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Sample records for aperture fused silica

  1. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wan-Qing; ZHANG Xiao-Min; HAN Wei; WANG Fang; XIANG Yong; LI Fu-Quan; FENG Bin; JING Feng; WEI Xiao-Feng; ZHENG Wan-Guo

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena.

  2. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Damage of Large-Aperture Fused Silica Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei; ZHENG Wan-Guo; HUANG Wan-Qing; LI Ke-Yu; WANG Fang; FENG Bin; JIA Huai-Ting; LI Fu-Quan; XIANG Yong; JING Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Laser induced damage experiment fs carried out on a large aperture laser facility.Severe damage is observed on a large-aperture fused silica grating which presents dense craters on the front surface and six cracks alternatively located at the front and the rear surface.The bizarre fact about the damage on the grating is that,unlike other optics,the damage craters are almost on the front surface.According to observation,damage phenomenon is due to the stimulated Brillouin scattering(SBS)effect occurring in the grating,which includes the transverse SBS,the back SBS and the zigzag SBS.

  3. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  4. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  5. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  6. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  7. Tailoring the radiation hardness of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of optical transmission of two types of Heraeus Suprasil synthetic fused silica after exposure to ionising radiation was investigated with regard to usage as a DIRC radiator. These studies led to the discovery of defect mechanisms that are well known for UV laser irradiation also being present for ionising radiation. The dependence of the optical degradation on interstitial hydrogen, as predicted by existing defect models, could be verified. This leads to an improved understanding of the radiation damage processes and allows to specify the composition of synthetic fused silica according to experimental requirements especially in terms of radiation load.

  8. Femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani-Grasset, Frédéric; Bellouard, Yves

    2010-10-11

    The use of low-energy femtosecond laser beam combined with chemical etching has been proven to be an efficient method to fabricate three-dimensional structures in fused silica. For high-volume application, this technology--like other serial processes--suffers from a moderate production rate. Here, we show that femtosecond laser can also be employed to fabricate silica molds and other patterned surfaces, including surfaces with high aspect ratio features (> 10). Through appropriate tailoring of silica's surface property and subsequent creation of, for instance, simple elastomeric molding, new opportunities for the indirect 3D, multi-scale spatial characterization of deep laser-fabricated microstructures come along. We demonstrate that those moldings are characterized by a high fidelity (down to the nanometer scale) to the silica mold. These results further advance the applicability of femtosecond laser processing to glass. PMID:20941083

  9. Laser plasma interactions in fused silica cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianzhong; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Yoo, Jong H.; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2003-06-24

    The effect of laser energy on formation of a plasma inside a cavity was investigated. The temperature and electron number density of laser-induced plasmas in a fused silica cavity were determined using spectroscopic methods, and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. Plasma temperature and electron number density during laser ablation in a cavity with aspect ratio of 4 increased faster with irradiance after the laser irradiance reached a threshold of 5 GW/cm{sup 2}. The threshold irradiance of particulate ejection was lower for laser ablation in a cavity compared with on a flat surface; the greater the cavity aspect ratio, the lower the threshold irradiance. The ionization of silicon becomes saturated and the crater depths were increased approximately by an order of magnitude after the irradiance reached the threshold. Phase explosion was discussed to explain the large change of both plasma characteristics and mass removal when irradiance increased beyond a threshold value. Self-focusing of the laser beam was discussed to be responsible for the decrease of the threshold in cavities.

  10. Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.

  11. Effects of Vacuum of Fused Silica UV Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Zhen; LV Hai-Bing; YUAN Xiao-Dong; HUANG Jin; JIANG Xiao-Dong; WANG Hai-Jun; ZU Xiao-Tao; ZHENG Wan-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Damage points induced by 355 nm laser irradiation increase more quickly on the surface of fused silica in vacuum of about 10-3Pa than in atmospheric air at the same fluence.The larger concentration of point defects in vacuum is confirmed by photoluminescence intensity.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared absorption indicate the formation of sub-stoichiometric sillca on the surface.The degradation mechanism of fused silica in vacuum is discussed.

  12. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  13. HVI Ballistic Limit Characterization of Fused Silica Thermal Panes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fused silica window systems are used heavily on crewed reentry vehicles, and they are currently being used on the next generation of US crewed spacecraft, Orion. These systems improve crew situational awareness and comfort, as well as, insulating the reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on a fused silica window system proposed for the Orion spacecraft. A ballistic limit equation that describes the threshold of perforation of a fuse silica pane over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials is discussed here.

  14. Mechanical loss associated with silicate bonding of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on mechanical loss associated with hydroxy-catalysis (or 'silicate') bonding between fused silica substrates in the presence of potassium hydroxide or sodium silicate. We measured the mechanical quality factor of three fused silica samples, each composed of two half-rods bonded together on their flat surfaces and compared them to that of an unbonded half-rod. The measurements show a significant reduction of quality factor due to mechanical loss associated with the silicate bonds. We calculate the loss factor of the bonded region φbond and estimate that the effect of silicate bonding on thermal noise in the Advanced LIGO interferometers will be small

  15. Form control in atmospheric pressure plasma processing of ground fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Wang, Bo; Xin, Qiang; Jin, Huiliang; Wang, Jun; Dong, Wenxia

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing (APPP) using inductively coupled plasma has demonstrated that it can achieve comparable removal rate on the optical surface of fused silica under the atmosphere pressure and has the advantage of inducing no sub-surface damage for its non-contact and chemical etching mechanism. APPP technology is a cost effective way, compared with traditional mechanical polishing, magnetorheological finishing and ion beam figuring. Thus, due to these advantages, this technology is being tested to fabricate large aperture optics of fused silica to help shorten the polishing time in optics fabrication chain. Now our group proposes to use inductively coupled plasma processing technology to fabricate ground surface of fused silica directly after the grinding stage. In this paper, form control method and several processing parameters are investigated to evaluate the removal efficiency and the surface quality, including the robustness of removal function, velocity control mode and tool path strategy. However, because of the high heat flux of inductively coupled plasma, the removal depth with time can be non-linear and the ground surface evolvement will be affected. The heat polishing phenomenon is founded. The value of surface roughness is reduced greatly, which is very helpful to reduce the time of follow-up mechanical polishing. Finally, conformal and deterministic polishing experiments are analyzed and discussed. The form error is less 3%, before and after the APPP, when 10μm depth of uniform removal is achieved on a 60×60mm ground fused silica. Also, a basin feature is fabricated to demonstrate the figuring capability and stability. Thus, APPP is a promising technology in processing the large aperture optics.

  16. Discharging fused silica test masses with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Kelvin probe and tunable light source were used to study fused silica discharging by UV illumination. The discharge rate scales linearly with charge magnitude and illumination intensity. Optimal discharging occurs at 215 nm, likely due to absorption by E' centers. 90% discharge corresponds to ∼0.1 Jcm-2 incident energy

  17. Process for repairing large scratches on fused silica optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormont, Philippe; Bourgeade, Antoine; Cavaro, Sandy; Doualle, Thomas; Gaborit, Gael; Gallais, Laurent; Rullier, Jean-Luc; Taroux, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Scratches at the surface of fused silica optics can be detrimental for the performance of optical systems because they initiate damage on the optic but also they perturb the amplitude or phase of the transmitted laser light. Removing scratches by conventional polishing techniques can be time consuming as it is an iterative and long process, especially when hours of polishing time are required to obtain very high surface accuracy. So we have investigated ways to remove them with local laser processing. The silica is then heated at temperature higher than the softening point to heal the cracks.

  18. HVI Ballistic Limit Charaterization of Fused Silica Thermal Pane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, William E.; Miller, Joshua E.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Deighton, Kevin.; Davis, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft's windows are exposed to the micrometeroid and orbital debris (MMOD) space environments while in space as well as the Earth entry environment at the mission's conclusion. The need for a low-mass spacecraft window design drives the need to reduce conservatism when assessing the design for loss of crew due to MMOD impact and subsequent Earth entry. Therefore, work is underway at NASA and Lockheed Martin to improve characterization of the complete penetration ballistic limit of an outer fused silica thermal pane. Hypervelocity impact tests of the window configuration at up to 10 km/s and hydrocode modeling have been performed with a variety of projectile materials to enable refinement of the fused silica ballistic limit equation.

  19. Fused silica suspension for the VIRGO optics: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal noise in mirror suspension wires is the main limitation of low-frequency sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In order to minimize the pendulum thermal noise, a monolithic design, using a low dissipation material, is proposed for VIRGO. High mechanical Qs and high breaking strengths have been obtained for monolithic fused silica fibres. A low-dissipation and high-strength bonding technique using potassium silicate bonding is proposed

  20. Electrical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced fused silica composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changshu; Pan, Yubai; Liu, Xuejian; Shi, Xiaomei; Sun, Xingwei; Guo, Jingkun

    2006-12-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-fused silica composite powders were synthesized by solgel method and dense bulk composites were successfully fabricated via hot-pressing. This composite was characterized by XRD, HRTEM, and FESEM. MWCNTs in the hot-pressed composites are in their integrity observed by HRTEM. The electrical properties of MWCNT-fused silica composites were measured and analyzed. The electrical resistivity was found to decrease with the increase in the amount of the MWCNT loading in the composite. When the volume percentage of the MWCNTs increased to 5 vol%, the electrical resistivity of the composite is 24.99 omega cm, which is a decrease of twelve orders of value over that of pure fused silica matrix. The electrical resistivity further decreases to 1.742 omega. cm as the concentration of the MWCNTs increased to 10 vol%. The dielectric properties of the composites were also measured at the frequency ranging from 12.4 to 17.8 GHz (Ku band) at room temperature. The experimental results reveal that the dielectric properties are extremely sensitive to the volume percentage of the MWCNTs, and the permittivities, especially the imaginary permittivities, increase dramatically with the increase in the concentration of the MWCNTs. The improvement of dielectric properties in high frequency region mainly originates from the greatly increasing electrical properties of the composite. PMID:17256338

  1. Monolithic Cylindrical Fused Silica Resonators with High Q Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yao; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Suyong; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is determined by the Q factor and frequency mismatch of the cylindrical resonator. Enhancing the Q factor is crucial for improving the rate sensitivity and noise performance of the CRG. In this paper, for the first time, a monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator with a Q factor approaching 8 × 10⁵ (ring-down time over 1 min) is reported. The resonator is made of fused silica with low internal friction and high isotropy, with a diameter of 25 mm and a center frequency of 3974.35 Hz. The structure of the resonator is first briefly introduced, and then the experimental non-contact characterization method is presented. In addition, the post-fabrication experimental procedure of Q factor improvement, including chemical and thermal treatment, is demonstrated. The Q factor improvement by both treatments is compared and the primary loss mechanism is analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper represents the highest reported Q factor for a cylindrical resonator. The proposed monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator may enable high performance inertial sensing with standard manufacturing process and simple post-fabrication treatment. PMID:27483263

  2. Nanodrilling of fused silica using nanosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low-fluence irradiation of 10 nm Mo on SiO2 results in the formation of Mo droplets. • High-fluence irradiation of droplets results in the formation of holes in the SiO2. • The process allows the formation of randomly distributed and periodic holes. • The randomly distributed hole density ρh depends on the fluence (ρh ≤ 1.3 μm−2). • The interaction of the laser beam with Mo/SiO2 was simulated by FEM. - Abstract: The fast laser drilling of dielectric surfaces with hole diameters in the sub-μm range and a high aspect ratio is a challenge for laser methods. In this study, a novel laser structuring method for the production of randomly and periodically distributed holes in a fused silica surface will be presented using a self-assembling process. A fused silica surface was covered with a 10 nm thick magnetron-sputtered molybdenum film. The metal film was irradiated by a KrF excimer laser (wavelength λ = 248 nm, pulse duration Δtp = 25 ns) with low laser fluences (Φ < 1 J/cm2) and the laser-induced heating resulting in a melting of the metal film and finally in a self-assembled formation of randomly distributed metal droplets due to the surface tension of the metal liquid phase using a top hat beam profile. Furthermore, the usage of a periodically modulated laser beam profile allows the fabrication of periodically distributed droplet pattern. The multi-pulse irradiation of the laser-generated metal droplets with higher laser fluences results in a stepwise evaporation of the metal and in a partial evaporation of the fused silica near the metal droplets. Finally, the laser-induced stepwise evaporation process results in a formation of cone-like holes in the fused silica surface where the resultant holes are dependent on the size of the generated metal droplets and on the laser parameters. The “drilling” process allows the fabrication of holes with a depth up to 1 μm at a hole radius in the sub-μm range

  3. Threats to ICF reactor materials: computational simulations of radiation damage induced topological changes in fused silica

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, A; Stolken, J; Sadigh, B; Reyes, S; Rubia, T D; Latkowski, J F

    2003-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in fused silica. In this study, we discuss the role of successive cascade overlap on the saturation and self-healing of oxygen vacancy defects in the amorphous fused silica network. Furthermore, we present findings on the topological changes in fused silica due to repeated energetic recoil atoms. These topological network modifications consistent with experimental Raman spectroscopic observation on neutron and ion irradiated fused silica are indicators of permanent densification that has also been observed experimentally.

  4. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large (≤61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ''fail-safe'' lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ''lock'' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth

  5. Colloidal Au nanoclusters formed in fused silica by MeV ion implantation and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MeV implantation of Au has been used to create a high density of Au nanoclusters in the near surface of fused silica. Measurements of the nanocluster size and size distribution under various implantation/annealing conditions are presented and correlated with measurements of optical absorption by the Au nanoclusters in fused silica. Preliminary measurements of the nonlinear refractive index are included

  6. Optical waveguides fabricated by nitrogen ion implantation in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication of waveguides in fused silica using 4.5-MeV nitrogen ion implantation with a fluence of 5.0×1014 ions/cm2. The prism-coupling method was employed to measure the effective refractive indices of guiding modes at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1539 nm. The effective refractive indices of the first few modes were higher than that of the substrate. The refractive index profiles at 632.8 and 1539 nm were reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. Positive index changes were induced in the waveguide layers. The end-face coupling method was used to measure the near-field light intensity distributions at the wavelength of 632.8 nm and the finite-difference beam propagation method was applied to simulate the guided mode profile at the wavelength of 1539 nm. The waveguide structures emerge as candidates for integrated photonic devices.

  7. Nonlinear acoustic response in thin oxide layers on fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear mechanical properties of layered systems of Ta2O5 and TiO2 films deposited on fused silica by reactive evaporation (RE), reactive ion plating (IP) and spin coating (SC) are investigated by means of an ultrasonic technique. The coatings with thickness of 100 nm possess differences in density and crystal structure, due to the different deposition conditions. The nonlinear acoustic response of the film/substrate systems depends on film material. Differences are observed in respect to film density as obtained by the alternate deposition methods. The origin of the differences in nonlinear acoustic response of the samples is discussed. The results are correlated to adhesion properties of the films determined by a scratch-test method

  8. Fabrication of microchannels in fused silica using femtosecond Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashunin, D. A., E-mail: yashuninda@yandex.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Malkov, Yu. A. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Mochalov, L. A.; Stepanov, A. N. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-07

    Extended birefringent waveguiding microchannels up to 15 mm long were created inside fused silica by single-pulse irradiation with femtosecond Bessel beams. The birefringent refractive index change of 2–4 × 10{sup −4} is attributed to residual mechanical stress. The microchannels were chemically etched in KOH solution to produce 15 mm long microcapillaries with smooth walls and a high aspect ratio of 1:250. Bessel beams provide higher speed of material processing compared to conventional multipulse femtosecond laser micromachining techniques and permit simple control of the optical axis direction of the birefringent waveguides, which is important for practical applications [Corrielli et al., “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4249 (2014)].

  9. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fused silica via self-assembly of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antireflective sub-wavelength structures with high laser-induced damage threshold on fused silica are fabricated using a self-assembly technique, in which a porous yttrium oxide film is deposited as a mask followed by alkaline etching. By controlling the etching time, several sub-wavelength structures with different height, density and diameter have been made. The best reflectance is less than 2.87% for wavelengths from 300 to 1000 nm after 1.5 h etching. The laser-induced damage threshold of the etched glass measured by a 10 ns Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm was as high as 30 J/cm2 compared to 16 J/cm2 of blank glass. The specular reflectance of structures matches the theoretical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model, and the results reveal that the shape of the structures is similar to the calculated parabolic shape. Achieving antireflective sub-wavelength structures on fused silica paves the way for applications in laser systems. - Highlights: • Antireflective structures on fused silica are grown using a self-assembly technique. • The properties of structures with different etching time were studied. • The laser-induced damage threshold of glass was enhanced after etching. • The reflection matches the theoretical simulation using a thin-film multilayer model

  10. Modification of nanostructured fused silica for use as superhydrophobic, IR-transmissive, anti-reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Darryl A.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Busse, Lynda E.; Kim, Woohong; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Poutous, Menelaos; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.

    2016-04-01

    In order to mimic and enhance the properties of moth eye-like materials, nanopatterned fused silica was chemically modified to produce self-cleaning substrates that have anti-reflective and infrared transmissive properties. The characteristics of these substrates were evaluated before and after chemical modification. Furthermore, their properties were compared to fused silica that was devoid of surface features. The chemical modification imparted superhydrophobic character to the substrates, as demonstrated by the average water contact angles which exceeded 170°. Finally, optical analysis of the substrates revealed that the infrared transmission capabilities of the fused silica substrates (nanopatterned to have moth eye on one side) were superior to those of the regular fused silica substrates within the visible and near-infrared region of the light spectrum, with transmission values of 95% versus 92%, respectively. The superior transmission properties of the fused silica moth eye were virtually unchanged following chemical modification.

  11. Facile fabrication of true three-dimensional microcoils inside fused silica by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a facile method for the fabrication of on-chip three-dimensional (3D) microcoils inside fused silica. The main fabrication process involves two steps: (1) creating 3D helical microchannels inside fused silica using an improved femtosecond laser irradiation assisted by chemical etching (FLICE) technology and (2) conductive treatment by injecting metal gallium into the helical microchannels. The high aspect ratio 3D helical microcoil was prepared inside fused silica with a diameter of 100 µm, a length of 880 µm and a pitch of coil of 44 µm. The method is flexible to fabricate microcoils inside fused silica with arbitrary geometry configurations and different coil properties. This type of microcoils can be easily integrated into ‘lab on a chip’ (LOC) platform inside fused silica substrate. (paper)

  12. Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxamusa, S; Miller, P E; Wong, L; Steele, R; Shen, N; Bude, J

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the laser damage threshold of fused silica have been driven by the successive elimination of near-surface damage precursors such as polishing residue, fractures, and inorganic salts. In this work, we show that trace impurities in ultrapure water used to process fused silica optics may be responsible for the formation of carbonaceous deposits. We use surrogate materials to show that organic compounds precipitated onto fused silica surfaces form discrete damage precursors. Following a standard etching process, solvent-free oxidative decomposition using oxygen plasma or high-temperature thermal treatments in air reduced the total density of damage precursors to as low as silica. PMID:25606889

  13. Yb/Al-codoped fused-silica planar-waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Gil; Eger, David; Bruner, Ariel; Sfez, Bruno; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2016-05-01

    We report an Yb/Al-codoped fused silica planar waveguide amplifier with 0.1 GW/cm2) and a relatively large core (20 μm thick). Waveguide fabrication is based on a novel silica-on-silica technology combining modified-chemical-vapor deposition and a high temperature CO2 laser treatment for making high-power photonic devices.

  14. Effect of Optical Coating and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Loss in Fused Silica

    CERN Document Server

    Gretarsson, A M; Penn, S D; Saulson, P R; Schiller, J J; Startin, W J; Gretarsson, Andri M.; Harry, Gregory M.; Penn, Steven D.; Saulson, Peter R.; Schiller, John J.; Startin, William J.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the mechanical loss in fused silica samples with various surface treatments and compare them with samples having an optical coating. Mild surface treatments such as washing in detergent or acetone were not found to affect the mechanical loss of flame-drawn fused silica fibers stored in air. However, mechanical contact (with steel calipers) significantly increased the loss. The application of a high-reflective optical coating of the type used for the LIGO test masses was found to greatly increase the mechanical loss of commercially polished fused silica microscope slides. We discuss the implications for the noise budget of interferometers.

  15. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Time-resolved shadowgraphy of optical breakdown in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, K. A.; Grigorov, Y. V.; Nguyen, V. H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Le, N. T.; Janulewicz, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of a laser-induced optical breakdown in the bulk of fused silica initiated by a sub-nanosecond laser pulse of an energy fluence as high as 8.7 kJ/cm2 was investigated by using femtosecond time-resolved shadowgraphy. Plasma ignition, growth of the damaged region and accompanying hydrodynamic motion were recorded from the moment directly before the arrival of the driving laser pulse, in the time steps adapted to the rate of the occurring processes. The growth rate of the plasma channel, curvature radii and velocities of the wave fronts were extracted from the shadowgrams. It was found that the plasma channel develops with a supersonic velocity and the first observed shock front tends to transform itself from the initial bowl-like shape to the final spherical one characterising an acoustic wave. Appearance of multiple fronts accompanying the main shock front was registered and used in more detailed analysis of the optical breakdown dynamics in the transparent dielectrics.

  17. High strain rate fracture behaviour of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fused silica is a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide characterized by low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range. Because of its wide use in the military industry as window material, it may be subjected to high-energy ballistic impacts. Under such dynamic conditions, post-yield response of the ceramic as well as the strain rate related effects become significant and should be accounted for in the constitutive modelling. In this study, the Johnson-Holmquist (J-H) model parameters have been identified by inverse calibration technique, on selected validation test configurations, according to the procedure described hereafter. Numerical simulations were performed with LS-DYNA and IMPETUS-FEA, a general non-linear finite element software which offers NURBS finite element technology for the simulation of large deformation and fracture in materials. In order to overcome numerical drawbacks associated with element erosion, a modified version of the J-H model is proposed.

  18. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x1012 - 6x10l6 ions/cm2), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than ∼1015 ions/cm2. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from ∼0.1-0.2 μ to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs

  19. Effects of humidity on the interaction between a fused silica test mass and an electrostatic drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koptsov, D.V., E-mail: kopcov@physics.msu.ru; Prokhorov, L.G.; Mitrofanov, V.P.

    2015-10-23

    Interaction of a fused silica test mass with electric field of an electrostatic drive with interdigitated electrodes and influence of ambient air humidity on this interaction are investigated. The key element of the experimental setup is the fused silica torsional oscillator. Time dependent increase of the torque acting on the oscillator's plate after application of DC voltage to the drive is demonstrated. The torque relaxation is presumably caused by the redistribution of electric charges on the fused silica plate. The numerical model has been developed to compute the time evolution of the plate's surface charge distribution and the corresponding torque. - Highlights: • Interaction between a fused silica plate and an electrostatic drive was investigated. • The interaction force is time and relative humidity dependent. • Numerical model of the interaction was developed. • Charge redistribution is shown to be the cause of the interaction force evolution.

  20. Effects of humidity on the interaction between a fused silica test mass and an electrostatic drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of a fused silica test mass with electric field of an electrostatic drive with interdigitated electrodes and influence of ambient air humidity on this interaction are investigated. The key element of the experimental setup is the fused silica torsional oscillator. Time dependent increase of the torque acting on the oscillator's plate after application of DC voltage to the drive is demonstrated. The torque relaxation is presumably caused by the redistribution of electric charges on the fused silica plate. The numerical model has been developed to compute the time evolution of the plate's surface charge distribution and the corresponding torque. - Highlights: • Interaction between a fused silica plate and an electrostatic drive was investigated. • The interaction force is time and relative humidity dependent. • Numerical model of the interaction was developed. • Charge redistribution is shown to be the cause of the interaction force evolution

  1. Infrared-Reflective Coating on Fused Silica for a Solar High-Temperature Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Röger, Marc; Rickers, Christoph; Uhlig, Ralf; Neumann, Frank; Polenzky, Christina

    2007-01-01

    In concentrating solar power, high-temperature solar receivers can provide heat to highly efficient cycles for electricity or chemical production. Excessive heating of the fused-silica window and the resulting recrystallization are major problems of high-temperature receivers using windows. Excessive window temperatures can be avoided by applying an infrared-reflective solar-transparent coating on the fused-silica window inside. Both glass temperatures and receiver losses can be reduced. An i...

  2. Solubility of fused silica in sub- and supercritical water: Estimation from a thermodynamic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Šťavíková, Lenka; Planeta, Josef; Hohnová, Barbora; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, NOV (2013), s. 72-77. ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : amorphous silica * fused silica * supercritical water * aqueous solubility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2013

  3. Material removal and surface figure during pad polishing of fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, T I; Feit, M D; Steele, W A

    2009-05-04

    The material removal and surface figure after ceria pad polishing of fused silica glass have been measured and analyzed as a function of kinematics, loading conditions, and polishing time. Also, the friction at the workpiece/lap interface, the slope of the workpiece relative to the lap plane, and lap viscoelastic properties have been measured and correlated to material removal. The results show that the relative velocity between the workpiece & lap (determined by the kinematics) and the pressure distribution determine the spatial and temporal material removal and hence the final surface figure of the workpiece. In the case where the applied loading and relative velocity distribution over the workpiece are spatially uniform, a significant non-uniform spatial material removal from the workpiece surface is observed. This is due to a non-uniform pressure distribution resulting from: (1) a moment caused by a pivot point and interface friction forces; (2) viscoelastic relaxation of the polyurethane lap; and (3) a physical workpiece/lap interface mismatch. Both the kinematics and these contributions to the pressure distribution are quantitatively described, and then combined to form a spatial and temporal Preston model & code for material removal (called Surface Figure or SurF{copyright}). The surface figure simulations are consistent with the experiment for a wide variety of polishing conditions. This study is an important step towards deterministic full-aperture polishing, which would allow optical glass fabrication to be performed in a more repeatable, less iterative, and hence more economical manner.

  4. Generation of microstripe cylindrical and toroidal mirrors by localized laser evaporation of fused silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L; Thomson, Ian J; Baker, Howard J; Hall, Denis R

    2012-09-10

    We report a new technique for the rapid fabrication of microstripe cylindrical and toroidal mirrors with a high ratio (>10) of the two principal radii of curvature (RoC(1)/RoC(2)), and demonstrate their effectiveness as mode-selecting resonator mirrors for high-power planar waveguide lasers. In this process, the larger radius of curvature (RoC(1)) is determined by the planar or cylindrical shape of the fused silica substrate selected for laser processing, whilst the other (RoC(2)) is produced by controlled CO(2) laser-induced vaporization of the glass. The narrow stripe mirror aperture is achieved by applying a set of partially overlapped laser scans, with the incident laser power, the number of laser scans, and their spacing being used to control the curvature produced by laser evaporation. In this work, a 1 mm diameter laser spot is used to produce grooves of cylindrical/toroidal shape with 240 μm width and 16 mm length. After high reflectance coating, these grooves are found to provide excellent mode selectivity as resonator mirrors for a 150 μm core Yb:YAG planar waveguide laser, producing high brightness output at more than 300 W. The results show clearly that the laser-generated microstripe mirrors can improve the optical performance of high-power planar waveguide lasers when applied in a low-loss mode-selective resonator configuration. PMID:22968274

  5. On the mechanical quality factors of cryogenic test masses from fused silica and crystalline quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeter, Anja; Schnabel, Roman; Reid, Stuart; Martin, Iain; Rowan, Sheila; Schwarz, Christian; Koettig, Torsten; Neubert, Ralf; Thürk, Matthias; Vodel, Wolfgang; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Seidel, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors (IGWDs) are operated at room temperature with test masses made from fused silica. Fused silica shows very low absorption at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. It is also well suited to realize low thermal noise floors in the detector signal band since it offers low mechanical loss, i. e. high quality factors (Q factors) at room temperature. However, for a further reduction of thermal noise, cooling the test masses to cryogenic temperatures may prove an interesting technique. Here we compare the results of Q factor measurements at cryogenic temperatures of acoustic eigenmodes of test masses from fused silica and its crystalline counterpart. Our results show that the mechanical loss of fused silica increases with lower temperature and reaches a maximum at 30 K for frequencies of slightly above 10 kHz. The losses of crystalline quartz generally show lower values and even fall below the room temperature values of fused silica below 10 K. Our results show that in ...

