy of the magnetar (∼a few × 10{sup 52} erg) is carried away by gravitational wave radiation. Our results suggest that (1) the progenitor of GRB 130603B was a NS-NS binary system, the merger product of which would have been a supramassive NS that lasted for about ∼1000 s; (2) the equation of state of the nuclear matter should be stiff enough to allow the survival of a long-lived supramassive NS; thus this suggested that the detection of the bright electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave triggers without short GRB associations is promising in the upcoming Advanced LIGO/VIRGO era.

  12. Observations of Extrasolar Planet Transit at the Bosscha Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Satyaningsih, R; Hidayat, T; Siregar, S; Radiman, I; Yamani, A

    2010-01-01

    Since its first discovery, most extrasolar planets were detected using radial velocity (RV) method. However, the RV method does not provide all parameters required to characterize a planetary system. Recently, Charbonneau et al.(2000) and Brown et al(2001)have shown that the RV planet orbiting HD 209458 can be observed using transit method yielding some additional information. As pointed out by Castellano (2004), this method can be undertaken using small aperture telescopes and inexpensive CCDs. We report here new observations of planetary transit in HD 102195 and HD 209458 performed at the Bosscha Observatory since March 2006. Some preliminary results will be presented

  13. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamidouche, M; Marcum, P; Krabbe, A

    2010-01-01

    We present one of the new generations of observatories, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This is an airborne observatory consisting of a 2.7-m telescope mounted on a modified Boeing B747-SP airplane. Flying at an up to 45,000 ft (14 km) altitude, SOFIA will observe above more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmospheric water vapor allowing observations in the normally obscured far-infrared. We outline the observatory capabilities and goals. The first-generation science instruments flying on board SOFIA and their main astronomical goals are also presented.

  14. WUVS spectrographs of World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, Igor; Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris M.; Shugarov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 320 nm). It includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy, long slit low-resolution spectroscopy and deep UV and optical imaging. WUVS - the set of three ultraviolet spectrographs are regarded as the main instrument of «Spektr -UF» space mission. The spectrographs unit includes three channels and is intended for acquisition of spectrums of high (R=50000) and low (R=1000) resolution of the observed objects in the electromagnetic radiation's ultraviolet range (115-310 nm). We present the design philosophy of WUVS and summarize its key characteristics. We shall present the main properties of WUVS new structure and current status of its mockups and prototypes manufacturing.

  15. The rise of the afterglow in GRB 050820a

    CERN Document Server

    Genet, F; Mochkovitch, R

    2007-01-01

    The early optical afterglow of GRB 050820a recorded by the RAPTOR telescope shows both a contribution from the prompt emission and the initial rise of the afterglow. It is therefore well-suited for the study of the dynamical evolution of the GRB ejecta when it first undergoes the decelerating effect of the environment. This is a complex phase where the internal, reverse, and forward shocks can all be present simultaneously. We have developed a simplified model that can follow these different shocks in an approximate, but self-consistent way. It is applied to the case of GRB 050820a to obtain the prompt and afterglow light curves. We show that the rise of the afterglow during the course of the prompt emission has some important consequences. The reverse shock propagates back into the ejecta before internal shocks are completed, which affects the shape of the gamma-ray profile. We get the best results when the external medium has a uniform density, but obtaining a simultaneous fit of the prompt and afterglow em...

  16. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K; Covino, S; Toma, K; van der Horst, A J; Varela, K; Min, M; Greiner, J; Starling, R L C; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Campana, S; Curran, P A; Fan, Y; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Gomboc, A; Götz, D; Hjorth, J; Jin, Z P; Kobayashi, S; Kouveliotou, C; Mundell, C; O'Brien, P T; Pian, E; Rowlinson, A; Russell, D M; Salvaterra, R; di Serego Alighieri, S; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D; Elliott, J; Fariña, C; Hartoog, O E; Karjalainen, R; Klose, S; Knust, F; Levan, A J; Schady, P; Sudilovsky, V; Willingale, R

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets. PMID:24776800

  17. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z. P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D. M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O. E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A. J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the jet when measured minutes after the burst, and it probes the geometric properties of the jet and the ambient medium when measured hours to days after the burst. High values of optical polarization detected minutes after the burst of GRB 120308A indicate the presence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields originating from the central engine (the power source of the GRB). Theoretical models predict low degrees of linear polarization and no circular polarization at late times, when the energy in the original ejecta is quickly transferred to the ambient medium and propagates farther into the medium as a blast wave. Here we report the detection of circularly polarized light in the afterglow of GRB 121024A, measured 0.15 days after the burst. We show that the circular polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects. A possible explanation is to invoke anisotropic (rather than the commonly assumed isotropic) electron pitch-angle distributions, and we suggest that new models are required to produce the complex microphysics of realistic shocks in relativistic jets.

  18. Magnetically powered prompt radiation and flow acceleration in GRB

    CERN Document Server

    Spruit, H C

    2003-01-01

    The physics of GRB powered by a magnetic energy flux is reviewed. Magnetic fields are natural for transmitting the energy from the central compact object to the small amount of baryons required for a GRB. When dissipation of the flux of magnetic energy by reconnection inside the flow is taken into account, the magnetic model assumes several more convincing properties. For baryon loading typical of observed GRB, most of the dissipation takes place just outside photosphere, so that prompt emission is produced efficiently, and the magnetic field strength in this region is high, resulting in efficient synchrotron emission. Remarkably, the dissipation also causes very efficient acceleration of the bulk flow. This effect is illustrated with a classical hydrodynamic equivalent. In this context, the distinction between the flux of magnetic energy $cB^2/8\\pi$ and the Poynting flux $cB^2/4\\pi$ is important, and an interpretation of the Poynting flux as a `magnetic enthalpy flux' illuminating. Numerical and analytical r...

  19. Implications for the Origin of GRB 051103 from LIGO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouard, M. A.; Dietz, A.; Guidi, G. M.; Was, M.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.; Blackburn, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a LIGO search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with GRB 051103, a short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst whose electromagnetically determined sky position is coincident with the spiral galaxy M81, which is 3.6Mpc from Earth. Possible progenitors for short-hard GRBs include compact object mergers and soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares. A merger progenitor would produce a characteristic GW signal that should be detectable at the distance of M81, while GW emission from an SGR is not expected to be detectable at that distance. We found no evidence of a GW signal associated with GRB 051103. Assuming weakly beamed gamma-ray emission with a jet semi-angle of 30. we exclude a binary neutron star merger in M81 as the progenitor with a confidence of 98%. Neutron star-black hole mergers are excluded with > 99% confidence. If the event occurred in M81 our findings support the hypothesis that GRB 051103 was due to an SGR giant flare, making it the most distant extragalactic magnetar observed to date.

  20. GRB afterglow light curves from realistic density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Mimica, Petar

    2011-01-01

    The afterglow emission that follows gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) contains valuable information about the circumburst medium and, therefore, about the GRB progenitor. Theoretical studies of GRB blast waves, however, are often limited to simple density profiles for the external medium (mostly constant density and power-law R^{-k} ones). We argue that a large fraction of long-duration GRBs should take place in massive stellar clusters where the circumburst medium is much more complicated. As a case study, we simulate the propagation of a GRB blast wave in a medium shaped by the collision of the winds of O and Wolf-Rayet stars, the typical distance of which is d /sim 0.1 - 1 pc. Assuming a spherical blast wave, the afterglow light curve shows a flattening followed by a shallow break on a timescale from hours up to a week after the burst, which is a result of the propagation of the blast wave through the shocked wind region. If the blast wave is collimated, the jet break may, in some cases, become very pronounced with ...

  1. GRB 131231A: IMPLICATIONS OF THE GeV EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRB 131231A was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Space Gamma-ray Telescope. The high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) afterglow emission spectrum is F ν∝ν–0.54 ± 0.15 in the first ∼1300 s after the trigger and the most energetic photon has an energy of ∼62 GeV, arriving at t ∼ 520 s. With reasonable parameters of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow as well as the density of the circum-burst medium, the synchrotron radiation of electrons or protons accelerated at an external forward shock have difficulty accounting for the data. Rather, the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of the forward shock-accelerated electrons can account for both the spectrum and temporal behavior of the GeV afterglow emission. We also show that the prospect for detecting GRB 131231A-like GRBs with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is promising

  2. Multi-Color Observations of the GRB000926 Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Galama, T J; Reichart, D E; Axelrod, T S; Busche, J; Cline, T; Diercks, A H; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Halpern, J; Hunt, J A H M; Hurley, K; Jacoby, B; Kimble, R A; Kulkarni, S R; Mirabal, N; Morrison, G; Pevunova, E O O; Sari, R; Schmidt, B P; Turnshek, D A; Yost, S; Bloom, S J

    2000-01-01

    We present multi-color light-curves of the optical afterglow of GRB 000926. Beginning 1.18 days after the burst, the light curves of this GRB steepen measurably. The existence of such achromatic breaks are usually taken to be an important observational signature that the ejecta are not expanding isotropically, but rather have a collimated jet-like geometry. If we interpret the data in this context, we derive an opening angle of 7 deg, which reduces the energy release compared to an isotropic model by a factor of 120, to 2.2 x 10^{51} erg. To fit the data with a simple jet model requires extinction along the line of sight. The derived A_V is in the range 0.91 -- 0.12 mag, depending on the adopted extinction law and whether the electrons giving rise to the optical emission are undergoing synchrotron cooling or not. Since this is in excess of the expected extinction from our Galaxy, we attribute this to the GRB host. We note that this extinction is typical of a galactic disk, and therefore the event likely took ...

  3. Spectroscopic Discovery of the Supernova Associated with GRB 030329

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, K Z; Garnavich, P M; Martini, P; Caldwell, P B N; Challis, P M; Brown, W; Schild, R; Krisciunas, K; Calkins, M L; Lee, J C; Hathi, N; Jansen, R; Windhorst, R A; Echevarria, L; Eisenstein, D J; Pindor, B; Olszewski, E W; Harding, P; Bersier, D F

    2003-01-01

    We present early observations of the afterglow of the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) 030329 and the spectroscopic discovery of its associated supernova. We obtained spectra of the afterglow of GRB 030329 each night from March 30.12 (0.6 days after the burst) to April 8.13 (UT) (9.6 days after the burst). The spectra cover a wavelength range of 350 nm to 850 nm. The early spectra consist of a power-law continuum (F_{nu} ~ nu^{-0.9}) with narrow emission lines originating from HII regions in the host galaxy, indicating a low redshift of z=0.1687. However, our spectra taken after 2003 Apr. 5 show broad peaks in flux characteristic of a supernova. Correcting for the afterglow emission, we find the spectrum of the supernova is remarkably similar to the type Ic `hypernova' SN 1998bw. While the presence of supernovae have been inferred from the light curves and colors of GRB afterglows in the past, this is the first direct, spectral confirmation that a subset of classical gamma-ray bursts originate from supernovae.

  4. The Interpretation and Implication of the Afterglow of GRB 060218

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Y; Xu, D; Fan, Yizhong; Piran, Tsvi; Xu, Dong

    2006-01-01

    The nearby GRB 060216/SN 2006aj was an extremely long, weak and very soft GRB. While it was peculiar in many aspects its late ($>10^4$ sec) X-ray afterglow showed a canonical power law decay. Assuming that this component arises due to a relativistic blast wave decelerated by a circumburst matter we infer that the blast wave's kinetic energy was rather high, $5 \\times 10^{50}$ erg, close to what is seen in other GRBs. The lack of a "jet break" implies that the outflow was wide $\\theta_j \\sim 1$. The rather weak early optical emission rules out a dense circumburst wind profile. It also constrains the initial Lorentz factor to be significantly lower than usual, $\\Gamma_{\\rm ini}\\sim 15$. The observed afterglow suggests that the medium surrounding a massive star progenitor (up to distances of $\\sim 10^{17}-10^{18}$ cm) is not the expected dense stellar wind (a similar result was seen in many other bursts and in particular in GRB 030329). This implies that the progenitor's wind was weak during the last 100-1000 ye...

  5. The 050709 macronova and the GRB/macronova connection

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Tanaka, Masaomi; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Covino, Stefano; Wei, Da-Ming; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    We reanalyzed the publicly-available optical/near-infrared afterglow observations of GRB 050709, the first short GRB from which an optical afterglow was detected. The $I$-band/F814W-band light curve is significantly shallower than the $R$-band light curve. This additional low-luminosity soft component can be a signature of a Li-Paczy\\'{n}ski macronova (also known as kilonova) arising from $\\sim 0.05~M_\\odot$ r-process material launched by a compact binary merger. As macronovae are relatively weak and soft they can be identified only within the afterglows of relatively nearby ($z<0.4$) bursts that have sufficient near-infrared/optical data. There are five such events: GRBs 050709, 060505, 060614, 061201 and 130603B. However, the redshift of 061201 is unclear and there is doubt concerning the origin of GRB 060505. Remarkably, evidence for a macronova signature is found in the afterglow of each one of the remaining three events. This demonstrates that macronovae are ubiquitous. The significant mass ejection s...

  6. Pulse-wise GRB correlation: implication as a cosmological tool

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cosmological explosions which carry valuable information from the distant past of the expanding universe. One of the greatest discoveries in modern cosmology is the finding of the accelerated expansion of the universe using Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) as standard candles. However, due to the interstellar extinction SN Ia can be seen only up to a redshift $z\\sim 1.5$. GRBs are considered as the potential alternative to push this limit to as high as $z\\sim 10$, a redshift regime corresponding to an epoch when the universe just started to form the first structures. There exist several correlations between the energy and an observable of a GRB which can be used to derive luminosity distance. In recent works, we have studied spectral evolution within the individual pulses and obtained such correlations within the pulses. Here we summarize our results of the pulse-wise GRB correlation study. It is worth mentioning that all GRB correlations are still empirical, and we cannot use them in co...

  7. The Unusually Long Duration Gamma-ray Burst GRB 000911

    CERN Document Server

    Price, P A; Kulkarni, S R; Djorgovski, S G; Fox, D W; Mahabal, A A; Hurley, K; Bloom, J S; Frail, D A; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; Morrison, G; Reichart, D E; Yost, S A; Sari, R; Axelrod, T S; Cline, T; Golenetskii, S V; Mazets, E; Schmidt, B P; Trombka, J I

    2002-01-01

    Of all the well localized gamma-ray bursts, GRB 000911 has the longest duration (T_90 ~ 500 s), and ranks in the top 1% of BATSE bursts for fluence. Here, we report the discovery of the afterglow of this unique burst. In order to simultaneously fit our radio and optical observations, we are required to invoke a model involving an hard electron distribution, p ~ 1.5 and a jet-break time less than 1.5 day. A spectrum of the host galaxy taken 111 days after the burst reveals a single emission line, interpreted as [OII] at a redshift z = 1.0585, and a continuum break which we interpret as the Balmer limit at this redshift. Despite the long T_90, the afterglow of GRB 000911 is not unusual in any other way when compared to the set of afterglows studied to date. We conclude that the duration of the GRB plays little part in determining the physics of the afterglow.

  8. The extremely red host galaxy of GRB 080207

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Leslie; Rossi, Andrea; Savaglio, Sandra; Cresci, Giovanni; Klose, Sylvio; Michalowski, Michal; Pian, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the host galaxy of the dark gamma-ray burst GRB 080207. The host is faint, with extremely red optical-infrared colors ($R-K\\,=\\,6.3$, 24\\micron/$R-$band flux $\\sim1000$) making it an extremely red object (ERO) and a dust-obscured galaxy (DOG). The spectral energy distribution (SED) shows the clear signature of the 1.6 micron photometric "bump", typical of evolved stellar populations. We use this bump to establish the photometric redshift $z_{\\rm phot}$ as 2.2$^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$, using a vast library of SED templates, including M 82. The star-formation rate (SFR) inferred from the SED fitting is $\\sim$119\\msun\\,yr$^{-1}$, the stellar mass $3\\times10^{11}$\\,\\msun, and \\av\\ extinction from 1-2\\,mag. The ERO and DOG nature of the host galaxy of the dark GRB 080207 may be emblematic of a distinct class of dark GRB hosts, with high SFRs, evolved and metal-rich stellar populations, and significant dust extinction within the host galaxy.

  9. Short term dynamic aperture with AC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Mönig, Saskia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal, Jaime; Langner, Andy; Tomas, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of an accelerator is determined by its non-linear components and errors. Control of the dynamic aperture is important for a good understanding and operation of the accelerator. The AC dipole, installed in the LHC for the diagnostic of linear and non-linear optics, could serve as a tool for the determination of the dynamic aperture. However, since the AC dipole itself modifies the non-linear dynamics, the dynamic aperture with and without AC dipole are expected to differ. The effect of the AC dipole on the dynamic aperture is studied within this note.

  10. Running a distributed virtual observatory: US Virtual Astronomical Observatory operations

    CERN Document Server

    McGlynn, Thomas A; Berriman, G Bruce; Thakar, Aniruddha R

    2012-01-01

    Operation of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory shares some issues with modern physical observatories, e.g., intimidating data volumes and rapid technological change, and must also address unique concerns like the lack of direct control of the underlying and scattered data resources, and the distributed nature of the observatory itself. In this paper we discuss how the VAO has addressed these challenges to provide the astronomical community with a coherent set of science-enabling tools and services. The distributed nature of our virtual observatory-with data and personnel spanning geographic, institutional and regime boundaries-is simultaneously a major operational headache and the primary science motivation for the VAO. Most astronomy today uses data from many resources. Facilitation of matching heterogeneous datasets is a fundamental reason for the virtual observatory. Key aspects of our approach include continuous monitoring and validation of VAO and VO services and the datasets provided by the commun...

  11. Photometry and spectroscopy of GRB 060526: a detailed study of the afterglow and host galaxy of a z = 3.2 gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; Kann, D. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Selj, J. H.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Akerlof, C. W.; Baliyan, K. S.; Bartolini, C.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Bloom, J. S.; Burenin, R. A.; Cobb, B. E.; Covino, S.; Curran, P. A.; Dahle, H.; Ferrero, A.; Foley, S.; French, J.; Fruchter, A. S.; Ganesh, S.; Graham, J. F.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Hanlon, L.; Hjorth, J.; Ibrahimov, M.; Israel, G. L.; Jakobsson, P.; Jelínek, M.; Jensen, B. L.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Khamitov, I. M.; Koch, T. S.; Levan, A. J.; Malesani, D.; Masetti, N.; Meehan, S.; Melady, G.; Nanni, D.; Näränen, J.; Pakstiene, E.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Perley, D. A.; Piccioni, A.; Pizzichini, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rumyantsev, V.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sharapov, D.; Starr, D.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Swan, H.; Tanvir, N. R.; Terra, F.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wilson, A. C.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: With this paper we want to investigate the highly variable afterglow light curve and environment of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060526 at z = 3.221. Methods: We present one of the largest photometric datasets ever obtained for a GRB afterglow, consisting of multi-color photometric data from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The data set contains 412 data points in total to which we add additional data from the literature. Furthermore, we present low-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of the afterglow. The afterglow light curve is modeled with both an analytical model using broken power law fits and with a broad-band numerical model which includes energy injections. The absorption lines detected in the spectra are used to derive column densities using a multi-ion single-component curve-of-growth analysis from which we derive the metallicity of the host of GRB 060526. Results: The temporal behaviour of the afterglow follows a double broken power law with breaks at t = 0.090 ± 0.005 and t = 2.401 ± 0.061 days. It shows deviations from the smooth set of power laws that can be modeled by additional energy injections from the central engine, although some significant microvariability remains. The broadband spectral-energy distribution of the afterglow shows no significant extinction along the line of sight. The metallicity derived from S ii and Fe ii of [S/H] = -0.57 ± 0.25 and [Fe/H] = -1.09 ± 0.24 is relatively high for a galaxy at that redshift but comparable to the metallicity of other GRB hosts at similar redshifts. At the position of the afterglow, no host is detected to F775W(AB) = 28.5 mag with the HST, implying an absolute magnitude of the host M(1500 Å) > -18.3 mag which is fainter than most long-duration hosts, although the GRB may be associated with a faint galaxy at a distance of 11 kpc. Based in part on observations obtained with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope under proposals 077.D-0661 (PI: Vreeswijk) and 177.A-0591

  12. GRB 110721A: PHOTOSPHERE 'DEATH LINE' AND THE PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF THE GRB BAND FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Bing; Lu Ruijing; Liang Enwei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu Xuefeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-10-20

    The prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) usually have a dominant component that is well described by a phenomenological Band function. The physical origin of this spectral component is debated. Although the traditional interpretation is synchrotron radiation of non-thermal electrons accelerated in internal shocks or magnetic dissipation regions, the growing trend within the community is to interpret this component as modified thermal emission from a dissipative photosphere of a GRB fireball. We analyze the time-dependent spectrum of GRB 110721A detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope, and pay special attention to the rapid evolution of the peak energy E{sub p} . We define a 'death line' of thermally dominated dissipative photospheric emission in the E{sub p} -L plane, and show that E{sub p} of GRB 110721A at the earliest epoch has a very high E{sub p} {approx} 15 MeV that is beyond the 'death line'. Together with the finding that an additional 'shoulder' component exists in this burst that is consistent with a photospheric origin, we suggest that at least for some bursts, the Band component is not from a dissipative photosphere, but must invoke a non-thermal origin (e.g., synchrotron or inverse Compton) in the optically thin region of a GRB outflow. We also suggest that the rapid hard-to-soft spectral evolution is consistent with the quick discharge of magnetic energy in a magnetically dominated outflow in the optically thin region.

  13. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  14. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Bellerive, A; McDonald, A B; Noble, A J; Poon, A W P

    2016-01-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from $^8$B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  15. The Virtual Observatory Registry

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Sidaner, Pierre Le; Plante, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    In the Virtual Observatory (VO), the Registry provides the mechanism with which users and applications discover and select resources -- typically, data and services -- that are relevant for a particular scientific problem. Even though the VO adopted technologies in particular from the bibliographic community where available, building the Registry system involved a major standardisation effort, involving about a dozen interdependent standard texts. This paper discusses the server-side aspects of the standards and their application, as regards the functional components (registries), the resource records in both format and content, the exchange of resource records between registries (harvesting), as well as the creation and management of the identifiers used in the system based on the notion of authorities. Registry record authors, registry operators or even advanced users thus receive a big picture serving as a guideline through the body of relevant standard texts. To complete this picture, we also mention comm...