  6. Subpicosecond laser ablation of copper and fused silica: Initiation threshold and plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the subpicosecond laser ablation of copper and fused silica under 100 fs laser irradiation at 800 nm in vacuum by means of fast plume imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. We found that, to the difference of copper ablation, the laser-generated plasma from a fused silica target exhibited one 'main' component only. The 'slow' plasma component, observed during copper ablation and usually assigned to optical emission from nanoparticles was not detected by either plasma fast imaging or optical emission spectroscopy even when fused silica targets were submitted to the highest incident fluences used in our experiments. The characteristic expansion velocity of this unique component was about three times larger than the velocity of the fast plume component observed during copper ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on both plasma expansion and ablation rate was investigated and discussed in terms of ablation efficiency and initiation mechanisms.

  7. Simulation of Light Intensification Induced by Defects of Polished Fused Silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-Rui; LIU Hong-Jie; HUANG Jin; ZHOU Xin-Da; JIANG Xiao-Dong; WU Wei-Dong; ZHENG Wan-Guo; JU Xin

    2011-01-01

    Light intensity distribution in the vicinity of inclusions and etched cracks in polished fused silica at wavelength scale are simulated by using the finite-difference time-domain algorithm. Light intensity enhancement factor as functions of diameter and refractive index of inclusions are investigated, more than 10 times that of incident beam is obtained in the simulation. We model the etched crack in close proximity to a real structure, which is characterized by AFM. We find that the peak light intensity of the crack is a function of its cross sectional breadth depth ratio, providing good hints for the effective processing of fused silica samples to improve the damage threshold.

  8. Shock-wave equation-of-state measurements in fused silica up to 1600 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C. A.; Gregor, M. C.; Polsin, D. N.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Celliers, P. M.; Boehly, T. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-06-01

    The properties of silica are important to geophysical and high-pressure equation-of-state research. Its most-prevalent crystalline form, α-quartz, has been extensively studied to TPa pressures. This article presents Hugoniot measurements on amorphous silica, commonly referred to as fused silica, over a range from 200 to 1600 GPa using laser-driven shocks and an α-quartz standard. These results extend the measured Hugoniot of fused silica to higher pressures. In the 200- to 600-GPa range, the data are in very good agreement with those obtained by Qi et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 062706 (2015)] using magnetically driven aluminum impactors and aluminum as a standard material. A new shock velocity/particle velocity relation is derived to fit the experimental data.

  9. Potential of structured fused silica capillaries in electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Horká, Marie; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel; Planeta, Josef

    Salzburg : Society of Analytical Chemistry, 2014. P092-FF-TU. [International Symposium on Chromatography /30./. 14.09.2014-18.09.2014, Salzburg] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supercritical water * silica surface * staphylococcus aureus Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Nonlinear index of refraction of Cu- and Pb-implanted fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the nonlinear index of refraction in high-purity fused silica implanted with Pb and Cu ions, using 100-ps pulses from a cw, mode-locked, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm). The nonlinear index measured for the Pb-implanted silica is an order of magnitude larger than that for Cu:silica. Qualitative evidence from infrared reflectance spectra suggests that these differences may result from distinctive ways in which these implanted ions are incorporated into the glass network: the Cu appears to form nm-size colloids, while the Pb may be incorporated into a Pb-O-Si glassy phase. (orig.)

  11. Near- and supercritical water as a diameter manipulation and surface roughening agent in fused silica capillaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 327-333. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supercritical water * fused silica capillary * surface treatment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.825, year: 2013

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Takayuki, E-mail: kumada.takayuki@jaea.go.jp; Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump} = 3.3–14.9 J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63 ± 2 ps for a wavelength λ = 795 nm. The period was reduced by half for λ = 398 nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  13. Multi-Length Scale Analysis of the Effect of Fused-Silica Pre-shocking on its Tendency for Devitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that impact-induced devitrification of fused silica, or more specifically formation of high-density stishovite, can significantly improve ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica, the material which is used in transparent armor. The studies have also shown that in order for stishovite to form during a ballistic impact event, very high projectile kinetic energy normalized by the projectile/fused-silica target-plate contact area must accompany such an event. Otherwise fused-silica devitrification, if taking place, does not substantially improve the material ballistic-penetration resistance. In the present work, all-atom molecular-level computations are carried out in order to establish if pre-shocking of fused-silica target-plates (to form stishovite) and subsequent unloading (to revert stishovite to the material amorphous structure) can increase fused silica's propensity for stishovite formation during a ballistic impact. Towards that end, molecular-level computational procedures are developed to simulate both the pre-shocking treatment of the fused-silica target-plate and its subsequent impact by a solid right-circular cylindrical projectile. The results obtained clearly revealed that when strong-enough shockwaves are used in the fused-silica target-plate pre-shocking procedure, the propensity of fused silica for stishovite formation during the subsequent ballistic impact is increased, as is the associated ballistic-penetration resistance. To rationalize these findings, a detailed post-processing microstructural analysis of the pre-shocked material is employed. The results obtained suggest that fused silica pre-shocked with shockwaves of sufficient strength retain some memory/embryos of stishovite, and these embryos facilitate stishovite formation during the subsequent ballistic impact.

  14. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  15. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  16. Recovery of fused silica surface damage resistance by ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase of photoluminescence induced by laser irradiation in vacuum was observed for the fused silica. The degradation of transmittance and damage resistance performance of fused silica surfaces may be due to substoichiometric silica and a sufficient defect population introduced in the near surface. When the laser-irradiated surface layers were removed by ion beam etching, the laser-induced damage threshold recovered to that of un-irradiated samples. The photoluminescence also decreased after ion beam etching. According to the calculated etching depth, the laser-induced defects formed in the surface layer of 10-20 nm when different parameters used during vacuum exposure. In addition, the evolution of surface root-mean-square microroughness as a function of ion beam etching time was studied by the optical interferometric technique and atomic force microscopy

  17. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  18. Origin of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambonneau, M.; Diaz, R.; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Duchateau, G.; Natoli, J.-Y.; Lamaignère, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ring patterns surrounding laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica are systematically observed when initiated by multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm. The appearance chronology of rings is found to be closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This supports that the damage morphology originates from the coupling of a laser-supported detonation wave propagating in air with an ablation mechanism in silica. In our experiments, the propagation speed of the detonation wave reaches about 20 km/s and scales as the cube root of the laser intensity, in good agreement with theory.

  19. Self-organized pattern formation in laser-induced multiphoton ionization in fused silica

    CERN Document Server

    Buschlinger, Robert; Peschel, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    We use finite difference time domain modelling to investigate plasma generation in bulk silica induced by multi-photon absorption of intense laser light. Plasma generation is found to be extremely amplified around nanometer-sized inhomogeneities as present in glasses. Each inhomogeneity acts as the seed of a plasma structure growing against the direction of light propagation. Plasma structures originating from randomly distributed inhomogeneities are found to interact strongly and to organize in regularly spaced planes oriented perpendicularly to the laser polarization. We discuss similarities between our results and nanogratings in fused silica written by laser beams with spatially homogeneous as well as radial and azimuthal polarization.

  20. Numerical simulation of modulation to incident laser by submicron to micron surface contaminants on fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yang; Xia, Xiang; Xin-Xiang, Miao; Li, Li; Xiao-Dong, Yuan; Zhong-Hua, Yan; Guo-Rui, Zhou; Hai-Bing, Lv; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Tao, Zu

    2016-01-01

    Modulation caused by surface/subsurface contaminants is one of the important factors for laser-induced damage of fused silica. In this work, a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method is employed to simulate the electric field intensity distribution in the vicinity of particulate contaminants on fused silica surface. The simulated results reveal that the contaminant on both the input and output surfaces plays an important role in the electric field modulation of the incident laser. The influences of the shape, size, embedded depth, dielectric constant (ɛr), and the number of contaminant particles on the electric field distribution are discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the corresponding physical mechanism is analyzed theoretically. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178018) and the Ph.D. Funding Support Program of Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20110185110007).

  1. Ab initio modeling of fused silica, crystal quartz, and water Raman spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Benda, Ladislav; Bouř, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 512, č. 13 (2011), s. 54-59. ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fused silica * Raman spectroscopy * Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2011

  2. Customization of fused silica capillary properties by supercritical water treatment: Application in electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Horká, Marie; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Planeta, Josef

    Universidad de La Laguna, 2013. s. 220. [International Symposium on Electro- and Liquid Phase-separation Techniques /20./. 06.10.2013-09.10.2013, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : fused silica capillary * supercritical water * electromigration separations Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Frequency and surface dependence of the mechanical loss in fused silica

    CERN Document Server

    Penn, S D; Busby, D; Harry, G M; Gretarsson, A M; Numata, K; Willems, P; Penn, Steven D.; Ageev, Alexander; Busby, Dan; Harry, Gregory M.; Gretarsson, Andri M.; Numata, Kenji; Willems, Phil

    2005-01-01

    We have compiled measurements of the mechanical loss in fused silica from samples spanning a wide range of geometries and resonant frequency in order to model the known variation of the loss with frequency and surface-to-volume ratio. This improved understanding of the mechanical loss has contributed significantly to the design of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors, which require ultra-low loss materials for their test mass mirrors.

  4. Laser-Induced Point Defects in Fused Silica Irradiated by UV Laser in Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Zhou; Xinda Zhou; Jin Huang; Qiang Cheng; Fengrui Wang; Xin Ye; Xiaodong Jiang; Weidong Wu

    2014-01-01

    High-purity fused silica irradiated by third harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser in vacuum with different laser pulse parameters was studied experimentally. Laser-induced defects are investigated by UV spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectra and correlated to the structural modifications in the glass matrix through Raman spectroscopy. Results show that, for laser fluence below laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), the absorbance and intensity of fluorescence bands increase with laser energies and/or...

  5. Single-Molecule Imaging of DNAs with Sticky Ends at Water/Fused Silica Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavica Isailovic

    2005-12-17

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) was used to study intermolecular interactions of DNAs with unpaired (sticky) ends of different lengths at water/fused silica interface at the single-molecule level. Evanescent field residence time, linear velocity and adsorption/desorption frequency were measured in a microchannel for individual DNA molecules from T7, Lambda, and PSP3 phages at various pH values. The longest residence times and the highest adsorption/desorption frequencies at the constant flow at pH 5.5 were found for PSP3 DNA, followed by lower values for Lambda DNA, and the lowest values for T7 DNA. Since T7, Lambda, and PSP3 DNA molecules contain none, twelve and nineteen unpaired bases, respectively, it was concluded that the affinity of DNAs for the surface increases with the length of the sticky ends. This confirms that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between sticky ends and fused-silica surface are driving forces for DNA adsorption at the fused-silica surface. Described single-molecule methodology and results therein can be valuable for investigation of interactions in liquid chromatography, as well as for design of DNA hybridization sensors and drug delivery systems.

  6. Precision drilling of fused silica with 157-nm excimer laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian; Meyer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    μFor drilling fused silica, mechanical techniques like with diamond drills, ultrasonic machining, sand blasting or water jet machining are used. Also chemical techniques like laser assisted wet etching or thermal drilling with CO2-lasers are established. As an extension of these technologies, the drilling of micro-holes in fused silica with VUV laser radiation is presented here. The high absorption of the 157 nm radiation emitted by the F2 excimer laser and the short pulse duration lead to a material ablation with minimised impact on the surrounding material. Contrary to CO2-laser drilling, a molten and solidified phase around the bore can thus be avoided. The high photon energy of 7.9 eV requires either high purity nitrogen flushing or operation in vacuum, which also effects the processing results. Depending on the required precision, the laser can be used for percussion drilling as well as for excimer laser trepanning, by applying rotating masks. Rotating masks are especially used for high aspect ratio drilling with well defined edges and minimised debris. The technology is suitable particularly for holes with a diameter below 200 μm down to some microns in substrates with less than 200 μm thickness, that can not be achieved with mechanical methods. Drilling times in 200 μm fused silica substrates are in the range of ten seconds, which is sufficient to compete with conventional methods while providing similar or even better accuracy.

  7. Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of silicon nanoparticles on fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nanoparticles on fused silica have potential as recombination centers in infrared detectors due quantum confinement effects that result in a size dependent band gap. Growth on fused silica was realized by etching in HF, annealing under vacuum at 700-750 oC, and cooling to ambient temperature before ramping to the growth temperature of 600 oC. Silicon particles could not be grown in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with adequate size uniformity and density. Seeding fused silica with Si adatoms in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) process at a disilane pressure of 1.1 x 10-5 Pa followed by thermal CVD at a disilane pressure of 1.3 x 10-2 Pa, or direct HWCVD at a disilane pressure of 2.1 x 10-5 Pa led to acceptable size uniformity and density. Dangling bonds at the surface of the as-grown nanoparticle were passivated using atomic H formed by cracking H2 over the HWCVD filament.

  8. Heat accumulation regime of femtosecond laser writing in fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated refractive index induced by direct femtosecond laser writing inside fused silica and Nd:phosphate glass in heat accumulation regime. Spatial profile and magnitude of induced refractive index were investigated at various pulse repetition rates and translation velocities. It was shown that the magnitude of induced refractive index significantly rises with decreasing in time interval between successive laser pulses below the time for thermal diffusion. Going from nonthermal regime to heat accumulation regime, we achieved induced refractive index growth from 4 x 10-3 up to 6.5 x 10-3 in fused silica and from -6 x 10-3 to -9 x 10-3 in Nd:phosphate glass. Aspect ratio of treated area decreased from 2.1 down to less than 1.5 without correcting optical elements. It was shown that in heat accumulation regime, the treated area was surrounded by region of alternatively changed refractive index with significant magnitude up to -2 x 10-3. Wide regions of decreased refractive index enable fabrication of depressed cladding waveguides. We demonstrated low-loss (0.3 dB/cm) tubular waveguide inside fused silica. For orthogonal polarizations of guiding light, we achieved a small difference between losses as 0.1 dB/cm using highly symmetric written tracks forming the cladding. The desired structure was simulated with the beam propagation method, and the results were in good agreement with experiment data. (orig.)

  9. A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Song, Y.; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 ?? 0.3 mm with 0.05 ?? 0.05 mm or 0.1 ?? 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure (P; about 100 MPa at 22 ??C) and temperature (T; about 500 ??C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 ??C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C18H38 between 350 and 400 ??C, isotopic exchanges between C18H38 and D2O and between C19D40 and H2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P-T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be formed; (3

  10. Laser-welded fused silica substrates using a luminescent fresnoite-based sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablos-Martin, A.; Benndorf, G.; Tismer, S.; Mittag, M.; Cismak, A.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Höche, Th.

    2016-06-01

    The laser welding of two fused silica substrates using a fresnoitic glass thin film as a sealant by irradiation with a ns laser is studied. Two different laser parameter sets were compared in terms of bond quality, which include two different laser beam trajectories: linear and wobble (circular) trajectory. The composition of the glass sealant changes with the course of the laser welding, incorporating silica from the substrates. After joining, the bonded samples were exposed to UV light and a very intense emission in the blue spectral range is observed by naked eye, which is due to the crystallization of the fresnoite glass upon the laser irradiation. EDX analysis confirms the crystallization of fresnoite, together with a great enrichment in silica. The formation of a eutectic between both is very plausible. Bond quality and bond strength were evaluated by scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and tensile test, which results in a tensile stress of 7 MPa.

  11. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min−1 by using SF6-based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF4, CHF3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (Ra) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  12. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail: bradywang@hit.edu.cn; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  13. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP

  14. CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bare fused silica surfaces were prepared by subjecting the mechanically polished surface to a rastered cw CO2 laser beam. Analysis shows that this processing causes: (a) removal of a uniform layer of fused silica; and (b) a probable re-fusing or healing of existing subsurface fractures. The fused silica removal rate is found to be a function of the laser intensity and scan rate. These surfaces are seen to have very low scatter and to be very smooth. In addition, they have exhibited entrance surface damage thresholds at 1.06 μm, and 1 nsec, which are substantially above those seen on the mechanically polished surface. When damage does occur, it tends to be at a few isolated points rather than the general uniform damage seen on the mechanicaly polished part. In addition to the damage results, we will discuss an observational technique used for viewing these surfaces which employs dark-field illumination

  15. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-01

    Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  16. Correlation of polishing-induced shallow subsurface damages with laser-induced gray haze damages in fused silica optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Peifan; Ma, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced damage in fused silica optics greatly restricts the performances of laser facilities. Gray haze damage, which is always initiated on ceria polished optics, is one of the most important damage morphologies in fused silica optics. In this paper, the laser-induced gray haze damages of four fused silica samples polished with CeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, and colloidal silica slurries are investigated. Four samples all present gray haze damages with much different damage densities. Then, the polishing-induced contaminant and subsurface damages in four samples are analyzed. The results reveal that the gray haze damages could be initiated on the samples without Ce contaminant and are inclined to show a tight correlation with the shallow subsurface damages.

  17. Comparing study of subpicosecond and nanosecond wet etching of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of the laser induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) of fused silica produced by subpicosecond (600 fs) and nanosecond (30 ns) KrF excimer laser pulses (248 nm) was studied. Fused silica plates were the transparent targets, and naphthalene-methyl-methacrylate (c = 0.85, 1.71 M) and pyrene-acetone (c = 0.4 M) solutions were used as liquid absorbents. We did not observe etching using 600 fs laser pulses, in contrast with the experiments at 30 ns, where etched holes were found. The threshold fluences of the LIBWE at nanosecond pulses were found to be in the range of 360-450 mJ cm-2 depending on the liquid absorbers and their concentrations. On the basis of the earlier results the LIBWE procedure can be explain by the thermal heating of the quartz target and the high-pressure bubble formation in the liquid. According to the theories, these bubbles hit and damage the fused silica surface. The pressure on the irradiated quartz can be derived from the snapshots of the originating and expanding bubbles recorded by fast photographic setup. We found that the bubble pressure at 460 mJ cm-2 fluence value was independent of the pulse duration (600 fs and 30 ns) using pyrene-acetone solution, while using naphthalene-methyl-methacrylate solutions this pressure was 4, 5 times higher at 30 ns pulses than it was at 600 fs pulses. According to the earlier studies, this result refers to that the pressure should be sufficiently high to remove a thin layer from the quartz surface using pyrene-acetone solution. These facts show that the thermal and chemical phenomena in addition to the mechanical effects also play important role in the LIBWE procedure

  18. Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, Karell; Neauport, Jerome; Tovena-Pecault, Isabelle; Fargin, Evelyne; Labrugere, Christine; Belin, Colette; Couzi, Michel

    2009-04-20

    We report on the effect of organic molecular contamination on single shot laser induced damage density at the wavelength of 351 nm, with a 3 ns pulse length. Specific contamination experiments were made with dioctylphthalate (DOP) in liquid or gaseous phase, on the surface of fused silica polished samples, bare or solgel coated. Systematic laser induced damage was observed only in the case of liquid phase contamination. Different chemical and morphological characterization methods were used to identify and understand the damage process. We demonstrate that the contaminant morphology, rather than its physicochemical nature, can be responsible for the decrease of laser induced damage threshold of optics.

  19. Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Aimé, Karell; Néauport, Jérome; Tovena-Pecault, Isabelle; Fargin, Evelyne; Labrugère, Christine; Belin, Colette; Couzi, Michel

    2009-04-20

    We report on the effect of organic molecular contamination on single shot laser induced damage density at the wavelength of 351 nm, with a 3 ns pulse length. Specific contamination experiments were made with dioctylphthalate (DOP) in liquid or gaseous phase, on the surface of fused silica polished samples, bare or solgel coated. Systematic laser induced damage was observed only in the case of liquid phase contamination. Different chemical and morphological characterization methods were used to identify and understand the damage process. We demonstrate that the contaminant morphology, rather than its physicochemical nature, can be responsible for the decrease of laser induced damage threshold of optics. PMID:19381171

  20. Laser Mode-Dependent Size of Plasma Zones Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Fused Silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shan-Chun; JIANG Hong-Bing; LIU Yi; GONG Qi-Huang

    2008-01-01

    We carry out the numerical simulations of #emtosecond laser propagation with TEM00 mode, TEM10 mode and a beam combining both the modes in fused silica. It is found that the transverse size of plasma zones induced by laser pulses with the TEM10 mode is smaller than that induced by the TEMoo mode, while the longitudinal size is almost the same, and the saturated plasma density is higher. The transverse size, the longitudinal size and the ratio of the longitudinal to transverse size, for the beam combining both the modes, all could be reduced at the same time in comparison with the TEMoo mode under the same focusing conditions.

  1. Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation under anomalous dispersion in fused silica. Part 1. Numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetanina, E O; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Kandidov, V P

    2012-10-31

    We report the results of investigation of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in fused silica by varying the wavelength in the range from 800 to 2300 nm. It is shown that in the case of the anomalous group-velocity dispersion, a sequence of 'light bullets' with a high spatial and temporal localisation of the light field is formed along the filament. The relation of the formation and propagation of light bullets with the formation of an isolated anti-Stokes wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is established. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-04

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration, 800 nm center wavelength) is studied experimentally using a transillumination femtosecond time-resolved (0.1 ps-1 ns) pump-probe diffraction approach. This allows to reveal the generation dynamics of near-wavelength-sized LIPSS showing a transient diffraction at specific spatial frequencies even before a corresponding permanent surface relief was observed. The results confirm that the ultrafast energy deposition to the materials surface plays a key role and triggers subsequent physical mechanisms such as carrier scattering into self-trapped excitons.

  3. Large-Scale Synthesis and Systematic Photoluminescence Properties of Monolayer MoS2 on Fused Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Yilun; Sheng, Bowen; Wang, Xinqiang; Dai, Lun

    2016-07-20

    Monolayer MoS2, with fascinating mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, has generated enormous scientific curiosity and industrial interest. Controllable and scalable synthesis of monolayer MoS2 on various desired substrates has significant meaning in both basic scientific research and device application. Recent years have witnessed many advances in the direct synthesis of single-crystalline MoS2 flakes or their polycrystalline aggregates on numerous diverse substrates, such as SiO2-Si, mica, sapphire, h-BN, and SrTiO3, etc. In this work, we used the dual-temperature-zone atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition method to directly synthesize large-scale monolayer MoS2 on fused silica, the most ordinary transparent insulating material in daily life. We systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of monolayer MoS2 on fused silica and SiO2-Si substrates, which have different thermal conductivity coefficients and thermal expansion coefficients. We found that there exists a stronger strain on monolayer MoS2 grown on fused silica, and the strain becomes more obvious as temperature decreases. Moreover, the monolayer MoS2 grown on fused silica exhibits the unique trait of a fractal shape with tortuous edges and has stronger adsorbability. The monolayer MoS2 grown on fused silica may find application in sensing, energy storage, and transparent optoelectronics, etc. PMID:27338112

  4. Incident laser modulation of a repaired damage site with a rim in fused silica rear subsurface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Xiang Xia; Zu Xiao-Tao; Yuan Xiao-Dong; He Shao-Bo; Jiang Xiao-Dong; Zheng Wan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Local CO2 laser treatment has proved to be an effective method to prevent the 351-nm laser-induced damage sitesin a fused silica surface from exponentially growing,which is responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high fluence laser systems.However,the CO2 laser induced ablation crater is often surrounded by a raised rim at the edge,which can also result in the intensification of transmitted ultraviolet light that may damage the downstream optics.In this work,the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is developed to simulate the distribution of electrical field intensity in the vicinity of the CO2 laser mitigated damage site located in the exit subsurface of fused silica.The simulated results show that the repaired damage sites with raised rims cause more notable modulation to the incident laser than those without rims.Specifically,we present a theoretical model of using dimpled patterning to control the rim structure around the edge of repaired damage sites to avoid damage to downstream optics.The calculated results accord well with previous experimental results and the underlying physical mechanism is analysed in detail.

  5. Time-resolved transmission study of fused silica during laser-induced backside dry etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smausz, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)], E-mail: tomi@physx.u-szeged.hu; Zalatnai, Z.; Papdi, B.; Csako, T.; Bor, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)

    2009-03-01

    Laser-induced backside dry etching (LIBDE) is a promising technique for micro- and nanomachining of transparent materials. Although several experiments have already proved the suitability and effectiveness of the technique, there are several open questions concerning the etching mechanism and the concomitant processes. In this paper time-resolved light transmission investigations of etching process of fused silica are presented. 125 nm thick silver coating was irradiated through the carrying 1 mm thick fused silica plate by single pulses of a nanosecond KrF excimer laser. The applied fluences were 0.38, 0.71 and 1 J/cm{sup 2}. During the etching process the irradiated spots were illuminated by an electronically delayed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. The delay between the pump and probe pulses was varied in the range of 0 ns and 20 {mu}s. It was found that the transmitted probe beam intensity strongly depends on the applied delays and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the etched surface showed the existence of silver droplets and fragments on the illuminated surfaces and silver atoms built into the treated surface layer influencing the transmission behavior of the studied samples.

  6. Time-resolved transmission study of fused silica during laser-induced backside dry etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smausz, T.; Zalatnai, Z.; Papdi, B.; Csákó, T.; Bor, Zs.; Hopp, B.

    2009-03-01

    Laser-induced backside dry etching (LIBDE) is a promising technique for micro- and nanomachining of transparent materials. Although several experiments have already proved the suitability and effectiveness of the technique, there are several open questions concerning the etching mechanism and the concomitant processes. In this paper time-resolved light transmission investigations of etching process of fused silica are presented. 125 nm thick silver coating was irradiated through the carrying 1 mm thick fused silica plate by single pulses of a nanosecond KrF excimer laser. The applied fluences were 0.38, 0.71 and 1 J/cm 2. During the etching process the irradiated spots were illuminated by an electronically delayed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. The delay between the pump and probe pulses was varied in the range of 0 ns and 20 μs. It was found that the transmitted probe beam intensity strongly depends on the applied delays and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the etched surface showed the existence of silver droplets and fragments on the illuminated surfaces and silver atoms built into the treated surface layer influencing the transmission behavior of the studied samples.

  7. Morphology evolution of fused silica surface during ion beam figuring of high-slope optical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-precision and ultra-smooth surfaces are vitally important for some high performance optical systems. Ion beam figuring (IBF) is a well-established, highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of extremely high quality optical surfaces, whereas ion sputtering induced smoothing, or roughening for nanoscale surface morphology, strongly depends on the processing conditions. Usually, an improper machining method would arouse the production of nanoscale patterns leading to the coarsening of the optical surface. In this paper, the morphology evolution mechanism on a fused silica surface during IBF of high-slope optical components has been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy. Figuring experiments are implemented on two convex spherical surfaces by using different IBF methods. Both of their surface errors are rapidly reduced to 1.2 nm root mean square (RMS) after removing similar deep material, but their surfaces are characterized with obviously different nanoscale morphologies. The experimental results indicate that the ion incidence angle dominates the microscopic morphology during the IBF process. At near-normal incidence, fused silica achieves an ultra-smooth surface with an RMS roughness value R(q) down to 0.1 nm, whereas nanoscale ripple patterns are observed at a large incidence angle with an R(q) value increasing to more than 0.9 nm. Additionally, the difference of incidence angles on various machined areas would influence the uniformity of surface quality, resulting from the interplay between the smoothing and roughening effects induced by ion sputtering. PMID:23736325

  8. Laser beam shape converter using spatially variable waveplate made by nanogratings inscription in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertus, T.; Michailovas, A.; Michailovas, K.; PetrauskienÄ--, V.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a beam shaping technique based on a spatially variable phase retardation plate inscribed inside bulk of fused silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses. Formation of self-assembled periodic nanostructures was exploited to fabricate the converter. During the fabrication process we control induced nanogratings orientation and retardance. Combination of a spatially variable waveplate and a polarizer acts as a spatially variable transmission filter. With a converter fabricated to transform an initially Gaussian beam to a flat-top beam we preserve more than 50% of initial laser power. Theoretically, the efficiency of the proposed converter could be up to 70%. The proposed converter with no absorbing elements possesses resistance to optical damage similar to that of fused silica. Additionally, the already-fabricated converter allows for on-the-fly adjustment of the beam shape from flat-top to a shape with a dip in the middle. The shaped beam was tested in a high power picosecond pulse amplifier.

  9. Micro Fluidic Channel Machining on Fused Silica Glass Using Powder Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected by highly compressed air on to the target surface. This approach can be characterized as an integration of brittle mode machining based on micro crack propagation. Fused silica glass, a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, is selected as a workpiece material. It has a very low thermal expansion coefficient and excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range, especially in the ultraviolet range. The powder blasting process parameters affecting the machined results are injection pressure, abrasive particle size and density, stand-off distance, number of nozzle scanning, and shape/size of the required patterns. In this study, the influence of the number of nozzle scanning, abrasive particle size, and pattern size on the formation of micro channels is investigated. Machined shapes and surface roughness are measured using a 3-dimensional vision profiler and the results are discussed.

  10. Microstructuring of fused silica by laser-induced backside wet etching using picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) is an advanced laser processing method used for structuring transparent materials. LIBWE with nanosecond laser pulses has been successfully demonstrated for various materials, e.g. oxides (fused silica, sapphire) or fluorides (CaF2, MgF2), and applied for the fabrication of microstructures. In the present study, LIBWE of fused silica with mode-locked picosecond (tp = 10 ps) lasers at UV wavelengths (λ1 = 355 nm and λ2 = 266 nm) using a (pyrene) toluene solution was demonstrated for the first time. The influence of the experimental parameters, such as laser fluence, pulse number, and absorbing liquid, on the etch rate and the resulting surface morphology were investigated. The etch rate grew linearly with the laser fluence in the low and in the high fluence range with different slopes. Incubation at low pulse numbers as well as a nearly constant etch rate after a specific pulse number for example were observed. Additionally, the etch rate depended on the absorbing liquid used; whereas the higher absorption of the admixture of pyrene in the used toluene enhances the etch rate and decreases the threshold fluence. With a λ1 = 266 nm laser set-up, an exceptionally smooth surface in the etch pits was achieved. For both wavelengths (λ1 = 266 nm and λ2 = 355 nm), LIPSS (laser-induced periodic surface structures) formation was observed, especially at laser fluences near the thresholds of 170 and 120 mJ/cm2, respectively.

  11. Laser-induced damage initiated on the surface of particle contamination fused silica at 1064nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michlitsch, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to quantify the effects of contamination particles on the damage threshold of laser-illuminated fused silica optics and set cleanliness requirements for optics on the beam line of the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Circular contamination particles were sputter-deposited onto fused silica windows which were then illuminated repetitively using a 1064nm laser. A variety of contaminants were tested including metals, oxides, and organics. Tests were conducted with particles on the input and output surfaces of the window, and the morphological features of the damage were very reproducible. A plasma often ignited at the contamination particle; its intensity was dependent upon the mass of the contaminant. Input surface damage was characteristically more severe than output surface damage. The size of the damaged area scaled with the size of the particle. On a few occasions, catastrophic damage (cracking or ablation of the substrate) initiated on the output surface due to contamination particles on either the input or output surface. From damage growth plots, predictions can be made about the severity of damage expected from contamination particles of known size and material.

  12. Formation of conical emission of supercontinuum during filamentation of femtosecond laser radiation in fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandidov, V. P., E-mail: kandidov@physics.msu.ru; Smetanina, E. O.; Dormidonov, A. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kompanets, V. O.; Chekalin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The formation of conical emission of supercontinuum during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses with central wavelengths in a wide range is studied experimentally, numerically, and analytically. The frequency-angular intensity distribution of the spectral components of conical emission is determined by the interference of supercontinuum emission in a filament of a femtosecond laser pulse. The interference of supercontinuum emission has a general character, exists at different regimes of group velocity dispersion, gives rise to the fine spectral structure after the pulse splitting into subpulses and the formation of a distributed supercontinuum source in an extended filament, and causes the decomposition of the continuous spectrum of conical emission into many high-contrast maxima after pulse refocusing in the filament. In spectroscopic studies with a tunable femtosecond radiation source based on a TOPAS parametric amplifier, we used an original scheme with a wedge fused silica sample. Numerical simulations have been performed using a system of equations of nonlinear-optical interaction of laser radiation under conditions of diffraction, wave nonstationarity, and material dispersion in fused silica. The analytic study is based on the interference model of formation of conical emission by supercontinuum sources moving in a filament.

  13. High power laser antireflection subwavelength grating on fused silica by colloidal lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Geng, Feng; Liu, Hongjie; Sun, Laixi; Yan, Lianghong; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-07-01

    In this study we report on an efficient and simple method to fabricate an antireflection subwavelength grating on a fused silica substrate using two-step reactive ion etching with monolayer polystyrene colloidal crystals as masks. We show that the period and spacing of the obtained subwavelength grating were determined by the initial diameter of polystyrene microspheres and the oxygen ion etching duration. The height of pillar arrays can be adjusted by tuning the second-step fluorine ion etching duration. These parameters are proved to be useful in tailoring the antireflection properties of subwavelength grating using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and effective medium theory. The subwavelength grating exhibits excellent antireflection properties. The near-field distribution of the SWG which is directly patterned into the substrate material is performed by a 3D-FDTD method. It is found that the near-field distribution is strongly dependent on the periodicity of surface structure, which has the potential to promote the ability of anti-laser-induced damage. For 10 ns pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength, we experimentally determined their laser induced damage threshold to 32 J cm‑2, which is nearly as high as bulk fused silica with 31.5 J cm‑2.

  14. Investigation of surface characteristics evolution and laser damage performance of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjin; Dai, Yifan; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Feng; Wan, Wen; Xie, Xuhui; Sui, Tingting

    2016-08-01

    Surface characteristics have great influence on the optical properties especially the laser radiation resistivity of optics. In this paper, the surface characteristics evolutions of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering and their effects on the laser damage performance were investigated. The results show that roughness change is strongly removal depth dependent and a super-smooth surface (0.25 nm RMS) can be obtained by the ion-induced smoothing effect. The concentration of metal impurities (especially Ce element) in subsurface can be effectively decreased after the removal of polishing re-deposition layer. During ion-beam sputtering process, the plastic scratches can be removed while the brittle cracks can be broadened and passivated without increase in the depth direction. Laser damage threshold of fused silica improved by 36% after ion-beam sputtering treatment. Research results have a guiding significance for ion-beam sputtering process technology of fused silica optics.

  15. The effect of high-pressure devitrification and densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy

    Despite the clear benefits offered by more advanced transparent materials, (e.g. transparent ceramics offer a very attractive combination of high stiffness and high hardness levels, highly-ductile transparent polymers provide superior fragment-containing capabilities, etc.), ballistic ceramic-glass like fused-silica remains an important constituent material in a majority of transparent impact-resistant structures (e.g. windshields and windows of military vehicles, portholes in ships, ground vehicles and spacecraft) used today. Among the main reasons for the wide-scale use of glass, the following three are most frequently cited: (i) glass-structure fabrication technologies enable the production of curved, large surface-area, transparent structures with thickness approaching several inches; (ii) relatively low material and manufacturing costs; and (iii) compositional modifications, chemical strengthening, and controlled crystallization have been demonstrated to be capable of significantly improving the ballistic properties of glass. In the present work, the potential of high-pressure devitrification and densification of fused-silica as a ballistic-resistance-enhancement mechanism is investigated computationally. In the first part of the present work, all-atom molecular-level computations are carried out to infer the dynamic response and material microstructure/topology changes of fused silica subjected to ballistic impact by a nanometer-sized hard projectile. The analysis was focused on the investigation of specific aspects of the dynamic response and of the microstructural changes such as the deformation of highly sheared and densified regions, and the conversion of amorphous fused silica to SiO2 crystalline allotropic modifications (in particular, alpha-quartz and stishovite). The microstructural changes in question were determined by carrying out a post-processing atom-coordination procedure. This procedure suggested the formation of high-density stishovite (and

  16. Apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, R C

    2014-01-01

    Microwave Scanning Antennas, Volume I: Apertures is a comprehensive account of phased arrays, multiple beam arrays, time domain and synthetic apertures, and adaptive antennas. Advances in continuous apertures and near field theory are discussed. Low noise and monopulse apertures, optical scanners, and large radomes are also covered, along with radio astronomy instruments and associated theory.Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of aperture theory as well as aperture distributions and near field theory. The second and third chapters deal with mechanically steered and

  17. Effects of silica-coating on surface topography and bond strength of porcelain fused to CAD/CAM pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Takushi; Hamano, Naho; Ino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain fusing to titanium and the effects of surface treatment on surface structure of titanium. In the shear bond strength test, titanium surface treatments were: conventional, silica-coating without bonding agent, and silica-coating with bonding agent. Titanium surface treatments for analysis by the atomic force microscope (AFM) were: polishing, alumina sandblasting and silica-coating. The shear bond strength value of silica-coating with bonding agent group showed significantly higher than that of other groups. In AFM observation results, regular foamy structure which is effective for wetting was only observed in silica-coating. Therefore, this structure might indicate silicon. Silica-coating renders forms a nanoscopic regular foamy structure, involved in superhydrophilicity, to titanium surface, which is markedly different from the irregular surface generated by alumina sandblasting. PMID:27041024

  18. Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in fused silica between 296 and 523 K by Raman spectroscopy and application of fused silica capillaries in studying redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L.; Chou, I.-Ming; Lu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of hydrogen in fused silica capillaries (FSC) were determined between 296 and 523 K by Raman spectroscopy using CO2 as an internal standard. FSC capsules (3.25 ?? 10-4 m OD, 9.9 ?? 10-5 m ID, and ???0.01 m long) containing CO2 and H2 were prepared and the initial relative concentrations of hydrogen in these capsules were derived from the Raman peak-height ratios between H2 (near 587 cm-1) and CO2 (near 1387 cm-1). The sample capsules were then heated at a fixed temperature (T) at one atmosphere to let H2 diffuse out of the capsule, and the changes of hydrogen concentration were monitored by Raman spectroscopy after quench. This process was repeated using different heating durations at 296 (room T), 323, 375, 430, 473, and 523 K; the same sample capsule was used repeatedly at each temperature. The values of D (in m2 s-1) in FSC were obtained by fitting the observed changes of hydrogen concentration in the FSC capsule to an equation based on Fick's law. Our D values are in good agreement with the more recent of the two previously reported experimental data sets, and both can be represented by: ln D = - (16.471 ?? 0.035) - frac(44589 ?? 139, RT) (R2 = 0.99991) where R is the gas constant (8.3145 J/mol K), T in Kelvin, and errors at 1?? level. The slope corresponds to an activation energy of 44.59 ?? 0.14 kJ/mol. The D in FSC determined at 296 K is about an order of magnitude higher than that in platinum at 723 K, indicating that FSC is a suitable membrane for hydrogen at temperature between 673 K and room temperature, and has a great potential for studying redox reactions at these temperatures, especially for systems containing organic material and/or sulphur. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation behavior of gold, crystalline silicon, and fused silica: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of target material on the ablation behavior of femtosecond laser pulses was investigated. Three different materials, representing the spectrum of electrical conductivities, were selected: a dielectric (fused silica), a semiconductor (crystalline silicon), and a metal (gold). Ablation was performed in ambient air using a Ti:sapphire laser, which emits radiation at a wavelength of 785 nm and a pulse width of 130 fs. Surface morphology and ablation depth were evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Significant changes in surface morphology were observed with variation of the fluence and number of laser pulses. In all materials, two different ablation regimes were distinguished depending on the fluence. Ablation threshold, which was determined from the relationship between crater diameter squared and the logarithm of laser energy, was found to depend on the number of laser pulses incident on the same spot (i.e. incubation phenomenon). (paper)

  20. Scattering analysis for random antireflective structures on fused silica in the ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaoling; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Hu; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Weili

    2015-11-15

    Random antireflective structures are fabricated on fused silica by the thermal dewetting process and reactive ion etching, which shows a broadband antireflective effect over the whole visible wavelength. However, the transmittance in the ultraviolet is limited by the scattering from the etched structures. A graded refractive index model ignoring the scattering in the visible range is applied to extract the etched profile. Then the Lubachevsky-Stillinger algorithm is used to reconstruct the random antireflective structures with the extracted profile. Bidirectional scattering distribution for the reconstructed structures is simulated with the finite-difference time-domain method, which indicates the importance of transmissive scattering the scattering directivity. The scattering directivity is explained well with an effective grating model. The period of the effective grating can guide the prepared technique in the ultraviolet. PMID:26565826

  1. Optical and ultrasonic monitoring of femtosecond laser filamentation in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millimeter-long filaments and accompanying luminous plasma and defect channels created in fused silica (FS) by single focused femtosecond laser pulses with supercritical powers were probed in situ using optical imaging and contact ultrasonic techniques. Above the threshold pulse energy Eopt 5 μJ corresponding to a few megawatt power levels pulses collapse due to self-focusing, producing channels filled by electron-hole plasma and luminescent defects, and exhibits predominantly compressive pressure transients. Analysis of the optical and ultrasonic response versus the laser pulse energy suggests that filamentary pulse propagation in the channels occurs with considerable dissipation of about ∼10 cm-1. The predominant ionization mechanism is most likely associated with avalanche ionization, while the main mechanism of optical absorption is free-carrier absorption via inverse Bremsstrahlung interaction with the polar lattice.

  2. Characterization of scratches on fused silica optics and a way to remove them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormont, P.; Corbineau, T.; Gallais, Laurent; Hecquet, C.; Lamaignère, Laurent; Rullier, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Various scratches on fused silica optics after polishing have been characterized with confocal microscopy and then tested with nanosecond UV laser. Scratches are identified as a major contributor to laser damage even if they are only a few micrometers wide. We propose a process in order to remove these scratches whose depth ranges from 2 to 16 μm. We use a CO2 laser to heat the scratched areas at high temperature which will heal fractures due to viscous flow. The characterizations were completed by laser damage tests that finally prove the effectiveness of the repair. We conclude also that this repair process proves to be fast, localized to the scratch and clean because no debris are generated.

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties of ion-implanted fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report absorption, fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties of fused silica implanted with Ti, Cu and Bi and doses of 1x1015 to 6x1016 ions/cm2 when irradiated with 532 nm laser light. The fluorescence spectrum is a broad band around 640 nm and shows little variation for all ion species. Absorption as a function of implanted dose shows a threshold for Ti between 1x1016 and 6x1016 ions/cm2. The nonlinear optical index is large, n2>10-5 esu. All measured quantities show a strong dependence on the implanted ion dose. The source of the nonlinearity, whether electronic or thermal, remains to be more completely determined. (orig.)

  4. Fused-silica sandwiched three-port grating under second Bragg angle incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Wang, Bo; Pei, Hao; Chen, Li; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2016-05-01

    The fused-silica sandwiched three-port grating under second Bragg angle incidence is presented with operation in transmission. To obtain a highly-efficient three-port grating for a working wavelength of 800 nm, the grating depth and period should be optimized by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. With the optimized different three-port grating depths and periods, both TE-polarized and TM-polarized waves can be diffracted into three orders with nearly 33% efficiency for the given duty cycle of 0.6. Based on the grating parameters of numerical optimization, modal method may be employed to explain the physical mechanism of the beam propagation in the grating and analyze the splitting behavior. For the sandwiched three-port grating, it is feasible that the diffraction efficiencies can be enhanced for both TE and TM polarizations.

  5. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  6. Fabrication of 250-nm-hole arrays in glass and fused silica by UV laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, R.; Gödecke, A.; Prießner, A.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-09-01

    Parallel nanohole drilling in glass using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) is demonstrated. For the first time, hole arrays with 500 nm pitch and individual holes with 250 nm diameter and more than 100 nm depth are fabricated by phase mask imaging using a Schwarzschild objective. Holes in soda lime glass are drilled by direct ablation; fused silica is processed by depositing a SiOx-film on SiO2, patterning the SiOx by ablation, and finally oxidizing the remaining SiOx to SiO2. Thermally induced ordered dewetting of noble metal films deposited on such templates may be used for the fabrication of plasmonic devices.

  7. Generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on transparent material-fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Simon; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    We report on a comparison between simulated and experimental results for the generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures with low spatial frequency on dielectrics. Using the established efficacy factor theory extended by a Drude model, we determine the required carrier density for the generation of low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and forecast their periodicity and orientation. In a subsequent calculative step, we determine the fluence of ultrashort laser pulses necessary to excite this required carrier density in due consideration of the pulse number dependent ablation threshold. The later calculation is based on a rate equation including photo- and avalanche ionization and derives appropriate process parameters for a selective generation of LSFL. Exemplarily, we apply this approach to the generation of LSFL on fused silica using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser. The experimental results for the orientation and spatial periodicity of LSFL reveal excellent agreement with the simulation.

  8. Numerical model for light propagation and light intensity distribution inside coated fused silica capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Macka, Mirek; Paull, Brett; Brabazon, Dermot

    2011-07-01

    Numerical simulations of light propagation through capillaries have been reported to a limited extent in the literature for uses such as flow-cell design. These have been restricted to prediction of light path for very specific cases to date. In this paper, a new numerical model of light propagation through multi-walled cylindrical systems, to represent coated and uncoated capillaries is presented. This model allows for light ray paths and light intensity distribution within the capillary to be predicted. Macro-scale (using PMMA and PC cylinders) and micro-scale (using PTFE coated fused silica capillaries) experiments were conducted to validate the model's accuracy. These experimental validations have shown encouragingly good agreement between theoretical predictions and measured results, which could allow for optimisation of associated regions for monolith synthesis and use in fluidic chromatography, optical detection systems and flow cells for capillary electrophoresis and flow injection analysis.

  9. Maskless, fast and highly selective etching of fused silica with gaseous fluorine and gaseous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have directly buried microchannels in a fused silica substrate using femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching. By exploiting a synergic effect between gaseous hydrofluoric acid and fluorine (F2), we have obtained microchannels having an outstanding aspect ratio of 86 with a relative etching speed of 17 µm min−1. Using fluorine we successfully regenerated the etchant ‘in situ’, thus providing a way to control the bore shape, in particular, the strong conically shaped microchannel can be adjusted by modifying the etching mixture composition. We have avoided water formation during the microchannel construction, thus overcoming one of the major limits that prevents any further increase in the length and the aspect ratio. (paper)

  10. Sub-picosecond ultraviolet laser filamentation-induced bulk modifications in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, D. G.; Zergioti, I.; Tzortzakis, S.; Sgouros, G.; Maravelias, G.; Christopoulos, S.; Fotakis, C.

    2005-07-01

    We present experiments with sub-picosecond ultraviolet laser pulses (248 nm, 450 fs) tightly focused in the bulk of fused-silica samples. The high laser intensities attained generate plasma through multi-photon absorption and electron avalanche processes in the bulk of the material. Depending on the initial experimental conditions three distinct types of structural changes in the material are observed, from small changes of the refractive index to birefringence, and even cracks and voids. We also observe the creation of micro-channels, up to 115 μm in length, inside the material due to self-guiding and filamentation of the laser pulses in the transparent material. The selective change of the refractive index is a promising method for the fabrication of photonic structures such as waveguides and three-dimensional integrated optical devices.

  11. Structural modifications in fused silica induced by ultraviolet fs laser filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zergioti, I.; Kyrkis, K. D.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that the tight focusing of short ultraviolet laser pulses (248 nm, 450 fs) in the bulk of high bandgap transparent solids (fused silica) can result in structural modifications in the material. These can vary from small changes of the refractive index to birefringence, cracks and voids. This restructuring of the medium is due to the high laser intensities attained, and the plasma that is generated through multi-photon processes. The restructuring comes in the form of a string, which is the result of the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in the medium as a self-trapped filament. We resume the conditions for the generation of the different types of modifications and comment on the temporal evolution and the role of the plasma strings at the trail of the light filaments.

  12. Depth profiling of sol-gel multilayers on fused silica using dynamic SIMS and SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Nicholas J.; Andrew, James E.; McInnes, Hazel A.; Porter, K. J.; Morris, A. J.

    1999-07-01

    Depth profiling using Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy through multilayer coatings on fused silica substrates has revealed the effect of increasing the number of layers in the stack. Results are presented for both spin and dip coated multilayers and a significant difference in the interfacial boundary is seen between the two processes. Individual layer thicknesses were estimated using this technique and compared to values gained from UV-Visible spectroscopy. Depth profiling using SNMS of a thick 2-layer system also revealed the thickness of the layers and an indication of the intermixing between them. These measurements agreed well with UV-Vis data. A comparison between these depth-profiling techniques and previous work using AES/XPS depth profiling is discussed.

  13. Characterization of scratches on fused silica optics and a way to remove them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various scratches on fused silica optics after polishing have been characterized with confocal microscopy and then tested with nanosecond UV laser. Scratches are identified as a major contributor to laser damage even if they are only a few micrometers wide. We propose a process in order to remove these scratches whose depth ranges from 2 to 16 μm. We use a CO2- laser to heat the scratched areas at high temperature which will heal fractures due to viscous flow. The characterizations were completed by laser damage tests that finally prove the effectiveness of the repair. We conclude also that this repair process proves to be fast, localized to the scratch and clean because no debris are generated. (authors)

  14. Internal structure of the nanogratings generated inside bulk fused silica by ultrafast laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the internal structure of nanogratings generated inside bulk fused silica by ultrafast laser processing and to study the influence of diluted hydrofluoric acid etching on their structure. The nanogratings were inscribed at a depth of 100 μm within fused silica wafers by a direct writing method, using 1030 nm radiation wavelength and the following processing parameters: E = 5 μJ, τ = 560 fs, f = 10 kHz, and v = 100 μm/s. The results achieved show that the laser-affected regions are elongated ellipsoids with a typical major diameter of about 30 μm and a minor diameter of about 6 μm. The nanogratings within these regions are composed of alternating nanoplanes of damaged and undamaged material, with an average periodicity of 351 ± 21 nm. The damaged nanoplanes contain nanopores randomly dispersed in a material containing a large density of defects. These nanopores present a roughly bimodal size distribution with average dimensions for each class of pores 65 ± 20 × 16 ± 8 × 69 ± 16 nm3 and 367 ± 239 × 16 ± 8 × 360 ± 194 nm3, respectively. The number and size of the nanopores increases drastically when an hydrofluoric acid treatment is performed, leading to the coalescence of these voids into large planar discontinuities parallel to the nanoplanes. The preferential etching of the damaged material by the hydrofluoric acid solution, which is responsible for the pores growth and coalescence, confirms its high defect density

  15. Supercritical water in analytical chemistry: A green solvent to manipulate fused-silica capillaries for separation methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    Nottingham, 2013. O86. [International Conference on Green and Sustainable Chemistry /6./. 04.08.2013-07.08.2013, Nottingham] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supercritical water * fused silica capillary * analytical separation methods Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  16. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Post-processing of fused silica and its effects on damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed UV lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-04-10

    HF-based (hydrofluoric acid) chemical etching has been a widely accepted technique to improve the laser damage performance of fused silica optics and ensure high-power UV laser systems at designed fluence. Etching processes such as acid concentration, composition, material removal amount, and etching state (etching with additional acoustic power or not) may have a great impact on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of treated sample surfaces. In order to find out the effects of these factors, we utilized the Taguchi method to determine the etching conditions that are helpful in raising the LIDT. Our results show that the most influential factors are concentration of etchants and the material etched away from the viewpoint of damage performance of fused silica optics. In addition, the additional acoustic power (∼0.6  W·cm-2) may not benefit the etching rate and damage performance of fused silica. Moreover, the post-cleaning procedure of etched samples is also important in damage performances of fused silica optics. Different post-cleaning procedures were, thus, experiments on samples treated under the same etching conditions. It is found that the "spraying + rinsing + spraying" cleaning process is favorable to the removal of etching-induced deposits. Residuals on the etched surface are harmful to surface roughness and optical transmission as well as laser damage performance. PMID:27139869

  18. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Preparation of fused-silica columns with phases immobilized by cobalt-60 gamma radiation; application to essential oil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt-60 gamma-radiation was used to immobilize polymeric stationary phases in fused silica capillary columns for gas chromatography. Surface studies of the uncoated fused silica tubing by optical and scanning electron microscopy indicated some irregularities, but overall the tubing maintained its strength and flexibility at dosages up to 25 MRads. A polydimethylsiloxane phase (OV-1) and a polyethylene glycol phase (Carbowax 20 M) were effectively immobilized on the inner surface of fused silica capillary tubing without altering the properties of the phases. The optimum radiation dosage for OV-1 was 7 MRads, while Carbowax 20 M required 25 MRads to immobilize 33% of the coated layer. Fused silica capillary columns prepared with both phases were evaluated for deactivation, efficiency, and thermal stability. Immobilization of Carbowax 20 M extended the low and high temperature limits by 30 C in each direction. Columns prepared in this study were used to analyze the essential oil of Siparuna guianensis. Several key components of the oil were identified by GC/MS and gas chromatographic techniques

  20. Laser-induced damage morphology in fused silica at 1064 nm in the nanosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambonneau, Maxime; Diaz, Romain; Duchateau, Guillaume; Grua, Pierre; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Rullier, Jean-Luc; Lamaignère, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    The morphology of laser-induced damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica is tightly correlated to the mode composition of the nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm. In the single longitudinal mode (SLM) configuration, a molten and fractured central zone is surrounded by a funnel-shaped surface modification. Ring patterns surround the damage sites when these are initiated by multiple longitudinal modes (MLM) laser pulses. In this last mode configuration, the pulses temporal profiles as well as the damage ring patterns differ from pulse to pulse. The appearance chronology of the rings is found to be closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This supports that the damage morphology originates from the coupling of a laser-supported detonation wave propagating in air with an ablation mechanism in silica. In our experiments, the propagation speed of the detonation wave reaches about 20 km/s and scales as the cube root of the laser intensity, in good agreement with theory.

  1. Laser smoothing of sub-micron grooves in hydroxyl-rich fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano- to micrometer-sized surface defects on UV-grade fused silica surfaces are known to be effectively smoothed through the use of high-temperature localized CO2 laser heating, thereby enhancing optical properties. However, the details of the mass transport and the effect of hydroxyl content on the laser smoothing of defective silica at sub-micron length scales are still not completely understood. In this study, we examine the morphological evolution of sub-micron, dry-etched periodic surface structures on type II and type III SiO2 substrates under 10.6 μm CO2 laser irradiation using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In situ thermal imaging was used to map the transient temperature field across the heated region, allowing assessment of the T-dependent mass transport mechanisms under different laser-heating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics simulations correlated well with experimental results, and showed that for large effective capillary numbers (Nc > 2), surface diffusion is negligible and smoothing is dictated by capillary action, despite the relatively small spatial scales studied here. Extracted viscosity values over 1700-2000 K were higher than the predicted bulk values, but were consistent with the surface depletion of OH groups, which was confirmed using confocal Raman microscopy.