  16. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    He, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to precisely measure oscillation parameters by detecting reactor antineutrinos, observe supernova neutrinos, study the atmospheric, solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos, and perform exotic searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented $3\\%$ energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground and to have other rich scientific possibilities. Currently MC study shows a sensitivity of the mass hierarchy to be $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 11$ and $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 16$ in a relative and an absolute measurement, respectively. JUNO has been approved by Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2013, and an international collaboration was established in 2014. The civil construction is in preparation and the R$\\&$D of the detectors are ongoing. A new offline software framework was developed for the detector simulation, the event ...

  17. The Statistics of the Prompt-to-Afterglow GRB Flux Ratios and the Supercritical Pile GRB Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazanas, D; Sultana, J; Mastichiadis, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the statistics of the ratio, ${\\mathrm R}$, between the prompt and afterglow "plateau" fluxes of GRB. This we define as the ratio between the mean prompt energy flux in the {\\em Swift} BAT and the {\\em Swift} XRT, immediately following the steep transition between these two states and the beginning of the afterglow stage referred to as the "plateau". Like the distribution of other GRB observables, the histogram of ${\\mathrm R}$ is close to log-normal, with maximum at ${\\mathrm R = R}_{\\rm m} \\simeq 2,000$, FWHM of about 2 decades and with the entire distribution spanning about 6 decades in the value of ${\\mathrm R}$. We note that the peak of the distribution is close to the proton-to-electron mass ratio $({\\mathrm R}_{\\rm m} \\simeq m_p/m_e = 1836)$, as proposed by us earlier, on the basis of a specific model for the conversion of the GRB blast wave kinetic energy into radiation, before any similar analysis were made. It therefore appears that, in addition to the values of the energy of peak luminos...

  18. GRB 140619B: a short GRB from a binary neutron stars merger leading to the black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Muccino, M; Kovacevic, M; Izzo, L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Bianco, C L; Enderli, M; Penacchioni, A V; Pisani, G B; Wang, Y; Zaninoni, E

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent identification of the prototypical short GRB 090227B originating from a binary neutron star (NS) merger and forming a black hole (BH), we present here a new example of such sources, GRB 140619B. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the early ~0.2s of the Fermi-GBM data, allows for the identification of the characteristic features of the e^+e^- plasma at transparency (P-GRB): i.e., a thermal spectrum with an observed temperature kT=(324+/-33)keV which represents ~40% of the total source fluence. The subsequent emission, with no thermal spectrum, is identified with the prompt emission. We consequently deduce a theoretical redshift of z=2.67+/-0.37, a total burst energy E+/-=(6.03+/-0.79)x10^{52}erg, a baryon load B=(5.52+/-0.73)x10^{-5}, and a Lorentz factor at transparency Gamma=(1.08+/-0.08)x10^4. From the simulation of the prompt emission we determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), n_CBM=(4.7+/-1.2)x10^{-5}cm^{-3}, typical of the galactic halo environment. These l...

  19. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  20. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  1. Ultrasonic large aperture imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ultrasonic large aperture imaging technique is described. This device combines a focussed transducer as a transmitter, producing a small ultrasonic beam, with N transducers as receivers. We show that is possible to considerably reduce the number of receivers if, on the one hand, we limit the reconstitution process to the emitter beam area and, on the other hand, we ensure that the artefacts, caused by the spatial sampling of the reception, are outside this area. Under these conditions, the result is a high resolution image which does not require large reconstitution processing times. Theoretical and experimental results are given

  2. An optical study of the GRB 970111 field beginning 19 hours after the gamma-ray burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Wolf, Christian;

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the monitoring of the GRB 970111 field that started 19 hours after the event. This observation represents the fastest ground-based follow-up performed for GRB 970111 in all wavelengths. As soon as the detection of the possible GRB 970111 X-ray afterglow was reported by F...

  3. X-ray Emission Lines in GRB Afterglows: Evidence for a Two-component Jet Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Gao; Da-Ming Wei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission lines have been observed in X-ray afterglows of several γ-ray bursts (GRBs). It is a major breakthrough for understanding the nature of the progenitors. It has been proposed that the X-ray emission lines can be well explained by the Geometry-Dominated models, but in these models the illuminating angle is much larger than that of the collimated jet of the GRB. For GRB 011211, we have obtained an illuminating angle of about θ~ 45°, while the angle of the GRB jet is only 3.6°. So we propose that the outflow of GRBs with emission lines should have two distinct components: a wide component that illuminates the reprocessing material and produces the emission lines and a narrow one that produces the GRB. Observations show the energy for producing the emission lines is higher than that of the GRB. In this case, when the wide component dominates the afterglows, a bump should appear in the GRB afterglow. For GRB 011211,the bump should occur within 0.05 days of the GRB, which is obviously too early for the observation to catch it. Alongside the X-ray emission lines there should also be a bright emission component between the UV and the soft X-rays. These features can be tested by the Swift satellite in the near future.

  4. Grb10 deletion enhances muscle cell proliferation, differentiation and GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Nancy; Hoffman, Nolan J; Girgis, Christian M; Small, Lewin; Turner, Nigel; Daly, Roger J; Cooney, Gregory J; Holt, Lowenna J

    2014-11-01

    Grb10 is an intracellular adaptor protein which binds directly to several growth factor receptors, including those for insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1), and negatively regulates their actions. Grb10-ablated (Grb10(-/-) ) mice exhibit improved whole body glucose homeostasis and an increase in muscle mass associated specifically with an increase in myofiber number. This suggests that Grb10 may act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. In this study, we investigated in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying the increase in muscle mass and the improved glucose metabolism. Primary muscle cells isolated from Grb10(-/-) mice exhibited increased rates of proliferation and differentiation compared to primary cells isolated from wild-type mice. The improved proliferation capacity was associated with an enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in the basal state and changes in the expression of key cell cycle progression markers involved in regulating transition of cells from the G1 to S phase (e.g., retinoblastoma (Rb) and p21). The absence of Grb10 also promoted a faster transition to a myogenin positive, differentiated state. Glucose uptake was higher in Grb10(-/-) primary myotubes in the basal state and was associated with enhanced insulin signaling and an increase in GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate an important role for Grb10 as a link between muscle growth and metabolism with therapeutic implications for diseases, such as muscle wasting and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Detailed afterglow modelling and host galaxy properties of the dark GRB 111215A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, A. J. van der; Levan, A. J.; Pooley, G. G.;

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 111215A was bright at X-ray and radio frequencies, but not detected in the optical or near-infrared (nIR) down to deep limits. We have observed the GRB afterglow with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Arcminute Microkelvin Imager at radio frequencies, with the Wil...

  6. Allostery mediates ligand binding to Grb2 adaptor in a mutually exclusive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Caleb B; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Zafar, Nawal; Balke, Jordan E; Bhat, Vikas; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-02-01

    Allostery plays a key role in dictating the stoichiometry and thermodynamics of multi-protein complexes driving a plethora of cellular processes central to health and disease. Herein, using various biophysical tools, we demonstrate that although Sos1 nucleotide exchange factor and Gab1 docking protein recognize two non-overlapping sites within the Grb2 adaptor, allostery promotes the formation of two distinct pools of Grb2-Sos1 and Grb2-Gab1 binary signaling complexes in concert in lieu of a composite Sos1-Grb2-Gab1 ternary complex. Of particular interest is the observation that the binding of Sos1 to the nSH3 domain within Grb2 sterically blocks the binding of Gab1 to the cSH3 domain and vice versa in a mutually exclusive manner. Importantly, the formation of both the Grb2-Sos1 and Grb2-Gab1 binary complexes is governed by a stoichiometry of 2:1, whereby the respective SH3 domains within Grb2 homodimer bind to Sos1 and Gab1 via multivalent interactions. Collectively, our study sheds new light on the role of allostery in mediating cellular signaling machinery. PMID:23334917

  7. A multi-colour study of the dark GRB 000210 host galaxy and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, Lise; Hjorth, J.;

    2003-01-01

    We present UBVRIZJsHKs broad band photometry of the host galaxy of the dark gamma-ray burst (GRB) of February 10, 2000. These observations represent the most exhaustive photometry given to date of any GRB host galaxy. A grid of spectral templates have been fitted to the Spectral Energy Distributi...

  8. A serendipitous observation of the gamma-ray burst GRB 921013b field with EUVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Bowyer, S.;

    1999-01-01

    We report a serendipitous extreme ultraviolet observation by EUVE of the field containing GRB 921013b, similar to 11 hours after its occurrence. This burst was detected on 1992 October 13 by the WATCH and PHEBUS on Granat, and by the GRB experiment on Ulysses. The lack of any transient (or quiesc...

  9. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  10. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing.

  11. Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider passive airborne receivers that use backscattered signals from sources of opportunity transmitting single-frequency or ultra-narrowband waveforms. Because of its combined passive synthetic aperture and the single-frequency nature of the transmitted waveforms, we refer to the system under consideration as Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker (DSAH). We present a novel image formation method for DSAH. Our method first correlates the windowed signal obtained from one receiver with the windowed, filtered, scaled and translated version of the received signal from another receiver. This processing removes the transmitter-related variables from the phase of the Fourier integral operator that maps the radiance of the scene to the correlated signal. Next, we use microlocal analysis to reconstruct the scene radiance by the weighted backprojection of the correlated signal. The image reconstruction method is applicable to both cooperative and non-cooperative sources of opportunity using one or more airborne receivers. It has the desirable property of preserving the visible edges of the scene radiance. Additionally, it is an analytic reconstruction technique that can be made computationally efficient. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the image reconstruction method and to verify the theoretical results

  12. Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the seeing profile of the atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude are crucial for solar astronomical site characterization, as well as the optimized design and performance estimation of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). Knowledge of the seeing distribution, up to 30 km, with a potential new solar observation site, is required for future solar MCAO developments. Current optical seeing profile measurement techniques are limited by the need to use a large facility solar telescope for such seeing profile measurements, which is a serious limitation on characterizing a site's seeing conditions in terms of the seeing profile. Based on our previous work, we propose a compact solar seeing profiler called the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profile (A-MASP). A-MASP consists of two small telescopes, each with a 100 mm aperture. The two small telescopes can be installed on a commercial computerized tripod to track solar granule structures for seeing profile measurement. A-MASP is extreme simple and portable, which makes it an ideal system to bring to a potential new site for seeing profile measurements.

  13. Search for strong gravitational lensing effect in the current GRB data of BATSE

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Because gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) trace the high-z Universe, there is an appreciable probability for a GRB to be gravitational lensed by galaxies in the universe. Herein we consider the gravitational lensing effect of GRBs contributed by the dark matter halos in galaxies. Assuming that all halos have the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) mass profile in the mass range $10^{10} h^{-1} M_\\odot < M < 2\\times 10^{13} h^{-1}M_\\odot $ and all GRB samples follow the intrinsic redshift distribution and luminosity function derived from the Swift LGRBs sample, we calculated the gravitational lensing probability in BATSE, Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM GRBs, respectively. With an derived probability result in BATSE GRBs, we searched for lensed GRB pairs in the BATSE 5B GRB Spectral catalog. The search did not find any convincing gravitationally lensed events. We discuss our result and future observations for GRB lensing observation.

  14. Broadband study of GRB 091127: a sub-energetic burst at higher redshift?

    CERN Document Server

    Troja, E; Guidorzi, C; Norris, J P; Panaitescu, A; Kobayashi, S; Omodei, N; Brown, J C; Burrows, D N; Evans, P A; Gehrels, N; Marshall, F E; Mawson, N; Melandri, A; Mundell, C G; Oates, S R; Pal'shin, V; Preece, R D; Racusin, J L; Steele, I A; Tanvir, N R; Vasileiou, V; Wilson-Hodge, C; Yamaoka, K

    2012-01-01

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z=0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low energy release, soft spectrum and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  15. The optical rebrightening of GRB100814A: an interplay of forward and reverse shocks?

    CERN Document Server

    De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Oates, S; Schulze, S; Cano, Z; Guidorzi, C; Beardmore, A; Evans, P A; Uhm, Z L; Zhang, B; Page, M; Kobayashi, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Gorosabel, J; Sakamoto, T; Fatkhullin, T; Pandey, S B; Im, M; Chandra, P; Frail, D; Gao, H; Kopač, D; Jeon, Y; Akerlof, C; Huang, L; Pak, S; Park, W -K; Gomboc, A; Melandri, A; Zane, S; Mundell, C G; Saxton, C J; Holland, S T; Virgili, F; Urata, Y; Bersier, I Steele D; Tanvir, N; Sokolov, V V; Moskvitin, A S

    2013-01-01

    We present a wide dataset of gamma-ray, X-ray, UVOIR, and radio observations of the Swift GRB100814A. At the end of the slow decline phase of the X-ray and optical afterglow, this burst shows a sudden and prominent rebrightening in the optical band only, followed by a fast decay in both bands. The optical rebrightening also shows chromatic evolution. Such a puzzling behaviour cannot be explained by a single component model. We discuss other possible interpretations, and we find that a model that incorporates a long-lived Reverse Shock and Forward Shock fits the temporal and spectral properties of GRB100814 the best. We also touch upon other GRBs presenting a behaviour similar to that of GRB100814A, such as GRB081029 and GRB100621A.

  16. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  17. Health Observatories in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shad­pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  18. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  19. Jet or Shock Breakout? The Low-Luminosity GRB 060218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Chevalier, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We consider a model for the long-duration, low-luminosity gamma-ray burst GRB 060218 that plausibly accounts for multiwavelength observations to day 20. The components of our model are: (1) a long-lived (tj ~ 3000 s) central engine and accompanying low-luminosity (Lj ~ 1045 erg s-1), mildly relativistic jet; (2) a low-mass (~ 10-2 Msun) envelope surrounding the progenitor star; and (3) a modest amount of dust (AV ~ 0.1) in the circumstellar or interstellar environment. Blackbody emission from the transparency radius in a low-power jet outflow can fit the prompt thermal X-ray emission, and the prompt nonthermal X-rays and γ-rays may be produced via Compton scattering of thermal photons from hot leptons in the jet interior or the external shocks. The later mildly relativistic phase of this outflow can produce the radio emission via synchrotron radiation from the forward shock. Meanwhile, interaction of the associated SN 2006aj with a circumstellar envelope extending to ~ 1013 cm can explain the early optical peak. The X-ray afterglow can be interpreted as a light echo of the prompt emission from dust at ~ 30 pc. Our model is a plausible alternative to that of Nakar, who recently proposed shock breakout of a jet smothered by an extended envelope as the source of prompt emission. Both our results and Nakar's suggest that ultra-long bursts such as GRB 060218 and GRB 100316D may originate from unusual progenitors with extended circumstellar envelopes, and that a jet is necessary to decouple the prompt high-energy emission from the supernova.

  20. Game: GRB and All-Sky Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Campana, Riccardo; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Salvaterra, Ruben; Stratta, Giulia; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Frontera, Filippo; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Rosati, Piero; Titarchuk, Lev; Braga, João Penacchioni, Ana; Ruffini, Remo; Izzo, Luca; Zampa, Nicola; Vacchi, Andrea; Santangelo, Andrea; Hudec, Rene; Gomboc, Andreja; Rodic, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ˜1 keV up to ˜20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~250 eV in the 1-30 keV energy range, a source location accuracy of ~1 arcmin. The mission profile included a launch (e.g., by Vega) into a low Earth orbit, a baseline sky scanning mode plus pointed observations of regions of particular interest, data transmission to ground via X-band (4.8 Gb/orbit, Alcantara and Malindi ground stations), and prompt transmission of GRB / transient triggers.

  1. Advanced Optics Experiments Using Nonuniform Aperture Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lowell T

    2012-01-01

    A method to create instructive, nonuniform aperture functions using spatial frequency filtering is described. The diffraction from a single slit in the Fresnel limit and the interference from a double slit in the Fraunhofer limit are spatially filtered to create electric field distributions across an aperture to produce apodization, inverse apodization or super-resolution, and apertures with phase shifts across their widths. The diffraction effects from these aperture functions are measured and calculated. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and the calculated results makes the experiment ideal for use in an advanced undergraduate or graduate optics laboratory to illustrate experimentally several effects in Fourier optics.

  2. Practical Applications of Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging has been a focus of research for almost 3 decades. The research carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging has demonstrated that synthetic aperture focusing not only can be used in-vivo, but that it also yields superior B-mode and blood flow images. In the last years synthetic aperture focusing has moved from the lab to commercial products. The implementations vary in their scope and purpose. Some scanners use synthetic aperture imaging to improve the det...

  3. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  4. Teaching and Research in Astronomy using Small Aperture Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Small aperture (Colleges/. On the basis of over a decade's experience in observing with small optical telescopes it has been amply demonstrated that such a facility, which any University department can hope to procure and maintain, can be effectively used for teaching as well quality research. The Physics Department of Pt Ravishankar Shukla University at Raipur, India offers Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) as one of the specialization as a part of M Sc program in Physics. A set of observational exercises has been incorporated with a view to provide training in observations, analysis and interpretation of the astronomical data to the students. Observing facilities available in the department include 8"-14" aperture telescopes (CGE series from Celestron) equipped with the new-state-of-the-art backend instrumentation like Photometer, CCD Camera and also a CCD spectrograph. Observing facility of this kind is ideally suited for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, and thus can provide valuable data for understanding the physics of stellar variability. This is especially true for a class of variable stars known as chromospherically active stars. The stars belonging to this class have variable light curves, and the most puzzling feature is that their light curves change year after year in a rather queerer way. A large fraction of these active stars are bright ones and, hence, the importance of small aperture telescope for collecting the much needed photometric data. For over a decade the research activity using 14" optical telescope is focused on photometric monitoring of well known as well suspected active stars. This together with spectroscopic data using observing facility at Indian Observatories has led to identification of new chromosperically active stars. The talk is aimed at sharing our experiences quoting examples with professional colleagues on the usage of small optical telescopes for teaching and research in Colleges/Universities.

  5. Strategies for Prompt Searches for GRB Afterglows: The Discovery of GRB 001011 Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart Using Colour-Colour Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorosabel, J.; Fynbo, J. U.; Hjorth, J.; Wolf, C.; Andersen, M. I.; Pedersen, H.; Christensen, L.; Jensen, B. L.; Moller, P.; Afonso, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterpart to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m. New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope - 8 hr after the gamma-ray event. We implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out approx. 3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38 plus or minus 0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to boxes determined by future missions.

  6. A Characteristic Wind Signature in Prompt GRB Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Zhang, B; Kobayashi, Shiho; Meszaros, Peter; Zhang, Bing

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the self-absorption effects in the prompt emission from the reverse shock in GRB afterglows that occur in the wind environment of a massive stellar progenitor. We point out that the higher self-absorption frequency in a wind environment implies a hump in the reverse shock emission spectrum and a more complex optical/IR light curve behavior than previously thought. We discuss a possible new diagnostic to test for the presence of a wind environment, and to provide constraints on the progenitor wind mass loss and the burst parameters.

  7. GRB 101225A: an unusual stellar death on Christmas Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M.; Perley, D.

    2013-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are usually followed by afterglows produced by synchrotron radiation which makes them detectable out to the far Universe. Here we present the unusual GRB 101225A, also named the ``Christmas burst'', an extremely long γ-ray burst followed by a bright X-ray afterglow and a peculiar optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum shows an additional thermal component while the UV-optical-IR SED evolves as a cooling, expanding black-body until 10 days, after which a faint supernova emerges. With GTC/OSIRIS, we detect an extremely faint host galaxy 6 months after the burst.

  8. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Haowei

    2016-01-01

    It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB~160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  9. GRB 050822: Detailed analysis of an XRF observed by Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, O; Page, K. L.; Osborne, J.; B. Zhang; Burrows, D.N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Hill, J. E.; Racusin, J.; Beardmore, A. P.; Goad, M. R.; Falcone, A; Morris, D. C.; Ziaeepour, H.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the temporal and spectral characteristics of the early X-ray emission from the GRB 050822 as observed by Swift. This burst is likely to be an XRF showing major X-ray flares in its XRT light-curve. The quality of the data allows a detailed spectral analysis of the early afterglow in the X-ray band. During the X-ray flares, a positive correlation between the count rate and the spectral hardness (i.e. the higher the count rate, the harder the spectrum) is clearly seen for the X-ray ...

  10. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haowei; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB 160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  11. Search for a simultaneous signal from small transient events in the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Tupi muon telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; Navia, C E; Tsui, K H; Sinzi, T

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a search for a possible signal from small scale solar transient events (such as flares and interplanetary shocks) as well as possible counterparts to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) observed simultaneously by the Tupi muon telescope Niteroi-Brazil, 22.90S, 43.20W, 3 m above sea level) and the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detectors (Malargue-Argentina, 69.30S, 35.30W, altitude 1400 m). Both cosmic ray experiments are located inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. Our analysis of several examples shows similarities in the behavior of the counting rate of low energy (above 100 MeV) particles in association with the solar activity (solar flares and interplanetary shocks). We also report an observation by the Tupi experiment of the enhancement of muons at ground level with a significance higher than 8 sigma in the 1-sec binning counting rate (raw data) in close time coincidence (T-184 sec) with the Swift-BAT GRB110928B (trigger=504307). The GRB 110928B coordinates are in the field of view ...

  12. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  13. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  14. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  15. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset located at the first Lagrange point (L1). This places it approximately 1% of the...

  16. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short Hard Gamma-Ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-Law Component from 10 keV to GeV Energies

    CERN Document Server

    LAT, The Fermi

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with $\\Epeak = 3.9\\pm 0.3$\\,MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index $-1.62\\pm 0.03$ that dominates the emission below $\\approx$\\,20\\,keV and above $\\approx$\\,100\\,MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by $\\sim$\\,0.1\\,s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5\\,s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy $30.5^{+5.8}_{-2.6}$ GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observ...

  17. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  18. Theory in a Virtual Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Teuben, Peter; DeYoung, Dave; Hut, Piet; Levy, Stuart; Makino, Jun; McMillan, Steve; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Slavin, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    During the last couple of years, observers have started to make plans for a Virtual Observatory, as a federation of existing data bases, connected through levels of software that enable rapid searches, correlations, and various forms of data mining. We propose to extend the notion of a Virtual Observatory by adding archives of simulations, together with interactive query and visualization capabilities, as well as ways to simulate observations of simulations in order to compare them with obser...

  19. The 80 Ms follow-up of the X-ray afterglow of GRB 130427A challenges the standard forward shock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; Kann, D. A.; Oates, S. R.; Schulze, S.; Zhang, B.; Cano, Z.; Gendre, B.; Malesani, D.; Rossi, A.; Troja, E.; Piro, L.; Boër, M.; Stratta, G.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-10-01

    GRB 130427A was the brightest gamma-ray burst detected in the last 30 yr. With an equivalent isotropic energy output of 8.5 × 1053 erg and redshift z = 0.34, it uniquely combined very high energetics with a relative proximity to Earth. As a consequence, its X-ray afterglow has been detected by sensitive X-ray observatories such as XMM-Newton and Chandra for a record-breaking baseline longer than 80 million seconds. We present the X-ray light curve of this event over such an interval. The light curve shows a simple power-law decay with a slope α = 1.309 ± 0.007 over more than three decades in time (47 ks-83 Ms). We discuss the consequences of this result for a few models proposed so far to interpret GRB 130427A, and more in general the significance of this outcome in the context of the standard forward shock model. We find that this model has difficulty in explaining our data, in both cases of constant density and stellar-wind circumburst media, and requires far-fetched values for the physical parameters involved.

  20. The 80 Ms follow-up of the X-ray afterglow of GRB 130427A challenges the standard forward shock model

    CERN Document Server

    De Pasquale, M; Kann, D A; Oates, S R; Schulze, S; Zhang, B; Cano, Z; Gendre, B; Malesani, D; Rossi, A; Troja, E; Piro, L; Boër, M; Stratta, G; Gehrels, N

    2016-01-01

    GRB 130427A was the brightest gamma-ray burst detected in the last 30 years. With an equivalent isotropic energy output of $8.5\\times10^{53}$ erg and redshift $z=0.34$, it uniquely combined very high energetics with a relative proximity to Earth. As a consequence, its X-ray afterglow has been detected by sensitive X-ray observatories such as XMM-Newton and Chandra for a record-breaking baseline longer than 80 million seconds. We present the X-ray light-curve of this event over such an interval. The light-curve shows a simple power-law decay with a slope $\\alpha = 1.309 \\pm 0.007$ over more than three decades in time (47 ks - 83 Ms). We discuss the consequences of this result for a few models proposed so far to interpret GRB 130427A, and more in general the significance of this outcome in the context of the standard forward shock model. We find that this model has difficulty in explaining our data, in both cases of constant density and stellar-wind circumburst media, and requires far-fetched values for the phy...

  1. Grb2 is regulated by foxd3 and has roles in preventing accumulation and aggregation of mutant huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shounak Baksi

    Full Text Available Growth factor receptor protein binding protein 2 (Grb2 is known to be associated with intracellular growth and proliferation related signaling cascades. Huntingtin (Htt, a ubiquitously expressed protein, when mutated, forms toxic intracellular aggregates - the hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD. We observed an elevated expression of Grb2 in neuronal cells in animal and cell models of HD. Grb2 overexpression was predominantly regulated by the transcription factor Forkhead Box D3 (Foxd3. Exogenous expression of Grb2 also reduced aggregation of mutant Htt in Neuro2A cells. Grb2 is also known to interact with Htt, depending on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activation. Grb2- mutant Htt interaction in the contrary, took place in vesicular structures, independent of EGFR activation that eventually merged with autophagosomes and activated the autophagy machinery helping in autophagosome and lysosome fusion. Grb2, with its emerging dual role, holds promise for a survival mechanism for HD.

  2. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  3. Selection of candidate sites for Iranian national observatory by wind-rose studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nasiri

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   The site selection procedure for optical observatories housing a telescope with a sizeable aperture is described. The theory of seeing is briefly introduced and a special type of seeing monitor that is widely used for seeing measurements is discussed. The results of the meteorological studies mainly based on the wind-rose diagrams are presented. These are done for 31 preliminary selected candidate sites using the data obtained from meteorological synoptic stations during the last 20 years.

  4. On the constraining observations of the dark GRB 001109 and the properties of a z=0.398 radio selected starburst galaxy contained in its error box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, J.M.C.; Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.;

    2004-01-01

    similar to21, 10.2 h after the GRB; Igreater than or similar to23, 11.4 h after the GRB; Hgreater than or similar to20.7, 9.9 h after the GRB; and K(S)greater than or similar to20, 9.6 h after the GRB. We discuss whether the radio source found in the GRB's error box (Taylor et al. 2000) might be related...

  5. Registered particles onboard identification in the various apertures of GAMMA-400 space gamma-telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    2016-07-01

    GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the gamma-telescope onboard international satellite gamma-observatory designed for particle registration in the wide energy band. Its parameters are optimized for detection of gamma-quanta with the energy ˜ 100 GeV in the main aperture. The main scientific goals of GAMMA-400 are to investigate fluxes of γ-rays and the electron-positron cosmic ray component possibly generated by dark matter particles decay or annihilation and to search for and study in detail discrete γ-ray sources, to investigate the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-rays, and to study γ-ray bursts and γ-emission from the active Sun. This article presents analysis of detected events identification procedures and energy resolution in three apertures provide particles registration both from upper and lateral directions based on GAMMA-400 modeling due special designed software. Time and segmentation methods are used to reject backsplash (backscattering particles created when high energy γ-rays interact with the calorimeter's matter and move in the opposite direction) in the main aperture while only energy deposition analysis allows to reject this effect in the additional and lateral ones. The main aperture provides the best angular (all strip layers information analysis) and energy (energy deposition in the all detectors studying) resolution in the energy range 0.1 - 3 × 10^{3} GeV. The energy resolution in this band is 1%. Triggers in the main aperture will be formed using information about particle direction provided by time of flight system and presence of charged particle or backsplash signal formed according to analysis of energy deposition in combination of all two-layers anticoincidence systems individual detectors. In the additional aperture gamma-telescope allows to register events in the energy band 10 × 10^{-3} - 3 × 10^{3} GeV. The additional aperture energy resolution provides due to

  6. MAGIC low energy observation of GRB090102 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Carosi, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Colombo, E; Garczarczyk, M; Covino, S; La Barbera, A; Spiro, S; Domínguez, A; Gaug, M; Longo, F; Scapin, V

    2011-01-01

    Hints for a GeV component in the emission from GRBs are known since the EGRET observations during the '90s and they have been recently confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that a fully satisfactory interpretative framework of the GRB phenomena is still lacking. The MAGIC telescope opens the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs in the several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. From the theoretical point of view, both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy photons (E>30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB090102 (z=1.547) field from 03:14:52 UT to 06:54:01 UT are analyzed to derive upper limits to the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expec...

  7. GRB060218 and GRBs associated with Supernovae Ib/c

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Guida, Roberto; Ruffini, Remo

    2007-01-01

    We plan to fit the complete gamma- and X-ray light curves of the long duration GRB060218, including the prompt emission, in order to clarify the nature of the progenitors and the astrophysical scenario of the class of GRBs associated to SNe Ib/c. The initial total energy of the electron-positron plasma E_{e^\\pm}^{tot}=2.32\\times 10^{50} erg has a particularly low value similarly to the other GRBs associated with SNe. For the first time we observe a baryon loading B=10^{-2} which coincides with the upper limit for the dynamical stability of the fireshell. The effective CircumBurst Medium (CBM) density shows a radial dependence n_{cbm} \\propto r^{-\\alpha} with 1.0<\\alpha<1.7 and monotonically decreases from 1 to 10^{-6} particles/cm^3. Such a behavior is interpreted as due to a fragmentation in the fireshell. Analogies with the fragmented density and filling factor characterizing Novae are outlined. The fit presented is particularly significant in view of the complete data set available for GRB060218 and ...

  8. Initial Evolution of GRB Jets with Different Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-ichi; Hardee, Phil; Hartmann, Dieter; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Sol, Helene; Gomez, Jose L.; Nordlund, Aake; Dutan, Ioana; Mizuno, Yosuke; Meli, Athina; Peer, Asaf; Frederiksen, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    In the study of GRB jets one of the key open questions is their interaction with the environment. Here, we study the initial evolution of both electron-proton and electron-positron relativistic jets injected, focusing on their lateral interaction with ambient plasma. We follow the evolution of toroidal magnetic fields generated by both the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (kKH) and Mushroom instabilities (MI). For an electron-proton jet, the induced magnetic field collimates the jet and electrons are perpendicularly accelerated. As the instabilities saturate and subsequently weaken, the magnetic polarity switches from clockwise to counter-clockwise in the middle of jet. For an electron-positron jet, we find strong mixing of electrons and positrons with the ambient plasma, resulting in the creation of a bow shock. The merging of current filaments generates density inhomogeneities which initiate a forward shock. Strong jet ambient plasma mixing prevents a full development of the jet (on the scale studied), revealing evidence for both jet collimation and particle acceleration in the forming bow shock. Differences in the magnetic field structure generated by different jets may contribute to the polarization properties of the observed emission in gamma ray bursts. The different electron acceleration mechanisms in different jets may affect the light-curves in GRB observations.

  9. The host of GRB 060206: kinematics of a distant galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Thoene, Christina C; Ledoux, Cedric; Starling, Rhaana L C; Fynbo, Johan P U; Curran, Peter A; Gorosabel, Javier; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kewley, Lisa J; Levan, Andrew J; LLorente, Alvaro; Rol, Evert; Tanvir, Nial R; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2007-01-01

    Context. The spectra of afterglows can provide us with detailed information on the line-of-sight towards high redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This allows us to use GRB afterglows as sensitive probes of interstellar matter in their host galaxies, and the circumstellar material around the progenitor star. Aims. In this paper we present early WHT/ISIS optical spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060206 at z = 4.048, detecting a range of metal absorption lines and their fine-structure transitions. Additional information is provided by properties derived from the afterglow lightcurve and from deep imaging of the host galaxy. Methods. The resolution and wavelength range of the spectra and the bright afterglow facilitate a detailed study of the circumburst and host galaxy environment through fitting of the absorption line systems. Their column densities allow us to derive properties for the different detected velocity components. We also use the deep imaging to detect the host galaxy and probe ...

  10. Variable polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 021004

    CERN Document Server

    Rol, E; Fynbo, J P U; Hjorth, J; Gorosabel, J; Egholm, M P; Castro-Cerón, J M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Kaper, L; Masetti, N; Palazzi, E; Pian, E; Tanvir, N R; Vreeswijk, P M; Kouveliotou, C; Møller, P; Pedersen, H; Fruchter, A S; Rhoads, J; Burud, I; Salamanca, I; Van den Heuvel, E P J

    2003-01-01

    We present polarimetric observations of the afterglow of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 021004, obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) between 8 and 17 hours after the burst. Comparison among the observations shows a 45 degree change in the position angle from 9 hours after the burst to 16 hours after the burst, and comparison with published data from later epochs even shows a 90 degree change between 9 and 89 hours after the burst. The degree of linear polarization shows a marginal change, but is also consistent with being constant in time. In the context of currently available models for changes in the polarization of GRBs, a homogeneous jet with an early break time of t_b ~ 1 day provides a good explanation of our data. The break time is a factor 2 to 6 earlier than has been found from the analysis of the optical light curve. The change in the position angle of the polarization rules out a structured jet model for the GRB.

  11. The Energy Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Littlejohns, Owen M.

    2015-10-01

    We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument prior to 2012 July 11. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands—or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift—we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor of two to three longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 and 10 ms, respectively. Less than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors ≳ 400 and imply typical emission radii R≈ 1× {10}14 cm for long-duration GRBs and R≈ 3× {10}13 cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether or not GRB minimum timescales evolve with cosmic time.

  12. The Energy-Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Golkhou, V Zach; Littlejohns, Owen M

    2015-01-01

    We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 GRBs observed by the Fermi/GBM instrument prior to July 11, 2012. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands -- or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift -- we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor 2--3 longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 ms and 10 ms, respectively. Fewer than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors $\\gtrsim 400$ and imply typical emission radii $R \\approx 1 {\\times} 10^{14}$ cm for long-duration GRBs and $R \\approx 3 {\\times} 10^{13}$ cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether GRB minimum timescales evolve w...

  13. The jet and circumburst stellar wind of GRB 980519

    CERN Document Server

    Jaunsen, A O; Björnsson, G; Andersen, M I; Pedersen, H; Kjernsmo, K; Korhonen, H; Sørensen, P M; Palazzi, E

    2001-01-01

    We present extensive multi-colour (UBVR_CI_C) photometry of the optical afterglow of GRB 980519. Upon discovery, 8.3 hours after the burst, the source was decaying as a power law, (t-t_GRB)^alpha, with a rapid decay rate alpha_1 = - 1.73+-0.04. About 13 hours after the burst a steepening of the light-curve to alpha_2 = -2.22+-0.04 was observed. Within the framework of current afterglow models, we argue that the rapid initial decline, the `break' in the light curve, and the spectral properties of the afterglow are best interpreted as being due to a collimated ultra-relativistic jet of fixed opening angle expanding into an inhomogeneous medium. In this scenario, we find that the circumburst medium has a density structure that goes as r^(-2.05+-0.22). This is characteristic of a preexisting wind expelled from a massive star. A possible physical scenario is that the progenitor star collapsed to form a black hole (i.e., a `collapsar'), producing the observed burst and afterglow. However, the supernova signature ex...

  14. GRB 091029: At the limit of the fireball scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Filgas, R; Schady, P; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Oates, S R; Nardini, M; Kruehler, T; Panaitescu, A; Kann, D A; Klose, S; Afonso, P M J; Allen, W H; Castro-Tirado, A J; Christie, G W; Dong, S; Elliott, J; Natusch, T; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; E., F Olivares; Rau, A; Rossi, A; Sudilovsky, V; Yock, P C M

    2012-01-01

    Using high-quality, broad-band afterglow data for GRB 091029, we test the validity of the forward-shock model for gamma-ray burst afterglows. We used multi-wavelength (NIR to X-ray) follow-up observations obtained with the GROND, BOOTES-3/YA and Stardome optical ground-based telescopes, and the UVOT and the XRT onboard the Swift satellite. To explain the almost totally decoupled light curves in the X-ray and optical/NIR domains, a two-component outflow is proposed. Several models are tested, including continuous energy injection, components with different electron energy indices and components in two different stages of spectral evolution. Only the last model can explain both the decoupled light curves with asynchronous peaks and the peculiar SED evolution. However, this model has so many unknown free parameters that we are unable to reliably confirm or disprove its validity, making the afterglow of GRB 091029 difficult to explain in the framework of the simplest fireball model.

  15. GAME: Grb and All-sky Monitor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, L; Frontera, F; Labanti, C; Feroci, M; Hudec, R; Gomboc, A; Ruffini, R; Santangelo, A; Vacchi, A; Campana, R; Evangelista, Y; Fuschino, F; Salvaterra, R; Stratta, G; Tagliaferri, G; Guidorzi, C; Rosati, P; Titarchuk, L; Penacchioni, A; Izzo, L; Zampa, N; Rodic, T

    2014-01-01

    We describe the GRB and All-sky Monitor Experiment (GAME) mission submitted by a large international collaboration (Italy, Germany, Czech Repubblic, Slovenia, Brazil) in response to the 2012 ESA call for a small mission opportunity for a launch in 2017 and presently under further investigation for subsequent opportunities. The general scientific objective is to perform measurements of key importance for GRB science and to provide the wide astrophysical community of an advanced X-ray all-sky monitoring system. The proposed payload was based on silicon drift detectors (~1-50 keV), CdZnTe (CZT) detectors (~15-200 keV) and crystal scintillators in phoswich (NaI/CsI) configuration (~20 keV-20 MeV), three well established technologies, for a total weight of ~250 kg and a required power of ~240 W. Such instrumentation allows a unique, unprecedented and very powerful combination of large field of view (3-4 sr), a broad energy energy band extending from ~1 keV up to ~20 MeV, an energy resolution as good as ~300 eV in ...

  16. A magnetar powering the ordinary monster GRB 130427A?

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, M G; Ghisellini, G; D'Avanzo, P; Calderone, G; Covino, S; Cusumano, G; Ghirlanda, G; La Parola, V; Maselli, A; Salvaterra, A Melandri R; Burlon, D; D'Elia, V; Fugazza, D; Sbarufatti, B; Vergani, S D; Tagliaferri, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of the extraordinarily bright Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) 130427A under the hypothesis that the GRB central engine is an accretion-powered magnetar. In this framework, initially proposed to explain GRBs with precursor activity, the prompt emission is produced by accretion of matter onto a newly-born magnetar, and the observed power is related to the accretion rate. The emission is eventually halted if the centrifugal forces are able to pause accretion. We show that the X-ray and optical afterglow is well explained as the forward shock emission with a jet break plus a contribution from the spin-down of the magnetar. Our modelling does not require any contribution from the reverse shock, that may still influence the afterglow light curve at radio and mm frequencies, or in the optical at early times. We derive the magnetic field ($B\\sim 10^{16}$ G) and the spin period ($P\\sim 20$ ms) of the magnetar and obtain an independent estimate of the minimum luminosity for accretion. This minimum luminos...

  17. Properties of GRB light curves from magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Granot, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The energy dissipation mechanism within gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflows, driving their extremely luminous prompt γ-ray emission is still uncertain. The leading candidates are internal shocks and magnetic reconnection. While the emission from internal shocks has been extensively studied, that from reconnection still has few quantitative predictions. We study the expected prompt-GRB emission from magnetic reconnection and compare its temporal and spectral properties to observations. The main difference from internal shocks is that for reconnection one expects relativistic bulk motions with Lorentz factors Γ'≳ a few in the jet's bulk frame. We consider such motions of the emitting material in two antiparallel directions (e.g. of the reconnecting magnetic-field lines) within an ultrarelativistic (with Γ ≫ 1) thin spherical reconnection layer. The emission's relativistic beaming in the jet's frame greatly affects the light curves. For emission at radii R0 tracking (for Γ' > 2). However, the relativistic turbulence mode is more likely to be relevant for the prompt sub-MeV emission and can naturally account also for the peak luminosity - peak frequency correlation.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  19. Towards Very Large Aperture Massive MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    on the impact of the array aperture which is the main limiting factor in the degrees of freedom available in the multiple antenna channel. We find that performance is improved as the aperture increases, with an impact mostly visible in crowded scenarios where the users are closely spaced. We also test MIMO...

  20. Practical Applications of Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging has been a focus of research for almost 3 decades. The research carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging has demonstrated that synthetic aperture focusing not only can be used in-vivo, but that it also yields superior B-mode and blood flow images. In the last...

  1. LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 080319B: JET BREAK, HOST GALAXY, AND ACCOMPANYING SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swift-discovered GRB 080319B was by far the most distant source ever observed at naked-eye brightness, reaching a peak apparent magnitude of 5.3 at a redshift of z = 0.937. We present our late-time optical (Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and Very Large Telescope) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, which confirm that an achromatic break occurred in the power-law afterglow light curve at ∼11 days post-burst. This most likely indicates that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow was collimated, which for a uniform jet would imply a total energy in the jet Ejet ∼> 1052 erg. Our observations also show a late-time excess of red light, which is well explained if the GRB was accompanied by a supernova (SN), similar to those seen in some other long-duration GRBs. The latest observations are dominated by light from the host and show that the GRB took place in a faint dwarf galaxy (r(AB) ∼ 27.0, rest frame MB ∼ -17.2). This galaxy is small even by the standards of other GRB hosts, which is suggestive of a low-metallicity environment. Intriguingly, the properties of this extreme event-a small host and bright SN-are entirely typical of the very low luminosity bursts such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218.