  2. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical

  3. Comprehensive modeling of structural modification induced by a femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Somayeh; Sadat Arabanian, Atoosa; Massudi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model is proposed based on equations describing the nonlinear propagation of an ultrashort pulse inside transparent material, electron density evolution, non-Fourier heat conduction, and thermo-elasto plastic displacement which are respectively solved by various methods. These methods include the split-step finite difference technique and alternating-direction implicit algorithm, fourth-order Range–Kutta algorithm, hybrid finite-element method/finite-difference method, and finite-element method in both space and time to achieve refractive index changes. The whole chain of processes occurring in the interaction of a focused ultrashort laser pulse with fused silica glass in prevalent conditions of micromachining applications is numerically investigated. By optimizing the numerical method and by using an adaptive mesh approach, the execution time of the program is significantly reduced so that the calculations are done at each time step in a fraction of a second. Simulation results show that the energy and duration of the input pulse are very important parameters in induced changes, but the chirp of the input pulse is not an effective parameter. Consequently, by appropriate setting of those parameters one can design a desired refractive index profile.

  4. Spherical fused silica cells filled with pure helium for nuclear magnetic resonance-magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High magnetic fields (>1 T) are measured by NMR magnetometers with unrivaled precision if the precessing spin sample provides long coherence times. The longest coherence times are found in diluted 3He samples, which can be hyperpolarized for sufficient signal strength. In order to have minimal influence on the homogeneity and value of the measured magnetic field, the optimal container for the 3He should be a perfect sphere. A fused silica sphere with an inner diameter of 8 mm and an outer diameter of 12 mm was made from two hemispheres by diffusion bonding leaving only a small hole for cleaning and evacuation. This hole was closed in vacuum by a CO2 laser and the inner volume was filled with a few mbars of 3He via wall permeation. NMR-measurements on such a sample had coherence times of 5 min. While the hemispheres were produced with <1 μm deviation from sphericity, the bonding left a step of ca. 50 μm at maximum. The influence of such a mismatch, its orientation, and the immediate environment of the sample is analyzed by FEM-simulations and discussed in view of coherence times and absolute field measurements

  5. Stable structure and optical properties of fused silica with NBOHC-E‧ defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Fei; Wu, Li-Yuan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Yang, Chuang-Hua; Su, Rui; Chen, Jun

    2016-08-01

    First-principles method is used to simulate the stable structure and optical properties of a 96-atom fused silica. The preferable structure of NBOHC-E‧ (non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) and E‧ center) pair defect is predicted to be located at 2.4 Å for the Si–O bond length. The quasi-particle G0W0 calculations are performed and an accurate band gap is obtained in order to calculate the optical absorption properties. With the stretching of the Si1–O1 bond, an obvious redshift can be observed in the absorption spectrum. In the case of NBOHC-E‧ pair, the p-orbital DOS of Si1 atom will shift to the conduction band. Two obvious absorption peaks can be observed in the absorption spectrum. The calculation reproduced the peak positions of the well-known optical absorption bands. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB643900), the Open Fund of IPOC (BUPT), the Open Program of State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, the National Natural Science Foundation for Theoretical Physics Special Fund “Cooperation Program” (Grant No. 11547039), and Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Scientific Research Plan Projects, China (Grant No. SLGKYQD2-05).

  6. Examination of Relationship Between Photonic Signatures and Fracture Strength of Fused Silica Used in Orbiter Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Estes, Linda R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Lankford, James, Jr.; Lesniak, Jon

    2011-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outermost pane of the orbiter windows. Four categories of damage: hyper-velocity impacts that occur during space-flight (HVI); hypervelocity impacts artificially made at the Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F); impacts made by larger objects falling onto the pane surface to simulate dropped items on the window during service/storage of vehicle (Bruises); and light scratches from dull objects designed to mimic those that might occur by dragging a dull object across the glass surface (Chatter Checks) are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses, examined with the GFP and other methodologies, and broken using the ASTM Standard C1499-09 to measure the fracture strength. A correlation is made between the fracture strength and damage-site measurements including geometrical measurements and GFP measurements of photoelastic retardation (stress patterns) surrounding the damage sites. An analytical damage model to predict fracture strength from photoelastic retardation measurements is presented and compared with experimental results.

  7. Spherical fused silica cells filled with pure helium for nuclear magnetic resonance-magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Andreas; Blümler, Peter, E-mail: bluemler@uni-mainz.de; Heil, Werner; Nikiel, Anna; Otten, Ernst [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Petrich, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas [ifw Günter-Köhler-Institut für Fügetechnik und Werkstoffprüfung GmbH, Otto-Schott-Str. 13, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    High magnetic fields (>1 T) are measured by NMR magnetometers with unrivaled precision if the precessing spin sample provides long coherence times. The longest coherence times are found in diluted {sup 3}He samples, which can be hyperpolarized for sufficient signal strength. In order to have minimal influence on the homogeneity and value of the measured magnetic field, the optimal container for the {sup 3}He should be a perfect sphere. A fused silica sphere with an inner diameter of 8 mm and an outer diameter of 12 mm was made from two hemispheres by diffusion bonding leaving only a small hole for cleaning and evacuation. This hole was closed in vacuum by a CO{sub 2} laser and the inner volume was filled with a few mbars of {sup 3}He via wall permeation. NMR-measurements on such a sample had coherence times of 5 min. While the hemispheres were produced with <1 μm deviation from sphericity, the bonding left a step of ca. 50 μm at maximum. The influence of such a mismatch, its orientation, and the immediate environment of the sample is analyzed by FEM-simulations and discussed in view of coherence times and absolute field measurements.

  8. Beam splitting of a double-groove fused-silica grating under normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-groove fused-silica gratings for 1 × 5 and 1 × 7 TE-polarization beam splitting under normal incidence are studied. The grating profiles are optimized by use of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The average diffraction efficiencies of the two gratings are both more than 95% with uniformity of better than 2%. The diffraction efficiencies of these gratings are approximately 15% more than the conventional Dammann gratings. The physical understanding of the diffraction behaviors taking place inside the beam splitter gratings is presented by the modal method. The mode eigenvalue equation of the double-groove grating is derived theoretically. The eigenmodes of 1 × 5 and 1 × 7 TE-polarization beam splitter gratings are obtained from the eigenvalue equation. Then, we calculate the overlap integral and modal propagation constants. We also present the mode profiles of the propagating modes for TE polarization. The proposed method of analyzing beam splitters under normal incidence should be helpful for developing new double-groove grating-based devices

  9. Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation under anomalous dispersion in fused silica. Part 2. Experiment and physical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetanina, E O; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Kandidov, V P

    2012-10-31

    We have studied experimentally and analytically the formation of the supercontinuum (SC) spectrum during femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in fused silica under conditions of zero and anomalous group velocity dispersions. It is found that with increasing centre wavelength from 1300 to 2300 nm, the SC spectrum of the anti-Stokes wing narrows, shifting to the blue. It is shown that the anti-Stokes (blue) shift of the SC spectrum increases with the multiphoton order of the medium ionisation by the light field in the filament. It is found that a broad minimum in the SC spectrum, separating the anti-Stokes wing from the centre wavelength, is a result of the interference of radiation from a moving broadband source, stemming from self-phase modulation of the high-intensity light field. The interference factors of the SC spectra obtained for this source, which moves along the emitting region of the filament in a dispersive medium, are in agreement with experimental and numerical results. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Microstructuring of fused silica using femtosecond laser pulses of various wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Manuel; Engel, Andy; Reisse, Guenter; Weissmantel, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results on ablation and microstructuring of fused silica (Corning 7980 HPFS Standard Grade) using femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. In particular, the ablation behavior of the material at the laser wavelengths of 775, 387 and 258 nm was investigated. The qualities of selected microstructures produced at the different wavelengths are compared with respect to roughness, crack formation and exactness. The investigations were carried out using an automated microstructuring system equipped with a femtosecond laser Clark-MXR CPA 2010 (1 mJ maximum pulse energy, 1 kHz repetition rate and 150 fs pulse duration). Layer-by-layer ablation is realized for producing 3D microstructures, where the layer thickness depends on the ablated depth per laser pulse. Those ablation depths depend on the material and the laser parameters and were determined for the three wavelengths in preparatory investigations. Therefore, the laser fluence and the pulse-to-pulse distance were varied independently. We will present the results of our fundamental studies on fs-laser ablation at the three wavelengths and show several structures, such as pyramids, half spheres and cones. Best results were obtained at 258 nm wavelength. There, the exactness was highest and the roughness of the surfaces of the structures was lowest. In addition, absolutely no crack formation occurred.

  11. Spherical Fused Silica Cells Filled with Pure Helium for NMR-Magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maul, Andreas; Heil, Werner; Nikiel, Anna; Otten, Ernst; Petrich, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    High magnetic fields (> 1 T) are measured by NMR magnetometers with un-rivaled precision if the precessing spin sample provides long coherence times. The longest coherence times are found in diluted ${}^{3}$He samples, which can be hyperpolarized for sufficient signal strength. In order to have minimal influence on the homogeneity and value of the measured magnetic field the optimal container for the ${}^{3}$He should be a perfect sphere. A fused silica sphere with an inner diameter of 8 mm and an outer diameter of 12 mm was made from two hemispheres by diffusion bonding leaving only a small hole for cleaning and evacuation. This hole was closed in vacuum by a CO${}_{2}$ laser and the inner volume was filled with a few mbars of ${}^3$He via wall permeation. NMR-measurements on such a sample had coherence times of 5 min. While the hemispheres were produced with < 1 $\\mu$m deviation from sphericity, the bonding left a step of ca. 50 $\\mu$m at maximum. The influence of such a mismatch, its orientation and mat...

  12. Research on laser-induced damage resistance of fused silica optics by the fluid jet polishing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liang; Ma, Ping; Huang, Jinyong; He, Xiang; Cai, Chao; Zhu, Heng

    2016-03-20

    Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is one important evaluation index for optical glasses applied in large laser instruments which are exposed to high light irradiation flux. As a new kind of precise polishing technology, fluid jet polishing (FJP) has been widely used in generating planar, spherical, and aspherical optics with high-accuracy surfaces. Laser damage resistances of fused silica optics by the FJP process are studied in this paper. Fused silica samples with various FJP parameters are prepared, and laser damage experiments are performed with 351 nm wavelength and a 5.5 ns pulse width laser. Experimental results demonstrate that the LIDT of the samples treated with FJP processes did not increase, compared to their original state. The surface quality of the samples is one factor for the decrease of LIDT. For ceria solution polished samples, the cerium element remaining is another factor of the lower LIDT. PMID:27140559

  13. An AC phase measuring interferometer for measuring dn/dT of fused silica and calcium fluoride at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N.

    1998-09-01

    A novel method for the measurement of the change in index of refraction vs. temperature (dn/dT) of fused silica and calcium fluoride at the 193 nm wavelength has been developed in support of thermal modeling efforts for the development of 193 nm-based photolithographic exposure tools. The method, based upon grating lateral shear interferometry, uses a transmissive linear grating to divide a 193 nm laser beam into several beam paths by diffraction which propagate through separate identical material samples. One diffracted order passing through one sample overlaps the undiffracted beam from a second sample and forms interference fringes dependent upon the optical path difference between the two samples. Optical phase delay due to an index change from heating one of the samples causes the interference fringes to change sinusoidally with phase. The interferometer also makes use of AC phase measurement techniques through lateral translation of the grating. Results for several samples of fused silica and calcium fluoride are demonstrated.

  14. Investigation of Control of Residual Stress Induced by CO2 Laser-Based Damage Mitigation of Fused Silica Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanchao Zhang; Wei Liao; Lijuan Zhang; Yayun Ye; Jing Chen; Haijun Wang; Xiaoyu Luan; Xiaodong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    A CO2 laser-based annealing technique for the mitigation of damaged sites of fused silica is studied to suppress the residual stress left on the surface. The laser annealing by a linear decrease of the CO2 laser power effectively reduces the residual stress. The residual stress of mitigated sites is characterized by polarimetry, the reduction of the maximum retardance around the mitigated sites with the exposure time of laser annealing fits a stretched exponential equation, and the maximum re...

  15. Near- and supercritical water as a tool to enhance efficiency of glass- and fused silica-based separation devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roth, Michal; Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Grym, Jakub; Foret, František

    Pardubice, 2014 - (Horna, A.; Jandera, P.). s. 22-22 ISBN 978-80-7395-777-3. [International Symposium on Separation Sciences /20./. 30.08.2014-02.09.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supercritical water * etching of fused silica capillaries * etching of glass microchips Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  16. Time-resolved shadowgraphs of transient plasma induced by spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Guihua; Xie, Hongqiang; Chu, Wei; He, Fei; Liao, Yang; Liu, Weiwei; Gao, Hui; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We report on experimental observations of formation and evolution of transient plasma produced in fused silica glass with spatiotemporally focused (STF) femtosecond laser pulses using a pump-probe shadow imaging technique. Surprisingly, the observation shows that the track of the plasma is significantly curved, which is attributed to an asymmetric density distribution of the transient plasma produced in the focal volume caused by the pulse front tilt of the STF laser field.

  17. Backside etching of fused silica with ultra-short laser pulses at the interface to absorbing liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, R [Leibniz-Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Pissadakis, S [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110, Heraklion (Greece); Ehrhardt, M [Leibniz-Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rudolph, T [Leibniz-Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Ruthe, D [Leibniz-Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zimmer, K [Leibniz-Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    The etching of fused silica substrates by employing the process of laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) using the laser radiation of a 248nm, 500fs excimer laser and a 775nm, 130fs Ti:sapphire is presented here for the first time. Etched volume results are presented in combination with topological investigations of the etched areas performed by SEM scans, revealing new aspects of the nature and products of the process.

  18. Etching and forward transfer of fused silica in solid-phase by femtosecond laser-induced solid etching (LISE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a femtosecond laser-based technique for etching and forward transfer of bulk transparent materials in solid-phase. Femtosecond laser pulses with λ=800 nm were focused through a fused silica block onto an absorbing thin film of Cr. A constraining Si wafer was pressed into tight contact with the Cr film to prevent lift-off of the film. A combination of the high temperature and pressure of the Cr, and compressive stress from the Si, resulted in etching of smooth features from the fused silica by cracking. Unlike in conventional ablative or chemical etching, the silica was removed from the bulk as single solid-phase pieces which could be collected on the Si. Using this so-called laser-induced solid etching (LISE) technique, 1-2 μm deep pits and channels have been produced in the silica surface, and corresponding dots and lines deposited on the Si. The threshold fluence for etching was found to be ∼0.4J/cm2 with ∼130 fs duration pulses. The morphology of the etched features are investigated as functions of fluence and exposure to multiple pulses.

  19. Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (Ra = 0.20 nm and Ra = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm2 was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), α-quartz (111), and β-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm-1), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm-1), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm-1, 390 cm-1, and 300 cm-1). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

  20. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 μm. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  1. Laser-induced front side etching of fused silica with XeF excimer laser using thin metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study laser-induced front side etching of fused silica with a XeF excimer laser. ► Different metal layers as absorber are used. ► The LIFE method allows nm-precision etching with etching depths up to 150 nm. ► The measurement results are compared to the results calculated by a thermal model. - Abstract: Laser-induced front side etching (LIFE) is a method for laser etching of transparent materials using thin absorber layers, e.g., for precision engineering or even optical applications. Aluminium, chromium, molybdenum, silver as well as titanium with various layer thicknesses (5–100 nm) were applied as absorber for etching trenches in fused silica with nanosecond XeF excimer laser radiation. The sample surfaces were processed at laser fluences up to 10 J/cm2 and laser pulse numbers from 1 to 10 pulses. A linear growth of the etching depth at rising laser fluence was found. The film thickness dependency is more complex and mostly influenced by the optical properties of the thin metal films. The influence of the laser fluence, the number of pulses, the absorber material as well as the absorber layer thickness on the etching process, the etching depth, and the surface modification were presented and discussed. A simple model is given that allows the discussion of the etching depth in dependency on the laser fluence and the metal film thickness. The measurements represented a good agreement with the calculated results by a thermal model. The LIFE method allows nm-precision etching of fused silica with etching depths up to 150 nm.

  2. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-16

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between −10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  3. Optical fused silica for high power lasers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comparison between Herasil 1 Top optical fused quartz that has been used for many years by CEA, and a new material with a high potential for cost reduction at improved performance. -Abstract only-. (TEC)

  4. Synchrotron micro-XRF study of metal inclusions distribution and variation in fused silica induced by ultraviolet laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal inclusions play critical roles in laser-induced damage for large fused silica optics. Here, the spatial distribution of sodium, aluminum, iron and copper in as-prepared samples is analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectrometry microprobe system at the BL15U1 beam line at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The as-prepared fused silica samples are induced by 355 nm laser pulses with no, or low, or high fluences. The spatial resolution of the obtained elemental maps is up to 50 μm. Analysis of the elemental maps indicates that the distribution of metals has a close association with the laser fluence and pulses. The normalized fluorescence signal attenuation for metal inclusions corresponds to the laser fluence. The decrement of metals depends chiefly upon the fluence other than pulses of the incidence laser, which is most pronounced for iron and least for copper. The decrement is evident for high fluence laser irradiation, while the amount is negligible for low fluence laser irradiation. Among the four metals, iron concentration is suggested as the most destructive factor for optics lifetime, especially under high fluence irradiation. The quasi-periodic feature of elemental distribution is partly ascribed to laser intensity modulation induced by Fresnel diffraction.

  5. Formation of plano-convex micro-lens array in fused silica glass using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique

    CERN Document Server

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Yoo, Dongyoon; Noh, Young-Chul; Ahsan, Md Shamim; Sung, Jae-Hee; Lee, Seong-Ku

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabricating high-fill-factor plano-convex spherical and square micro-lens arrays on fused silica glass surface using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique. Initially, periodic micro-pillars have been encoded on the glass surface by means of a femtosecond laser beam. Afterwards, the micro-pillars are polished several times by irradiating a CO2 laser beam on top of the micro-pillars. Consequently, spherical micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 50 um x 50 um and square micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 100 um x 100 um are formed on fused silica glass surface. We also study the intensity distribution of light passed through the spherical micro-lens array engraved glass sample. The simulation result shows that, the focal length of the spherical micro-lens array is 35 um. Furthermore, we investigate the optical properties of the micro-lens array engraved glass samples. The proposed CO2 laser based reshaping technique is simple and fast that shows promises in fabrication arrays of smooth mic...

  6. Time dependency of the laser-induced nanostructuring process of chromium layers with different thicknesses on fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P., E-mail: pierre.lorenz@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V., Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Klöppel, M. [Institute of Scientific Computation, Department of Mathematics, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Smausz, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); MTA-SZTE Research Group on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Csizmadia, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary); Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V., Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hopp, B. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 9 (Hungary)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The ns laser-induced melting effect of thin Cr layers on fused silica was studied. • The molten layer was analyzed by study of the time-dependent optical properties. • The liquid phase lifetime Δt{sub LF} depends on the metal thickness and the fluence. • The Δt{sub LF} dependency can be well described by an analytic function. • The comparison of the results with FEM simulation yields to a moderate agreement. - Abstract: Nanostructures exhibit a raised importance in manifold application fields like electronics and optics. The laser irradiation of thin metal layers allows the fabrication of metal nanostructures induced by a melting and deformation process where the resultant structures are dependent on the laser and metal layer parameters. However, for an optimization of this process a detailed physical understanding is necessary. Therefore, the dynamics of the metal layer deformation process was measured by time-dependent reflection and transmission as well as shadow graph measurements at different KrF excimer laser parameters (laser fluence and number of laser pulses) and metal layer thicknesses were used. Magnetron-sputtered thin chromium films with a thickness from 10 to 100 nm on fused silica substrates were studied. Based on the optical measurements the liquid phase lifetime of the metal was estimated and compared with the calculated lifetime using a simple thermodynamic model.

  7. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic studies on density changes of fused silica induced by localized CO2 laser treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传超; 郑万国; 袁晓东; 张丽娟; 廖威; 晏中华; 陈静; 蒋一岚; 王海军; 栾晓雨; 叶亚云

    2015-01-01

    Surface density changes of the central region of the sites treated by using the CO2 laser-based non-evaporative dam-age mitigation for fused silica are investigated by the attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The ATR-FTIR peak shifts of the treated sites of fused silica are monitored to determine the changes of the corresponding density. For the quenching treated sites, the surface density is increased by (0.24±0.01)%compared with the initial density, but the laser annealing by the exposure of a power ramp down after damage mitigation effectively suppresses the structural changes of treated sites, which could reduce the increase of the corresponding density to (0.08±0.01)%. The results provide the sufficient evidence that the laser annealing by a power ramp down after damage mitigation has a positive effect on the control of the structural change induced by CO2 laser-based damage mitigation.

  8. Synchrotron micro-XRF study of metal inclusions distribution and variation in fused silica induced by ultraviolet laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.H. [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ju, X., E-mail: jux@sas.ustb.edu.c [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, W.D.; Jiang, X.D.; Huang, J.; Zheng, W.G. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-988, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu, X.H. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Metal inclusions play critical roles in laser-induced damage for large fused silica optics. Here, the spatial distribution of sodium, aluminum, iron and copper in as-prepared samples is analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectrometry microprobe system at the BL15U1 beam line at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The as-prepared fused silica samples are induced by 355 nm laser pulses with no, or low, or high fluences. The spatial resolution of the obtained elemental maps is up to 50 mum. Analysis of the elemental maps indicates that the distribution of metals has a close association with the laser fluence and pulses. The normalized fluorescence signal attenuation for metal inclusions corresponds to the laser fluence. The decrement of metals depends chiefly upon the fluence other than pulses of the incidence laser, which is most pronounced for iron and least for copper. The decrement is evident for high fluence laser irradiation, while the amount is negligible for low fluence laser irradiation. Among the four metals, iron concentration is suggested as the most destructive factor for optics lifetime, especially under high fluence irradiation. The quasi-periodic feature of elemental distribution is partly ascribed to laser intensity modulation induced by Fresnel diffraction.

  9. Time dependency of the laser-induced nanostructuring process of chromium layers with different thicknesses on fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ns laser-induced melting effect of thin Cr layers on fused silica was studied. • The molten layer was analyzed by study of the time-dependent optical properties. • The liquid phase lifetime ΔtLF depends on the metal thickness and the fluence. • The ΔtLF dependency can be well described by an analytic function. • The comparison of the results with FEM simulation yields to a moderate agreement. - Abstract: Nanostructures exhibit a raised importance in manifold application fields like electronics and optics. The laser irradiation of thin metal layers allows the fabrication of metal nanostructures induced by a melting and deformation process where the resultant structures are dependent on the laser and metal layer parameters. However, for an optimization of this process a detailed physical understanding is necessary. Therefore, the dynamics of the metal layer deformation process was measured by time-dependent reflection and transmission as well as shadow graph measurements at different KrF excimer laser parameters (laser fluence and number of laser pulses) and metal layer thicknesses were used. Magnetron-sputtered thin chromium films with a thickness from 10 to 100 nm on fused silica substrates were studied. Based on the optical measurements the liquid phase lifetime of the metal was estimated and compared with the calculated lifetime using a simple thermodynamic model

  10. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO2 laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (2 laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm2. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 (micro)m CO2 laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  11. Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1065 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, F.Y.; Michlitsch, K.; Furr, J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Krulevitch, P.

    1997-01-01

    1-{mu}m thick circular dots, 10-250 {mu}m dia, were deposited onto 1.14 cm thick fused silica windows by sputtering Al through a mask. Al shavings were also deposited on the windows to investigate effects of particle-substrate adhesion. The silica windows were then illuminated repetitively using a 3-ns, 355 nm and an 8.6-ns, 1064 nm laser. The tests were conducted at near normal incidence with particles on input and output surfaces of the windows. During the first shot, a plasma ignited at the metal particle and damage initiated on the fused silica surface. The morphology of the damage at the metal dots were reproducible but different for input and output surface contamination. For input surface contamination, minor damage occurred where the particle was located; such damage ceased to grow with the removal of contaminant material. More serious damage (pits and cracks) was initiated on the output surface (especially at 355 nm) and grew to catastrophic proportions after few shots. Output surface contaminants were usually ejected on the initial shot, leaving a wave pattern on the surface. No further damage occurred with subsequent shots unless a shot (usually the first shot) cracked the surface; such behavior was mostly observed at 355 nm and occasionally for large shavings at 1064 nm. The size of the damaged area scaled with the size of the particle (except when catastrophic damage occurred). Onset of catastrophic damage on output surface occurred only when particles exceeded a critical size. Damage behavior of the sputtered dots was found to be qualitatively similar to that of the shavings. The artificial contamination technique accelerated the study by allowing better control of the test conditions.

  12. Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 and 1065 nm initiated at aluminum contamination particles on the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-μm thick circular dots, 10-250 μm dia, were deposited onto 1.14 cm thick fused silica windows by sputtering Al through a mask. Al shavings were also deposited on the windows to investigate effects of particle-substrate adhesion. The silica windows were then illuminated repetitively using a 3-ns, 355 nm and an 8.6-ns, 1064 nm laser. The tests were conducted at near normal incidence with particles on input and output surfaces of the windows. During the first shot, a plasma ignited at the metal particle and damage initiated on the fused silica surface. The morphology of the damage at the metal dots were reproducible but different for input and output surface contamination. For input surface contamination, minor damage occurred where the particle was located; such damage ceased to grow with the removal of contaminant material. More serious damage (pits and cracks) was initiated on the output surface (especially at 355 nm) and grew to catastrophic proportions after few shots. Output surface contaminants were usually ejected on the initial shot, leaving a wave pattern on the surface. No further damage occurred with subsequent shots unless a shot (usually the first shot) cracked the surface; such behavior was mostly observed at 355 nm and occasionally for large shavings at 1064 nm. The size of the damaged area scaled with the size of the particle (except when catastrophic damage occurred). Onset of catastrophic damage on output surface occurred only when particles exceeded a critical size. Damage behavior of the sputtered dots was found to be qualitatively similar to that of the shavings. The artificial contamination technique accelerated the study by allowing better control of the test conditions

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FUSED-CORE SILICA HPLC COLUMNS AND THEIR RECENT PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwida Kamour*, Amal Ammar, Mohamed El-Attug and Tariq Almog

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many analytical procedures, fast and reliable analysis technique is required. The development of HPLC stationary phases were in line with these goals. To achieve these goals of fast and efficient analysis, work was focused on reducing particle size of packing materials. Therefore, the development of superficially porous silica particles provided a new approach with overwhelming operating results to insure fast and reliable analysis at decreased system back pressure values. This work presents features and development aspects of fused core technology. Also it describes their chromatographic properties in comparison with monolithic and sub-2 µm particle columns. In addition, there is a discussion of its applicability to be used with conventional HPLC instruments. Finally, it outlines some of its recent applications in biological and pharmaceutical field.

  14. Transmittance and reflectance of crystalline quartz and highand low-water content fused silica from 2 microns to 1 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, J. B.; Stewart, K. P.; Hass, G.