  2. Thermal emission by a subwavelength aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture separating from the outside, vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures separating vacuum from the outside have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies which have an aperture much larger than the wavelength. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emissive power scales as T8 instead of T4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  3. The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Feroci, M; Bozzo, E; Barret, D; Brandt, S; Hernanz, M; van der Klis, M; Pohl, M; Santangelo, A; Stella, L; Watts, A; Wilms, J; Zane, S; Ahangarianabhari, M; Albertus, C; Alford, M; Alpar, A; Altamirano, D; Alvarez, L; Amati, L; Amoros, C; Andersson, N; Antonelli, A; Argan, A; Artigue, R; Artigues, B; Atteia, J -L; Azzarello, P; Bakala, P; Baldazzi, G; Balman, S; Barbera, M; van Baren, C; Bhattacharyya, S; Baykal, A; Belloni, T; Bernardini, F; Bertuccio, G; Bianchi, S; Bianchini, A; Binko, P; Blay, P; Bocchino, F; Bodin, P; Bombaci, I; Bidaud, J -M Bonnet; Boutloukos, S; Bradley, L; Braga, J; Brown, E; Bucciantini, N; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Bursa, M; Budtz-Jørgensen, C; Cackett, E; Cadoux, F R; Cais, P; Caliandro, G A; Campana, R; Campana, S; Capitanio, F; Casares, J; Casella, P; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cavazzuti, E; Cerda-Duran, P; Chakrabarty, D; Château, F; Chenevez, J; Coker, J; Cole, R; Collura, A; Cornelisse, R; Courvoisier, T; Cros, A; Cumming, A; Cusumano, G; D'Aì, A; D'Elia, V; Del Monte, E; De Luca, A; De Martino, D; Dercksen, J P C; De Pasquale, M; De Rosa, A; Del Santo, M; Di Cosimo, S; Diebold, S; Di Salvo, T; 1), I Donnarumma; (32), A Drago; (33), M Durant; (107), D Emmanoulopoulos; (135), M H Erkut; (85), P Esposito; (1, Y Evangelista; 1b),; (24), A Fabian; (34), M Falanga; (25), Y Favre; (35), C Feldman; (128), V Ferrari; (3), C Ferrigno; (133), M Finger; (36), M H Finger; (35, G W Fraser; +),; (2), M Frericks; (7), F Fuschino; (125), M Gabler; (37), D K Galloway; (6), J L Galvez Sanchez; (6), E Garcia-Berro; (10), B Gendre; (62), S Gezari; (39), A B Giles; (40), M Gilfanov; (10), P Giommi; (102), G Giovannini; (102), M Giroletti; (4), E Gogus; (105), A Goldwurm; (86), K Goluchová; (16), D Götz; (16), C Gouiffes; (56), M Grassi; (42), P Groot; (17), M Gschwender; (128), L Gualtieri; (32), C Guidorzi; (3), L Guy; (2), D Haas; (50), P Haensel; (29), M Hailey; (19), F Hansen; (42), D H Hartmann; (43), C A Haswell; (88), K Hebeler; (37), A Heger; (2), W Hermsen; (28), J Homan; (19), A Hornstrup; (23, R Hudec; 72),; (45), J Huovelin; (5), A Ingram; (2), J J M in't Zand; (27), G Israel; (20), K Iwasawa; (47), L Izzo; (2), H M Jacobs; (17), F Jetter; (118, T Johannsen; 127),; (2), P Jonker; (126), J Josè; (49), P Kaaret; (123), G Kanbach; (23), V Karas; (6), D Karelin; (29), D Kataria; (49), L Keek; (29), T Kennedy; (17), D Klochkov; (50), W Kluzniak; (17), K Kokkotas; (45), S Korpela; (51), C Kouveliotou; (87), I Kreykenbohm; (2), L M Kuiper; (19), I Kuvvetli; (7), C Labanti; (52), D Lai; (53), F K Lamb; (2), P P Laubert; (105), F Lebrun; (8), D Lin; (29), D Linder; (54), G Lodato; (55), F Longo; (19), N Lund; (131), T J Maccarone; (14), D Macera; (8), S Maestre; (62), S Mahmoodifar; (17), D Maier; (56), P Malcovati; (120), I Mandel; (144), V Mangano; (50), A Manousakis; (7), M Marisaldi; (109), A Markowitz; (35), A Martindale; (59), G Matt; (107), I M McHardy; (60), A Melatos; (61), M Mendez; (85), S Mereghetti; (68), M Michalska; (20), S Migliari; (85, R Mignani; 108),; (62), M C Miller; (49), J M Miller; (57), T Mineo; (112), G Miniutti; (64), S Morsink; (65), C Motch; (13), S Motta; (66), M Mouchet; (8), G Mouret; (19), J Mulačová; (1, F Muleri; (140), T Muñoz-Darias; (95), I Negueruela; (28), J Neilsen; (43), A J Norton; (28), M Nowak; (35), P O'Brien; (19), P E H Olsen; (102), M Orienti; (99, M Orio; 110),; (7), M Orlandini; (68), P Orleanski; (35), J P Osborne; (69), R Osten; (70), F Ozel; (1, L Pacciani; (119), M Paolillo; (6), A Papitto; (20), J M Paredes; (83, A Patruno; 141),; (71), B Paul; (17), E Perinati; (115), A Pellizzoni; (47), A V Penacchioni; (136), M A Perez; (72), V Petracek; (10), C Pittori; (95), J Pons; (6), J Portell; (115), A Possenti; (73), J Poutanen; (122), M Prakash; (16), P Le Provost; (70), D Psaltis; (8), D Rambaud; (8), P Ramon; (76), G Ramsay; (1, M Rapisarda; (77), A Rachevski; (77), I Rashevskaya; (78), P S Ray; (6), N Rea; (80), S Reddy; (113, P Reig; 81),; (63), M Reina Aranda; (28), R Remillard; (62), C Reynolds; (124), L Rezzolla; (20), M Ribo; (2), R de la Rie; (115), A Riggio; (138), A Rios; (82, P Rodríguez- Gil; 104),; (16), J Rodriguez; (3), R Rohlfs; (57), P Romano; (83), E M R Rossi; (50), A Rozanska; (29), A Rousseau; (84), F Ryde; (63), L Sabau-Graziati; (6), G Sala; (85), R Salvaterra; (61), A Sanna; (134), J Sandberg; (130), S Scaringi; (16), S Schanne; (86), J Schee; (87), C Schmid; (117), S Shore; (27), R Schneider; (88), A Schwenk; (89), A D Schwope; (114), J -Y Seyler; (90), A Shearer; (29), A Smith; (58), D M Smith; (29), P J Smith; (23), V Sochora; (1), P Soffitta; (61), P Soleri; (29), A Spencer; (91), B Stappers; (80), A W Steiner; (92), N Stergioulas; (10), G Stratta; (93), T E Strohmayer; (86), Z Stuchlik; (17), S Suchy; (17), V Sulemainov; (94), T Takahashi; (15), F Tamburini; (129), T Tauris; (17), C Tenzer; (6), L Tolos; (62), F Tombesi; (121), J Tomsick; (86), G Torok; (95), J M Torrejon; (96), D F Torres; (3), A Tramacere; (1), A Trois; (15), R Turolla; (101), S Turriziani; (17), P Uter; (5), P Uttley; (77), A Vacchi; (105), P Varniere; (35), S Vaughan; (57), S Vercellone; (97), V Vrba; (29), D Walton; (94), S Watanabe; (68), R Wawrzaszek; (8), N Webb; (28), N Weinberg; (17), H Wende; (98), P Wheatley; (5), R Wijers; (5), R Wijnands; (87), M Wille; (44), C A Wilson-Hodge; (29), B Winter; (78), K Wood; (77), G Zampa; (77), N Zampa; (99), L Zampieri; (50), L Zdunik; (50), A Zdziarski; (100), B Zhang; (2), F Zwart; (142), M Ayre; (142), T Boenke; (142), C Corral van Damme; (143), E Kuulkers; (, D Lumb (142); IAPS-INAF,; Rome,; Italy,; INFN,; Vergata, Sez Roma Tor; SRON,; Netherlands, The; ISDC,; University, Geneve; Switzerland,; University, Sabanci; Istanbul,; Turkey,; Pannekoek, Astronomical Institute Anton; Amsterdam, University of; IEEC-CSIC-UPC-UB,; Barcelona,; Spain,; INAF-IASF-Bologna,; IRAP,; Toulouse,; France,; Physical, Faculty of; Sciences, Applied; Southampton, University of; Kingdom, United; ASDC,; University, Middle East Technical; Ankara,; Fisica, Dipartimento di Chimica e; University, Palermo; Brera, INAF-OA; Milano, Politecnico; Physics, Dept of; Padua, Astronomy University of; Saclay, CEA; DSM/IRFU/SAp,; Tuebingen, IAAT; Germany,; INPE,; Campos, São José dos; Brazil,; Institute, National Space; Lyngby,; Denmark,; DAM,; ICC-UB,; de Barcelona, Universitat; Observatory, Arcetri; INAF,; Firenze,; University, Cagliari; Republic, Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech; Republic, Czech; University, Cambridge; Cambridge,; DPNC,; de Bordeaux, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique; Rome, INAF-OA; MIT,; States, United; MSSL,; Surrey,; University, McGill; Montréal,; Canada,; Capodimonte, INAF-OA; Napoli,; University, Ferrara; Ferrara,; Biophysics, Department of Medical; Toronto, University of; Bern, ISSI; University, Leicester; Association, Universities Space Research; Huntsville,; Astrophysics, Monash Centre for; Physics, School of; Sciences, School of Mathematical; University, Monash; Australia,; University, Johns Hopkins; Baltimore,; Tasmania, University of; Garching, MPA; University, Radboud; University, Clemson; University, Open; Center, NASA/Marshall Space Flight; Helsinki, University of; Finland,; University, Durham; University, Sapienza; ICRA,; Iowa, University of; University, Michigan state; Center, Copernicus Astronomical; Warsaw,; Poland,; University, Cornell; Ithaca,; Illinois, University of; di Fisica, Dipartimento; di Milano, Università degli Studi; Trieste, University of; University, Pavia; IFC, INAF; Palermo,; California, University of; Rome, University of; Melbourne, University of; Institute, Kapteyn Astronomical; Groningen, University of; Maryland, University of; Technology, National Institute of Aerospace; Spain,; Alberta, University of; Canada,; de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique; France,; France, Université Paris Diderot; Torino, INAF-OA; Italy,; Centre, Space Research; Warsaw,; Poland,; Institute, Space Telescope; States, United; Arizona, University of; Institute, Raman Research; 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Warwick, University of; Padova, INAF-OA; Padova,; Nevada, University of; Vegas, Las; Vergata, University of Rome Tor; INAF-IRA-Bologna,; Bologna, University of; de La Laguna, Universidad; de Tenerife, Santa Cruz; APC,; Diderot, Université Paris; CEA/Irfu,; de Paris, Observatoire; di Palermo, INAF- Osservatorio Astronomico; Physics, School of; Astronomy,; Southampton, University of; Astronomy, Kepler Institute of; Gòra, University of Zielona; California, University of; Diego, San; Wisconsin, University of; University, Wayne State; Detroit,; de Astrobiologia, Centro; Madrid,; Research, Foundation for; Technology,; Heraklion,; Greece,; CNES,; Toulouse,; France,; Cagliari, INAF-OA; Italy,; de Andalucia, Instituto Astrofisica; Granada,; Spain,; Pisa, University of; Waterloo,; Canada,; Fedelico, Università di Napoli; Physics, School of; Astronomy,; Birmingham, University of; Kingdom, United; California, University of; Berkeley,; Laboratory, Space Sciences; States, United; University, Ohio; Physik, Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische; Garching,; Germany,; Physics, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational; Valencia, University of; Catalonia, Technical University of; Barcelona,; Physics, Department of; Waterloo, University of; University, Sapienza; Rome,; Astronomie, Argelander-Institut für; Bonn,; Leuven, Institute for Astronomy K U; Leuven,; Belgium,; University, Texas Tech; Research, Tata Institute of Fundamental; Mumbai,; India,; Prague, Charles University in; Republic, Czech; Consulting, Jorgen Sandberg; Denmark,; University, Istanbul Kültür; Turkey,; Salamanca, Facultad de Ciencias-Trilingüe University of; de Granada, Universidad; Surrey, University of; University, Washington; University, Oxford; ASTRON,; Netherlands, The; Agency, European Space; ESTEC,; Centre, European Space Astronomy; Madrid,; University, The Pennsylvania State; States), United

    2014-01-01

    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final down-selection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions, such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions of accretion flows close to black holes and neutron stars, and the supra-nuclear densities in the interior of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m 2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 deg collimated field of view) and a WideField Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g. GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we ...

  4. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  5. Modeling and simulation of aggregation of membrane protein LAT with molecular variability in the number of binding sites for cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Nag

    Full Text Available The linker for activation of T cells (LAT, the linker for activation of B cells (LAB, and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2:1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate. We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate.

  6. Evidence for jet launching close to the black hole in GRB 101219B - a Fermi GRB dominated by thermal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, J; Burgess, J M

    2015-01-01

    We present observations by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) of the nearby (z=0.55) GRB 101219B. This burst is a long GRB, with an associated supernova and with a blackbody component detected in the early afterglow observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). Here we show that the prompt gamma-ray emission has a blackbody spectrum, making this the second such burst observed by Fermi GBM. The properties of the blackbody, together with the redshift and our estimate of the radiative efficiency, makes it possible to calculate the absolute values of the properties of the outflow. We obtain an initial Lorentz factor Gamma=138\\pm 8, a photospheric radius r_phot=4.4\\pm 1.9 \\times 10^{11} cm and a launch radius r_0=2.7\\pm 1.6 \\times 10^{7} cm. The latter value is close to the event horizon for a stellar-mass black hole and suggests that the jet has a relatively unobstructed path through the star. There is no smooth connection between the blackbody components seen by GBM and XRT, ruling ...

  7. Analysis of GRB 080319B and GRB 050904 within the fireshell model: evidence for a broader spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Patricelli, Barbara; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; de Barros, Gustavo; Izzo, Luca; Ruffini, Remo; Vereshchagin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    (Shortened) GRB080319B, with an isotropic energy E_{iso}=1.32x10^{54}erg, and GRB050904, with E_{iso}=1.04x10^{54}erg, offer the possibility of studying the spectral properties of the prompt radiation of two of the most energetic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). This allows us to probe the validity of the fireshell model for GRBs beyond 10^{54}erg, well outside the energy range where it has been successfully tested up to now (10^{49}-10^{53}erg). We find that in the low energy region, the prompt emission spectra observed by Swift BAT reveals more power than theoretically predicted. The opportunities offered by these observations to improve the fireshell model are outlined. One of the distinguishing features of the fireshell model is that it relates the observed spectra to the spectrum in the comoving frame of the fireshell. Originally, a fully radiative condition and a comoving thermal spectrum were adopted. An additional power-law in the comoving thermal spectrum is required [...] in the fireshell model for GRBs 080...

  8. Suppression of local immune response by GrB expression in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周业江; 熊玉霞; 李昌平; 时德

    2004-01-01

    Little information is available so far on local anti-tumour immune response in gastric cancer (GC). Moreover, studies in malignant lymphomas demonstrated that neoplastic cells expressed cytotoxic proteins GrB.1,2 Studies here were designed to detect by immunohistochemistry the density of dendritic cells labelled by S-100 protein (S-100+DCs) and activated cytotoxic T lymphocyte and nature killer cells labelled by GrB (GrB+CTL, NK) and observe whether benign/malignant gastric epithelium cells also express GrB.

  9. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  10. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  11. On the sensitivity of the HAWC observatory to gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Aguilar, S; Alfaro, R; Almaraz, E; Álvarez, C; Álvarez-Romero, J de D; Álvarez, M; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Badillo, C; Barber, A; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; Benítez, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Bernal, A; Bonamente, E; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R; Cabrera, I; Carramiñana, A; Carrasco, L; Castillo, M; Chambers, L; Conde, R; Condreay, P; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; D'Olivo, J C; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; Delay, S; Delepine, D; DeYoung, T; Diaz, L; Diaz-Cruz, L; Dingus, B L; Duvernois, M A; Edmunds, D; Ellsworth, R W; Fick, B; Fiorino, D W; Flandes, A; Fraija, N I; Galindo, A; García-Luna, J L; García-Torales, G; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Guzmán-Ceron, C; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harris, T; Hays, E; Hernandez-Cervantes, L; Hüntemeyer, P H; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Jimenez, J J; Karn, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kieda, D; Langarica, R; Lara, A; Lauer, R; Lee, W H; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-García, R; Martínez, H; Martínez, J; Martínez, L A; Martínez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Martos, M; Matthews, J; McEnery, J E; Medina-Tanco, G; Mendoza-Torres, J E; Miranda-Romagnoli, P A; Montaruli, T; Moreno, E; Mostafa, M; Napsuciale, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Tapia, A Olmos; Orozco, V; Pérez, V; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Perkins, J S; Pretz, J; Ramirez, C; Ramírez, I; Rebello, D; Rentería, A; Reyes, J; Rosa-González, D; Rosado, A; Ryan, J M; Sacahui, J R; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Shoup, A; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, W; Suárez, F; Suarez, N; Taboada, I; Tellez, A F; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Tepe, A; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Valdes-Galicia, J; Vanegas, P; Vasileiou, V; Vázquez, O; Vázquez, X; Villaseñor, L; Wall, W; Walters, J S; Warner, D; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A

    2011-01-01

    We present the sensitivity of HAWC to Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). HAWC is a very high-energy gamma-ray observatory currently under construction in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m. It will observe atmospheric air showers via the water Cherenkov method. HAWC will consist of 300 large water tanks instrumented with 4 photomultipliers each. HAWC has two data acquisition (DAQ) systems. The main DAQ system reads out coincident signals in the tanks and reconstructs the direction and energy of individual atmospheric showers. The scaler DAQ counts the hits in each photomultiplier tube (PMT) in the detector and searches for a statistical excess over the noise of all PMTs. We show that HAWC has a realistic opportunity to observe the high-energy power law components of GRBs that extend at least up to 30 GeV, as it has been observed by Fermi LAT. The two DAQ systems have an energy threshold that is low enough to observe events similar to GRB 090510 and GRB 090902b with the characteristics observed by Fermi LAT. HAWC will prov...

  12. Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2004-01-01

    . A plastic tube with an internal diameter of 17 mm was used with an EcoWatt 1 pump generating a laminar, stationary flow. The velocity profile was measured for flow angles of 90 and 60 degrees. The RASMUS research scanner was used for acquiring RF data from 128 elements of the array using 8 emissions with 11...... elements in each emission. A 20 us chirp was used during emission. The RF data were subsequently beamformed off-line and stationary echo canceling was performed. The 60 degrees flow with a peak velocity of 0.15 m/s was determined using 16 groups of 8 emissions and the relative standard deviation was 0......A method for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging and focusing along the flow direction is presented. The method can find the correct velocity magnitude for any flow angle and full color flow images can be measured using only 32 to 128 pulse emissions. The approach uses spherical wave...

  13. GRB hosts through cosmic time - VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1 < z < 3.6

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Hartoog, O E; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Perley, D A; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Tanvir, N R; Vergani, S D; Wiersema, K; Afonso, P M J; Bolmer, J; Cano, Z; Covino, S; D'Elia, V; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Filgas, R; Friis, M; Graham, J F; Greiner, J; Goldoni, P; Gomboc, A; Hammer, F; Japelj, J; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Klose, S; Levan, A J; Leloudas, G; Milvang-Jensen, B; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Savaglio, S; Selsing, J; Tagliaferri, G; Vreeswijk, P M; Watson, D J; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    We present data and initial results from VLT/X-shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96 GRB-selected galaxies at 0.1GRB host spectroscopy available to date. The majority of our GRBs was detected by Swift and 76% are at 0.5GRB hosts with redshift. The median SFR, for example, increases from ~0.6 M_sun/yr at z~0.6 up to ~15 M_sun/yr at z~2. A higher ratio of [OIII]/[OII] at higher redshifts leads to an increasing distance of GRB-selected galaxies to the locus of local galaxies in the BPT diagram. Oxygen abundances of the galaxies are distributed between 12+log(O/H)=7.9 and 12+log(O/H)=9.0 with a median of 12+log(O/H)~8.5. The fraction of GRB-selected galaxies with super-solar metallic...

  14. REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is believed to originate in highly relativistic fireballs. Aims. Currently, only lower limits were securely set to the initial fireball Lorentz factor Γ0. We aim to provide a direct measure of Γ0. Methods. The early-time afterglow light curve carries information about Γ0, which determines the time of the afterglow peak. We have obtained early observations of the near-infrared afterglows of GRB060418 and GRB060607A with the REM robotic telescope. Results. For both events, the afterglow peak could be clearly singled out, allowing a firm determination of the fireball Lorentz of Γ0 similar to 400, fully confirming the highly relativistic nature of GRB fireballs. The deceleration radius was inferred to be R-dec approximate to 1017 cm. This is much larger than the internal shocks radius (believed to power the prompt emission), thus providing further evidence for a different origin of the prompt and afterglow stages of the GRB. (authors)

  15. REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, E.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Chincarini, G.; Zerbi, F.M.; Conconi, P.; Malaspina, G.; Campana, S.; Rizzuto, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Osserv Astron Brera, INAF, I-23807 Merate, LC, (Italy); Vergani, S.D.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Ward, P.A. [DIAS, Dunsink Observ, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Vergani, S.D.; Norci, L. [Dublin City Univ, Sch Phys Sci, NCPST, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Malesani, D. [SISSA, ISAS, I-34014 Trieste, (Italy); Malesani, D. [Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, DK-2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); D' Avanzo, P. [Univ Insubria, Dipartimento Matemat and Fis, I-22100 Como, (Italy); Chincarini, G.; Rizzuto, D. [Univ Milan, I-20126 Milan, (Italy); Antonelli, L.A.; Testa, V.; Vitali, F.; D' Alessio, F.; Guetta, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Stella, L. [Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, (Italy); Tosti, G. [Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, Osservatorio Astron, I-06123 Perugia, (Italy); Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N. [IASF Bologna, INAF, I-40129 Bologna, (Italy); Goldoni, P. [APC, Lab Astroparticule and Cosmol, UMR 7164, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Goldoni, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is believed to originate in highly relativistic fireballs. Aims. Currently, only lower limits were securely set to the initial fireball Lorentz factor {gamma}{sub 0}. We aim to provide a direct measure of {gamma}{sub 0}. Methods. The early-time afterglow light curve carries information about {gamma}{sub 0}, which determines the time of the afterglow peak. We have obtained early observations of the near-infrared afterglows of GRB060418 and GRB060607A with the REM robotic telescope. Results. For both events, the afterglow peak could be clearly singled out, allowing a firm determination of the fireball Lorentz of {gamma}{sub 0} similar to 400, fully confirming the highly relativistic nature of GRB fireballs. The deceleration radius was inferred to be R-dec approximate to 10{sup 17} cm. This is much larger than the internal shocks radius (believed to power the prompt emission), thus providing further evidence for a different origin of the prompt and afterglow stages of the GRB. (authors)

  16. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  17. Theory in a Virtual Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, P; Hut, P; Levy, S; Makino, J; McMillan, S; Zwart, S P; Slavin, S D; Teuben, Peter; Young, Dave De; Hut, Piet; Levy, Stuart; Makino, Jun; Millan, Steve Mc; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Slavin, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    During the last couple of years, observers have started to make plans for a Virtual Observatory, as a federation of existing data bases, connected through levels of software that enable rapid searches, correlations, and various forms of data mining. We propose to extend the notion of a Virtual Observatory by adding archives of simulations, together with interactive query and visualization capabilities, as well as ways to simulate observations of simulations in order to compare them with observations. For this purpose, we have already organized two small workshops, earlier in 2001, in Tucson and Aspen. We have also provided concrete examples of theory data, designed to be federated with a Virtual Observatory. These data stem from a project to construct an archive for our large-scale simulations using the GRAPE-6 (a 32-Teraflops special purpose computer for stellar dynamics). We are constructing interfaces by which remote observers can observe these simulations. In addition, these data will enable detailed comp...

  18. Fast Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time delay-and-sum synthetic aperture beamformer. The beamforming delays and apodization coefficients are described parametrically. The image is viewed as a set of independent lines that are defined in 3-D by their origin, direction, and...... implementation of the beamformer is optimized with respect to the architecture of a novel synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS), in which 4 channels are processed by the same set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In synthetic transmit aperture imaging, low-resolution images are formed...

  19. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  20. Environmental Observatories and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Duncan, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    During the past several years, the environmental sciences community has been attempting to design large- scale obsevatories that will transform the science. A watershed-based observatory has emerged as an effective landscape unit for a broad range of environmental sciences and engineering. For an effective observatory, modeling is a central requirement because models are precise statements of the hypothesized conceptual organization of watersheds and of the processes believed to be controlling hydrology of the watershed. Furthermore, models can serve to determine the value of existing data and the incremental value of any additional data to be collected. Given limited resources, such valuation is mandatory for an objective design of an observatory. Modeling is one part of a "digital watershed" that must be constructed for any observatory, a concept that has been developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project. A digital watershed has three functions. First, it permits assembly of time series (such as stream discharge or precipitation measurements), static spatial coverages (such as topography), and dynamic fields (such as precipitation radar and other remotely sensed data). Second, based upon this common data description, a digital observatory permits multiple conceptualizations of the observatory to be created and to be stored. These conceptualizations could range from lumped box-and-arrow watershed models, to semi-distributed topographically based models, to three-dimensional finite element models. Finally, each conceptualization can lead to multiple models--that is, a set of equations that quantitatively describe hydrologic (or biogeochemical or geomorphologic) processes through libraries of tools that can be linked as workflow sequences. The advances in cyberinfrastructure that allow the storage of multiple conceptualizations and multiple model formulations of these conceptualizations promise to accelerate advances in environmental science both

  1. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  2. Search for strong gravitational lensing effect in the current GRB data of BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ChunYu; Li, LiXin

    2014-08-01

    Because gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) trace the high- z universe, there is an appreciable probability for a GRB to be gravitational lensed by galaxies in the universe. Herein we consider the gravitational lensing effect of GRBs contributed by the dark matter halos in galaxies. Assuming that all halos have the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) mass profile in the mass range 1010 h -1 M ⊙ distribution and luminosity function derived from the Swift LGRBs sample, we calculated the gravitational lensing probability in BATSE, Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM GRBs, respectively. With an derived probability result in BATSE GRBs, we searched for lensed GRB pairs in the BATSE5B GRB Spectral catalog. The search did not find any convincing gravitationally lensed events. We discuss our result and future observations for GRB lensing observation.

  3. Afterglow from GRB 070610/Swift J195509.6+261406:An explanation using the fireball model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    GRB 070610,which is also named Swift J195509.6+261406,is a peculiar Galactic transient with significant variability on short timescales in both X-ray and optical light curves.One possible explanation is that GRB 070610/Swift J195509.6 + 261406 is a soft gamma-ray repeater(SGR) in our Galaxy.Here,we use the fireball model,which is usually recognized as the standard model of gamma-ray burst(GRB) afterglows,and the energy injection hypothesis to interpret the X-ray and optical afterglow light curves of GRB 070610/Swift J195509.6 + 261406.It is found that the model is generally consistent with observations.

  4. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of the GRB 120327A afterglow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Goldoni, P.;

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the environment of the Swift long gamma-ray burst GRB 120327A at z ~2.8 through optical spectroscopy of its afterglow. We analyzed medium-resolution, multi-epoch spectroscopic observations (~7000 - 12000, corresponding to ~ 15 - 23 km/s, S/N = 15- 30 and wavelength range 3000......-25000AA) of the optical afterglow of GRB 120327A, taken with X-shooter at the VLT 2.13 and 27.65 hr after the GRB trigger. The first epoch spectrum shows that the ISM in the GRB host galaxy at z = 2.8145 is extremely rich in absorption features, with three components contributing to the line profiles...

  5. Implications of Lag-Luminosity Relationship for Unified GRB Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, J P

    2002-01-01

    Spectral lags are deduced for 1437 long GRBs with peak fluxes extending to near the BATSE trigger threshold. The lags are modeled to approximate the observed distribution in the peak flux-lag plane, realizing a noise-free representation. Assuming a two-branch lag-luminosity relationship, the lags are self- consistently corrected for cosmological effects to yield distributions in luminosity, distance, and redshift. The results have several consequences for GRB populations -- including a possible nearby subpopulation of low-luminosity, long-lag GRBs -- and for unified gamma-ray/afterglow scenarios which would account for afterglow break times and gamma-ray spectral evolution in terms of jet opening angle, viewing angle, or a profiled jet with variable Lorentz factor.

  6. GRB 060206: Evidence of Precession of Central Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-redshift (z = 4.048) gamma-ray burst GRB 060206 showed unusual behavior, with a significant re-brightening about 3000 s after the burst. We assume that the central engine became active again 2000 s after the main burst and drove another more collimated off-axis jet. The two jets both interacted with the ambient medium and contributed to the whole emission. We numerically fit this optical afterglow from the two jets using the forward-shock model and the forward-reverse shock model. Combining with the zero time effect, we suggest that the fast rise at ∼3000 s in the afterglow was due to the off-axis emission from the second jet. The precession of the torus or accretion disk of the gamma ray burst engine is the natural explanation for the symmetry axes of these two jets not to lie on the same line

  7. Evidence for TeV Emission from GRB 970417a

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, C; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    2000-01-01

    Milagrito, a detector sensitive to very high energy gamma rays, monitored the northern sky from February 1997 through May 1998. With a large field of view and a high duty cycle, this instrument was well suited to perform a search for TeV gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We report on a search made for TeV counterparts to GRBs observed by BATSE. BATSE detected 54 GRBs within the field of view of Milagrito during this period. An excess of events coincident in time and space with one of these bursts, GRB 970417a, was observed by Milagrito. The excess has a chance probability of $2.8 \\times 10^{-5}$ of being a fluctuation of the background. The probability for observing an excess at least this large from any of the 54 bursts is $1.5 \\times 10^{-3}$. No significant correlations were detected from the other bursts.

  8. Sparse aperture differential piston measurements using the pyramid wave-front sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Yan, Zhaojun; Zheng, Lixin; Agapito, Guido; Wang, Chaoyan; Zhu, Nenghong; Zhu, Liyun; Cai, Jianqing; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the laboratory experiment we settled in the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) to investigate the pyramid wavefront sensor (WFS) ability to measure the differential piston on a sparse aperture. The ultimate goal is to verify the ability of the pyramid WFS work in closed loop to perform the phasing of the primary mirrors of a sparse Fizeau imaging telescope. In the experiment we installed on the optical bench we performed various test checking the ability to flat the wave-front using a deformable mirror and to measure the signal of the differential piston on a two pupils setup. These steps represent the background from which we start to perform full closed loop operation on multiple apertures. These steps were also useful to characterize the achromatic double pyramids (double prisms) manufactured in the SHAO optical workshop.

  9. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): A Technology Roadmap for the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation of UVOIR space observatory with a primary aperture diameter in the 8-m to 16-m range that will allow us to perform some of the most challenging observations to answer some of our most compelling questions, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We have identified two different telescope architectures, but with similar optical designs, that span the range in viable technologies. The architectures are a telescope with a monolithic primary mirror and two variations of a telescope with a large segmented primary mirror. This approach provides us with several pathways to realizing the mission, which will be narrowed to one as our technology development progresses. The concepts invoke heritage from HST and JWST design, but also take significant departures from these designs to minimize complexity, mass, or both. Our report provides details on the mission concepts, shows the extraordinary s...

  10. Jet or shock breakout? The low-luminosity GRB 060218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher M.; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a model for the low-luminosity gamma-ray burst GRB 060218 that plausibly accounts for multiwavelength observations to day 20. The model components are: (1) a long-lived (tj ˜ 3000 s) central engine and accompanying low-luminosity (Lj ˜ 1047 erg s-1), mildly relativistic (γ ˜ 10) jet; (2) a low-mass (˜4 × 10-3 M⊙) envelope surrounding the progenitor star; and (3) a modest amount of dust (AV ˜ 0.1 mag) in the circumstellar or interstellar environment. Blackbody emission from the transparency radius in a low-power jet outflow can fit the prompt thermal X-ray emission, and the non-thermal X-rays and gamma-rays may be produced via Compton scattering of thermal photons from hot leptons in the jet interior or the external shocks. The later mildly relativistic phase of this outflow can produce the radio emission via synchrotron radiation from the forward shock. Meanwhile, interaction of the associated SN 2006aj with a circumstellar envelope extending to ˜1013 cm can explain the early optical emission. The X-ray afterglow can be interpreted as a light echo of the prompt emission from dust at ˜30 pc. Our model is a plausible alternative to that of Nakar, who recently proposed shock breakout of a jet smothered by an extended envelope as the source of prompt emission. Both our results and Nakar's suggest that bursts such as GRB 060218 may originate from unusual progenitors with extended circumstellar envelopes, and that a jet is necessary to decouple the prompt emission from the supernova.

  11. Early ($<$0.3 day) R-band light curve of the optical afterglow of GRB030329

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Nishiura, S; Tamagawa, T; Burenin, R A; Sekiguchi, T; Miyasaka, S; Yoshizumi, C; Suzuki, J; Mito, H; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Shiki, S; Makishima, K

    2004-01-01

    We observed the optical afterglow of the bright gamma-ray burst GRB030329 on the nights of 2003 March 29, using the Kiso observatory (the University of Tokyo) 1.05 m Schmidt telescope. Data were taken from March 29 13:21:26 UT to 17:43:16 (0.072 to 0.253 days after the burst), using an $Rc$-band filter. The obtained $Rc$-band light curve has been fitted successfully by a single power law function with decay index of $0.891\\pm0.004$. These results remain unchanged when incorporating two early photometric data points at 0.065 and 0.073 days, reported by Price et al.(2003) using the SSO 40 inch telescope, and further including RTT150 data (Burenin et al. 2003) covering at about 0.3 days. Over the period of 0.065-0.285 days after the burst, any deviation from the power-law decay is smaller than $\\pm$0.007 mag. The temporal structure reported by Uemura et al. (2003) does not show up in our $R$-band light curve.

  12. A decade of GRB follow-up by BOOTES in Spain (2003-2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Jelínek, Martin; Cunniffe, Ronan; Gorosabel, Javier; Vítek, Stanislav; Kubánek, Petr; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Guziy, Sergey; Tello, Juan C; Páta, Petr; Sánchez-Ramírez, Rubén; Oates, Samantha; Jeong, Soomin; Štrobl, Jan; Castillo-Carrión, Sebastián; Sanguino, Tomás Mateo; Rabaza, Ovidio; Pérez-Ramírez, Dolores; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Carretero, Benito A de la Morena; Hudec, René; Reglero, Víctor; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2016-01-01

    This article covers ten years of GRB follow-ups by the Spanish BOOTES stations: 71 follow-ups providing 23 detections. Follow-ups by BOOTES-1B from 2005 to 2008 were given in the previous article, and are here reviewed, updated, and include additional detection data points as the former article merely stated their existence. The all-sky cameras CASSANDRA have not yet detected any GRB optical afterglows, but limits are reported where available.

  13. A Decade of GRB Follow-Up by BOOTES in Spain (2003–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers ten years of GRB follow-ups by the Spanish BOOTES stations: 71 follow-ups providing 23 detections. Follow-ups by BOOTES-1B from 2005 to 2008 were given in a previous article and are here reviewed and updated, and additional detection data points are included as the former article merely stated their existence. The all-sky cameras CASSANDRA have not yet detected any GRB optical afterglows, but limits are reported where available.

  14. Structural basis for the interaction of the adaptor protein grb14 with activated ras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Qamra

    Full Text Available Grb14, a member of the Grb7-10-14 family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin signaling. Grb7-10-14 contain several signaling modules, including a Ras-associating (RA domain, a pleckstrin-homology (PH domain, a family-specific BPS (between PH and SH2 region, and a C-terminal Src-homology-2 (SH2 domain. We showed previously that the RA and PH domains, along with the BPS region and SH2 domain, are necessary for downregulation of insulin signaling. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.4-Å resolution of the Grb14 RA and PH domains in complex with GTP-loaded H-Ras (G12V. The structure reveals that the Grb14 RA and PH domains form an integrated structural unit capable of binding simultaneously to small GTPases and phosphoinositide lipids. The overall mode of binding of the Grb14 RA domain to activated H-Ras is similar to that of the RA domains of RalGDS and Raf1 but with important distinctions. The integrated RA-PH structural unit in Grb7-10-14 is also found in a second adaptor family that includes Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM and lamellipodin, proteins involved in actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. The structure of Grb14 RA-PH in complex with H-Ras represents the first detailed molecular characterization of tandem RA-PH domains bound to a small GTPase and provides insights into the molecular basis for specificity.

  15. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB080310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; De Cia, A.; Jakobsson, P.;

    2013-01-01

    We model the time-variable absorption of Feii, Feiii, Siii, Cii and Crii detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.427...... ionized by the radiation released during the first few tens of minutes after the GRB. © 2012 ESO....

  16. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small spacecraft observatory. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) that uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRBs and transient studies. Its fast response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRBs each year will provide unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRBs as a new standard candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. For the first time we employ a motorized slewing stage in SMT that can point to the event within 1 s after the x-ray trigger provided by the UFFO Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope. These two scientific instruments comprise the UFFO-pathfinder payload, which will be placed onboard the Lomonosov satellite and launched in 2013. The UFFO-pathfinder is the first step of our long-term program of space instruments for rapid-response GRB observations. We describe early photon science, our soon-to-be-launched UFFO-pathfinder hardware and mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100. (paper)

  17. Synthetic Aperture Radar Missions Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the LightSAR project and summarizes actions the agency can undertake to support industry-led efforts to develop an operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capability in the United States.

  18. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  19. Thermal Emission by a Subwavelength Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Joulain, Karl; Carminati, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture filled by vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures filled with vacuum (subwavelength blackbody) have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emittance scales as T 8 instead of T 4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  20. Probing the Nature of Short Swift Bursts via Deep INTEGRAL Monitoring of GRB 050925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from Swift, XMM-Newton, and deep INTEGRAL monitoring in the region of GRB 050925. This short Swift burst is a candidate for a newly discovered soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) with the following observational burst properties: 1) galactic plane (b=-0.1 deg) localization, 2) 150 msec duration, and 3) a blackbody rather than a simple power-law spectral shape (with a significance level of 97%). We found two possible X-ray counterparts of GRB 050925 by comparing the X-ray images from Swift XRT and XMM-Newton. Both X-ray sources show the transient behavior with a power-law decay index shallower than -1. We found no hard X-ray emission nor any additional burst from the location of GRB 050925 in approximately 5 Ms of INTEGRAL data. We discuss about the three BATSE short bursts which might be associated with GRB 050925, based on their location and the duration. Assuming GRB 050925 is associated with the H(sub II), regions (W 58) at the galactic longitude of 1=70 deg, we also discuss the source frame properties of GRB 050925.

  1. Grb10 characterization in bovine cumulus oocyte complexes from different follicle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Antunes da Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression and protein localization of Grb10 gene in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs from different follicle sizes. Firstly, it was investigated the mRNA expression to correlate with maturation rates. COCs from follicles at 1-3, 4-6, 6-8 and >8mm were used to evaluate Grb10 gene expression by qRT-PCR assay and nuclear maturation rates. It was observed that more competent oocytes (from follicles at 6-8 and >8mm; P>0.05, had lower Grb10 mRNA expression levels when compared to the oocytes from follicles at 1-3 and 4-6mm (P>0.05. After it was performed an immunofluorescence analysis in COCs from different follicle sizes (1-3, 4-6, 6-8 and >8mm to investigate Grb10 protein localization. Samples were incubated with primary antibody: Polyclonal rabbit anti-Grb10 (1:100. Primary antibody was detected using goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 (1:500. Positive fluorescence signal was detected in all analyzed samples but less evident in COCs from largest follicles. These results characterized Grb10 gene in bovine COC and provide evidences for its involvement during oocyte molecular maturation.

  2. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of the GRB 120327A afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, V; Goldoni, P; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Ledoux, C; Calura, F; Gorosabel, J; Malesani, D; Sanchez-Ramirez, F Matteucci R; Savaglio, S; Castro-Tirado, A J; Hartoog, O E; Kaper, L; Munoz-Darias, T; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Tagliaferri, G; Tanvir, N; Vergani, S D; Watson, D J; Xu, D

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the environment of the Swift long gamma-ray burst GRB 120327A at z ~2.8 through optical spectroscopy of its afterglow. We analyzed medium-resolution, multi-epoch spectroscopic observations (~7000 - 12000, corresponding to ~ 15 - 23 km/s, S/N = 15- 30 and wavelength range 3000-25000AA) of the optical afterglow of GRB 120327A, taken with X-shooter at the VLT 2.13 and 27.65 hr after the GRB trigger. The first epoch spectrum shows that the ISM in the GRB host galaxy at z = 2.8145 is extremely rich in absorption features, with three components contributing to the line profiles. The hydrogen column density associated with GRB 120327A has log NH / cm^(-2) = 22.01 +/- 0.09, and the metallicity of the host galaxy is in the range [X/H] = -1.3 to -1.1. In addition to the ground state lines, we detect absorption features associated with excited states of CII, OI, SiII, FeII, and NiII, which we used to derive information on the distance between the host absorbing gas and the site of the GRB explosion...

  3. Synthetic Aperture Techniques for Sonar Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, S&#;rgio Rui; Cunha, S&#;rgio; Matos, An&#;bal; Cruz, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    As demonstrated, synthetic aperture sonar is a technique that enables attainment of high quality, high resolution underwater images. Autonomous surface vehicles provides several advantages for synthetic aperture imagery. Not only it is possible to control the boat motion in this way, it is also possible to obtain navigation measurements with precisions in the order of the wavelength used in high resolution sonar systems. Furthermore unsupervised surveillance applications that combine the high...

  4. An autonomous boat based Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Rui Silva; Sergio Cunha; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) system being developed at the University of Porto to be used in a small autonomous boat for the survey of shallow water environments, such as rivers, deltas, estuaries and dams. Its purpose is to obtain high resolution echo reflectivity maps through synthetic aperture techniques, taking advantage of the high precision navigation system of the boat. In the future the production of bottom tomography maps is also considered through the use of...

  5. Biomineral repair of Abalone shell apertures

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, M.; Guo, D.; Chung, P.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, ...

  6. ISS images for Observatory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  7. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  8. The National Ecological Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, W. K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  9. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing. PMID:27250995

  10. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  11. EVIDENCE FOR A PHOTOSPHERIC COMPONENT IN THE PROMPT EMISSION OF THE SHORT GRB 120323A AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE GRB HARDNESS-LUMINOSITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiriec, S.; McEnery, J.; Gehrels, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daigne, F.; Hascoeet, R.; Mochkovitch, R. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris UMR 7095 Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 06 (France); CNRS 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Vianello, G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ryde, F. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kouveliotou, C. [Office of Science and Technology, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Xiong, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Burgess, J. M. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Foley, S.; McGlynn, S. [UCD School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gruber, D., E-mail: sylvain.guiriec@nasa.gov [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    The short GRB 120323A had the highest flux ever detected with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Here we study its remarkable spectral properties and their evolution using two spectral models: (1) a single emission component scenario, where the spectrum is modeled by the empirical Band function (a broken power law), and (2) a two-component scenario, where thermal (a Planck-like function) emission is observed simultaneously with a non-thermal component (a Band function). We find that the latter model fits the integrated burst spectrum significantly better than the former, and that their respective spectral parameters are dramatically different: when fit with a Band function only, the E{sub peak} of the event is unusually soft for a short gamma-ray burst (GRB; 70 keV compared to an average of 300 keV), while adding a thermal component leads to more typical short GRB values (E{sub peak} {approx} 300 keV). Our time-resolved spectral analysis produces similar results. We argue here that the two-component model is the preferred interpretation for GRB 120323A based on (1) the values and evolution of the Band function parameters of the two component scenario, which are more typical for a short GRB, and (2) the appearance in the data of a significant hardness-intensity correlation, commonly found in GRBs, when we employee two-component model fits; the correlation is non-existent in the Band-only fits. GRB 110721A, a long burst with an intense photospheric emission, exhibits the exact same behavior. We conclude that GRB 120323A has a strong photospheric emission contribution, observed for the first time in a short GRB. Magnetic dissipation models are difficult to reconcile with these results, which instead favor photospheric thermal emission and fast cooling synchrotron radiation from internal shocks. Finally, we derive a possibly universal hardness-luminosity relation in the source frame using a larger set of GRBs (L{sub i}{sup Band

  12. Tools for Coordinating Planning Between Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Maks, L.; Fishman, M.; Grella, V.; Kerbel, U.; Misra, D.; Pell, V.

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wave bands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only a single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not by scientific restrictions, but by operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are initiated by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among staffs at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming and error-prone, and the outcome of requests is not certain until the very end. To increase multi-observatory operations efficiency, such resource intensive processes need to be re-engineered. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of VOLT is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the probability of scheduling all observations.

  13. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  14. A Rapid-Response Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Observing Program at Etelman Observatory in the US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Timothy W.; Neff, James E.; Hakkila, Jon; Hartmann, Dieter; Andresian-Thomas, Noretta; Drost, Donald M.

    2004-09-01

    The College of Charleston (CofC) is one of three institutions that belong to a consortium led by the Division of Science and Mathematics at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) to maintain and operate a research grade telescope at Etelman Observatory on the island of St. Thomas (18deg, 21' N, 65deg W at an elevation ~ 1325 ft with facility for observing Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The observatory will serve a variety of needs to the consortium members that include research, teaching, and public outreach. The primary research function of this facility will be to perform rapid, automated followup observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed with NASA's Swift spacecraft, to be launched in June 2004, via the GCN. The newly renovated observatory houses a new robotic 0.5 m Cassegrain telescope with a back-illuminated Marconi 2024 × 2024 CCD42-40 imaging array and 12-position UBVRI filter wheel. Assuming 1.5'' seeing and a S/N=5, we can obtain a limiting (unfiltered) magnitude of ~ 19 with a 10 s integration time. The slew rate is >= 10deg per second. With the exceptional sky coverage at Etelman Observatory, we anticipate a detection rate of about 10-15% of the Swift detection rate, and we anticipate making a significant contribution to the global network of small telescopes dedicated to GRB observations.

  15. Global Health Observatory (GHO): Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Menu Global Health Observatory ... years on average in 2015 MORE MORTALITY AND GLOBAL HEALTH ESTIMATES DATA PRODUCTS Maps Country profiles About ...

  16. The MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  17. Evidence for a proto-black hole and a double astrophysical component in GRB 101023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacchioni, A. V.; Ruffini, R.; Izzo, L.; Muccino, M.; Bianco, C. L.; Caito, L.; Patricelli, B.; Amati, L.

    2012-02-01

    Context. It has been recently shown that GRB 090618, observed by AGILE, Coronas Photon, Fermi, Konus, Suzaku, and Swift, is composed of two very different components: episode 1, lasting 50 s, shows a thermal plus power-law spectrum with a characteristic temperature evolving in time as a power law; episode 2 (the remaining 100 s) is a canonical long GRB. We have associated episode 1 to the progenitor of a collapsing bare core leading to the formation of a black hole: what was defined as a "proto black hole" Aims: In precise analogy with GRB 090618 we aim to analyze the 89 s of the emission of GRB 101023, observed by Fermi, Gemini, Konus and Swift, to see if there are two different episodes: the first one presenting a characteristic black-body temperature evolving in time as a broken power law, and the second one consistent with a canonical GRB. Methods: To obtain information on the spectra, we analyzed the data provided by the GBM detector onboard the Fermi satellite, and we used the heasoft package XSPEC and RMFIT to obtain their spectral distribution. We also used the numerical code GRBsim to simulate the emission in the context of the fireshell scenario for episode 2. Results: We confirm that the first episode can be well fit by a black body plus power-law spectral model. The temperature changes with time following a broken power law, and the photon index of the power-law component presents a soft-to-hard evolution. We estimate that the radius of this source increases with time with a velocity of 1.5 × 104 km s-1. The second episode appears to be a canonical GRB. By using the Amati and the Atteia relations, we determined the cosmological redshift, z ~ 0.9 ± 0.084(stat.) ± 0.2(sys.). The results of GRB 090618 are compared and contrasted with the results of GRB 101023. Particularly striking is the scaling law of the soft X-ray component of the afterglow. Conclusions: We identify GRB 090618 and GRB 101023 with a new family of GRBs related to a single core

  18. CALISTO: A Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Khayatian, B.; Huffenberger, K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Gorski, K.; Yorke, H. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Paine, C.; Satter, C.; Lee, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a design for a cryogenically cooled large aperture telescope for far-infrared astronomy in the wavelength range 30 micrometers to 300 micrometers. The Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, or CALISTO, is based on an off-axis Gregorian telescope having a 4 m by 6 m primary reflector. This can be launched using an Atlas V 511, with the only optical deployment required being a simple hinged rotation of the secondary reflector. The off-axis design, which includes a cold stop, offers exceptionally good performance in terms of high efficiency and minimum coupling of radiation incident from angles far off the direction of maximum response. This means that strong astronomical sources, such as the Milky Way and zodiacal dust in the plane of the solar system, add very little to the background. The entire optical system is cooled to 4 K to make its emission less than even this low level of astronomical emission. Assuming that detector technology can be improved to the point where detector noise is less than that of the astronomical background, we anticipate unprecedented low values of system noise equivalent power, in the vicinity of 10(exp -19) WHz(exp -0.5), through CALISTO's operating range. This will enable a variety of new astronomical investigations ranging from studies of objects in the outer solar system to tracing the evolution of galaxies in the universe throughout cosmic time.