    1983-01-01

    The transmittances and reflectances of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were compared over the wavelength region from 2 to 1000 microns. The high-water content of Suprasil and the low-water content of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were determined by their transmittances measured at 2.73 microns where water content causes high absorption in optical materials. The fact that the fused silicas, both with high- and low-water content, had identical far-IR transmittances and that their transmittances were greatly inferior to that of crystalline quartz led to the conclusion that their inferior transmittance is due to their amorphous structure and not to their water content.

  15. Quasi-rapid thermal annealing studies on barium strontium titanate thin films deposited on fused silica substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Saravanan, K., E-mail: vsk@ua.pt; James Raju, K.C., E-mail: kcjrsp@uohyd.ernet.in

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Nano-crystalline BST films were obtained on amorphous fused silica substrates. •Crystallization was induced by quasi-RTA, a cost effective approach. •No evidence of residual strain or surface layer was observed in the annealed films. •Dielectric properties @10 GHz were measured using split post dielectric resonator. •Crystallization result in higher density, conductivity, dielectric const. and tan δ. -- Abstract: Thin films of (Ba{sub 0.5},Sr{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (BST5) were deposited at ambient temperature on fused silica substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. Nano-crystalline films were obtained upon quasi-rapid thermal annealing (Q-RTA) at temperatures ⩾800 °C for 60 s. The influence of Q-RTA temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and microwave dielectric properties of BST5 thin films have been investigated. The as-deposited and Q-RTA films annealed up to 700 °C were amorphous in nature. On increasing the Q-RTA temperature to 800 °C and above resulted in an amorphous–crystalline phase transition in the films. All the crystalline films show similar full width at half maxima (FWHM) and hence, similar crystallite size of about 12 ± 1 nm. The amorphous–crystalline transition was accompanied by a decrease in the optical band gap from 4.5 to 3.6 and increase in the refractive index from 1.9 to 2.2 as well as in the microwave dielectric constant from 40 to 262. The Root Mean Square roughness (RMS{sub roughness}) as measured from AFM show an increase from 0.6 nm to 5.6 nm with an increase in Q-RTA temperature from 400 °C to 1000 °C.

  16. Removal of scratches on fused silica optics by using a CO₂laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormont, P; Combis, P; Gallais, L; Hecquet, C; Lamaignère, L; Rullier, J L

    2013-11-18

    We investigate the efficiency of local CO₂laser processing of scratches on silica optics in order to enhance the nanosecond UV-laser damage resistance. The surface deformations induced by the process have been measured for different CO₂laser parameters and then the pulse duration and the beam diameter have been chosen accordingly to limit those deformations below 1 µm. From the study of the laser damage resistance as a function of different material modifications we identify a range of optimal radiation parameters allowing a complete elimination of scratches associated with a high threshold of laser damage. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric code was compared with experiment, supporting an optimization of the laser parameter as a function of the maximal dimensions of scratches that could be removed by this process. PMID:24514338

  17. Removal of scratches on fused silica optics by using a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the efficiency of local CO2 laser processing of scratches on silica optics in order to enhance the nanosecond UV-laser damage resistance. The surface deformations induced by the process have been measured for different CO2 laser parameters and then the pulse duration and the beam diameter have been chosen accordingly to limit those deformations below 1 μm. From the study of the laser damage resistance as a function of different material modifications we identify a range of optimal radiation parameters allowing a complete elimination of scratches associated with a high threshold of laser damage. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axisymmetric code was compared with experiment, supporting an optimization of the laser parameter as a function of the maximal dimensions of scratches that could be removed by this process. (authors)

  18. Effect of annealing on nonlinear optical properties of Ge nanocrystals in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel optical properties of glasses containing a suspension of semiconducting or metallic nanocrystals have resulted in them being the subject of considerable attention over the past few years. Such materials exhibit a large optical nonlinearity with a rapid response, which makes them potential candidates for new technologies based around optical signal processing. Several techniques exist to synthesise the nanocrystals such as co-sputtering, chemical vapour depositions, sol-gel synthesis and ion implantation. The latter technique offers the advantages of a very flexible process, no restriction to any particular impurity and the possibility to produce high volume fractions of nanocrystals. Glasses containing metallic nanocrystals have been widely studied. The local field enhancement reaches a maximum at the surface plasmon resonance at which wavelength the samples exhibit resonant absorption and an enhancement of the third order optical nonlinearity. The increase in absorption is however undesirable for practical materials. Semiconductor systems show much reduced absorption and nonlinearities of the same order of magnitude as the metal systems. In this case however the material response is less well understood. In this study, the nonlinear optical properties of silica ion implanted with germanium and silicon and after annealing were examined. The magnitude of the nonlinearity of silica implanted with Si is approximately 3 times lower than the nonlinearity of silica implanted with Ge. It is suggested that this is a consequence of Ge related defect-mediated recombination of photoexcited carriers

  19. Thermo-mechanical simulations of CO2 laser-fused silica interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Hébert, D.; Combis, P.; Rullier, J.-L.

    2016-03-01

    CO2 laser heating of silica glass is used in many scientific and industrial applications. Particularly, localized CO2 laser heating of silica glass has demonstrated its ability to mitigate surface damage on optics used for high power laser applications. To develop such applications, the control of temperature, heat affected area, and resulting mechanical stresses are critical. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the silica transformation, the material ejection, and the thermo-mechanical stresses induced by the laser heating and subsequent cooling. In this paper, we detail the development of comprehensive thermo-mechanical numerical simulations of these physical processes, based on finite-element method. The approach is developed for 2D or 3D cases to tackle the case of a moving beam at the surface of the sample, and we particularly discuss the choice of the different parameters based on bibliographic inputs. The thermal and mechanical numerical results have been compared to different dedicated experimental studies: infrared thermography measurements at the surface of the irradiated area, optical profilometry measurements of the laser-processed sites, and photo-elastic measurements. Very consistent results are obtained between numerical and experimental results for the description of the temperature gradients, the material ejection, and the residual stresses.

  20. Experimental study and simulation of fused silica damage initiation by laser pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to resolve problems concerning the understanding and the control of laser-induced damage of silica optical elements, a collaboration between the CEA (CESTA/DLP, DIF/DPTA, and Grenoble/LETI) and different university laboratories has been undertaken. Ultra-pure silica 'model' samples, seeded with gold nano-particles whose diameter does not exceed 5 nm, were made at the LASIM in Lyon. The aim in using these samples is to observe the mechanism of damage initiation that can be attributed to inclusions of nano-metric site. This report presents the different steps encountered during this study: making the samples, the laser-induced damage tests performed at the CESTA, and the 'Nomarski' and 'atomic force' microscope observations of this damage carried out at the Fresnel Institute in Marseille. These samples were also used for a series of experiments using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at ANL near Chicago. This installation is of great interest because it enables us to combine the laser irradiation of the sample with the chemical identification of material ejected by the sample. A precise evaluation of the quantity of gold atoms emitted during irradiation can thus be obtained from the experimental results. The experimental data is then interpreted, and in particular, compared to, numerical simulations obtained with the DELPOR program. A very encouraging result is the existence of a pre-damage phase at very low fluences that is not detectable by classical optical devices. The experimental means developed for such 'model' samples should be transposable to the analysis of industrial glasses. (authors)

  1. Deep wet etching of borosilicate glass and fused silica with dehydrated AZ4330 and a Cr/Au mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research highlights a superior glass-wet-etch technique which enables a glass wafer to be etched for more than 20 h in 49 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF) only with Cr/Au film and a common positive photoresist, AZ4330. We demonstrated that pits on the wet-etched glass wafer were generated not only due to HF diffusion through the Cr/Au film but also due to pinholes on the Cr/Au films created by the diffusion of the Cr/Au etchant through a photoresist etching-mask during the Cr/Au wet etching process. These two types of diffusion, HF diffusion and Cr/Au etchant diffusion, were eliminated by the thermal curing of a photoresist (PR), AZ4330, before the Cr/Au wet etching process. The curing process allowed the PR to dehydrate, increased the hydrophobicity, and prevented the diffusion of the hydrophilic HF and Cr/Au etchant. Optimization of the curing process was performed, showing that curing at 130 °C for 20 min was the proper condition. With the optimized process, a 525 µm thick borosilicate glass wafer was penetrated with 49%wt HF. A fused silica wafer 525 µm thick was also wet-etched and penetrated with 49 wt% HF at 10 h. Moreover, no pits were found in wet etching of the fused silica for 20 h in 49 wt% HF. These findings demonstrate that the proposed technique allows the wet etching of a glass wafer for more than 20 h in 49%wt HF, the best result thus far. We fabricated a glass substrate with a 217.0 µm deep cavity and a penetrating through-via using the proposed technique, proving the feasibility of the product as an optical component with a surface roughness of 45.5 Å in the cavity. (paper)

  2. Laser damage performance of fused silica optical components measured on the beamlet laser at 35nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistics-based model is being developed to predict the laser-damage-limited lifetime of UV optical components on the NIF laser. In order to provide data for the model, laser damage experiments were performed on the Beamlet laser system at LLNL (aperture: 34 cm x 34 cm). Three prototype NIF focus lenses were exposed to 351 nm pulses (1.5 ns or 3 ns) during four experimental campaigns, each consisting of 23 to 38 pulses at NIF relevant fluences. Each lens was sol-gel AR coated and all laser exposures were performed in a vacuum environment. Through inspections of the lens before, during and after the campaigns, pulse-to-pulse damage growth rates were measured for damage initiating both on the surfaces and at bulk inclusions. Radial growth rates measured for rear surface damage was typically 10x higher than that measured in the bulk or at the front surface. No significant correlation of growth rate to precursor type was indicated. For 5 J/cm ampersand sup2;, 3 ns pulses the typical radial growth rate was nominally 20 ampersand micro;m/pulse. Average growth rates measured on three lenses made by two manufacturers were in good agreement. While the growth rate clearly increased with fluence, the data obtained was insufficient to quantify the dependence. The growth rates reported here were 20x-50x higher than values predicted from off-line studies of bare surfaces in air

  3. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambonneau, M., E-mail: maxime.chambonneau@hotmail.fr; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L. [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Natoli, J.-Y. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France)

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  4. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigter, E.C.A. [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.c.a.stigter@uu.nl; Jong, G.J. de; Bennekom, W.P. van [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-07-07

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin {beta}- and {alpha}-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

  5. Comparison of neutron and gamma irradiation effects on KU1 fused silica monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on KU1 fused silica irradiated with neutrons at fluences 1021 and 1022 n/m2, and gamma-ray doses up to 12 MGy. The effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing treatments, up to 850 deg. C, have also been investigated. Paramagnetic oxygen-related defects (POR and NBOHC) and E'-type defects have been identified and their concentration has been measured as a function of neutron fluence, gamma dose and post-irradiation annealing temperature. It is found that neutrons at the highest fluence generate a much higher concentration of defects (mainly E' and POR, both at concentrations about 5 x 1018 spins/cm3) than gamma irradiations at the highest dose (mainly E' at a concentration about 4 x 1017 spins/cm3). Moreover, for gamma-irradiated samples a lower treatment temperature (about 400 deg. C) is required to annihilate most of the observed defects than for neutron-irradiated ones (about 600 deg. C).

  6. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin β- and α-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously

  7. Comparison of neutron and gamma irradiation effects on KU1 fused silica monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, D. [Department Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: david.bravo@uam.es; Lagomacini, J.C. [Department Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Leon, M.; Martin, P. [Materiales para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin, A. [Department Fisica e Instalaciones, ETS Arquitectura UPM, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, F.J. [Department Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [Materiales para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been carried out on KU1 fused silica irradiated with neutrons at fluences 10{sup 21} and 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2}, and gamma-ray doses up to 12 MGy. The effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing treatments, up to 850 deg. C, have also been investigated. Paramagnetic oxygen-related defects (POR and NBOHC) and E'-type defects have been identified and their concentration has been measured as a function of neutron fluence, gamma dose and post-irradiation annealing temperature. It is found that neutrons at the highest fluence generate a much higher concentration of defects (mainly E' and POR, both at concentrations about 5 x 10{sup 18} spins/cm{sup 3}) than gamma irradiations at the highest dose (mainly E' at a concentration about 4 x 10{sup 17} spins/cm{sup 3}). Moreover, for gamma-irradiated samples a lower treatment temperature (about 400 deg. C) is required to annihilate most of the observed defects than for neutron-irradiated ones (about 600 deg. C)

  8. High-temperature measurement with Brillouin optical time domain analysis of an annealed fused-silica single-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-07-15

    The effect of annealing is experimentally studied for a fused silica, fully distributed fiber optic sensor based on the pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA). Within a heating rate of 4.3°C/min and 30.6°C/min, and a sustained peak temperature for 120 and 240 min, annealing extended the sensor's upper operation temperature from 800°C to 1000°C and reduced the sensor's measurement variability over a temperature range of 22°C to 1000°C with a maximum Brillouin frequency variation of 1%. The annealed sensor had a linearly decreasing Brillouin frequency sensitivity from 1.349×10-3  GHz/°C at 22°C to 0.419×10-3  GHz/°C at 1000°C. The time required to achieve a stable annealing effect decayed exponentially with annealing temperature. PMID:27420489

  9. Verifying an all fused silica miniature optical fiber tip pressure sensor performance with turbine engine field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Zhu, Yizheng; Yu, Bing; Han, Ming; Wang, Zhuang; Cooper, Kristie L.; Pickrell, Gary R.; Wang, Anbo; Ringshia, Aditya; Ng, Wing

    2005-11-01

    Pressure sensors are the key elements for industrial monitoring and control systems to lower equipment maintenance cost, improve fuel economy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and provide a safer workplace. However, the testing environment is usually harsh. For example, inside the turbine engine, temperatures might exceed 600°C and pressures might exceed 100psi (690kPa), where most current available sensors cannot survive. Moreover, due to the restricted space for installation, miniature size of the sensor is highly desirable. To meet these requirements, a novel type of all fused silica optic fiber tip pressure sensor with a 125μm diameter was developed. It is a diaphragm based pressure sensor in which a Fabry-Perot interferometer is constructed by the end face of an optical fiber and the surface of a diaphragm connected by a short piece of hollow fiber. The FP cavity length and the interference pattern will change according to ambient pressure variation. Its main improvement with respect to previously developed optical sensors, such as those utilizing techniques of wet etching, anodic bonding and sol-gel bonding, is the fact that no chemical method is needed during the cavity fabrication. Its dynamic pressure performance was verified in a turbine engine field test, demonstrating not only that it can safely and reliably function near the fan of a turbine engine for more than two hours, but also that its performance is consistent with that of a commercial Kulite sensor.

  10. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  11. Characterization of Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond thin Films Grown on Fused Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz Robert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A conductive boron-doped diamond (BDD grown on a fused silica/quartz has been investigated. Diamond thin films were deposited by the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PECVD. The main parameters of the BDD synthesis, i.e. the methane admixture and the substrate temperature were investigated in detail. Preliminary studies of optical properties were performed to qualify an optimal CVD synthesis and film parameters for optical sensing applications. The SEM micro-images showed the homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology; the mean grain size was within the range of 100-250 nm. The fabricated conductive boron-doped diamond thin films displayed the resistivity below 500 mOhm cm-1 and the transmittance over 50% in the VIS-NIR wavelength range. The studies of optical constants were performed using the spectroscopic ellipsometry for the wavelength range between 260 and 820 nm. A detailed error analysis of the ellipsometric system and optical modelling estimation has been provided. The refractive index values at the 550 nm wavelength were high and varied between 2.24 and 2.35 depending on the percentage content of methane and the temperature of deposition.

  12. Self-compression to 24 MW peak power in a fused silica solid-core fiber using a high-repetition rate thulium-based fiber laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Martin; Gaida, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Hädrich, Steffen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Complementing ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-laser systems with a subsequent nonlinear pulse compression stage can enable unique laser parameters at around 2 μm operation wavelength. Significant pulse shortening and peak power enhancement have been accomplished using a fused silica solid-core fiber. In this fiber a pulse peak power of 24 MW was achieved without catastrophic damage due to self-focusing. As compared to operation in the well-explored 1 μm wavelength region, increasing the emission wavelength to 2 μm has a twofold advantage for nonlinear compression in fused-silica solid-core fibers. This is because, on the one hand the self-focusing limit scales quadratically with the wavelength. On the other hand the dispersion properties of fused silica allow for self-compression of ultrashort pulses beyond 1.3 μm wavelength, which leads to strong spectral broadening from very compact setups without the need for external compression. Using this technique we have generated 1.1 μJpulses with 24 fs FWHM pulse duration (power and 24.6 W of average power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power obtained from any nonlinear compression experiment around 2 μm wavelength and the first demonstration of peak powers beyond 20 MW within a fused-silica solid-core fiber. This result emphasizes that thulium-doped fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification systems may outperform their ytterbiumdoped counterparts in terms of peak power due to the fourfold increase of the critical power of self-focusing.

  13. Effect of residual gaseous impurities on the dewetting of antimonide melts in fused silica crucibles in the case of bulk crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylla, L. [SIMAP-EPM, ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)], E-mail: lamine.sylla@gmail.com; Paulin, J.P.; Vian, G.; Garnier, C.; Duffar, T. [SIMAP-EPM, ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2008-11-15

    A Bridgman set-up has been modified to perform the contactless growth ('dewetting') of gallium and indium antimonide compounds in fused silica crucibles. According to wetting parameters measured by the sessile drop method given in the literature, both molten InSb and GaSb compounds are considered as non-reactive with silica substrates. A detailed description of the experimental set-up is presented. Each polycrystalline sample is inserted in a sealed silica crucible that is backfilled with industrial argon containing a few ppm of oxygen. Under similar experimental conditions, the dewetted growth of GaSb is much easier to obtain than that for InSb. The presence of residual impurities such as oxygen in the backfilling gas appears to enhance the occurrence of the phenomenon for GaSb.

  14. Effect of residual gaseous impurities on the dewetting of antimonide melts in fused silica crucibles in the case of bulk crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bridgman set-up has been modified to perform the contactless growth ('dewetting') of gallium and indium antimonide compounds in fused silica crucibles. According to wetting parameters measured by the sessile drop method given in the literature, both molten InSb and GaSb compounds are considered as non-reactive with silica substrates. A detailed description of the experimental set-up is presented. Each polycrystalline sample is inserted in a sealed silica crucible that is backfilled with industrial argon containing a few ppm of oxygen. Under similar experimental conditions, the dewetted growth of GaSb is much easier to obtain than that for InSb. The presence of residual impurities such as oxygen in the backfilling gas appears to enhance the occurrence of the phenomenon for GaSb

  15. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S., E-mail: hoehm@mbi-berlin.de.de [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  16. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  17. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pathak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products.

  18. Invisible two-dimensional barcode fabrication inside a synthetic fused silica by femtosecond laser processing using a computer-generated hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Hayato; Yamaji, Masahiro; Suzuki, Jun'ichi; Tanaka, Shuhei

    2011-03-01

    We report an invisible two-dimensional (2D) barcode embedded into a synthetic fused silica by femtosecond laser processing using a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that generates a spatially extended femtosecond pulse beam in the depth direction. When we illuminate the irradiated 2D barcode pattern with a 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light, a strong red photoluminescence (PL) is observed, and we can read it by using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera and image processing technology. This work provides a novel barcode fabrication method by femtosecond laser processing using a CGH and a barcode reading method by a red PL.

  19. A simple and efficient frit preparation method for one-end tapered-fused silica-packed capillary columns in nano-LC-ESI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Feng; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yangjun; Cai, Yun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2010-04-01

    A novel frit preparation method for one-end tapered-fused silica-packed capillary columns in nano-LC-ESI MS was developed. A hollow-fused silica capillary column with a tapered tip as nano-spray emitter was filled with 5 microm C(18) beads, and then a sintered frit about 0.25 mm in length was prepared at the tip by butane flame. A stainless steel protection tube with 0.5 mm id was used to control the length of the frit and to protect the packed C(18) beads behind the sintered frit during the sintering. C(18) sintered frits were evaluated by BSA tryptic digests with nano-LC-LTQ. The sintered frits did not produce post-column band broadening due to very small volume (about 0.2 nL) and did not produce adsorption to sample. The sintered frit columns had good separation reproducibility and separation performance compared with self-assembled particles frit columns and commercial columns. PMID:20162556

  20. Comparison between fused silica of type II and III after surface heating with a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doualle, Thomas; Hébert, David; Combis, Patrick; Hecquet, Christophe; Gallais, Laurent; Rullier, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    We compare the effect of CO2 laser heating on silica samples of type II and III; these two materials having significant differences in composition and physical properties. For both types of silica, the crater shape and depths are similar through all the parameter ranges that were studied. This is particularly true when evaporation is the major mechanism of the crater formation process. Our numerical simulations of thermal heating are consistent with these results, and calculations with a physically based model of evaporation evaluate correctly the crater depths. Therefore, it can be conclude that the heating of silica surface by CO2 laser at temperatures sufficient to remove some material is independent of their metallic impurities and hydroxyl content, or the different values for the annealing and softening temperatures.

  1. Laser-induced front side and back side etching of fused silica with KrF and XeF excimer lasers using metallic absorber layers: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study laser-induced front and back side etching of fused silica with a KrF and a XeF excimer laser. ► Chromium layers as absorber are used. ► The LIFE method allows nm-precision etching with etching depths up to 300 nm. ► The measurement results are compared to the results calculated by a thermal model. - Abstract: Laser-induced front side (LIFE) and back side etching (LIBDE) are methods for nanometer-precision laser etching of transparent materials using thin absorber layers. The etching behaviour of fused silica at a laser wavelength of 248 nm (KrF) and 351 nm (XeF excimer laser) with a pulse duration of 25 ns using a chromium absorber layer was analysed and compared for front and back side etching geometry. For both wavelengths as well as for both processes the etching depth d increases almost linearly in dependence on the laser fluence (it is: d ≈ δ*(Φ − Φth)). The etching depth at the same laser fluence is higher for 248 nm compared to 351 nm as well as for back side etching compared to the front side etching process (LIFE: δ(248 nm) = 20 nm/(J/cm2), δ(351 nm) = 15 nm/(J/cm2), LIBDE: δ(248 nm) = 38 nm/(J/cm2), δ(351 nm) = 8 nm/(J/cm2) with Φth,m from 0.3 to 2.65 J/cm2). Furthermore, the measured depths were evaluated with the estimated etching depth calculated by a thermal model. The simple thermodynamic model allows a good qualitative description of the etching depth behaviour; however, the model does not allow the quantitative calculation of the etching depth.

  2. EVALUATION OF FUSED-SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMNS FOR GC/ECD (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTION) ANALYSIS OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS LISTED IN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD 8120 (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four mega-bore, one wide-bore, and one narrow-bore fused-silica capillary columns were evaluated for their applicability to the GC/ECD analysis of 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons, some of which are currently targeted by EPA Method 8120. No one column can resolve all 22 compounds. Fou...

  3. Growth of carbon nanofiber coatings on nickel thin films on fused silica by catalytic thermal chemical vapor deposition: On the use of titanium, titanium–tungsten and tantalum as adhesion layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakur, D.B.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Coatings of carbon nanofiber (CNF) layers were synthesized on fused silica substrates using a catalytic thermal chemical vapor deposition process (C-TCVD). The effects of various adhesion layers–titanium, titanium–tungsten and tantalum–under the nickel thin film on the attachment of carbon nanofiber

  4. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Temperature-dependent strain and temperature sensitivities of fused silica single mode fiber sensors with pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a distributed temperature and strain sensor based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. An uncoated, telecom-grade fused silica single-mode fiber as a distributed sensor was calibrated for its sensitivity coefficients under various strains and temperatures up to 800 °C. The Brillouin frequency of fiber samples changed nonlinearly with temperature and linearly with strain. The temperature sensitivity decreased from 1.113 to 0.830 MHz /°C in the range of 22–800 °C. The strain sensitivity was reduced from 0.054 to 0.042 MHz /με as the temperature increased from 22 to 700 °C and became unstable at higher temperatures due to creep effect. The strain measurement range was reduced from 19 100 to 6000 με in the temperature range of 22–800 °C due to fused silica’s degradation. The calibrated fiber optic sensor demonstrated adequate accuracy and precision for strain and temperature measurements and stable performance in heating–cooling cycles. It was validated in an application setting.

  6. Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Ted A; Bude, Jeff D; Ly, Sonny; Shen, Nan; Feit, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Surface laser damage limits the lifetime of optics for systems guiding high fluence pulses, particularly damage in silica optics used for inertial confinement fusion-class lasers (nanosecond-scale high energy pulses at 355 nm/3.5 eV). The density of damage precursors at low fluence has been measured using large beams (1-3 cm); higher fluences cannot be measured easily since the high density of resulting damage initiation sites results in clustering. We developed automated experiments and analysis that allow us to damage test thousands of sites with small beams (10-30 µm), and automatically image the test sites to determine if laser damage occurred. We developed an analysis method that provides a rigorous connection between these small beam damage test results of damage probability versus laser pulse energy and the large beam damage results of damage precursor densities versus fluence. We find that for uncoated and coated fused silica samples, the distribution of precursors nearly flattens at very high fluences, up to 150 J/cm2, providing important constraints on the physical distribution and nature of these precursors. PMID:22565775

  7. Implantation of plasmonic nanoparticles in SiO2 by pulsed laser irradiation of gold films on SiOx-coated fused silica and subsequent thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, H.; Peretzki, P.; Wang, N.; Seibt, M.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-06-01

    The pulsed UV-laser irradiation of thin noble metal films deposited on glass substrates leads to the incorporation of metal particles in the glass, if a sufficiently high laser fluence is applied. This process is called laser implantation. For the implantation of gold into pure fused silica, high laser fluences (∼1 J/cm2 at 193 nm laser wavelength) are required. Using a SiOx (x ≈ 1) coated SiO2-substrate, the implantation of gold into this coating can be accomplished at significantly lower fluences starting from 0.2 J/cm2 (comparable to those used for standard glass). Particles with diameters in the range of 10-60 nm are implanted to a depth of about 40 nm as identified by transmission electron microscopy. An additional high temperature annealing step in air leads to the oxidation of SiOx to SiO2, without influencing the depth distribution of particles significantly. Only superficial, weakly bound particles are released and can be wiped away. Absorption spectra show a characteristic plasmon resonance peak at 540 nm. Thus, pure silica glass (SiO2) with near surface incorporated plasmonic particles can be fabricated with this method. Such material systems may be useful for example as robust substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

  8. Atomistic Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Fused Silica: It is Compared with Different Concentration of H in the Bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous Silica is one of candidate materials for both final focusing optics of lasers for NIF and future inertial fusion reactors and diagnostics of the Safety and Control Systems of the ITER machine as well as DEMO magnetic fusion reactors. In operation, these materials will be exposed to high neutron irradiation fluxes and it can result in point defect and vary the optical absorption, that is, degradation of the optical properties. In this paper we present molecular dynamic simulation of displacement cascade due to energetic recoils in amorphous silica without hydrogen atoms and with 1% of hydrogen atoms trying to identify defects formation. We have made a statistics of the different kind of defects at different energy of primary knock-on atoms (PKA). The range of studied PKA energies are from 400 eV to 3.5 keV and it is made to both component of this material Silicon and Oxygen. (authors)

  9. Raman spectroscopic measurements of CO2 density: Experimental calibration with high-pressure optical cell (HPOC) and fused silica capillary capsule (FSCC) with application to fluid inclusion observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chou, I.-Ming; Hu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Sun, Q.; Song, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for the determination of CO2 densities in fluid inclusions, especially for those with small size and/or low fluid density. The relationship between CO2 Fermi diad split (??, cm-1) and CO2 density (??, g/cm3) has been documented by several previous studies. However, significant discrepancies exist among these studies mainly because of inconsistent calibration procedures and lack of measurements for CO2 fluids having densities between 0.21 and 0.75g/cm3, where liquid and vapor phases coexist near room temperature.In this study, a high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsules were used to prepare pure CO2 samples with densities between 0.0472 and 1.0060g/cm3. The measured CO2 Fermi diad splits were calibrated with two well established Raman bands of benzonitrile at 1192.6 and 1598.9cm-1. The relationship between the CO2 Fermi diad split and density can be represented by: ??=47513.64243-1374.824414????+13.25586152????2-0.04258891551????3 (r2=0.99835, ??=0.0253g/cm3), and this relationship was tested by synthetic fluid inclusions and natural CO2-rich fluid inclusions. The effects of temperature and the presence of H2O and CH4 on this relationship were also examined. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of the Distribution of defects induced in fused silica by UV laser pulses and after damage mitigation treatment with a CO2 laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Kalceff, M; Wong, J

    2004-03-10

    Point defects are induced in high quality optical-grade fused silica by high fluence (>30 J/cm{sup 2}) 355nm laser pulses. The microscopic depth distribution of laser irradiation induced defects has been nondestructively determined using Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis. CL emissions have been observed at 1.9eV, 2.2eV, 2.7eV and 4.4eV. In addition following CO{sup 2} laser treatment for damage mitigation an emission at 3.2eV is also observed. The CL emissions have been identified with the NBOHC (non-bridging oxygen hole center), the STE (self-trapped exciton), an ODC (oxygen-deficient center) and an aluminum impurity centre. The spatially resolved CL data is consistent with damage initiation at the exit surface. The concentration of 355 nm laser induced defects is greatest at the surface and monotonically decays to pre-irradiation levels at {approx}10 {micro}m depth below the surface. With CO{sup 2} processing to mitigate damage, the defect concentration and spatial distribution is reduced to a maximum depth of {approx}6{micro}m. CL microanalysis provides a sensitive and nondestructive method of assessing the magnitude and submicron distribution of irradiation induced damage in technologically important materials.