  19. CONSTRAINING THE GRB-MAGNETAR MODEL BY MEANS OF THE GALACTIC PULSAR POPULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, N. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gullón, M.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d’Alacant, Ap. Correus 99, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Perna, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Dainotti, M. G. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA (United States); Torres, D. F. [Instituto de Ciencias de l’Espacio (ICE, CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-10

    A large fraction of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) displays an X-ray plateau phase within <10{sup 5} s from the prompt emission, proposed to be powered by the spin-down energy of a rapidly spinning newly born magnetar. In this work we use the properties of the Galactic neutron star population to constrain the GRB-magnetar scenario. We re-analyze the X-ray plateaus of all Swift GRBs with known redshift, between 2005 January and 2014 August. From the derived initial magnetic field distribution for the possible magnetars left behind by the GRBs, we study the evolution and properties of a simulated GRB-magnetar population using numerical simulations of magnetic field evolution, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of Pulsar Population Synthesis in our Galaxy. We find that if the GRB X-ray plateaus are powered by the rotational energy of a newly formed magnetar, the current observational properties of the Galactic magnetar population are not compatible with being formed within the GRB scenario (regardless of the GRB type or rate at z = 0). Direct consequences would be that we should allow the existence of magnetars and “super-magnetars” having different progenitors, and that Type Ib/c SNe related to Long GRBs form systematically neutron stars with higher initial magnetic fields. We put an upper limit of ≤16 “super-magnetars” formed by a GRB in our Galaxy in the past Myr (at 99% c.l.). This limit is somewhat smaller than what is roughly expected from Long GRB rates, although the very large uncertainties do not allow us to draw strong conclusion in this respect.

  20. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  1. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2013-01-01

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 R.G. Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main European observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  2. Evidence for a Photospheric Component in the Prompt Emission of the Short GRB120323A and its Effects on the GRB Hardness-Luminosity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Guiriec, S; Hascoët, R; Vianello, G; Mochkovitch, R; Ryde, F; Kouveliotou, C; Xiong, S; Bhat, P N; Foley, S; Grüber, D; Burgess, J M; McGlynn, S; McEnery, J; Gehrels, N

    2012-01-01

    The short GRB 120323A had the highest flux ever detected with the Fermi/GBM. Here we study its remarkable spectral properties and their evolution using two spectral models: (i) a single emission component scenario, where the spectrum is modeled by the empirical Band function, and (ii) a two component scenario, where thermal (Planck-like) emission is observed simultaneously with a non-thermal component (a Band function). We find that the latter model fits the integrated burst spectrum significantly better than the former, and that their respective spectral parameters are dramatically different: when fit with a Band function only, the Epeak of the event is unusually soft for a short GRB, while adding a thermal component leads to more typical short GRB values. Our time-resolved spectral analysis produces similar results. We argue here that the two-component model is the preferred interpretation for GRB 120323A, based on: (i) the values and evolution of the Band function parameters of the two component scenario, ...

  3. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

  4. Two short bursts originating from different astrophysical systems: the genuine short GRB 090227B and the disguised short GRB 090510 by excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccino, Marco; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Izzo, Luca; Wang, Yu [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy); Enderli, Maxime; Pisani, Giovanni Battista [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Grand Chateau Parc Valrose (Italy); Penacchioni, Ana Virginia [ICRANet-Rio, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ruffini, Remo [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Grand Chateau Parc Valrose, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    GRB 090227B and GRB 090510 are two gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) traditionally classified as short bursts. The major outcome of our analysis is that they indeed originate from different systems. In the case of GRB 090227B, from the inferred values of the total energy of the e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} = (2.83 ± 0.15) x 10{sup 53} erg, the engulfed baryonic mass M{sub B}, expressed as B = M{sub B}c{sup 2} / E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} = (4.1 ± 0.05) x 10{sup -5}, and the circumburst medium (CBM) average density, = (1.90 ± 0.20) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -3}, we have assumed the progenitor of this burst to be a symmetric neutron star (NS) merger with masses m = 1.34 M, radii R = 12.24 km, and crustal thicknesses of ∼ 0.47 km. In the case of GRB 090510, we have derived the total plasma energy, E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} = (1.10 ± 0.06) x 10{sup 53} erg, the Baryon load, B = (1.45 ± 0.28) x 10{sup -3}, and the Lorentz factor at transparency, Γ = (6.7 ± 1.7) x 10{sup 2}, which are characteristic of the long GRB class, as well as a very high CBM density, (1.85 ± 0.14) x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The joint effect of the high values of Γ and compresses in time and 'inflates' in intensity the extended afterglow, making GRB 090510 appear to be a short burst, which we here define as a 'disguised short GRB by excess', occurring in an overdense region with 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}.

  5. Solar initiative at Oukaimeden Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.

    2013-07-01

    The solar research program at Oukaimeden Observatory started in 1988 with the helioseimological IRIS network. The Moroccan researchers involved in this research have analyzed solar observations in order to detect and characterize the solar sphere modes of oscillations. In the coming year, the researchers at the Oukaimeden Observatory will add new research capabilities by joining the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), installing a suite of optical instruments, comprising a Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions (RENOIR). The scope and objectives to be achieved in this proposed project are to: • deploy a Fabry-Perot interferometer and wide-angle imaging system to the Observatoire Astronomique Universitaire de LOukaimeden; • train students and researchers from Cadi Ayyad University on the operation of the equipment and related analysis techniques; • collect and analyze data from the equipment to study properties of upper-atmospheric winds and temperatures and how they relate to the occurrence of space weather; and • develop an international collaboration network with other researchers using similar instrumentation in Brazil and Peru. We will present here the plan we intend to develop for the Moroccan solar program in connection with ISWI.

  6. TAUVEX observatory activiies: Science planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Margarita

    The TAUVEX Observatory is a collaborative project between the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) and Tel Aviv University (TAU) to observe the ultraviolet (UV) sky. TAUVEX Observatory consists of a set of three co-aligned telescopes capable of imaging in the 100 to 350 nm range through a set of 5 different filters. The major science objectives of TAUVEX are (a) searches for QSOs and AGNs based on their UV properties, (b) surface photometry of galaxies in the UV, (c) studies of stars and nebulae within the Galaxy, (d) the nature of the UV background, and (d) studies of variable sources in the UV domain. Science planning for TAUVEX is being conducted by the personnel of the TAUVEX Core Group (TCG). All science operations activities will be based at TAUVEX Data Centre, IIA, Bangalore, India. The Principal Investigators and TAUVEX Science Team have created a coherent observing program to address several key science objectives that will constitute the Core Science Program projects. The responsibilities of TCG are described. We present a description of the TAUVEX mission, including details of the instrument design and its estimated performance, assess the status of the Observatory development and describe in brief the main research categories.

  7. Grb2 Is Important for T Cell Development, Th Cell Differentiation, and Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Daniel; Lacher, Sonja M; Szumilas, Nadine; Sandrock, Lena; Ackermann, Jochen; Nitschke, Lars; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The small adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) modulates and integrates signals from receptors on cellular surfaces in inner signaling pathways. In murine T cells, Grb2 is crucial for amplification of TCR signaling. T cell-specific Grb2(fl/fl) Lckcre(tg) Grb2-deficient mice show reduced T cell numbers due to impaired negative and positive selection. In this study, we found that T cell numbers in Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice were normal in the thymus and were only slightly affected in the periphery. Ex vivo analysis of CD4(+) Th cell populations revealed an increased amount of Th1 cells within the CD4(+) population of Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice. Additionally, Grb2-deficient T cells showed a greater potential to differentiate into Th17 cells in vitro. To test whether these changes in Th cell differentiation potential rendered Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice more prone to inflammatory diseases, we used the murine Th1 cell- and Th17 cell-driven model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast to our expectations, Grb2(fl/fl) CD4cre(tg) mice developed a milder form of EAE. The impaired EAE disease can be explained by the reduced proliferation rate of Grb2-deficient CD4(+) T cells upon stimulation with IL-2 or upon activation by allogeneic dendritic cells, because the activation of T cells by dendritic cells and the subsequent T cell proliferation are known to be crucial factors for the induction of EAE. In summary, Grb2-deficient T cells show defects in T cell development, increased Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation capacities, and impaired proliferation after activation by dendritic cells, which likely reduce the clinical symptoms of EAE.

  8. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  9. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca;

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET......Geomagnetic observatory practice and instrumentation has evolved significantly over the past 150 years. Evolution continues to be driven by advances in technology and by the need of the data user community for higher-resolution, lower noise data in near-real time. Additionally, collaboration...

  10. Discerning the physical origins of cosmological Gamma-ray bursts based on multiple observational criteria: the cases of z=6.7 GRB 080913, z=8.3 GRB 090423, and some short/hard GRBs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Virgili, Francisco J.; Liang, En-Wei; Kann, D. Alexander; Wu, Xue-Feng; Proga, Daniel; LV, Hou-Jun; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter; Burrows, David N.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The two high-redshift gamma-ray bursts, GRB 080913 at z=6.7 and GRB 090423 at z=8.3, recently detected by Swift appear as intrinsically short, hard GRBs. They could have been recognized by BATSE as short/hard GRBs should they have occurred at z

  11. Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, Istvan; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Context. Research over the past three decades has revolutionized cosmology while supporting the standard cosmological model. However, the cosmological principle of Universal homogeneity and isotropy has always been in question, since structures as large as the survey size have always been found each time the survey size has increased. Until 2013, the largest known structure in our Universe was the Sloan Great Wall, which is more than 400 Mpc long located approximately one billion light years away. Aims. Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe. As they are associated with the stellar endpoints of massive stars and are found in and near distant galaxies, they are viable indicators of the dense part of the Universe containing normal matter. The spatial distribution of gamma-ray bursts can thus help expose the large scale structure of the Universe. Methods. As of July 2012, 283 GRB redshifts have been measured. Subdividing this sample into nine radial parts, each containing 31 GRBs, ind...

  12. New constraints on GRB jet geometry and relativistic shock physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guidorzi, C; Harrison, R; Margutti, R; Sudilovsky, V; Zauderer, B A; Kobayashi, S; Cucchiara, A; Melandri, A; Pandey, S B; Berger, E; Bersier, D; D'Elia, V; Gomboc, A; Greiner, J; Japelj, J; Kopac, D; Kumar, B; Malesani, D; Mottram, C J; O'Brien, P T; Rau, A; Smith, R J; Steele, I A; Tanvir, N R; Virgili, F

    2014-01-01

    We use high--quality, multi-band observations of Swift GRB120404A, from gamma-ray to radio frequencies, together with the new hydrodynamics code of van Eerten et al. (2012) to test the standard synchrotron shock model. The evolution of the radio and optical afterglow, with its prominent optical rebrightening at t_rest 260-2600 s, is remarkably well modelled by a decelerating jet viewed close to the jet edge, combined with some early re-energization of the shock. We thus constrain the geometry of the jet with half-opening and viewing angles of 23 and 21 deg respectively and suggest that wide jets viewed off-axis are more common in GRBs than previously thought. We also derive the fireball microphysics parameters epsilon_B=2.4e-4 and epsilon_e=9.3e-2 and a circumburst density of n=240 cm^-3. The ability to self-consistently model the microphysics parameters and jet geometry in this way offers an alternative to trying to identify elusive canonical jet breaks at late times. The mismatch between the observed and mo...

  13. GRB 050822: Detailed analysis of an XRF observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Godet, O; Osborne, J; Zhang, B; Burrows, D N; O'Brien, P T; Hill, J E; Racusin, J; Beardmore, A P; Goad, M R; Falcone, A; Morris, D C; Ziaeepour, H

    2007-01-01

    We report on the temporal and spectral characteristics of the early X-ray emission from the GRB 050822 as observed by Swift. This burst is likely to be an XRF showing major X-ray flares in its XRT light-curve. The quality of the data allows a detailed spectral analysis of the early afterglow in the X-ray band. During the X-ray flares, a positive correlation between the count rate and the spectral hardness (i.e. higher the count rate is and harder the spectrum is) is clearly seen for the X-ray flares. This behaviour similar to that seen for Gamma-ray pulses indicates that the energy peak of the spectrum is in the XRT energy band and it moves at lower energy with time. We show evidence for the possible detection of the emergence of the forward-shock emission produced at a radius larger than 4 x 10^{16} cm (a forming region clearly different to that producing the prompt emission). Finally, we show that the null detection of a jet break up to T_0+4 x 10^6s in the X-ray light curve of this XRF can be understood: i...

  14. The afterglow and the host galaxy of GRB 011211

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsson, P; Fynbo, J P U; Gorosabel, J; Pedersen, K; Burud, I; Levan, A J; Kouveliotou, C; Tanvir, N R; Fruchter, A S; Rhoads, J; Grav, T; Hansen, M W; Michelsen, R; Andersen, M I; Jensen, B L; Pedersen, H; Thomsen, B; Weidinger, M; Bhargavi, S G; Cowsik, R; Pandey, S B

    2003-01-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and X-ray observations of the optical afterglow (OA) of the X-ray rich, long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 011211. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained 14, 26, 32, and 59 days after the burst, show the host galaxy to have a morphology that is fairly typical of blue galaxies at high redshift. We measure its magnitude to be R = 24.95 +/- 0.11. We detect a break in the OA R-band light curve which is naturally accounted for by a collimated outflow geometry. By fitting a broken power-law to the data we find a best fit with a break 1.56 +/- 0.02 days after the burst, a pre-break slope of alpha_1 = -0.95 +/- 0.02, and a post-break slope of alpha_2 = -2.11 +/- 0.07. The UV-optical spectral energy distribution (SED) around 14 hours after the burst is best fit with a power-law with index beta = -0.56 +/- 0.19 reddened by an SMC-like extinction law with a modest A_V = 0.08 +/- 0.08 mag. By comparison, from the XMM-Newton X-ray data at around the same time, we find a decay index of...

  15. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  16. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Disha; Amati, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 1054 erg of energy isotropically (Eiso) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ˜ 0.01 up to ˜ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (Ep,i) and the "intensity" is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the Ep,i - Eiso correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density ΩM being ˜ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of Ep,i with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of ΩM. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  17. An External Shock Origin of GRB 141028A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Michael; Bégué, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The prompt emission of the long, smooth, and single-pulsed gamma-ray burst, GRB 141028A, is analyzed under the guise of an external shock model. First, we fit the γ-ray spectrum with a two-component photon model, namely synchrotron+blackbody, and then fit the recovered evolution of the synchrotron ν F_{ν} peak to an analytic model derived considering the emission of a relativistic blast-wave expanding into an external medium. The prediction of the model for the ν F_{ν} peak evolution matches well with the observations. We observe the blast-wave transitioning into the deceleration phase. Further we assume the expansion of the magnetic field deduced from the observations. This allows us to recover within an order of magnitude the flux density at the ν F_{ν} peak, which is remarkable considering the simplicity of the analytic model. Under this scenario we argue that the distinction between prompt and afterglow emission is superfluous as both early and late time emission emanate from the same source. While the external shock model is clearly not a universal solution, this analysis opens the possibility that at least some fraction of GRBs can be explained with an external shock origin of their prompt phase.

  18. The SEDs and Host Galaxies of the dustiest GRB afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Schady, P; Savaglio, S; Afonso, P M J; Clemens, C; Elliott, J; Filgas, R; Gruber, D; Kann, D A; Klose, S; Küpcü-Yoldas, A; McBreen, S; E., F Olivares; Pierini, D; Rau, A; Rossi, A; Nardini, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Sudilovsky, V; Updike, A C

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) Until recently the information inferred from gamma-ray burst follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows, biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Here, we present GRB afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies, and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder, more luminous and massive than the hosts of optically-bright events. We hence probe a different galaxy population, suggesting that previous host samples miss most of the massive, chemically-evolved and metal-rich members. This also indicates that the dust along the sight-line is often related to host properties, and thus p...

  19. GRB 060313: A New Paradigm for Short-Hard Bursts?

    CERN Document Server

    Roming, P W A; Palshin, V D; Pagani, C; Norris, J; Kumar, P; Krimm, H; Holland, S T; Gronwall, C; Blustin, A J; Zhang, B; Schady, P; Sakamoto, T; Osborne, J P; Nousek, J A; Marshall, F E; Mészáros, P; Golenetskii, S V; Gehrels, N; Frederiks, D D; Campana, S; Burrows, D N; Boyd, P T; Barthelmy, S; Aptekar, R L; Roming, Peter W. A.; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Palshin, Valentin; Pagani, Claudio; Norris, Jay; Kumar, Pawan; Krimm, Hans; Holland, Stephen T.; Gronwall, Caryl; Zhang, Bing; Schady, Patricia; Sakamoto, Takanori; Osborne, Julian P.; Nousek, John A.; Marshall, Frank E.; Meszaros, Peter; Golenetskii, Sergey V.; Gehrels, Neil; Frederiks, Dmitry D.; Campana, Sergio; Burrows, David N.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Barthelmy, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We report the simultaneous observations of the prompt emission in the gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands by the Swift-BAT and the KONUS-Wind instruments of the short-hard burst, GRB 060313. The observations reveal multiple peaks in both the gamma-ray and hard X-ray suggesting a highly variable outflow from the central explosion. We also describe the early-time observations of the X-ray and UV/Optical afterglows by the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments. The combination of the X-ray and UV/Optical observations provide the most comprehensive lightcurves to date of a short-hard burst at such an early epoch. The afterglows exhibit complex structure with different decay indices and flaring. This behavior can be explained by the combination of a structured jet, radiative loss of energy, and decreasing microphysics parameters occurring in a circum-burst medium with densities varying by a factor of approximately two on a length scale of 10^17 cm. These density variations are normally associated with the environment of a mass...

  20. Swift captures the spectrally evolving prompt emission of GRB 070616

    CERN Document Server

    Starling, R L C; Willingale, R; Page, K L; Osborne, J P; De Pasquale, M; Nakagawa, Y E; Kuin, N P M; Onda, K; Norris, J P; Ukwatta, T N; Kodaka, N; Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Page, M J; Perri, M; Markwardt, C B

    2007-01-01

    The origins of Gamma-ray Burst prompt emission are currently not well understood and in this context long, well-observed events are particularly important to study. We present the case of GRB 070616, analysing the exceptionally long-duration multipeaked prompt emission, and later afterglow, captured by all the instruments on-board Swift and by Suzaku WAM. The high energy light curve remained generally flat for several hundred seconds before going into a steep decline. Spectral evolution from hard to soft is clearly taking place throughout the prompt emission, beginning at 285 s after the trigger and extending to 1200 s. We track the movement of the spectral peak energy, whilst observing a softening of the low energy spectral slope. The steep decline in flux may be caused by a combination of this strong spectral evolution and the curvature effect. We investigate origins for the spectral evolution, ruling out a superposition of two power laws and considering instead an additional component dominant during the l...

  1. The origin of the late rebrightening in GRB 080503

    CERN Document Server

    Hascoët, R; Mochkovitch, R

    2012-01-01

    GRB 080503, detected by Swift, belongs to the class of bursts whose prompt phase consists of an initial short spike followed by a longer soft tail. It did not show any transition to a regular afterglow at the end of the prompt emission but exhibited a surprising rebrightening after one day. We aim to explain this rebrightening with two different scenarios - refreshed shocks or a density clump in the circumburst medium - and two models for the origin of the afterglow, the standard one where it comes from the forward shock, and an alternative one where it results from a long-lived reverse shock. We computed afterglow light curves either using a single-zone approximation for the shocked region or a detailed multizone method that more accurately accounts for the compression of the material. We find that in several of the considered cases the detailed model must be used to obtain a reliable description of the shock dynamics. The density clump scenario is not favored. We confirm previous results that the presence o...

  2. HAPPY BIRTHDAY SWIFT: ULTRA-LONG GRB 141121A AND ITS BROADBAND AFTERGLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucchiara, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veres, P. [The George Washington University, Department of Physics, 725 21st, NW Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Corsi, A. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Kutyrev, A. S. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Perley, D. A.; Horesh, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lien, A. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pagani, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Toy, V. L.; Capone, J. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box 0. Socorro, NM (United States); Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Butler, N. R.; Littlejohns, O. M. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F., México (Mexico); Klein, C. R., E-mail: antonino.cucchiara@nasa.gov [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    We present our extensive observational campaign on the Swift-discovered GRB 141121A, almost 10 years after its launch. Our observations cover radio through X-rays and extend for more than 30 days after discovery. The prompt phase of GRB 141121A lasted 1410 s and, at the derived redshift of z = 1.469, the isotropic energy is E{sub γ,iso} = 8.0 × 10{sup 52} erg. Due to the long prompt duration, GRB 141121A falls into the recently discovered class of ultra-long GRBs (UL-GRBs). Peculiar features of this burst are (1) a flat early-time optical light curve and (2) a radio-to-X-ray rebrightening around three days after the burst. The latter is followed by a steep optical-to-X-ray decay and a much shallower radio fading. We analyze GRB 141121A in the context of the standard forward–reverse shock (FS, RS) scenario and we disentangle the FS and RS contributions. Finally, we comment on the puzzling early-time (t ≲ 3 days) behavior of GRB 141121A, and suggest that its interpretation may require a two-component jet model. Overall, our analysis confirms that the class of UL-GRBs represents our best opportunity to firmly establish the prominent emission mechanisms in action during powerful gamma-ray burst explosions, and future missions (like SVOM, XTiDE, or ISS-Lobster) will provide many more of such objects.

  3. On the Host Galaxy of GRB 150101B and the Associated Active Galactic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of $\\sim 5.7\\ Gyr$, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy (XBONG), and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). Our work explores interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help understand the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  4. GRB 070125 and the environments of spectral-line poor afterglow absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Cia, A; Wiersema, K; van der Horst, A J; Vreeswijk, P M; Björnsson, G; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Jakobsson, P; Levan, A J; Rol, E; Schulze, S; Tanvir, N R

    2011-01-01

    GRB 070125 is among the most energetic bursts detected and the most extensively observed so far. Nevertheless, unresolved issues are still open in the literature on the physics of the afterglow and on the GRB environment. In particular, GRB 070125 was claimed to have exploded in a galactic halo environment, based on the uniqueness of the optical spectrum and the non-detection of an underlying host galaxy. In this work we collect all publicly available data and address these issues by modelling the NIR-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) and studying the high signal-to-noise VLT/FORS afterglow spectrum in comparison with a larger sample of GRB absorbers. The SED reveals a synchrotron cooling break in the UV, low equivalent hydrogen column density and little reddening caused by a LMC- or SMC-type extinction curve. From the weak MgII absorption at z=1.5477 in the spectrum, we derived logN(MgII)=12.96+0.13-0.18 and upper limits on the ionic column density of several metals. These suggest that the GRB abso...

  5. Happy Birthday Swift: Ultra-long GRB141121A and its broad-band Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchiara, A; Corsi, A; Cenko, S B; Perley, D A; Marshall, A Lien F E; Pagani, C; Toy, V L; Capone, J I; Frail, D A; Horesh, A; Modjaz, M; Butler, N R; Littlejohns, O M; Watson, A M; Kutyrev, A S; Lee, W H; Richer, M G; Klein, C R; Fox, O D; Prochaska, J X; Bloom, J S; Troja, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; de Diego, J A; Georgiev, L; Gonzalez, J; Roman-Zuniga, C G; Gehrels, N; Moseley, H

    2015-01-01

    We present our extensive observational campaign on the Swift-discovered GRB141121A, al- most ten years after its launch. Our observations covers radio through X-rays, and extends for more than 30 days after discovery. The prompt phase of GRB 141121A lasted 1410 s and, at the derived redshift of z = 1.469, the isotropic energy is E{\\gamma},iso = 8.0x10^52 erg. Due to the long prompt duration, GRB141121A falls into the recently discovered class of UL-GRBs. Peculiar features of this burst are a flat early-time optical light curve and a radio-to-X-ray rebrightening around 3 days after the burst. The latter is followed by a steep optical-to-X-ray decay and a much shallower radio fading. We analyze GRB 141121A in the context of the standard forward-reverse shock (FS,RS) scenario and we disentangle the FS and RS contributions. Finally, we comment on the puzzling early-time (t ~3 d) behavior of GRB 141121A, and suggest that its interpretation may require a two-component jet model. Overall, our analysis confirms that ...

  6. Detection of GRB 090618 with RT-2 Experiment Onboard the Coronas-Photon Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Hingar, M K; Agrawal, V K; Chakrabarti, S K; Nandi, A; Debnath, D; Kotoch, T B; Sarkar, R; Chidambaram, T R; Vinod, P; Sreekumar, S; Kotov, Y D; Buslov, A S; Yurov, V N; Tyshkevich, V G; Arkhangelskij, A I; Zyatkov, R A; Naik, Sachindra

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRB 090618 using the RT-2 Experiment onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite. GRB 090618 shows multiple peaks and a detailed study of the temporal structure as a function of energy is carried out. As the GRB was incident at an angle of 77 degree to the detector axis, we have generated appropriate response functions of the detectors to derive the spectrum of this GRB. We have augmented these results using the publicly available data from the Swift BAT detector and show that a combined spectral analysis can measure the spectral parameters quite accurately. We also attempt a spectral and timing analysis of individual peaks and find evidence for a systematic change in the pulse emission characteristics for the successive pulses. In particular, we find that the peak energy of the spectrum, E_p, is found to monotonically decrease with time, for the successive pulses of this GRB.

  7. The XRF080109-SN2008D and a decade of GRB-Jet-SN connection

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; Oliva, P; Manniti, F

    2009-01-01

    Last and nearest GRB-XRF 080109 has been an exceptional lesson on GRB nature. After a decade (since 25 April 08) we know that Supernovae may often contain a Jet. Its persistent activity may shine on axis as a GRBs. Such a persistent, thin beamed gamma jet may be powered by either a BH (Black Holes) or Pulsars. Late stages of these jets may loose the SN traces and appear as a short GRB or a long orphan GRB (depending on jet angular velocity and view angle). XRF are peripherical viewing of the jets. These precessing and spinning gamma jet are originated by Inverse Compton and-or Synchrotron Radiation at pulsars or micro-quasars sources, by ultra-relativistic electrons. These Jets are most powerful at Supernova birth, blazing, once on axis, to us and flashing GRB detector. The trembling of the thin jet explains naturally the observed erratic multi-explosive structure of different GRBs. The jets are precessing (by binary companion or inner disk asymmetry) and decaying by power on time scales of few hours, but the...

  8. Constraining the GRB-magnetar model by means of the Galactic pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Nanda; Pons, Jose' A; Perna, Rosalba; Dainotti, Maria G; Miralles, Juan A; Torres, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    A large fraction of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) displays an X-ray plateau phase within <10^{5} s from the prompt emission, proposed to be powered by the spin-down energy of a rapidly spinning newly born magnetar. In this work we use the properties of the Galactic neutron star population to constrain the GRB-magnetar scenario. We re-analyze the X-ray plateaus of all Swift GRBs with known redshift, between January 2005 and August 2014. From the derived initial magnetic field distribution for the possible magnetars left behind by the GRBs, we study the evolution and properties of a simulated GRB-magnetar population using numerical simulations of magnetic field evolution, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of Pulsar Population Synthesis in our Galaxy. We find that if the GRB X-ray plateaus are powered by the rotational energy of a newly formed magnetar, the current observational properties of the Galactic magnetar population are not compatible with being formed within the GRB scenario (regardless of the GRB type...

  9. Shocked by the Very Bright Radio Flare and Afterglow of GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A was extremely bright across the electromagnetic spectrum, with emission spanning 16 orders of magnitude in observing frequency, from almost 100 GeV gamma-rays down to the GHz radio regime. While the intrinsic luminosity of this GRB was not extreme compared to other GRBs, it displayed the largest measured fluence of the last three decades due to its proximity with a redshift of 0.34. One of the most notable characteristics of this GRB was its bright radio emission, in particular the radio flare which has been observed only a few times in other GRBs and is usually attributed to the reverse shock moving back into the GRB jet. Here we present radio observations with unprecedented temporal coverage at three observing frequencies obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI). AMI had the earliest radio detection at 8 hours after the initial flash of gamma-rays, catching the radio flare on the rise. The 12-hour WSRT observations in the first few days enabled a detailed study of the short time-scale behavior at radio wavelengths. Besides our observations of the radio flare and afterglow up to three months after the gamma-ray trigger, we present our results for modeling the radio light curves together with the broadband data set in various other wavelength regimes, enabling us to determine physical parameters of both the reverse and forward shock of this enigmatic GRB.

  10. Late time observations of GRB080319B: jet break, host galaxy and accompanying supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Tanvir, Nial R; Levan, Andrew; Fruchter, Andrew; Granot, Jonathan; Svensson, Karl M; O'Brien, Paul T; Wiersema, Klaas; Starling, Rhaana L C; Jakobsson, Pall; Fynbo, Johan; Hjorth, Jens; Curran, Peter; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Racusin, Judith L; Burrows, David N; Genet, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Swift-discovered GRB080319B was by far the most distant source ever observed at naked eye brightness, reaching a peak magnitude of 5.3 at a redshift of z=0.937. We present our late time optical and X-ray observations, which confirm that an achromatic break occurred in the power-law afterglow light curve at ~10^6 s post-burst. This most likely indicates that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow was collimated, which for a uniform jet would imply a total energy in the jet E_{jet} \\gsim 10^{52.5} erg. Our observations also show a late-time excess of red light, which is well explained if the GRB was accompanied by a supernova, similar to those seen in some other long-duration GRBs. The latest observations are dominated by light from the host and show that the GRB took place in a faint dwarf galaxy (r(AB) = 27.2, rest-frame M_B = -17.3). This galaxy is small even by the standards of other GRB hosts, which is suggestive of a low metallicity environment.

  11. GRB 130606A within a sub-DLA at redshift 5.91

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Tirado, A J; Ellison, S L; Jelínek, M; Martín-Carrillo, A; Bromm, V; Gorosabel, J; Bremer, M; Winters, J M; Hanlon, L; Meegan, S; Topinka, M; Pandey, S B; Guziy, S; Jeong, S; Sonbas, E; Pozanenko, A S; Cunniffe, R; Fernández-Muñoz, R; Ferrero, P; Gehrels, N; Hudec, R; Kubánek, P; Lara-Gil, O; Muñoz-Martínez, V F; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Štrobl, J; Álvarez-Iglesias, C; Inasaridze, R; Rumyantsev, V; Volnova, A; Hellmich, S; Mottola, S; Cerón, J M Castro; Cepa, J; Göğüş, E; Güver, T; Taş, Ö Önal; Park, I H; Sabau-Graziati, L; Tejero, A

    2013-01-01

    Events such as GRB130606A at z=5.91, offer an exciting new window into pre-galactic metal enrichment in these very high redshift host galaxies. We study the environment and host galaxy of GRB 130606A, a high-z event, in the context of a high redshift population of GRBs. We have obtained multiwavelength observations from radio to gamma-ray, concentrating particularly on the X-ray evolution as well as the optical photometric and spectroscopic data analysis. With an initial Lorentz bulk factor in the range \\Gamma_0 ~ 65-220, the X-ray afterglow evolution can be explained by a time-dependent photoionization of the local circumburst medium, within a compact and dense environment. The host galaxy is a sub-DLA (log N (HI) = 19.85+/-0.15), with a metallicity content in the range from ~1/7 to ~1/60 of solar. Highly ionized species (N V and Si IV) are also detected. This is the second highest redshift burst with a measured GRB-DLA metallicity and only the third GRB absorber with sub-DLA HI column density. GRB ' lightho...

  12. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Fynbo, Johan P U; Christensen, Lise; Freudling, Wolfram; Savaglio, Sandra; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 16 absorption systems intrinsic to long duration GRB host galaxies at $z \\gtrsim 2$ for which the metallicities are known. We compare the relation between the metallicity and cold gas velocity width for this sample to that of the QSO-DLAs, and find complete agreement. We then compare the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of our sample to that of QSO-DLAs and find that also GRB hosts favour a late onset of this evolution, around a redshift of $\\approx 2.6$. We compute predicted stellar masses for the GRB host galaxies using the prescription determined from QSO-DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter di...

  13. AstroSat CZT Imager observations of GRB 151006A: timing, spectroscopy, and polarisation study

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Hingar, M K; Iyyani, S; Khanna, Rakesh; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Paul, D; Bhalerao, V B; Bhattacharya, D; Dewangan, G C; Pawar, Pramod; Vibhute, A M; Chattopadhyay, T; Mithun, N P S; Vadawale, S V; Vagshette, N; Basak, R; Pradeep, P; Samuel, Essy; Sreekumar, S; Vinod, P; Navalgund, K H; Pandiyan, R; Sarma, K S; Seetha, S; Subbarao, K

    2016-01-01

    AstroSat is a multi-wavelength satellite launched on 2015 September 28. The CZT Imager of AstroSat on its very first day of operation detected a long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) namely GRB 151006A. Using the off-axis imaging and spectral response of the instrument, we demonstrate that CZT Imager can localise this GRB correct to about a few degrees and it can provide, in conjunction with Swift, spectral parameters similar to that obtained from Fermi/GBM. Hence CZT Imager would be a useful addition to the currently operating GRB instruments (Swift and Fermi). Specifically, we argue that the CZT Imager will be most useful for the short hard GRBs by providing localisation for those detected by Fermi and spectral information for those detected only by Swift. We also provide preliminary results on a new exciting capability of this instrument: CZT Imager is able to identify Compton scattered events thereby providing polarisation information for bright GRBs. GRB 151006A, in spite of being relatively faint, shows h...

  14. Synchrotron radiation and diffusive shock acceleration - A short review and GRB perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlica, Mile, E-mail: mile.karlica@icranet.org [La Sapienza University of Rome - ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00189 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In this talk we present the sponge” model and its possible implications on the GRB afterglow light curves. “Sponge” model describes source of GRB afterglow radiation as fragmented GRB ejecta where bubbles move through the rarefied medium. In the first part of the talk a short introduction to synchrotron radiation and Fermi acceleration was presented. In the assumption that X-ray luminosity of GRB afterglow phase comes from the kinetic energy losses of clouds in ejecta medium radiated as synchrotron radiation we solved currently very simple equation of motion to find which combination of cloud and medium regime describes the afterglow light curve the best. We proposed for the first step to watch simple combinations of expansion regimes for both bubbles and surrounding medium. The closest case to the numerical fit of GRB 150403A with time power law index k = 1.38 is the combination of constant bubbles and Sedov like expanding medium with time power law index k = 1.25. Of course the question of possible mixture of variuos regime combinations is still open within this model.

  15. HST Data Suggest Proper Motion for the Optical Counterpart of GRB 970228

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, P A; Tavani, M; Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    1997-01-01

    After a quarter of a century of gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy, the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX on Feb 28th, 1997 detected a soft X-ray afterglow from GRB 970228 and positioned it accurately. This made possible the successful detection of an optical transient. Two public Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the GRB/optical transient region were taken on March 26th and April 7th, 1997. They are analyzed here, with the purpose of understanding the nature of GRB 970228. We find that the position of the faint point-like object V ~ 26 seen at the transient location changed by 0.40 +/-0.10 pixels in 12 days, corresponding to a proper motion of ~ 550 mas/year. By comparison, four adjacent sources in the same field do not show any significant displacement, with astrometric residuals close to zero and average absolute displacements less than 0.09 pixels. If confirmed, this result would strongly support the galactic nature of GRB 970228.

  16. A tale of two GRB-SNe at a common redshift of z = 0.54

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, Z; Guidorzi, C; Margutti, R; Svensson, K M; Kobayashi, S; Melandri, A; Wiersema, K; Pozanenko, A; van der Horst, A J; Pooley, G G; Fernandez-Soto, A; Castro-Tirado, A J; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Im, M; Kamble, A P; Sahu, D; Alonso-Lorite, J; Anupama, G; Bibby, J L; Burgdorf, M J; Clay, N; Curran, P A; Fatkhullin, T A; Fruchter, A S; Garnavich, P; Gomboc, A; Gorosabel, J; Graham, J F; Gurugubelli, U; Haislip, J; Huang, K; Huxor, A; Ibrahimov, M; Jeon, Y; Jeon, Y-B; Ivarsen, K; Kasen, D; Klunko, E; Kouveliotou, C; LaCluyze, A; Levan, A J; Loznikov, V; Mazzali, P A; Moskvitin, A S; Mottram, C; Mundell, C G; Nugent, P E; Nysewander, M; O'Brien, P T; Park, W -K; Peris, V; Pian, E; Reichart, D; Rhoads, J E; Rol, E; Rumyantsev, V; Scowcroft, V; Shakhovskoy, D; Small, E; Smith, R J; Sokolov, V V; Starling, R L C; Steele, I; Strom, R G; Tanvir, N R; Tsapras, Y; Urata, Y; Vaduvescu, O; Volnova, A; Volvach, A; Wijers, R A M J; Woosley, S E; Young, D R

    2010-01-01

    We present ground-based and HST optical observations of the optical transients (OTs) of long-duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) 060729 and 090618, both at a redshift of z = 0.54. For GRB 060729, bumps are seen in the optical light curves (LCs), and the late-time broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the OT resemble those of local type Ic supernovae (SNe). For GRB 090618, the dense sampling of our optical observations has allowed us to detect well-defined bumps in the optical LCs, as well as a change in colour, that are indicative of light coming from a core-collapse SN. The accompanying SNe for both events are individually compared with SN1998bw, a known GRB-supernova, and SN1994I, a typical type Ic supernova without a known GRB counterpart, and in both cases the brightness and temporal evolution more closely resemble SN1998bw. We also exploit our extensive optical and radio data for GRB 090618, as well as the publicly-available SWIFT -XRT data, and discuss the properties of the afterglow at early t...

  17. The ECLAIRs GRB-trigger telescope on-board the future mission SVOM

    CERN Document Server

    Schanne, Stéphane; Atteia, Jean-Luc; Godet, Olivier; Lachaud, Cyril; Mercier, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor (SVOM) is an approved satellite mission for Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) studies, developed in cooperation between the Chinese National Space Agency (CNSA), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the French Space Agency (CNES) and French laboratories. SVOM entered Phase B in 2014 and is scheduled for launch in 2021. SVOM will provide fast and accurate GRB localizations, and determine the temporal and spectral properties of the GRB emission, thanks to a set of 4 on-board instruments. The trigger system of the coded-mask telescope ECLAIRs images the sky in the 4-120 keV energy range, in order to detect and localize GRBs in its 2 sr-wide field of view. The low-energy threshold of ECLAIRs is well suited for the detection of highly redshifted GRB. The high-energy coverage is extended up to 5 MeV thanks to the non-imaging gamma-ray spectrometer GRM. GRB alerts are sent in real-time to the ground observers community, and a spacecraft slew is performed in orde...

  18. A Method for Synthetic Aperture Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    An approach to perform ultrasound spatial compounding using synthetic aperture data is proposed. The approach allows compounding to be performed for any number of directions without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. It is demonstrated how the contrast is improved by compounding and...... obtained when using 5 images. Using the same RF data, a synthetic aperture image without compounding reveals a CNR of -0.36, -0.93, -1.23, and -1.61 dB for the four cysts, respectively....

  19. Large aperture calorimeter for fusion laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    The authors designed and constructed a large aperture calorimeter intended for laser fusion measurements on beams up to 20 cm diameter. The laser beam is absorbed in a glass disc backed by a disc carry a resistance wire. Although it performs essentially as expected with a noise equivalent energy of 20 mJ and a maximum energy of about 100 J, difficulties in construction give a 17% variation of sensitivity across the aperture. To overcome this problem it would probably be necessary to adopt an integral construction with the resistance bridge formed from an etched film on the back of the absorbing glass.

  20. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  1. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  2. IMPROVED SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONAR MOTION COMPENSATION COMBINED DPCA WITH SUB-APERTURE IMAGE CORRELATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Zhang Chunhua; Liu Jiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Estimation precision of Displaced Phase Center Algorithm (DPCA) is affected by the number of displaced phase center pairs, the bandwidth of transmitting signal and many other factors. Detailed analysis is made on DPCA's estimation precision. Analysis results show that the directional vector estimation precision of DPCA is low, which will produce accumulating errors when phase centers' track is estimated. Because of this reason, DPCA suffers from accumulating errors seriously. To overcome this problem, a method combining DPCA with Sub Aperture Image Correlation (SAIC) is presented. Large synthetic aperture is divided into sub-apertures. Micro errors in sub-aperture are estimated by DPCA and compensated to raw echo data. Bulk errors between sub-apertures are estimated by SAIC and compensated directly to sub-aperture images. After that, sub-aperture images are directly used to generate ultimate SAS image. The method is applied to the lake-trial dataset of a 20 kHz SAS prototype system. Results show the method can successfully remove the accumulating error and produce a better SAS image.

  3. Development of a Gamma-Ray Burst Automated Response and Remote 0.5 m Telescope at Eteleman Observatory at the University of the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, T. W.; Neff, J. E.; Hakkila, J.; Drost, D. M.; Andreasian-Thomas, N.

    2003-03-01

    The College of Charleston is one of three institutions belonging to a consortium led by the Division of Science and Mathematics at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) to maintain and operate a research grade telescope at Etelman Observatory on the island of St. Thomas (18° 21‧ N, 65° W at an elevation 1325 ft with 1.5″ seeing). Renovations to the pre-existing UVI observatory through an NSF grant to UVI have been ongoing for the past 18 months and include: (i) complete renovation of the control room and housing facility, (ii) installation of a new Ash dome, and (iii) delivery and installation of a TORUS Technologies 0.5 m telescope in early Spring, 2003. We anticipate the observatory to be fully operational in the summer of 2003. The observatory will serve a variety of needs to the consortium members. One of the primary research functions of this facility will be to perform rapid automated follow-up observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts observed with Swift. With the exceptional sky coverage at Etelman Observatory, we anticipate to collect a large database of GRB afterglow (and counterpart) photometry and light curves throughout the duration of the Swift mission. This is work is funded through NSF, AAS/NASA, and The College of Charleston.

  4. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  5. Molecular docking and dynamic studies of human growth factor receptorbound protein (Grb 2 insights to identify novel inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb 2 involves in initiation of kinase signaling by Son of Sevenless (SOS and activates mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Grb2 overexpress during cancerous condition hence it emerged as a potent target for various cancers. Material and Methods: Seven pharmacophores were developed from seven co-crystal structures of Grb2 and applied for common pharmacophore hypothesis. Two common pharmacophore hypothesis (CPH models were screened and hits were applied for docking and free energy [G] calculations. Results: Two leads were proposed from docking and G analysis. Energy of the system, RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds and water bridges of lead1 was better than the co-crystal ligand during 50 ns molecular dynamics simulations. Discussion: Two leads are interacting with Src homology 2 (SH2 domain of Grb2 and blocking the function of Grb2.

  6. A new model of the Central Engine of GRB and the Cosmic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Fiziev, P P

    2009-01-01

    Despite all the already existing observational data, current models still cannot explain completely the excessive energy output and the time variability of GRB. One of the reasons for this is the lack of a good model of the central engine of GRB. A major problem in the proposed models with a black hole (BH) in the center is that they don't explain the observed evidences of late time activity of the central engine. In this paper we are starting the search for a possible model of that central engine as a rotating compact body of still unknown nature. The formation of jets in the new model lies entirely on the fundamental Teukolsky Master Equation. We demonstrate that this general model can describe the formation of collimated GRB-jets of various forms. Some preliminary results are presented.

  7. A Detection of Molecular Gas Emission in the Host Galaxy of GRB 080517

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, E R; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; van der Laan, T P R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the host galaxy of the low redshift, low luminosity GRB 080517 at 105.8 GHz using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We detect an emission line with integrated flux S.delta{nu} = 0.39 +/- 0.05 Jy km/s - consistent both spatially and in velocity with identification as the J=1-0 rotational transition of carbon monoxide (CO) at the host galaxy redshift. This represents only the third long GRB host galaxy with molecular gas detected in emission. The inferred molecular gas mass, M_H2 ~ 6.3 x 10^8 M_sun, implies a gas consumption timescale of ~40 Myr if star formation continues at its current rate. Similar short timescales appear characteristic of the long GRB population with CO observations to date, suggesting that the gamma-ray burst in these sources occurs towards the end of their star formation episode.