  11. Time-resolved imaging of filamentary damage on the exit surface of fused silica induced by 1064 nm nanosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shen; Xiang'ai, Cheng; Tian, Jiang; Zhiwu, Zhu; Yifan, Dai

    2015-04-01

    Laser-induced damage on the exit surface of fused silica with a filament was observed. The filament has a central hollow core surrounded by molten materials and no obvious cracks could be observed. The critical intensity for the transition from pure surface damage (SD) to filamentary damage (FD) was measured. Time-resolved shadowgraphic microscopy with nanosecond time resolution was employed to compare the propagation of shock wave and material response in the SD and FD process. The main different features during the material response process include: (i) thermoelastic shock waves launched in FD were multiple and a column envelope was observed in the lateral direction; (ii) more energy is deposited in the bulk for FD resulting to a lower speed of shock wave in air; (iii) the overall time for establishing the main character of the damage site for FD was shorter because of the absence of crack expansion. Self-focusing and temperature-activated optical absorption enhancement of the bulk material are discussed to explain the morphology difference between SD and FD and the evolution of filament length under different incident intensities.

  12. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple parallel polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Arkadi, E-mail: rosenfeld@mbi-berlin.de [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Rohloff, Marcus; Hoehm, Sandra [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, Joerg [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, Joern, E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPSS formation studied for double-fs-pulses (160 fs, 800 nm) of different fluences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to the damage threshold predominantly HSFL are observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HSFL period remains almost constant {approx}375 nm (delay independent). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high fluences and for short delays a transient metallic state is created (LSFL regime). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A transition of the LSFL period from 750 to 530 nm is observed in the sub-ps delay range. - Abstract: The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences of parallel polarized Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (160 fs pulse duration, 800 nm central wavelength) was studied experimentally. For that purpose, a Michelson interferometer was used to generate near-equal-energy double-pulse sequences allowing the temporal pulse delay between the parallel-polarized individual fs-laser pulses to be varied between 0 and 40 ps with {approx}0.2 ps temporal resolution. The surface morphologies of the irradiated surface areas were characterized by means of scanning electron and scanning force microscopy. In the sub-ps delay range a strong decrease of the LIPSS periods and the ablation crater depths with the double-pulse delay was observed indicating the importance of the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  13. Fused Zirconia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    ScopeThis standard specifies the terms,definitions,classification,brands,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fused zirconia.This standard is applicable to monoclinic fused zirconia and partially stabilized fused zirconia.

  14. Evaluation of fused-core and monolithic versus porous silica-based C18 columns and porous graphitic carbon for ion-pairing liquid chromatography analysis of catecholamines and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita, Raluca-Ioana; Finaru, Adriana-Luminita; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-03-15

    This paper evaluates the performances of reversed-phase (RPLC) and ion-pairing chromatography (IPLC) coupled with UV detection for the analysis of a set of 12 catecholamines and related compounds. Different chromatographic columns (porous C18-silica, perfluorinated C18-silica, porous graphitic carbon, monolithic and fused-core silica-based C18 columns) were tested using semi-long perfluorinated carboxylic acids as volatile ion-pairing reagents. Much more promising results were obtained by IPLC than by RPLC and important improvements in analytes peak symmetry and separation resolution were observed when using the "fast chromatography" columns (monolithic and fused-core C18) under IPLC conditions. For UV detection, a satisfactory separation of the 12 selected analytes was achieved in less than 20 min by using a fused-core particles column (Halo C18) and a mobile phase composed of a 1.25 mM nonafluoropentanoic acid aqueous solution and methanol under gradient elution mode. The chromatographic method developed can be directly coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode and 10 solutes among those selected can be observed. The presence of the acidic ion-pairing reagent in the mobile phase makes this system incompatible with negative ionization mode and thus unable to detect the two acidic compounds that only responded in negative mode. In terms of MS detection, Monolithic C18 column proved to be the best one to reach the lowest detection limits (LODs) (from 0.5 ngmL(-1) to 10 ngmL(-1) depending on the neurotransmitter). The applicability of the optimized LC-MS/MS method to a "real world" sample was finally evaluated. The presence of the matrix leads to signal suppression for several solutes and thus to higher LODs. PMID:21345749

  15. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  16. Fabrication of Efficient, Large Aperture Transmission Diffraction Gratings by Ion-Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of high-power short pulse laser employing chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) for material processing and inertial confinement research is widely increasing. The performance of these high-power CPA laser system continues to be limited by the ability of the pulse compression gratings to hold up to the high-average-power or high-peak-power of the laser. Pulse compression gratings used in transmission and fabricated out of bulk fused silica have intrinsically the highest laser damage threshold when compared with metal or multilayer dielectric gratings that work in reflection. LLNL has developed processing capability to produce high efficiency fused silica transmission gratings at sizes useful to future Petawatt-class systems, and has demonstrated high efficiency at smaller aperture. This report shows that fused silica diffraction exhibiting >95% efficiency into the -1 diffraction order in transmission (90o deflection of the incident light, at an incidence angle of 45o to the grating face). The microstructure of this grating consisted of grooves ion-beam etched to a depth of 1.6 microns with a pitch of 0.75 microns, using a holographically produced photoresist mask that was subsequently stripped away in significance to the fabrication of the small scale high efficiency grating was the development of the processing technology and infrastructure for production of such gratings at up to 65 cm diameter. LLNL is the currently the only location in the world with the ability to coat, interferometrically expose, and ion etch diffractive optics at this aperture. Below, we describe the design, fabrication, performance and, the scaleup process for a producing a high-efficiency transmission grating on a 65 cm fused silica substrate

  17. Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Dawn N; Adams, Daniel E; Johnson, Adrea; Tsai, Philbert S; Backus, Sterling; Durfee, Charles G; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeffrey A

    2010-08-16

    Temporal focusing of spatially chirped femtosecond laser pulses overcomes previous limitations for ablating high aspect ratio features with low numerical aperture (NA) beams. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing reduces nonlinear interactions, such as self-focusing, prior to the focal plane so that deep (approximately 1 mm) features with parallel sidewalls are ablated at high material removal rates (25 microm(3) per 80 microJ pulse) at 0.04-0.05 NA. This technique is applied to the fabrication of microfluidic devices by ablation through the back surface of thick (6 mm) fused silica substrates. It is also used to ablate bone under aqueous immersion to produce craniotomies. PMID:20721196

  18. Boron doped Si rich oxide/SiO{sub 2} and silicon rich nitride/SiN{sub x} bilayers on molybdenum-fused silica substrates for vertically structured Si quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ziyun, E-mail: z.lin@unsw.edu.au; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Building H6, Tyree Energy Technologies Building, Kensington, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2015-07-28

    Vertically structured Si quantum dots (QDs) solar cells with molybdenum (Mo) interlayer on quartz substrates would overcome current crowding effects found in mesa-structured cells. This study investigates the compatibility between boron (B) doped Si QDs bilayers and Mo-fused silica substrate. Both Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiN{sub x} based QDs bilayers were studied. The material compatibility under high temperature treatment was assessed by examining Si crystallinity, microstress, thin film adhesion, and Mo oxidation. It was observed that the presence of Mo interlayer enhanced the Si QDs size confinement, crystalline fraction, and QDs size uniformity. The use of B doping was preferred compared to phosphine (PH{sub 3}) doping studied previously in terms of better surface and interface properties by reducing oxidized spots on the film. Though crack formation due to thermal mismatch after annealing remained, methods to overcome this problem were proposed in this paper. Schematic diagram to fabricate full vertical structured Si QDs solar cells was also suggested.

  19. Measurement of the3He permeability of DT-filled fused silica inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets to study the effects of3He on neutron emission during implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of laser implosion experiments were conducted at the OMEGA laser at the Univ. of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) to study the effect of He concentration in DT-filled target shells on fusion yield in ICF implosions.. Eleven laser fusion shells consisting of 1100-μm diameter, hollow, fused silica spheres with 4.6 to 4.7-μm-thick walls were loaded with 520 kPa of deuterium-tritium (DT) and then with 3He (101.3 or 520 kPa). The 3He permeabilities of the shells were determined by measuring the pressure rate of rise into a system with known volume. A mathematical method was developed that relied on the experimental fill pressure and time, and the rate of rise data to solve differential equations using MathCAD to simultaneously calculate 3He permeability and initial 3He partial pressure inside the shell. Because of the high permeation rate for 3He out of the shells compared to that for DT gas, shells had to be recharged with 3He immediately before being laser imploded or 'shot' at LLE. The 3He partial pressure in each individual shell at shot time was calculated from the measured 3He permeability. Two different partial pressures of 3He inside the shell were shown to reduce neutron and gamma yields during implosion. (authors)

  20. Single-pulse laser ablation threshold of borosilicate, fused silica, sapphire, and soda-lime glass for pulse widths of 500  fs, 10  ps, 20  ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Arines, Justo; O'Connor, Gerard M; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-10

    In this work, we report a comparative study of the laser ablation threshold of borosilicate, fused silica, sapphire, and soda-lime glass as a function of the pulse width and for IR laser wavelengths. We determine the ablation threshold for three different pulse durations: τ=500  fs, 10 ps, and 20 ns. Experiments have been performed using a single laser pulse per shot in an ambient (air) environment. The results show a significant difference, of two orders of magnitude, between the group of ablation thresholds obtained for femtosecond, picosecond, and nanosecond pulses. This difference is reduced to 1 order of magnitude in the soda-lime substrate with tin impurities, pointing out the importance of the incubation effect. The morphology of the marks generated over the different glass materials by one single pulse of different pulse durations has been analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (FESEM ULTRA Plus). Our results are important for practical purposes, providing the ablation threshold data of four commonly used substrates at three different pulse durations in the infrared regime (1030-1064 nm) and complete data for increasing the understanding of the differences in the mechanism's leading ablation in the nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond regimes. PMID:26479792

  1. Pattern transfer on large samples using a sub-aperture reactive ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using CF4 as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot as well as an accumulation of carbon (up to 40 atomic percent) in the beam periphery, respectively. The substitution of CF4 by NF3 as reactive gas reveals a lot of benefits: more stable ion beam conditions in combination with a reduction of the beam size down to a diameter of 5 mm and a reduced amount of the Ni, Fe and Cr contaminations. However, a layer formation of silicon nitride handicaps the chemical contribution of the etching process. These negative side effects influence the transfer of trench structures on quartz by changing the selectivity due to altered chemical reaction of the modified resist layer. Concerning this we investigate the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF3-sub-aperture RIBE.

  2. FUSE Observations of eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Iping, R C; Gull, T R

    2004-01-01

    Eta Carinae was observed by FUSE through the LWRS (30 arcsec x30 arcsec) and HIRS (1.25 arcsec x 20 arcsec) apertures in March and April 2004. There are significant differences between the two spectra. About half of the LWRS flux appears to be due to two B-type stars near the edge of the LWRS aperture, 14 arcsec from eta Carinae. The HIRS spectrum (LiF1 channel) therefore reveals the intrinsic FUV spectrum of eta Carinae without this stellar contamination. The HIRS spectrum contains strong interstellar H2 having high rotational excitation (up to J=8). Most of the atomic species with prominent ISM features (C II, Fe II, Ar I, P II, etc) also have strong blue-shifted absorption to v= ~ -580 km/s that is associated with expanding debris from the 1840 eruption.

  3. Raman spectrum and structure of silica aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra have been obtained from silica aerogel, a porous low-density material having grain sizes near 70 A. The Raman spectra are qualitatively similar to those from fused silica, thus indicating that the aerogel is amorphous. However, a greatly intensified peak (relative to ordinary fused silica) occurs near 478 cm-1 and is assigned to small rings, e.g., six (3-SiO) or eight (4-SiO) membered. Such rings may be more important in the aerogel than in fused silica, but the observed absence of the 600 cm-1 ring peak indicates that only one ring type, e.g., eight membered, is predominant. Other marked frequency and intensity changes in the Si--O--Si bending and Si--O stretching region, compared to fused silica, were also observed

  4. Blowing of polysilicon fuses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W. T.; Fowler, A. C.; Power, O.; S. Healy; Browne, J

    2011-01-01

    Polysilicon fuses are one time programmable memory elements which allow the calibration of integrated circuits at wafer and package level. We present a zero dimensional lumped parameter model of the programming of fuses made from a combination of tungsten silicide and polycrystalline silicon. The components of the model are an electrical model, a thermal model and a flow model. The electrical model describes the temperature and geometry dependent resistance of the fuse. The thermal model desc...

  5. Self-healing fuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fast-acting current limiting device provides current overload protection for vulnerable circuit elements and then re-establishes conduction path within milliseconds. Fuse can also perform as fast-acting switch to clear transient circuit overloads. Fuse takes advantage of large increase in electrical resistivity that occurs when liquid metal vaporizes.

  6. Tropone-fused carbaporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy D; Gilot, Gean C; AbuSalim, Deyaa I

    2014-10-17

    Previous attempts to prepare tropone-fused carbaporphyrins by reacting peroxides with azuliporphyrins under basic conditions afforded benzocarbaporphyrins instead. In this study, a methoxyazulitripyrrane condensed with a pyrrole dialdehyde in the presence of TFA, followed by oxidation with ferric chloride, to give a tropone-fused carbaporphyrin following a spontaneous demethylation. The porphyrinoid gave a modified UV-vis spectrum showing multiple bands in the Soret region, and the proton NMR spectrum showed that it has a reduced diamagnetic ring current in comparison to other carbaporphyrins. The tropone-fused derivative failed to react with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and potassium hydroxide, demonstrating that this type of structure is not an intermediate in the formation of benzocarbaporphyrins. However, the reaction with silver(I) acetate gave the corresponding silver(III) complex. Condensation of the methoxyazulitripyrrane with 2,5-thiophenedicarbaldehyde gave a related tropone-fused thiacarbaporphyrin together with a methoxythiaazuliporphyrin. Treatment of the carbaporphyrins with DBU resulted in the formation of anionic species, while addition of acid afforded dicationic structures. DFT studies were performed on a series of tautomers, protonated species, and anionic structures related to these tropone-fused carbaporphyrins, and NICS calculations were carried out. These results allowed favorable conjugation pathways to be identified. In addition, these studies predicted that protonation initially occurs on the carbonyl moiety rather than on the expected interior pyrrolenine nitrogen atom. PMID:25229306

  7. Self-healing fuse development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The mercury-filled self-healing fuses developed for this program afford very good protection from circuit faults with rapid reclosure. Fuse performance and design parameters have been characterized. Life tests indicate a capability of 500 fuse operations. Fuse ratings are 150 v at 5, 15, 25 and 50 circuit A. A series of sample fuses using alumina and beryllia insulation have been furnished to NASA for circuit evaluation.

  8. Experimental study and simulation of fused silica damage initiation by laser pulse irradiation; Etude experimentale et modelisation de l'initiation de l'endommagement de la silice sous irradiation laser impulsionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, F.; Combis, J.L.; Vierne, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    In order to resolve problems concerning the understanding and the control of laser-induced damage of silica optical elements, a collaboration between the CEA (CESTA/DLP, DIF/DPTA, and Grenoble/LETI) and different university laboratories has been undertaken. Ultra-pure silica 'model' samples, seeded with gold nano-particles whose diameter does not exceed 5 nm, were made at the LASIM in Lyon. The aim in using these samples is to observe the mechanism of damage initiation that can be attributed to inclusions of nano-metric site. This report presents the different steps encountered during this study: making the samples, the laser-induced damage tests performed at the CESTA, and the 'Nomarski' and 'atomic force' microscope observations of this damage carried out at the Fresnel Institute in Marseille. These samples were also used for a series of experiments using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at ANL near Chicago. This installation is of great interest because it enables us to combine the laser irradiation of the sample with the chemical identification of material ejected by the sample. A precise evaluation of the quantity of gold atoms emitted during irradiation can thus be obtained from the experimental results. The experimental data is then interpreted, and in particular, compared to, numerical simulations obtained with the DELPOR program. A very encouraging result is the existence of a pre-damage phase at very low fluences that is not detectable by classical optical devices. The experimental means developed for such 'model' samples should be transposable to the analysis of industrial glasses. (authors)

  9. Light emitting defect reactions in fused silicia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation and photo-induced defects in fused silica are stable at low temperatures when they are not able to move in the glass network. With the increase of the temperature some defects are becoming movable and restoration of pre-radiation situation in the glass network occurs. Well know example of such process happens in 'wet' synthetic fused silica irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with high energy photons (7,9 eV). By this irradiation O-H bonds are broken in the hydroxyl groups leading to the formation of non-bridging oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms When the temperature is increased to 100K hydrogen atoms are becoming movable and react back with non-bridging oxygen atoms restoring bonded hydroxyl groups. This reaction is accompanied with the emission of red (1,9 eV) luminescence characteristic for the non-bridging oxygen atoms. Micro mechanism of the non-bridging oxygen atoms excitation in this reaction is under development. Similar luminescence appears also at temperatures above 200K when hydrogen molecules become movable in the glass network and react with non-bridging oxygen atoms. Reaction of non-bridging oxygen atoms with tree-fold-coordinated silicon atoms also leads to the visible luminescence

  10. Thermal fatigue of electrical fuses

    OpenAIRE

    Gelet Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Electric Fuses have to respect different national or international standards such as IEC (International Electro-technical Commission) 269. These standards define the characteristics of the fuses and describe the tests to be run in order to check fuse's ability to take up their main functions, i.e. current-conduction and operation under overloads and short-circuits. But fuses never carry current neither operate under standardized conditions. For example, rated current is evaluated under specif...

  11. OLED panel with fuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  12. Variable-aperture screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  13. Mastering Apple Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Written in a conversational style, the author will share his knowledge on advanced Aperture topics with detailed discussions of advanced topics, the theory behind some of those topics and lots of hints and tips for ways to improve your workflow.Photographer's who have a basic understanding of Aperture

  14. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to...

  15. Rotating Aperture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  16. Analytical model for CO(2) laser ablation of fused quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Baker, Howard J; Hall, Denis R

    2015-10-10

    This paper reports the development of an analytical model, with supporting experimental data, which quite accurately describes the key features of CO2 laser ablation of fused silica glass. The quantitative model of nonexplosive, evaporative material removal is shown to match the experimental data very well, to the extent that it can be used as a tool for ablative measurements of absorption coefficient and vaporization energy. The experimental results indicated that a minimum of 12  MJ kg-1 is required to fully vaporize fused quartz initially held at room temperature, which is in good agreement with the prediction of the model supplied with input data available in the literature. An optimal window for the machining of fused quartz was revealed in terms of pulse duration 20-80 μs and CO2 laser wavelength optimized for maximum absorption coefficient. Material removal rates of 0.33 μm per J cm-2 allow for a high-precision depth control with modest laser stability. The model may also be used as a parameter selection guide for CO2 laser ablation of fused silica or other materials of similar thermophysical properties. PMID:26479800

  17. Sub-Aperture Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sub-aperture interferometers -- also called wavefront-split interferometers -- have been developed for simultaneously measuring displacements of multiple targets. The terms "sub-aperture" and "wavefront-split" signify that the original measurement light beam in an interferometer is split into multiple sub-beams derived from non-overlapping portions of the original measurement-beam aperture. Each measurement sub-beam is aimed at a retroreflector mounted on one of the targets. The splitting of the measurement beam is accomplished by use of truncated mirrors and masks, as shown in the example below

  18. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  19. Operations with the FUSE observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Moos, Henry W.; Oegerle, William R.

    2003-02-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite (FUSE) is a NASA Origins mission launched on 1999 June 24 and operated from the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus in Baltimore, MD. FUSE consists of four aligned telescopes feeding twin far-ultraviolet spectrographs that achieve a spectral resolution of R=20,000 over the 905-1187 Å spectral region. This makes FUSE complementary to the Hubble Space Telescope and of broad general interest to the astronomical community. FUSE is operated as a general-purpose observatory with proposals evaluated and selected by NASA. The FUSE mission concept evolved dramatically over time. The version of FUSE that was built and flown was born out of the "faster, better, cheaper" era, which drove not only the mission development but also plans for operations. Fixed price contracts, a commercial spacecraft, and operations in the University environment were all parts of the low cost strategy. The satellite performs most functions autonomously, with ground contacts limited typically to seven 12-minute contacts per day through a dedicated ground station. All support functions are managed by a staff of 40 scientists and engineers located at Johns Hopkins. In this configuration, we have been able to achieve close to 30% average on-target science efficiency. In short, FUSE is a successful example of the "faster, better, cheaper" philosophy.

  20. Precise etching of fused silica for micro-optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current challenge of laser processing is the high quality etching of transparent materials for micro-optical applications. Laser ablation of transparent material with UV and ultrashort pulse lasers is characterized by a high etch rate and a considerable surface roughness. The combination of specific laser processing techniques, e.g., scanning contour mask technique and direct writing with a small laser spot, with laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) allows both the direct machining of diffractive as well as refractive topographies into dielectric materials with almost optical quality. The etching of variable depth gratings and free-form surface topographies with a PV-value of less than 500 nm, a nanometer depth resolution, and a low roughness of less than 10 nm rms is presented and demonstrates the capabilities of this laser processing approach

  1. The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P E; Suratwala, T I; Wong, L L; Feit, M D; Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, R A

    2005-11-21

    Managing subsurface damage during the shaping process and removing subsurface damage during the polishing process is essential in the production of low damage density optical components, such as those required for use on high peak power lasers. Removal of subsurface damage, during the polishing process, requires polishing to a depth which is greater than the depth of the residual cracks present following the shaping process. To successfully manage, and ultimately remove subsurface damage, understanding the distribution and character of fractures in the subsurface region introduced during fabrication process is important. We have characterized the depth and morphology of subsurface fractures present following fixed abrasive and loose abrasive grinding processes. At shallow depths lateral cracks and an overlapping series of trailing indentation fractures were found to be present. At greater depths, subsurface damage consists of a series of trailing indentation fractures. The area density of trailing fractures changes as a function of depth, however the length and shape of individual cracks remain nearly constant for a given grinding process. We have developed and applied a model to interpret the depth and crack length distributions of subsurface surface damage in terms of key variables including abrasive size and load.

  2. Fused-Polished Fiber Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    We report on fused-polished fiber couplers with a new fabrication method. This structure so fabricated is promising while achieving high-performance all-fiber WDM devices. Potential advantages and prospects of our works are presented.

  3. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  4. Aperture distribution of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis concerns the properties of the fracture void geometry of single rock fractures. It is suggested that the parameter aperture be used to describe the fracture void geometry and a definition of the aperture is proposed. The relation between void geometry and other fracture properties such as roughness, stiffness, conductivity and channelling are discussed. Different experimental techniques for aperture measurement have been developed in this work. The methods are applicable to fractures of different nature and size. A compilation of measurement results indicates that the spatial correlation (range) of fracture apertures increases with increasing mean aperture and that the range is correlated with the coefficient of variation. The existing data from aperture measurements and fracture flow experiments are still very scarce, in particular for fractures with large apertures. For future research, additional aperture measurements from fractures of different types is recommended. A further development of aperture measurement techniques suitable for field investigation is also suggested. 31 refs, 18 figs

  5. Silica nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, N

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2) is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600-7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents. PMID:23022796

  6. Silica Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghahramani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  7. Thermal fatigue of electrical fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelet Jean-Louis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric Fuses have to respect different national or international standards such as IEC (International Electro-technical Commission 269. These standards define the characteristics of the fuses and describe the tests to be run in order to check fuse's ability to take up their main functions, i.e. current-conduction and operation under overloads and short-circuits. But fuses never carry current neither operate under standardized conditions. For example, rated current is evaluated under specified ambient temperature, without cooling air-flow, and with 1 meter-long connection-cables on both sides. In the field, temperature can reach up 80∘C, with or without air-flow and connection-parts are much more shorter. An issue is that current is never constant, often being cyclingly applied; equipments are frequently in use during the day and stopped in the night. ON-time and OFF-time generate alternative heating, then alternative stresses leading to thermal fatigue. MERSEN run many tests along the years, allowing to develop a method for choosing right fuses for each application. As a result, fuses don't melt unexpectedly in the field, but the method is supposed to be conservative and does not permit to get a better understanding of the phenomena neither an improvement of the products. The paper presents some specific ageing-tests run on conductive elements and tries to establish a correspondence between these tests and others carried out on complete fuses. Tests have been run on silver and copper, but their principle could be interesting for any structural material, especially because it underlines crack-opening.

  8. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral....6502 Safety fuse. (a) The burning rate of each spool of safety fuse to be used shall be measured, posted in locations which will be conspicuous to safety fuse users, and brought to the attention of...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 57.6502 Section 57.6502 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6502 Safety fuse. (a) The burning rate of each spool of safety fuse to be used shall be measured, posted in locations which will be conspicuous to safety fuse users, and...

  10. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  11. The LHC dynamic aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, the expected field errors in the dipoles and quadrupoles yielded a long-term dynamic aperture of some 8sigma at injection. The target was set to 12sigma to account for the limitations of our model (imperfections and dynamics). From scaling laws and tracking, a specification for the field imperfections yielding the target dynamic aperture was deduced. The gap between specification and expected errors is being bridged by i) an improvement of the dipole field quality, ii) a balance between geometric and persistent current errors, iii) additional correction circuits (a3 ,b4 ). With the goal in view, the emphasis has now turned to the sensitivity of the dynamic aperture to the optical parameters.The distortion of the dynamics at the lower amplitudes effectively reached by the particles is minimized by optimizing the distribution of the betatron phase advance. At collision energy, the dynamic aperture is limited by the field imperfections of the low-beta triplets, enhanced by the crossing angle. With corre...

  12. Apertured paraxial Bessel beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2010-03-01

    The paraxial Bessel beam is obtained by applying an approximation in the wavenumbers. The scattering of the beams by a circular aperture in an absorbing screen is investigated. The scattered fields are expressed in terms of the Fresnel integrals by evaluating the Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the paraxial approximation. The results are examined numerically. PMID:20208927

  13. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  14. To fuse or not to fuse: Fuser versus best classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.

    1998-04-01

    A sample from a class defined on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space and distributed according to an unknown distribution is given. The authors are given a set of classifiers each of which chooses a hypothesis with least misclassification error from a family of hypotheses. They address the question of choosing the classifier with the best performance guarantee versus combining the classifiers using a fuser. They first describe a fusion method based on isolation property such that the performance guarantee of the fused system is at least as good as the best of the classifiers. For a more restricted case of deterministic classes, they present a method based on error set estimation such that the performance guarantee of fusing all classifiers is at least as good as that of fusing any subset of classifiers.

  15. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuses. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Commercial... § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... composition are exempted from § 1507.3(a)(1). (2) Utilize only a fuse which will burn at least 3 seconds...

  16. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin;

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the...... imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  17. Survey of coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle and limitations of coded aperture imaging for x-ray and gamma cameras are discussed. Current trends include (1) use of time varying apertures, (2) use of ''dilute'' apertures with transmission much less than 50%, and (3) attempts to derive transverse tomographic sections, unblurred by other planes, from coded images

  18. Congenital pyriform aperture stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osovsky, Micky [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Rabin Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikvah (Israel); Aizer-Danon, Anat; Horev, Gadi [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Sirota, Lea [Schneider Pediatric Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Petach Tikvah (Israel)

    2007-01-15

    Nasal airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening condition in the newborn. Neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. The pyriform aperture is the narrowest, most anterior bony portion of the nasal airway, and a decrease in its cross-sectional area will significantly increase nasal airway resistance. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare, unusual form of nasal obstruction. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neonate or infant with signs and symptoms of upper airway compromise. It is important to differentiate this level of obstruction from the more common posterior choanal stenosis or atresia. CNPAS presents with symptoms of nasal airway obstruction, which are often characterized by episodic apnea and cyclical cyanosis. (orig.)

  19. Complex Aperture Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Owladeghaffari, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    A complex network approach on a rough fracture is developed. In this manner, some hidden metric spaces (similarity measurements) between apertures profiles are set up and a general evolutionary network in two directions (in parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction) is constructed. Evaluation of the emerged network shows the connectivity degree (distribution) of network, after a transition step; fall in to the stable states which are coincided with the Gaussian distribution. Based on this event and real observations of the complex network changes, an algorithm (COmplex Networks on Apertures: CONA) is proposed in which evolving of a network is accomplished using preferential detachments and attachments of edges (based on a competition and game manner) while the number of nodes is fixed. Also, evolving of clustering coefficients and number of edges display similar patterns as well as are appeared in shear stress, hydraulic conductivity and dilation changes, which can be engaged to estimate shear strengt...

  20. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  1. Experimental and numerical evaluation of the permeability of silica sol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of silica sol to narrow rock fracture and low permeable sand layer was studied by means of laboratory tests and numerical analysis. Parallel plate tests and sand column tests were conducted to evaluate penetrability of silica sol. Particle size distribution tests revealed that the silica sol was comprised of particles which were larger than the aperture of the rock fracture or the void diameter of sand, and clogging may have reduced the penetration length of silica sol. The measured penetration lengths were properly reproduced by the flow analysis which took into account the variations in the viscosity over time and the permeability reduction by clogging of grout particles. (author)

  2. Synthetic Aperture Radiometer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Aperture synthesis is a new technology for passive microwave remote sensing from space which has the potential to overcome the limitations set in the past by antenna size. This is an interferometric technique in which pairs of small antennas and signal processing are used to obtain the resolution of a single large antenna. The technique has been demonstrated successfully at L-band with the aircraft prototype instrument, ESTAR. Proposals have been submitted to demonstrate this technology in space (HYDROSTAR and MIRAS).

  3. About a New Type of Fuse Based on the Controllable Fusing Effect

    OpenAIRE

    PLESCA, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fuses are among the best known of electrical devices and there are an extremely large number in use throughout the world. Beside of the advantageous features, the nowadays fuses have certain drawbacks. Therefore, a new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept is proposed and a study as regards the total clearing time is done. The new concept has been validated through many experimental tests at different current values. The new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept can be...

  4. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which are then...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  6. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fuses. 28.2 Section 28.2 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 28.2 Approved fuses. (a) On and after the effective date...

  7. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB. The...

  8. Large fused GPU volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis describes the underlying theory and implementation of a fused GPU volume rendering pipeline. The open source framework of XIP, largely developed at Siemens Corporate Research, is extended with fusion capabilities through a Binary Space Partitioning approach. Regions in the intersection pattern of multiple volumes are identified and subsequently rendered using either Texture Slicing or Raycasting in a cell based fashion. Results demonstrate interactive frame rates for reason...

  9. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  10. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke;

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring a...... SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  11. Multiple Differential Aperture Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM) is a powerful approach to 3D tomography with particular relevance to X-ray microdiffraction. With DAXM, scattering from submicron volumes can be resolved. However, the method is intrinsically a scanning technique where every resolved volume element (voxel) requires at least one area-detector readout. Previous applications of DAXM have used a single wire for knife-edge step profiling. Here, we demonstrate a way to accelerate DAXM measurements using multiple wires. A proof-of-principle experiment with a three-wire prototype showed that the speed of measurements can be tripled, but careful calibrations of wires will be required to maintain the spatial accuracy. In addition, related possibilities for accelerating measurements are briefly discussed

  12. Molecular dynamics study of hydrogen isotopes migration in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Fused silica is a material of interest due to its increasing number of applications in many different technology fields. In thermonuclear fusion it is a key component in a number of diagnostics of the Safety and Control Systems of the ITER machine as well as in the final focusing optics of lasers for NIF. Materials properties of interest (optical absorption, radioluminescence, mechanical properties, oe) are closely related to the presence of defects. These defects can be generated directly by irradiation or by the presence of impurities in the material. Hydrogen is an ubiquitous impurity in this material and, moreover in a fusion reactor environment this material will be exposed to energetic hydrogen isotopes. Hydrogen isotopes will be deposited also on the surface of the fused silica components coming from the reaction chamber. On the other hand, some experimental results show that radiation damage can be different depending on hydrogen content, indicating that a detailed knowledge of the hydrogen role in fused silica should be fully understood. In this work we present molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of different hydrogen isotopes in this material and their interaction with defects. The interatomic potential developed by Feuston and Garofallini has been used in these studies. The diffusion coefficients and mechanisms of H mobility in fused silica has been calculated and compared with those existing in the literature. (authors)

  13. Molecular dynamics study of hydrogen isotopes migration in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fused silica is a material of interest due to its increasing number of applications in many different technology fields. In thermonuclear fusion it is a key component in a number of diagnostics of the Safety and Control Systems of the ITER machine as well as in the final focusing optics of lasers for NIF. Materials properties of interest (optical absorption, radioluminescence, mechanical properties, ...) are closely related to the presence of defects. These defects can be generated directly by irradiation or by the presence of impurities in the material. Hydrogen is an ubiquitous impurity in this material and, moreover in a fusion reactor environment this material will be exposed to energetic hydrogen isotopes. Hydrogen isotopes will be deposited also on the surface of the fused silica components coming from the reaction chamber. On the other hand, some experimental results show that radiation damage can be different depending on hydrogen content, indicating that a detailed knowledge of the hydrogen role in fused silica should be fully understood. In this work we present molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of different hydrogen isotopes in this material and their interaction with the defects. The interatomic potential developed by Feuston and Garofallini will be used in these studies. The diffusion coefficients and mechanisms of H mobility in fused silica will be calculated and compared with those existing in the literature. (author)

  14. Sequential Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution...

  15. Sparse synthetic aperture radar imaging with optimized azimuthal aperture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Cao; WANG MinHang; LIAO GuiSheng; ZHU ShengQi

    2012-01-01

    To counter the problem of acquiring and processing huge amounts of data for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using traditional sampling techniques,a method for sparse SAR imaging with an optimized azimuthal aperture is presented.The equivalence of an azimuthal match filter and synthetic array beamforming is shown so that optimization of the azimuthal sparse aperture can be converted to optimization of synthetic array beamforming.The azimuthal sparse aperture,which is composed of a middle aperture and symmetrical bilateral apertures,can be obtained by optimization algorithms (density weighting and simulated annealing algorithms,respectively).Furthermore,sparse imaging of spectrum analysis SAR based on the optimized sparse aperture is achieved by padding zeros at null samplings and using a non-uniform Taylor window. Compared with traditional sampling,this method has the advantages of reducing the amount of sampling and alleviating the computational burden with acceptable image quality.Unlike periodic sparse sampling,the proposed method exhibits no image ghosts.The results obtained from airborne measurements demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of fiber fuse initiation with exposure to arc discharge provided by a fusion splicer

    OpenAIRE

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The optical communication industry and power-over-fiber applications face a dilemma as a result of the expanding demand of light power delivery and the potential risks of high-power light manipulation including the fiber fuse phenomenon, a continuous destruction of the fiber core pumped by the propagating light and triggered by a heat-induced strong absorption of silica glass. However, we have limited knowledge on its initiation process in the viewpoint of energy flow in the reactive area. Th...

  17. About a New Type of Fuse Based on the Controllable Fusing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLESCA, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuses are among the best known of electrical devices and there are an extremely large number in use throughout the world. Beside of the advantageous features, the nowadays fuses have certain drawbacks. Therefore, a new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept is proposed and a study as regards the total clearing time is done. The new concept has been validated through many experimental tests at different current values. The new type of fuse based on controllable fusing concept can be integrated within an overcurrent protection system especially to protect power semiconductors where the Joule integral criterion is better satisfied.

  18. An investigation of laser processing of silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial set of experiments has been conducted to determine the practicality of laser processing of optical substrates. In contrast to earlier work, a high average power CO2 laser was used to flood load the entire surface of each test sample. Fused silica substrates were laser polished on both surfaces at power densities ranging from 150 to 350 W/cm2. During each test sequence sample surface temperatures were recorded using a thermal imaging system. Extensive pre- and post-test characterization revealed that surface roughness and scattering of bare silica surfaces were reduced while internal stress increased. Laser damage thresholds were found to increase only for certain conditions. Changes in the microstructure were observed. These preliminary experiments demonstrate that laser processing can dramatically improve the optical properties of fused silica substrates

  19. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the light-sample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy.

  20. Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer E; Rhodes, William T; Sheridan, John T

    2009-01-01

    Lucky imaging, used with some success in astronomical and even horizontal-path imaging, relies on fleeting conditions of the atmosphere that allow momentary improvements in image quality, at least in portions of an image. Aperture synthesis allows a larger aperture and, thus, a higher-resolution imaging system to be synthesized through the superposition of image spatial-frequency components gathered by cooperative combinations of smaller subapertures. A combination of lucky imaging and aperture synthesis strengthens both methods for obtaining improved images through the turbulent atmosphere. We realize the lucky imaging condition appropriate for aperture synthesis imaging for a pair of rectangular subapertures and demonstrate that this condition occurs when the signal energy associated with bandpass spatial-frequency components achieves its maximum value. PMID:19107157

  1. Lucky imaging and aperture synthesis with low-redundancy apertures

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Jennifer E.; Rhodes, William T.; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Lucky imaging, used with some success in astronomical and even horizontal-path imaging, relies on fleeting conditions of the atmosphere that allow momentary improvements in image quality, at least in portions of an image. Aperture synthesis allows a larger aperture and, thus, a higher-resolution imaging system to be synthesized through the superposition of image spatial-frequency components gathered by cooperative combinations of smaller subapertures. Acombination of lucky imaging and aper...

  2. Integrated fuses for OLED lighting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pschenitzka, Florian

    2007-07-10

    An embodiment of the present invention pertains to an electroluminescent lighting device for area illumination. The lighting device is fault tolerant due, in part, to the patterning of one or both of the electrodes into strips, and each of one or more of these strips has a fuse formed on it. The fuses are integrated on the substrate. By using the integrated fuses, the number of external contacts that are used is minimized. The fuse material is deposited using one of the deposition techniques that is used to deposit the thin layers of the electroluminescent lighting device.

  3. UAVSAR Phased Array Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Zawadzki, Mark; Sadowy, Greg; Oakes, Eric; Brown, Kyle; Hodges, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a patch antenna array for an L-band repeat-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) instrument that is to be flown on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The antenna operates at a center frequency of 1.2575 GHz and with a bandwidth of 80 MHz, consistent with a number of radar instruments that JPL has previously flown. The antenna is designed to radiate orthogonal linear polarizations in order to facilitate fully-polarimetric measurements. Beam-pointing requirements for repeat-pass SAR interferometry necessitate electronic scanning in azimuth over a range of -20degrees in order to compensate for aircraft yaw. Beam-steering is accomplished by transmit/receive (T/R) modules and a beamforming network implemented in a stripline circuit board. This paper, while providing an overview of phased array architecture, focuses on the electromagnetic design of the antenna tiles and associated interconnects. An important aspect of the design of this antenna is that it has an amplitude taper of 10dB in the elevation direction. This is to reduce multipath reflections from the wing that would otherwise be detrimental to interferometric radar measurements. This taper is provided by coupling networks in the interconnect circuits as opposed to attenuating the output of the T/R modules. Details are given of material choices and fabrication techniques that meet the demanding environmental conditions that the antenna must operate in. Predicted array performance is reported in terms of co-polarized and crosspolarized far-field antenna patterns, and also in terms of active reflection coefficient.

  4. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic...... from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...... tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance...

  5. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly to...... optimal for lesion detection. Synthetic aperture data are acquired from unfocused emissions and 154 compound images are constructed by synthesizing different aperture configurations with more or less compounding, all maintaining a constant resolution across depth corresponding to an f-number of 2.0 for...... transmit and receive. The same configurations are used for scanning a phantom with cysts, and it is demonstrated how an improved cysts contrast follows from an aperture configuration, which gives a higher value for the performance measure extracted from the phantom without cysts. A correlation value R = 0...

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, V.; Seller, R.; L. Dudas; Kazi, K.; Miko, G.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  7. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled‐source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de‐risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect. In this paper, we apply the concept of synthetic aperture to CSEM data. Synthetic aperture allows us to design sources with specific radiation patterns for different purposes. The ability to detec...

  8. Property of three-dimensional silica composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyao Jia; Zhimeng Guo

    2007-01-01

    Silica fibers-reinforced,fused silica composites were fabricated with repeated vacuum-assisted liquid-phase infiltration.The mechanical properties,thermal properties,and ablative properties of the samples were evaluated.The effect of the silica fiber content and treatment temperature on the flexural strength of the three-dimensional SiO2 (3-D SiO2) composites also was investigated.The SiO2composites show good mechanical properties and excellent ablative performance.The flexural strength increases with an increase in silica fiber content,and decreases with an increase in treatment temperature.When the volume fraction of the silica fiber is 50vo1% and the treatment temperature is 700 ℃,the flexural strength of the composites reaches a maximum value of 78 MPa.By adding cyclohexanone surfactant,the infiltration property can be largely improved,resulting in the density of SiO2 composites increasing up to 1.65g/cm3.The fracture surfaces of the flexural specimens observed using SEM,show that the pseudoplasticity and the toughening mechanisms of the composites are caused by absorption of a lot of energy by interface debonding and fiber pulling out.

  9. Blast Off into Space Science with Fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaugh, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity in which students build a fuse with steel, wood, light bulbs, copper wire, clay, and batteries. Uses the cross-age instructional approach to teach about the value of instructional time. Contains directions for building a fuse. (YDS)

  10. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of fuses. 18.52 Section 18.52 Mineral... § 18.52 Renewal of fuses. Enclosure covers that provide access to fuses, other than headlight, control-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  11. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: Silk–silica binding peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J.; Simmons, Leo O.; Perry, Carole C.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk–silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution–solution and solution– solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600–800 nm) were formed i...

  12. Bio-inspired Silicification of Silica-binding Peptide-Silk Protein Chimeras: Comparison of Chemically and Genetically Produced Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Canabady-Rochelle, Laetitia L.S.; Belton, David J.; Deschaume, Olivier; Currie, Heather A.; Kaplan, David L; Perry, Carole C.

    2012-01-01

    Novel protein chimeras constituted of ‘silk’ and a silica-binding peptide (KSLSRHDHIHHH) were synthesized by genetic or chemical approaches and their influence on silica-silk based chimera composite formation evaluated. Genetic chimeras were constructed from 6 or 15 repeats of the 32 amino acid consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes spider silk ([SGRGGLGGQG AGAAAAAGGA GQGGYGGLGSQG]n) to which one silica binding peptide was fused at the N terminus. For the chemical chimera, 25 equivalents of t...

  13. NPS high resolution synthetic aperture sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Welter, Joseph Donald

    1995-01-01

    This thesis investigated the use of synthetic aperture techniques to achieve a long effective aperture, high resolution, imaging sonar. The approach included a full simulation of the system using the MATLAB programming environment that provided a model for developing six data processing algorithms and a working 25KHz, 1 m baseline, air medium synthetic aperture sonar. The six azimuthal processing techniques included: (1) a normal, real aperture, (2) an unfocussed synthetic aperture, (3) a hyb...

  14. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Silica colloids and their effect on radionuclide sorption - experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-cementitious grouts have been tested in ONKALO for the sealing of fractures with the small hydraulic aperture. A non-cementitious inorganic grout material for sealing the fractures of the apertures less than 0.05 mm is colloidal silica called silica sol. In this work, the release of silica colloids from the silica sol gel, the stability of silica sol colloids and sorption of Europium-152 on silica sol colloids were determined in saline OLSO and low salinity Allard groundwater simulates, de-ionized water and NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. The salinity of groundwater had a significant influence on the release and stability of silica colloids. In OLSO, particle size distribution was at first wide from nanometres to thousands of nanometres. According to the disappearance of large particles, aggregation and sedimentation had been occurred after one year. Zeta potential values around zero indicated the instability of colloids. In Allard, particle size distribution was narrow and the particle diameter remained less than 60 nm. High negative zeta potential values were in accordance with the existence of stable silica colloids. Europium sorption on silica sol colloids was significantly dependent on solution pH. The Kd-values were 2-10 m3 kg-1 for OLSO pH 7-8 and Allard pH 8-9 and 100-140 m3 kg-1 for OLSO pH 10-11. In OLSO pH 10-11 samples Eu-152 was rapidly sorbed onto silica sol colloids and measured radioactivity in a liquid phase was at the background level resulting in inaccurate Kd determination. The concentrations of the released silica colloids were some higher than concentrations of natural colloids determined in granitic groundwater. The main uncertainties remain in the quantification of colloid generation under realistic repository conditions and how mobile colloids are. Irreversible sorption on silica colloids may increase radionuclide transport if colloids are sufficiently stable. Under the prevailing medium saline to saline groundwater conditions in Olkiluoto

  16. Dynamic simulation of flywheel-type fuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Rounds of ammunition are normally armed with a fuse. In this study, a fuse is developed which uses a flywheel-type mechanism controlled by time or distance. Due to its simplicity of operation and construction, the concept is expected to have high reliabil­ity. The dynamic response of all the components of this flywheel-type fuse is mathematically modelled. Simulation software was developed which connects the mathematical models of the various components. With the definition of boundary values, the response of the projectile, flywheel and other components can be determined continuously for firing and in-flight conditions.

  17. Fused combiners for photonic crystal bers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny

    The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis focuses on the fabrication of fused combiners for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. The main focus of the Ph.D. project was to further develop the fused pump combiners for airclad photonic crystal bers (PCFs), and implement a signal feed-through in...... tapered fiber bundle approach and was tested up to 2.5 kW of combined output power. Two components for the field of astrophotonics have also been developed. The first was a fused fiber bundle, designed to be placed in the focal plane of a telescope. By measuring the spectral content out of the individual...

  18. A flat laser array aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Stergios J.; Ricciardi, Gerald F.; Gross, Michael C.; Krill, Jerry A.

    2010-04-01

    We describe a design concept for a flat (or conformal) thin-plate laser phased-array aperture. The aperture consists of a substrate supporting a grid of single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from a linear electro-optic material. The waveguides are coupled to a single laser source or detector. An arrangement of electrodes provides for two-dimensional beam steering by controlling the phase of the light entering the grid. The electrodes can also be modulated to simultaneously provide atmospheric turbulence modulation for long-range free-space optical communication. An approach for fabrication is also outlined.

  19. High resolution non-iterative aperture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraczek, Jeffrey R; McManamon, Paul F; Watson, Edward A

    2016-03-21

    The maximum resolution of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging system is determined by the size of the synthetic aperture. The synthetic aperture is determined by a coordinate shift using the relative positions of the illuminators and receive apertures. Previous methods have shown non-iterative phasing for multiple illuminators with a single receive aperture for intra-aperture synthesis. This work shows non-iterative phasing with both multiple illuminators and multiple receive apertures for inter-aperture synthesis. Simulated results show that piston, tip, and tilt can be calculated using inter-aperture phasing after intra-aperture phasing has been performed. Use of a fourth illuminator for increased resolution is shown. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is used to quantitatively judge increased resolution. PMID:27136816

  20. The Legacy of the FUSE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission was a far-ultraviolet space telescope that performed high resolution (R=20,OOO) spectroscopy in the 905 - 1187 A spectral range. FUSE primarily observed stars and distant galaxies to study interstellar and intergalactic gas through absorption spectroscopy, as well as the properties of the objects themselves. This capability complemented the Hubble Space Telescope at longer wavelengths, and provided the international astronomical community with access to an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE was a joint project of NASA, CNES, and CSA. The mission operated from 1999 to 2007. This review talk will summarize the scientific impact of the FUSE mission on several key scientific problems, as well as lessons learned for future mission concepts.

  1. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications based...... statistically meaningful way. The fusion method was called spectral consistent panshapen- ing (SC) and it was shown that spectral consistency was a direct consequence of imaging physics and hence guaranteed by the SCP. In this paper exploit this framework and investigate two smoothing methods of the fused image...... obtain by SCP. The first smoothing method is based on Markov random field (MRF) model, while the second method uses wavelet domain hidden Markov models (HMM) for smoothing of the SCP fused image....

  2. A random fuse model for breaking processes

    OpenAIRE

    de Arcangelis, L.; Redner, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    We introduce and study a simple idealized model to describe breaking processes by analysing the current-carrying properties of a random network consisting of insulators and fuses. By increasing the value of the external voltage applied across the network, a sequence of fuses will « burn out » and change irreversible into insultating bonds. This process terminates when a conducting path no longer exists in the network. We monitor several basic quantities during this breaking process, such as t...

  3. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation and...

  4. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rosner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  5. Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Tayrien, C; McClure, M K; Li, A; Basu, A R; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J; Furlan, E; Kim, K H; Green, J D; Sloan, G C

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of fiber fuse initiation with exposure to arc discharge provided by a fusion splicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    The optical communication industry and power-over-fiber applications face a dilemma as a result of the expanding demand of light power delivery and the potential risks of high-power light manipulation including the fiber fuse phenomenon, a continuous destruction of the fiber core pumped by the propagating light and triggered by a heat-induced strong absorption of silica glass. However, we have limited knowledge on its initiation process in the viewpoint of energy flow in the reactive area. Therefore, the conditions required for a fiber fuse initiation in standard single-mode fibers were determined quantitatively, namely the power of a 1480 nm fiber laser and the arc discharge intensity provided by a fusion splicer for one second as an outer heat source. Systematic investigation on the energy flow balance between these energy sources revealed that the initiation process consists of two steps; the generation of a precursor at the heated spot and the transition to a stable fiber fuse. The latter step needs a certain degree of heat accumulation at the core where waveguide deformation is ongoing competitively. This method is useful for comparing the tolerance to fiber fuse initiation among various fibers with a fixed energy amount that was not noticed before.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of fiber fuse initiation with exposure to arc discharge provided by a fusion splicer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    The optical communication industry and power-over-fiber applications face a dilemma as a result of the expanding demand of light power delivery and the potential risks of high-power light manipulation including the fiber fuse phenomenon, a continuous destruction of the fiber core pumped by the propagating light and triggered by a heat-induced strong absorption of silica glass. However, we have limited knowledge on its initiation process in the viewpoint of energy flow in the reactive area. Therefore, the conditions required for a fiber fuse initiation in standard single-mode fibers were determined quantitatively, namely the power of a 1480 nm fiber laser and the arc discharge intensity provided by a fusion splicer for one second as an outer heat source. Systematic investigation on the energy flow balance between these energy sources revealed that the initiation process consists of two steps; the generation of a precursor at the heated spot and the transition to a stable fiber fuse. The latter step needs a certain degree of heat accumulation at the core where waveguide deformation is ongoing competitively. This method is useful for comparing the tolerance to fiber fuse initiation among various fibers with a fixed energy amount that was not noticed before. PMID:27140935

  8. 78 FR 14540 - Cyromazine, Silica Silicates (Silica Dioxide and Silica Gel), Glufosinate Ammonium, Dioctyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Cyromazine, Silica Silicates (Silica Dioxide and Silica Gel), Glufosinate Ammonium, Dioctyl Sodium... the registration review of cyromazine, silica silicates (silica dioxide and silica gel), glufosinate..., consistent with the notice published in the Federal Register of August 17, 2012, (77 FR 49792)...

  9. IGBT Fuses for Protection Against Explosion in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Rasmussen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    converter with standard High Speed Fuses or High Speed IGBT fuses. It is discussed that protection can be achieved by introduction of IGBT fuse located in the DC-link. Experiments show that explosion can be avoided by use of High Speed Fuse protection and the added inductance of standard High Speed- and...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.907 - Use of safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of safety fuse. 1926.907 Section 1926.907 Labor... of safety fuse. (a) Safety fuse shall only be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting caps dangerous. The use of a fuse that has been hammered or injured in...

  11. Light bullets and supercontinuum spectrum during femtosecond pulse filamentation under conditions of anomalous group-velocity dispersion in fused silicalicati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekalin, Sergei V; Kompanets, V O; Smetanina, E O; Kandidov, V P

    2013-04-30

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental research on spectrum transformation and spatiotemporal distribution of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity during filamentation in fused silica. The formation of light bullets with a high power density is first observed in a femtosecond laser pulse in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1800 nm. The minimum duration of the light bullet is about two oscillation cycles of the light field. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  12. Scintiscanning with a coded aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In scintigraphy the quality of the recorded image is a function of the quantum statistics of the photons, because only a small number of photons are available for an image. If the apertured or parallel-hole collimator is replaced by a coded aperture, e.g., a Fresnel-type zone plate of the proper size, a much larger fraction of the gamma quanta emitted by the object under investigation are captured, and there is no loss in resolution. A technique is described which allows the sequential reconstruction of various planes of the object while, at the same time, eliminating the spurious constant light fraction. For recording of the incoherent gamma hologram an on-axis zone plate can be used. In the coherent-optical reconstruction the gamma hologram is correlated with the zone plate used for the recording process. The experimental results shown are optical reconstructions of phantoms filled with 57Co. (orig./ORU)

  13. Airborne synthetic aperture acoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a system model and inversion for airborne synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging. The system model accurately represents the intercation of the acoustic source and the target region at near range values. Moreover, the model incorporates the fact that the relative speed of the vehicle's (transmitter/receiver) with respect to the target region is comparable to the acoustic wave propagation speed. The inversion utilizes the principle of spectral decomposition of spherical phase functions to develop a wavefront reconstruction method from SAA data. Processing issues and selection of appropriate acoustic FM-CW sources are discussed. Results are provided that exhibit the superior accuracy of the proposed SAA system model and inversion over their synthetic aperture radar (SAR) counterpart in which the vehicle's speed is assumed to be much smaller than the wave propagation speed. PMID:18282912

  14. The study on aperture configuration of optical synthetic aperture imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A model based on Fourier domain consideration on aperture configuration of optical synthetic aperture imaging system is introduced in this paper. The derivation of the model is directly linked to the restoration error of the original object from the recorded image. The aperture configuration is a function of the maximum frequency of interest, and takes into account the diameter of the aperture. The simulative results of genetic algorithms illustrate the usefulness of this model for designing a synthetic aperture optical imaging system, and the aperture configuration of a good synthetic aperture optical imaging system should be non-redundant.