  8. Simulations of GRB detections with the ECLAIRs telescope onboard the future SVOM mission

    CERN Document Server

    Antier, S; Cordier, B; Gros, A; Götz, D; Lachaud, C

    2015-01-01

    The soft gamma-ray telescope ECLAIRs with its Scientific Trigger Unit is in charge of detecting Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) on-board the future SVOM satellite. Using the "scientific software model" (SSM), we study the efficiency of both implemented trigger algorithms, the Count-Rate Trigger for time-scales below 20s and the Image Trigger for larger ones. The SMM provides a simulation of ECLAIRs with photon projection through the coded-mask onto the detection plane. We developed an input GRB database for the SSM based on GRBs light curves detected by the Fermi GBM instrument. We extrapolated the GRB spectra into the ECLAIRs band (4-120 keV) and projected them onto the detection plane, superimposed with cosmic extragalactic background photons (CXB). Several simulations were performed by varying the GRB properties (fluxes and positions in the field of view). We present first results of this study in this paper.

  9. GRB 050904: the oldest cosmic explosion ever observed in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift discovered the high redshift (z=6.29) GRB 050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope and began observing with its narrow field instruments only 161 s after the burst onset. GRB 050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with a presence of flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 hours after the burst onset. The spectral energy distribution shows a clear softening trend along the burst evolution with a photon index decreasing from -1.2 up to -1.9. The observed variability is more dramatic than the typical Swift afterglow, the amplitude and rise/fall times of the flares are consistent with the behavior of nearby (z ≤ 1) long GRBs and suggest the interpretation of the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of long lasting prompt emission

  10. Evidence of Bulk Acceleration of the GRB X-Ray Flare Emission Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2016-06-01

    Applying our recently developed generalized version of the high-latitude emission theory to the observations of X-ray flares in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), here we present clear observational evidence that the X-ray flare emission region is undergoing rapid bulk acceleration as the photons are emitted. We show that both the observed X-ray flare light curves and the photon index evolution curves can be simultaneously reproduced within a simple physical model invoking synchrotron radiation in an accelerating emission region far from the GRB central engine. Such an acceleration process demands an additional energy dissipation source other than kinetic energy, which points toward a significant Poynting flux in the emission region of X-ray flares. As the X-ray flares are believed to share a similar physical mechanism as the GRB prompt emission, our finding here hints that the GRB prompt emission jets may also carry a significant Poynting flux in their emitting region.

  11. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  12. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  13. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  14. Analytic inversion in synthetic aperture radar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothaus, O. S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of processing synthetic aperture radar signals that avoids some of the approximations currently in use that appear to be responsible for severe phase distortions is described. As a practical matter, this method requires N3 numerical operations, as opposed to the N2 ln N currently the case, but N3 is now easily managed, for N in the range of interest.

  15. Experiences on synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging based on the synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT) improves the reliability of sizing and characterisation of structural discontinuities found in non-destructive testing of nuclear components. One of the main advantages of this technique is an improvement of signal-to-noise-ratio. The advantages are discussed in terms of practical applications and theory. (orig.)

  16. Compound imaging using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Hemmsen, Martin Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) is a technique with low complexity and the ability to yield a more uniform lateral resolution with range. However, the presence of speckle artifacts in ultrasound images degrades the contrast. In conventional imaging speckle is reduced by using...

  17. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometers : an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; McKague, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes 1) the progress of the work of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Instrumentation and Future Technologies Technical Committee (IFT-TC) Microwave Radiometer Working Group and 2) an overview of the development of interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometers as an introduction to a dedicated session.

  18. Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a parametric beamformer, which can handle all imaging modalities including synthetic aperture imaging, is presented. The image lines and apodization coefficients are specified parametrically, and the lines can have arbitrary orientation and starting point in 3D coordinates. The beam...

  19. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the...... geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  20. A modular approach toward extremely large apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

  1. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameter...

  2. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  3. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleasman, Timothy; F. Imani, Mohammadreza; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  4. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  5. Optimization of Spatiotemporal Apertures in Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Pedersen, Claus; Yin, Xuefeng;

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of the spatio-temporal aperture of a channel sounding system equipped with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver on the accuracy of joint estimation of Doppler frequency and bi-direction. The contribution of this work is three-fold. Firstly, we sta...

  6. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  7. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R. [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 27708 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  8. Sonar path correction in synthetic aperture processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.; Hansen, R.E.; Sabel, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In the next generation of mine hunting sonars, in particular on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) will play an important role. The benefit of SAS is to increase resolution and signal-tonoise ratio by coherent processing of successive pings. A challenge in SAS is t

  9. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammer, Christoph, E-mail: cgammer@lbl.gov [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Burak Ozdol, V. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Liebscher, Christian H.; Minor, Andrew M. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. - Highlights: • A dataset containing all structural information of a given position is recorded. • The dataset allows reconstruction of virtual diffraction patterns or images. • Specific virtual apertures are designed to image precipitates in a complex alloy. • Virtual diffraction patterns from arbitrarily small regions can be established. • Using STEM diffraction to record the dataset is more efficient than TEM dark-field.

  10. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naba K Mondal; for the INO Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The current status of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is summarized. The main physics goals are described followed by the motivation for building a magnetized iron calorimetric (ICAL) detector. The charge identification capability of ICAL would make it complementary to large water Cerenkov and other detectors worldwide. The status of the design of the 50 kt magnet, the construction of a prototype ICAL detector, the experience with resistive plate chambers which will be the active elements in ICAL and the status of the associated electronics and data acquisition system are discussed.

  11. The supercritical pile gamma-ray burst model: The GRB afterglow steep decline and plateau phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, J. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malta, Msida MSD2080 (Malta); Kazanas, D. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mastichiadis, A., E-mail: joseph.sultana@um.edu.mt [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, GR 15783 Zografos (Greece)

    2013-12-10

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the 'supercritical pile' GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E {sub pk} ∼ m{sub e}c {sup 2}. We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Γ to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (∼25%) decrease in Γ at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R{sub D} . Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the 'supercritical pile' is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by ∼m{sub p} /m{sub e} than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R{sub D} , the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Γ and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R{sub D} is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the 'unexpected' XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R ≅ R{sub D} , the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a 'plateau,' consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R ≅ R{sub D} , thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  12. GRB 080503 LATE AFTERGLOW RE-BRIGHTENING: SIGNATURE OF A MAGNETAR-POWERED MERGER-NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He; Ding, Xuan; Wu, Xue-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 2100093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: hug18@psu.edu, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    GRB 080503 is a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift and has been classified as a GRB originating from a compact star merger. The soft extended emission and the simultaneous late re-brightening in both the X-ray and optical afterglow light curves raise interesting questions regarding its physical origin. We show that the broadband data of GRB 080503 can be well explained within the framework of the double neutron star merger model, provided that the merger remnant is a rapidly rotating massive neutron star with an extremely high magnetic field (i.e., a millisecond magnetar). We show that the late optical re-brightening is consistent with the emission from a magnetar-powered “merger-nova.” This adds one more case to the growing sample of merger-novae associated with short GRBs. The soft extended emission and the late X-ray excess emission are well connected through a magnetar dipole spin-down luminosity evolution function, suggesting that direct magnetic dissipation is the mechanism to produce these X-rays. The X-ray emission initially leaks from a hole in the merger ejecta pierced by the short GRB jet. The hole subsequently closes after the magnetar spins down and the magnetic pressure drops below ram pressure. The X-ray photons are then trapped behind the merger-nova ejecta until the ejecta becomes optically thin at a later time. This explains the essentially simultaneous re-brightening in both the optical and X-ray light curves. Within this model, future gravitational-wave sources could be associated with a bright X-ray counterpart along with the merger-nova, even if the short GRB jet beams away from Earth.

  13. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  14. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, M.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is 1.315m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  15. Construction of Grb2-SH2 genetic restructuring-slow virus carrier with Gateway system%用Gateway系统构建携带Grb2-SH2基因重组慢病毒载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡忠良; 阴继凯; 韩腾龙; 张健; 鲁建国

    2012-01-01

    目的:构建携带Grb2-SH2基因重组慢病毒载体.方法:把Grb2-SH2基因从合成的工程载体PUC-57中导到入门载体pentr--3C中,再利用LR反应重组到目的载体plenti,通过酶切和测序分析对比验证Grb2-SH2基因后,将plenti- Grb2-SH2质粒利用慢病毒转染系统转染人胚胎肾上皮细胞株293T细胞获得携带Grb2-SH2慢病毒载体.结果:构建的重组质粒经酶切及测序和分析比对鉴定正确,目的基因片段大小约为500bp;该质粒与包装质粒共转染293T细胞获取的慢病毒,转染效率约为90%.结论:成功构建转载质粒plenti- Grb2-SH2及携带Grb2-SH2基因慢病毒载体.%Construct Grb2-SH2 genetic recombination slow virus carrier. Methods: Put the Grb2-SH2 genes into introductory carrier pentr-3 C from synthetic engineering carrier PUC-57, reuse LR reaction to recombinate into the purpose plenti carrier, after comparing and testing gene Grb2-SH2 through the enzyme cut and sequencing analysis and comparison ,use slow virus carrying system to transfect human embryonic renal epithelial cell lines 293 T cells acquring Grb2-SH2 slow virus carrier. Results: The restructuring plasmid proved to be correct by the enzyme cut and sequencing analysis and the purpose genetic fragments is about 500 bp; The efficiency of the plasmid and packaging plasmid transfect 293 T cells get slow is about 90%. Conclusion: Successful construction reproduced plasmid plenti-Grb2-SH2 and Grb2-SH2 gene slow virus carrier.

  16. Four Years of Real-Time GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years of BOOTES-1B GRB follow-up history are summarised for the first time in the form of a table. The successfully followed events are described case by case. Further, the data are used to show the GRB trigger rate in Spain on a per-year basis, resulting in an estimate of 18 triggers and about 51 hours of telescope time per year for real-time triggers. These numbers grow to about 22 triggers and 77 hours per year if we include also the GRBs observable within 2 hours after the trigger.

  17. Reviewing the case of the atypical central-engine activity in GRB 110709B

    CERN Document Server

    Fraija, Nissim; Patricelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The unusual GRB 110709B triggered Swift/BAT twice, with a time difference of $\\sim 11$ minutes. Its light curve presented three noticeable peaks but only two were originally identified. In this work, we describe each peak as due to a different central-engine phase: the first one is the millisecond-protomagnetar stage, the second one is the BH-formation collapse phase and the last one is the Collapsar scenario with a Blandford-Znajek engine. Additionally, we analyze and explain the afterglow phase evoking the standard fireball model. Our model can successfully describe the timescales, fluxes and spectral indices observed for GRB 110709B.

  18. Four Years of Realtime GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005-2008)

    CERN Document Server

    Jelinek, Martin; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Kubanek, Petr; Guziy, Sergei; Gorosabel, Javier; Cunniffe, Ronan; Vitek, Stanislav; Hudec, Rene; Reglero, Victor; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Four years of BOOTES-1B GRB follow-up history are summarised for the first time in the form of a table. The successfully followed events are described case by case. Further, the data are used to show the GRB trigger rate in Spain on a per-year basis, resulting in an estimate of 18 triggers and about 51 h of telescope time per year for real time triggers. These numbers grow to about 22 triggers and 77 h per year if we include also the GRBs observable within 2 hours after the trigger.

  19. Preliminary Results on VLT K-band Imaging Observations of GRB Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Le Floc’h; I. F. Mirabel; P.-A. Duc

    2002-03-01

    We have obtained -band imaging observations of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies with the near-infrared spectro-imager ISAAC installed on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). The derived magnitudes, combined with other photometric data taken from the literature, are used to investigate the – colors of GRB hosts. We do not find any extremely reddened starbursts in our sample, despite the capability of GRBs to trace star formation even in dusty regions. The observed – colors are on the contrary typical of irregular and spiral blue galaxies at high redshift.

  20. GRB100814A as a member of the growing set of bursts with sudden optical rebrightening

    CERN Document Server

    De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Oates, S; Page, M; Zane, S; Saxton, C; Schulze, S; Cano, Z; Guidorzi, C; Chandra, P; Frail, D; Evans, P; Beardmore, A; Castro-Tirado, A; Gorosabel, J; Fatkhullin, T; Akerlof, C; Pandey, S B; Im, M; Uhm, Z L; Urata, Y; Huang, L; Pak, S; Jeon, Y; Zhang, B

    2012-01-01

    We present the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and radio data for GRB100814A. At the end of the slow decline phase of the X-ray and optical afterglow, a sudden and prominent rebrightening in the optical band occurs followed by a fast decay in both bands. This optical rebrightening is accompanied by possible chromatic variations. We discuss possible interpretations, such as double component scenarios and internal dissipation mechanism, with their virtues and drawbacks. We also compare GRB100814A with other Swift bursts that show optical rebrightenings with similar properties.

  1. Unexpected involvement of staple leads to redesign of selective bicyclic peptide inhibitor of Grb7

    OpenAIRE

    Menachem J. Gunzburg; Ketav Kulkarni; Gabrielle M. Watson; Ambaye, Nigus D.; Del Borgo, Mark P.; Rebecca Brandt; Stephanie C. Pero; Patrick Perlmutter; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    The design of potent and specific peptide inhibitors to therapeutic targets is of enormous utility for both proof-of-concept studies and for the development of potential new therapeutics. Grb7 is a key signaling molecule in the progression of HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers. Here we report the crystal structure of a stapled bicyclic peptide inhibitor G7-B1 in complex with the Grb7-SH2 domain. This revealed an unexpected binding mode of the peptide, in which the staple forms a...

  2. The prompt GRB high energy emission from internal shocks: synchrotron vs inverse Compton component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a detailed calculation of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission in the framework of the internal shock scenario, focusing on the high energy (GeV) bands. In order to follow the evolution of the ultrarelativistic inhomogeneous wind, we combined a model for the dynamics of internal shocks with a detailed calculation of the radiative processes occurring in the shocked medium. We present the resulting synthetic GRB light curves and spectra. We show the spectral evolution that can be expected for different sets of microphysics parameters and parameters of the dynamical evolution, and how the relative importance of synchrotron and inverse Compton components is varying during a burst.

  3. Swift XRT Observations of X-ray Flares in GRB Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, David N.; Romano, P; Godet, O.; Falcone, A; Pagani, C.; Cusumano, G.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Hill, J E; Giommi, P.; Goad, M. R.; Kennea, J. A.; Kobayashi, S; Meszaros, P.; Nousek, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift XRT has been observing GRB afterglows since December 23, 2004. Three-quarters of these observations begin within 300 s of the burst onset, providing an unprecendented look at the behavior of X-ray emission from GRB afterglows in the first few hours after the burst. While most of the early afterglows have smoothly declining lightcurves, a substantial fraction has large X-ray flares on short time-scales. We suggest that these flares provide support for models with extended central eng...

  4. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas: near-unity aperture efficiency from arbitrarily-large apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Ariel; Eleftheriades, George V

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly-directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source cavity excitation is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectrum typical to standard partially-reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern. As shown, a single semianalytical formalism can be followed to achieve control of a variety of radiation features, such as the d...

  5. Protection of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, E.; Carraminana, A. P.

    The Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory, with a 2m telescope, is one of only two professional observatories in Mexico. The observatory, run by the InstitutoNacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), is located in the north of Mexico, in Cananea, Sonora. Since 1995 the observatory has faced the potential threat of pollution by an open cast mine to be opened at 3kms from the observatory. In the absence of national or regional laws enforcing protection to astronomical sites in Mexico, considerable effort has been needed to guarantee the conditions of the site. We present the studies carried out to ensure the protection of the Guillermo Haro Observatory from pollution due to dust, light and vibrations.

  6. New Roles for Librarian of Bosscha Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistialie, Elyani

    2014-01-01

    Mr. K. A. R Bosscha, a Dutch tea planter and successful businessman, has become a legendary figure in Indonesia for his various concerns to the society: mostly in public health, education, and science. Through his generous support, he materialized the foundation of a modern astronomical observatory in the tropics in 1920, namely Bosscha Observatory. The site of the observatory was partially donated by Mr. Ursone, an Italian businessman, and is located in Lembang, West Java, which was a good ...

  7. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Chenzhou

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in late of 1990s to meet challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. This paper reviews current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects, and a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory.

  8. Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Batygov, M.; Dye, S. T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S; Pakvasa, S.; Varner, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay serie...

  9. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  10. The Haleakala Gamma Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 m2 multi-mirror telescope for observing Cherenkov light signals from atmospheric cascades is now operating at Mount Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii. It differs from other atmospheric Cherenkov detectors in accepting pulses that originate from single photoelectrons, employing two sets of 18 optically independent phototubes in a logic system with nanosecond time resolution to reject ambient light from the night sky. With an angular aperture of 1.3x10-4 sr, cosmic ray showers are observed at a rate of ≅ 0.5 hz at the zenith, with nearly complete rejection of ambient light. This rate for hadronic showers implies an effective threshold near 100 GeV for electromagnetic showers. Two regions of the sky, one centered on the source and the other separated by from it by 3.60 are simultaneously monitored. Examples of observations of episodic and periodic (pulsar) sources are given. (orig.)

  11. Grb7 SH2 domain structure and interactions with a cyclic peptide inhibitor of cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Stephanie C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7 is an adapter protein that mediates the coupling of tyrosine kinases with their downstream signaling pathways. Grb7 is frequently overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human cancers and is implicated in cancer progression via its interaction with the ErbB2 receptor and focal adhesion kinase (FAK that play critical roles in cell proliferation and migration. It is thus a prime target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Recently, an inhibitory peptide (G7-18NATE has been developed which binds specifically to the Grb7 SH2 domain and is able to attenuate cancer cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell lines. Results As a first step towards understanding how Grb7 may be inhibited by G7-18NATE, we solved the crystal structure of the Grb7 SH2 domain to 2.1 Å resolution. We describe the details of the peptide binding site underlying target specificity, as well as the dimer interface of Grb 7 SH2. Dimer formation of Grb7 was determined to be in the μM range using analytical ultracentrifugation for both full-length Grb7 and the SH2 domain alone, suggesting the SH2 domain forms the basis of a physiological dimer. ITC measurements of the interaction of the G7-18NATE peptide with the Grb7 SH2 domain revealed that it binds with a binding affinity of Kd = ~35.7 μM and NMR spectroscopy titration experiments revealed that peptide binding causes perturbations to both the ligand binding surface of the Grb7 SH2 domain as well as to the dimer interface, suggesting that dimerisation of Grb7 is impacted on by peptide binding. Conclusion Together the data allow us to propose a model of the Grb7 SH2 domain/G7-18NATE interaction and to rationalize the basis for the observed binding specificity and affinity. We propose that the current study will assist with the development of second generation Grb7 SH2 domain inhibitors, potentially leading to novel inhibitors of

  12. Multi-static synthetic aperture radar and inverse scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2004-01-01

    In this paper synthetic aperture radar is analyzed from an inverse scattering perspective. It is shown that the classical point scattering model can be generalized to a dipole scattering model. The dipole scattering model reduces to the point scattering model for small aperture angles. For large aperture angles or multiple illumination apertures the dipole model gives an anisotropic reflectivity such that orthogonal scattering processes are separated. Moreover, it is shown th...

  13. Antenna-Aperture Synthesis for Hyperband SAR Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, C. E.

    This paper introduces an aperture synthesis procedure for producing a desired pulse shape, including the desired frequency spectrum of the pulse. This is accomplished by controlling the time-of-arrival of fields on the aperture plane, thereby synthesizing a delay as a function of radius for the arrival of a stop-function TEM-like wave on the aperture plane.

  14. High Gain, Very Low Areal Density, Scalable RF Apertures Enabled by Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) approach be expanded with a specific focus on space exploration orbiting comm network RF aperture...

  15. Exo-planet Direct Imaging with On-Axis and/or Segmented Apertures in Space: Adaptive Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soummer, Remi

    Capitalizing on a recent breakthrough in wavefront control theory for obscured apertures made by our group, we propose to demonstrate a method to achieve high contrast exoplanet imaging with on-axis obscured apertures. Our new algorithm, which we named Adaptive Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD), provides the ability to compensate for aperture discontinuities (segment gaps and/or secondary mirror supports) by controlling deformable mirrors in a nonlinear wavefront control regime not utilized before but conceptually similar to the beam reshaping used in PIAA coronagraphy. We propose here an in-air demonstration at 1E- 7 contrast, enabled by adding a second deformable mirror to our current test-bed. This expansion of the scope of our current efforts in exoplanet imaging technologies will enabling us to demonstrate an integrated solution for wavefront control and starlight suppression on complex aperture geometries. It is directly applicable at scales from moderate-cost exoplanet probe missions to the 2.4 m AFTA telescopes to future flagship UVOIR observatories with apertures potentially 16-20 m. Searching for nearby habitable worlds with direct imaging is one of the top scientific priorities established by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. Achieving this ambitious goal will require 1e-10 contrast on a telescope large enough to provide angular resolution and sensitivity to planets around a significant sample of nearby stars. Such a mission must of course also be realized at an achievable cost. Lightweight segmented mirror technology allows larger diameter optics to fit in any given launch vehicle as compared to monolithic mirrors, and lowers total life-cycle costs from construction through integration & test, making it a compelling option for future large space telescopes. At smaller scales, on-axis designs with secondary obscurations and supports are less challenging to fabricate and thus more affordable than the off-axis unobscured primary mirror designs

  16. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  17. Flame Reconstruction Using Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Preston; Tree, Dale; Truscott, Tadd

    2011-01-01

    Flames can be formed by burning methane (CH4). When oxygen is scarce, carbon particles nucleate into solid particles called soot. These particles emit photons, making the flame yellow. Later, methane is pre-mixed with air forming a blue flame; burning more efficiently, providing less soot and light. Imaging flames and knowing their temperature are vital to maximizing efficiency and validating numerical models. Most temperature probes disrupt the flame and create differences leading to an inaccurate measurement of the flame temperature. We seek to image the flame in three dimensions using synthetic aperture imaging. This technique has already successfully measured velocity fields of a vortex ring [1]. Synthetic aperture imaging is a technique that views one scene from multiple cameras set at different angles, allowing some cameras to view objects that are obscured by others. As the resulting images are overlapped different depths of the scene come into and out of focus, known as focal planes, similar to tomogr...

  18. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  19. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    at every emission, which makes it possible to average over a large number of lines. This makes stationary echo canceling easier and significantly improves the velocity estimates. Only 8 emissions per plane are necessary to create the color flow map. Scanning 12 cm in depth, up to 800 planes can be obtained...... imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture...

  20. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.