  15. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Scott Carney, P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining mu...

  16. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  17. Heat diffusion in a two-dimensional thermal fuse model

    OpenAIRE

    Tørå, Glenn; Hansen, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We present numerical studies of electrical breakdown in disordered materials using a two-dimensional thermal fuse model with heat diffusion. A conducting fuse is heated locally by a Joule heating term. Heat diffuses to neighbouring fuses by a diffusion term. When the temperature reaches a given threshold, the fuse breaks and turns into an insulator. The time dynamics is governed by the time scales related to the two terms, in the presence of quenched disorder in the conductances of the fuses....

  18. Short term dynamic aperture with AC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Mönig, Saskia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal, Jaime; Langner, Andy; Tomas, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of an accelerator is determined by its non-linear components and errors. Control of the dynamic aperture is important for a good understanding and operation of the accelerator. The AC dipole, installed in the LHC for the diagnostic of linear and non-linear optics, could serve as a tool for the determination of the dynamic aperture. However, since the AC dipole itself modifies the non-linear dynamics, the dynamic aperture with and without AC dipole are expected to differ. The effect of the AC dipole on the dynamic aperture is studied within this note.

  19. CLASSIFIER FUSION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alipour Fard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study concerned with fusion of synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite imagery. Due to the difference in the underlying sensor technology, data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical sensors refer to different properties of the observed scene and it is believed that when they are fused together, they complement each other to improve the performance of a particular application. In this paper, two category of features are generate and six classifier fusion operators implemented and evaluated. Implementation results show significant improvement in the classification accuracy.

  20. Fusing Recommendations for Social Bookmarking Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; van den Bosch, Antal

    2011-01-01

    that use tag overlap and metadata provide better results for social bookmarking data sets than the transaction patterns that are used traditionally in recommender systems research. In addition, we investigate how to fuse different recommendation approaches to further improve recommendation accuracy. We...... find that fusing recommendations can indeed produce significant improvements in recommendation accuracy. We also find that it is often better to combine approaches that use different data representations, such as tags and metadata, than to combine approaches that only vary in the algorithms they use...

  1. A taper-fused microspherical laser source

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan M. Ward; Féron, Patrice; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2008-01-01

    We report on the realization of an integrated lasing device consisting of a microsphere optical resonator fused to a tapered optical fiber. A microsphere fabricated from Er: Yb-codoped phosphate glass is heated above its glass transition temperature of 375degC by pumping it at 977 nm with 70 mW via a tapered optical fiber. The onset of thermal stress in the glass at a maximum pumping power results in the sphere melting and fusing to the taper coupler, without inhibition of whispering gallery ...

  2. Fuse studies of dwarf novae during quiescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Sion

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos obtenido espectros de FUSE de varias novas enanas, los cuales revelan las propiedades de sus enanas blancas acrecientes, sus ritmos de acreci on durante la etapa de quietud y la naturaleza de las regiones capa borde/disco interior incluyendo la zona de acreci on en las enanas blancas. Entre los sistemas de los cuales presentamos resultados preliminares se encuentran BV Cen, WW Ceti, EY Cyg, SS Aur y VW Hyi. La contribuci on de estos estudios realizados con FUSE a nuestro entendimiento de la f sica de los discos de acreci on se enfatizar a dentro del contexto de la enana blaca y de la capa borde

  3. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in silica glass and KDP crystal: A comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Rolle, Jérémie; Duchateau, Guillaume; Skupin, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses propagating in silica glass and in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal are investigated by means of a unidirectional pulse propagation code. Filamentation in fused silica is compared with the self-channeling of light in KDP accounting for the presence of defect states and electron-hole dynamics. In KDP, laser pulses produce intense filaments with higher clamping intensities up to 200 TW/cm$^2$ and longer plasma channels with electron densities above $10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$. Despite these differences, the propagation dynamics in silica and KDP are almost identical at equivalent ratios of input power over the critical power for self-focusing.

  4. Silica-alumina trihydrate filled epoxy castings resistant to arced SF.sub.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Terrence E.; Yeoman, Frederick A.

    1978-01-01

    A cured, insulating, casting composition, having a coefficient of linear thermal expansion of below about 38 .times. 10.sup.-6 in./in./.degree. C and being resistant to arced sulfur hexafluoride gas, in contact with a metal surface in a sulfur hexafluoride gas environment, is made from hydantoin epoxy resin, anhydride curing agent and a filler combination of fused silica and alumina trihydrate.

  5. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the...... microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  6. Electrolytes. From dilute solutions to fused salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions with composition extending continuously from molecular liquids such as water to fused salts are relatively unusual but of considerable interest. Conductance and thermodynamic properties are considered for several examples. New equations for the activities of the respective components represent the data more accurately than previous treatments and delineate the similarities and differences between such systems and nonelectrolyte solutions

  7. Synthesis of Novel Dipyrazolopyrimidine Fused Heterotricyclic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓弘; 金桂玉

    2005-01-01

    Novel fused heterotricyclic compounds 3—6 containing two different dipyrazolopyrimidine framework were prepared from 1a—1d. The reaction of 1 with K2CO3 in DMSO or NaH in DMF led to the formation of 2 or 3, respectively, which reacted further to afford 6 or 5, respectively.

  8. Fused aromatic thienopyrazines: structure, properties and function

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of a fused aromatic thieno[3.4-b]pyrazine system and their application in optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Introduction of a fused aromatic unit followed by side chain engineering, dramatically enhanced the charge carrier mobility in thin film transistor devices and mobilities up to 0.2 cm2/Vs were achieved. The optoelectronic properties of these fused aromatic thienopyrazine polymers (Eg = 1.3 to 1.6 eV, HOMO = -4.9 to -5.2 V) were tuned by introduction of various fused aromatic rings within thienopyrazine. By balancing the fundamental properties of these polymers, both high charge carrier mobilities and moderate PCEs in solar cells were achieved. Further, effects of copolymerizing units are discussed. Low band gap semiconducting polymer (Eg ∼ 1 eV) with high field effect mobility (0.044 cm2/Vs) was obtained using cyclopentadithiophene as copolymerizing unit. Finally, a molecular design approach to enhance the absorption coefficients is discussed, which resulted in improved power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2004-01-01

    A method for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging and focusing along the flow direction is presented. The method can find the correct velocity magnitude for any flow angle and full color flow images can be measured using only 32 to 128 pulse emissions. The approach uses spherical wave...... emissions using a number of defocused elements and a linear frequency modulated pulse (chirp) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The received signals are dynamically focused along the flow direction and these signals are used in a cross-correlation estimator for finding the velocity magnitude. The flow...

  10. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

  11. Ultrasonic large aperture imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ultrasonic large aperture imaging technique is described. This device combines a focussed transducer as a transmitter, producing a small ultrasonic beam, with N transducers as receivers. We show that is possible to considerably reduce the number of receivers if, on the one hand, we limit the reconstitution process to the emitter beam area and, on the other hand, we ensure that the artefacts, caused by the spatial sampling of the reception, are outside this area. Under these conditions, the result is a high resolution image which does not require large reconstitution processing times. Theoretical and experimental results are given

  12. Tuning the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Imhof, Arnout; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Graf, Robert; Vollmer, Doris

    2010-12-21

    Heat treatment is a standard method to increase the hardness of silica in various applications. Here, we tested the effect of high temperature annealing on the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules by force spectroscopy under point loads applied to the particle shell. The Young's modulus of the shells moderately increases after annealing at temperatures above 500 °C. Temperatures over 850 °C result in a much stronger increase and the Young's modulus is close to that of fused silica after annealing at 1100 °C. NMR analysis revealed that in untreated microcapsules synthesized by seeded growth using the Stöber method only 55% of the silicon atoms form siloxane bonds with four neighbors, whereas the remaining ones only form three or less siloxane bonds each and, thus, a large number of ethoxy and silanol groups still exist. During annealing at 500 °C, these are successively transformed into siloxane bonds through condensation reactions. This process correlates with only a moderate increase in Young's modulus. The strong increase at temperatures above 850 °C was associated with a densification which was associated by a decrease in capsule size and shell thickness while the shells remained homogenous and of spherical shape. The main strengthening of the shells is thus mainly due to compaction by sintering at length scales significantly larger than that of local siloxane bonds. PMID:20963236

  13. Resonant Effects in Nanoscale Bowtie Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Guo, Songpo; Liu, Tao; Kinzel, Edward; Wang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas can be used to focus light well below the diffraction limit with extremely high transmission efficiencies. This paper studies the spectral dependence of the transmission through nanoscale bowtie apertures defined in a silver film. A realistic bowtie aperture is numerically modeled using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Results show that the transmission spectrum is dominated by Fabry-Pérot (F-P) waveguide modes and plasmonic modes. The F-P resonance is sensitive to the thickness of the film and the plasmonic resonant mode is closely related to the gap distance of the bowtie aperture. Both characteristics significantly affect the transmission spectrum. To verify these numerical results, bowtie apertures are FIB milled in a silver film. Experimental transmission measurements agree with simulation data. Based on this result, nanoscale bowtie apertures can be optimized to realize deep sub-wavelength confinement with high transmission efficiency with applications to nanolithography, data storage, and bio-chemical sensing.

  14. Practical Applications of Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging has been a focus of research for almost 3 decades. The research carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging has demonstrated that synthetic aperture focusing not only can be used in-vivo, but that it also yields superior B-mode and blood flow images. In the last...... years synthetic aperture focusing has moved from the lab to commercial products. The implementations vary in their scope and purpose. Some scanners use synthetic aperture imaging to improve the detail and contrast resolution of the system. Others to increase the image uniformity. Yet others use...... synthetic aperture acquisition to achieve high frame rates and superior flow estimations. On the other end of the scale are the systems that utilize synthetic aperture techniques to reduce the data rate and take advantage of modern computer hardware. Retrospecitve transmit beamformation, zone sonography...

  15. Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider passive airborne receivers that use backscattered signals from sources of opportunity transmitting single-frequency or ultra-narrowband waveforms. Because of its combined passive synthetic aperture and the single-frequency nature of the transmitted waveforms, we refer to the system under consideration as Doppler synthetic aperture hitchhiker (DSAH). We present a novel image formation method for DSAH. Our method first correlates the windowed signal obtained from one receiver with the windowed, filtered, scaled and translated version of the received signal from another receiver. This processing removes the transmitter-related variables from the phase of the Fourier integral operator that maps the radiance of the scene to the correlated signal. Next, we use microlocal analysis to reconstruct the scene radiance by the weighted backprojection of the correlated signal. The image reconstruction method is applicable to both cooperative and non-cooperative sources of opportunity using one or more airborne receivers. It has the desirable property of preserving the visible edges of the scene radiance. Additionally, it is an analytic reconstruction technique that can be made computationally efficient. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the image reconstruction method and to verify the theoretical results

  16. Advanced Optics Experiments Using Nonuniform Aperture Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lowell T

    2012-01-01

    A method to create instructive, nonuniform aperture functions using spatial frequency filtering is described. The diffraction from a single slit in the Fresnel limit and the interference from a double slit in the Fraunhofer limit are spatially filtered to create electric field distributions across an aperture to produce apodization, inverse apodization or super-resolution, and apertures with phase shifts across their widths. The diffraction effects from these aperture functions are measured and calculated. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and the calculated results makes the experiment ideal for use in an advanced undergraduate or graduate optics laboratory to illustrate experimentally several effects in Fourier optics.

  17. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  18. Practical Applications of Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging has been a focus of research for almost 3 decades. The research carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging has demonstrated that synthetic aperture focusing not only can be used in-vivo, but that it also yields superior B-mode and blood flow images. In the last years synthetic aperture focusing has moved from the lab to commercial products. The implementations vary in their scope and purpose. Some scanners use synthetic aperture imaging to improve the det...

  19. FUSE Observations of an X-Ray Bright Region in the Vela Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Blair, W P; Sembach, K R; Jenkins, E B; Sankrit, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a FUSE observation of an X-ray selected knot in the Vela supernova remnant. Spectra were obtained through the 30"x30" low resolution aperture and the 4"x20" medium resolution aperture. O VI 1032,1038 and C III 977 are detected strongly in both spectra, and S VI 933,944 is detected weakly only in the larger aperture spectrum. We also report the first detection of C II 1037 emission in a supernova remnant. The spectra show the presence of two kinematic components along the line of sight - one with both low and high excitation emission centered at a velocity of -50 km/s and another with only low excitation emission centered at a velocity of +100 km/s. We associate the -50 km/s component with the observed X-ray knot, and find a dynamical pressure of 3.7x10^{-10} dyne cm^{-2} driving the shock. We compare our results with data obtained using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope at nearby locations and find that differences in the spectra imply the existence of two emitting components in the ...

  20. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  1. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff- Branch of Industrial Minerals

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  2. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  3. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: silk-silica binding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J; Simmons, Leo O; Perry, Carole C; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk-silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution-solution and solution-solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600-800 nm) were formed in the presence of the recombinant silk and chimeras, which were smaller than those formed by 15mer-SiBP chimeras, revealing that the molecular weight of the silk domain correlated to the sizes of the condensed silica particles in the solution system. In addition, the chimeras (6mer-A1/A3/R5) produced smaller condensed silica particles than the control (6mer), revealing that the silica particle size formed in the solution system is controlled by the size of protein assemblies in solution. In the solution-solid interface system, silicification reactions were performed on the surface of films fabricated from the recombinant silk proteins and chimeras and then treated to induce β-sheet formation. A higher density of condensed silica formed on the films containing the lowest β-sheet content while the films with the highest β-sheet content precipitated the lowest density of silica, revealing an inverse correlation between the β-sheet secondary structure and the silica content formed on the films. Intriguingly, the 6mer-A3 showed the highest rate of silica condensation but the lowest density of silica deposition on the films, compared with 6mer-A1 and -R5, revealing antagonistic crosstalk between the silk and the SiBP domains in terms of protein assembly. These findings offer a path forward in the tailoring of biopolymer-silica composites for biomaterial related needs. PMID:25462851

  4. Silica, Silicosis, and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Kenneth Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response, which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements, suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, and autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However, numerous questions remain unanswered. PMID:27014276

  5. Silica, Silicosis and Autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Michael Pollard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases SLE, SSc and RA. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However numerous questions remain unanswered.

  6. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 56.12036 Section 56.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed or replaced by hand in an...

  8. Multimodal Plasmonics in Fused Colloidal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Teulle, Alexandre; Girard, C; Gurunatha, Kargal L; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen; Dujardin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the optical properties of noble metals down to the nanometer-scale is a key step towards fast and low-dissipative information processing. At the 10-nm length scale, metal crystallinity and patterning as well as probing of surface plasmon (SP) properties must be controlled with a challenging high level of precision. Here, we demonstrate that ultimate lateral confinement and delocalization of SP modes are simultaneously achieved in extended self-assembled networks comprising linear chains of partially fused gold nanoparticles. The spectral and spatial distributions of the SP modes associated with the colloidal superstructures are evidenced by performing monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy with a nanometer-sized electron probe. We prepare the metallic bead strings by electron beam-induced interparticle fusion of nanoparticle networks. The fused superstructures retain the native morphology and crystallinity but develop very low energy SP modes that are capable of supporting long range and s...

  9. Fused methods for visual saliency estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Amanda S.; Lyu, Siwei

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we present a new model of visual saliency by combing results from existing methods, improving upon their performance and accuracy. By fusing pre-attentive and context-aware methods, we highlight the abilities of state-of-the-art models while compensating for their deficiencies. We put this theory to the test in a series of experiments, comparatively evaluating the visual saliency maps and employing them for content-based image retrieval and thumbnail generation. We find that on average our model yields definitive improvements upon recall and f-measure metrics with comparable precisions. In addition, we find that all image searches using our fused method return more correct images and additionally rank them higher than the searches using the original methods alone.

  10. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2014-06-30

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  11. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  12. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  13. Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Ahmad Dargham; Ali Chekima; Ervin Gubin Moung

    2012-01-01

    Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three ...

  14. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  15. New antifouling silica hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Osuna, Ángela A; Cao, Bin; Cheng, Gang; Jana, Sadhan C; Espe, Matthew P; Lama, Bimala

    2012-06-26

    In this work, a new antifouling silica hydrogel was developed for potential biomedical applications. A zwitterionic polymer, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), was produced via atom-transfer radical polymerization and was appended to the hydrogel network in a two-step acid-base-catalyzed sol-gel process. The pCBMA silica aerogels were obtained by drying the hydrogels under supercritical conditions using CO(2). To understand the effect of pCBMA on the gel structure, pCBMA silica aerogels with different pCBMA contents were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the surface area from Brauner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements. The antifouling property of pCBMA silica hydrogel to resist protein (fibrinogen) adsorption was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SEM images revealed that the particle size and porosity of the silica network decreased at low pCBMA content and increased at above 33 wt % of the polymer. The presence of pCBMA increased the surface area of the material by 91% at a polymer content of 25 wt %. NMR results confirmed that pCBMA was incorporated completely into the silica structure at a polymer content below 20 wt %. A protein adsorption test revealed a reduction in fibrinogen adsorption by 83% at 25 wt % pCBMA content in the hydrogel compared to the fibrinogen adsorption in the unmodified silica hydrogel. PMID:22607091

  16. Thermal emission by a subwavelength aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture separating from the outside, vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures separating vacuum from the outside have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies which have an aperture much larger than the wavelength. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emissive power scales as T8 instead of T4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  17. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  18. Investigations on the homogeneity of silica glass and on the order of X-amorphous silica by luminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica glasses melted from crystalline SiO2 were exposed to ionizing radiation. At room temperature the spatial intensity distribution of the emitted luminescent radiation has been recorded by means of photographic or autoradiographic materials. Thereby schlieren and inhomogeneities are made visible and information is obtained on the melting process of the crystalline SiO2. Synthetic fused silica made from SiCl4 shows no luminescent radiation. Depending on the penetration depth of the ionizing radiation the bulk or the surface of the sample can be studied. The decay curves of the integral luminescence intensity yield data on inhomogeneities in the silica glass leading to conclusions on order state and structure. The luminescence intensity and its half-life are a measure for the inhomogeneity of the silica glass and the existence of so-called 'preordered states'. This connection between luminescence intensity and the order state is found also with other X-amorphous SiO2 modifications: silica gel, precipitated silicic acids, porous SiO2 glasses, aerosil, thin SiO2 layers, mechanically activated quartz: whereas no luminescence phenomena occur in disordered nearly ideally amorphous SiO2 species, the luminescence increases with increasing order degree of the SiO2 network and attains a high intensity in the case of the crystalline SiO2 modifications quartz and cristobalite

  19. Central aperture detection for auto direct read-write photoresist fabrication and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierchio, Justin M.; Zaverton, Melissa; Johnson, Lee; Densmore, Victor; Milster, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We show the design for a laser scanning microscopy defect detection system based upon the idea that the light can reflect off a photoresist-laden fused-silica sample containing defects, allowing height and depth information to be obtained through changes in light intensity. Image registration using predefined points is employed. Image processing techniques involving median and deconvolution filtering are used. Results show that the 2.1-μm resolution of these defects is obtainable, and receiver operating characteristic curves are used for quantifying results. Discriminabilities of 0.73 are achieved. Preliminary results for larger-array patterns through stitching processes are also shown.

  20. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1926.55, 1910.1000). OSHA also requires hazard communication training for workers exposed to crystalline silica, and ... identify, reduce, and eliminate health hazards associated with occupational ... safety and health? OSHA has various publications, standards, technical ...

  1. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. PMID:25817671

  2. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Ralston, Tyler S.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    The trade-off between transverse resolution and depth-of-field, and the mitigation of optical aberrations, are long-standing problems in optical imaging. The deleterious impact of these problems on three-dimensional tomography increases with numerical aperture (NA), and so they represent a significant impediment for real-time cellular resolution tomography over the typical imaging depths achieved with OCT. With optical coherence microscopy (OCM), which utilizes higher-NA optics than OCT, the depth-of-field is severely reduced, and it has been postulated that aberrations play a major role in reducing the useful imaging depth in OCM. Even at lower transverse resolution, both these phenomena produce artifacts that degrade the imaging of fine tissue structures. Early approaches to the limited depth-of-field problem in time-domain OCT utilized dynamic focusing. In spectral-domain OCT, this focus-shifting approach to data acquisition leads to long acquisition times and large datasets. Adaptive optics (AO) has been utilized to correct optical aberrations, in particular for retinal OCT, but in addition to requiring elaborate and expensive setups, the real-time optimization requirements at the time of imaging, and the correction of spatially varying effects of aberrations throughout an imaged volume, remain as significant challenges. This chapter presents computed imaging solutions for the reconstruction of sample structure when imaging with ideal and aberrated Gaussian beams.

  3. Evidence of a green luminescence band related to surface flaws in high purity silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, J.; Neauport, J.; Grua, P. [CEA, CESTA, F-33114 Le Barp (France); Fournier, J.; Fargin, E.; Jubera, V. [Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, ICMCB, F-33608 Pessac (France); Talaga, D. [Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, ISM, F-33405 Talence (France); Jouannigot, S. [Univ Bordeaux 1, LCTS, SAFRAN, CNRS, CEA, UMR 5801, Pessac (France)

    2010-07-01

    Using luminescence con-focal microscopy under 325 nm laser excitation, we explore the populations of defects existing in or at the vicinity of macroscopic surface flaws in fused silica. We report our luminescence results on two types of surface flaws: laser damage and indentation on fused silica polished surfaces. Luminescence cartographies are made to show the spatial distribution of each kind of defect. Three bands, centered at 1.89 eV, 2.75 eV and 2.25 eV are evidenced on laser damage and indentations. The band centered at 2.25 eV was not previously reported in photo luminescence experiments on indentations and pristine silica, for excitation wavelengths of 325 nm or larger. The luminescent objects, expected to be trapped in sub-surface micro-cracks, are possibly involved in the first step of the laser damage mechanism when fused silica is enlightened at 351 nm laser in nanosecond regime. (authors)

  4. Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476

  5. Powdered grit made of a fused cermet

    OpenAIRE

    Marlin, Samuel; Orera, V. M.; Peña Torre, José Ignacio; Laguna-Bercero, M. A.; Larrea Arbáizar, Ángel; Merino Rubio, Rosa Isabel

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Powdered grit comprising a fused cennet of zirconium oxide (Zr02) doped with a dopant chosen from yttrium, scandium, and a mixture of scandium and of almninium and/or of cerimn, and of nickel (Ni) and/or of cobalt (Co), said cennet having a eutectic stmcture, the contents, in mol%, of zirconium oxide, nickel and cobalt being such that 0.2S0Ni + O.l76Co :::; (Zr02+ dopant) :::; 0.428Ni + 0.333Co, and said powdered grit having a median diameter D50 ofbetween 0.3 /lm and 100 /lm.

  6. Fast Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time delay-and-sum synthetic aperture beamformer. The beamforming delays and apodization coefficients are described parametrically. The image is viewed as a set of independent lines that are defined in 3-D by their origin, direction, and...... implementation of the beamformer is optimized with respect to the architecture of a novel synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS), in which 4 channels are processed by the same set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In synthetic transmit aperture imaging, low-resolution images are formed...

  7. Dissociation of silica at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Damien; Boehly, Tom

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of the temperature and optical reflectivity of quartz and fused silica under shock loading from 100 to 1000 GPa have revealed evidence for dissociation of silica between ˜150 and 400 GPa. Using attenuating laser-driven shock waves a continuous record of the temperature and reflectivity dependence on pressure has been obtained in both materials allowing the specific heat capacity and electronic conductivity to be deduced. Results show that between 150 and 400 GPa the specific heat rises significantly above that expected from the Dulong-Petit law, indicating the presence of a latent energy. Coincident with this anomalous specific heat is a rapid rise in electronic conductivity. Both these observables suggest that dissociation is occurring in the dense fluid. In addition temperature measurements near 5000 K detect a discontinuity at the melt transition, as measured earlier on gas gun experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and by the University of Rochester under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  8. Solder fused interconnections in multilayer circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voida, G.

    1977-02-01

    A new solder fusion process has been developed for production of multi-layer cables and multilayer printed wiring boards. The multilayer process consists of three steps: (1) the photo-etching fabrication of the basic flexcircuit, (2) the lamination bonding of several flexcircuit layers together, and (3) solder fusion interjoining of the exposed lands to provide electrical continuity. Solder fusion is the unique feature of the process. In the solder fusion process the multilayer assembly is never in contact with highly reactive chemicals which, if entrapped, can lead to corrosion and dielectric breakdown of the assembly. Accurate layer to layer registration can be accomplished with the solder fusion process. A multilayer assembly produced by solder fusion can be shaped into three-dimensional configurations. The repeatable electrical continuity of solder fused interconnections in multilayer assemblies has been confirmed by microhm resistance testing. The solder fused multilayer assembly can be used very advantageously in highly sophisticated instruments and apparatus where portability, weight, bulk, environmental stability, and high reliability are critical requirements.

  9. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  10. Spectral fusing Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemon, Panomsak; Widjaja, Joewono; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-02-01

    Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) is one of many variations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques that aims for invariant high resolution across a 3D field of view by utilizing the ability to dynamically refocus the imaging optics in the sample arm. GD-OCM acquires multiple cross-sectional images at different focus positions of the objective lens, and then fuses them to obtain an invariant high-resolution 3D image of the sample, which comes with the intrinsic drawback of a longer processing time as compared to conventional Fourier domain OCT. Here, we report on an alternative Gabor fusing algorithm, the spectral-fusion technique, which directly processes each acquired spectrum and combines them prior to the Fourier transformation to obtain a depth profile. The implementation of the spectral-fusion algorithm is presented and its performance is compared to that of the prior GD-OCM spatial-fusion approach. The spectral-fusion approach shows twice the speed of the spatial-fusion approach for a spectrum size of less than 2000 point sampling, which is a commonly used spectrum size in OCT imaging, including GD-OCM. PMID:26907410

  11. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  12. Cation-Exchange Equilibria with Fused Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solute distributions of alkali metal, alkaline- earth, transition metal, and actinide ions have been studied in fused salt-cation exchanger systems. The fused salts employed were alkali halides and nitrates. The cation exchangers used were natural zeolites, synthetic zeolites, high-porosity glasses, and molten oxide mixtures. The molten exchangers were composed of Na2O and B2O3 in various proportions. The relative quantities not only determined the exchanger capacity and electrolyte penetration but also produced distribution coefficients for a given solute which varied over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, they produced marked reversals in the selectivity series. Additional studies on the anion distributions, miscibility diagrams, vapour pressures and diffusion rates in these systems have elucidated the mechanisms involved and the relation of selectivity to solute properties, system thermodynamics, exchanger structure and available functional groups. In the region of high Na2O composition, the distribution coefficients for mono-, di- and trivalent cations in NaCl have not only the same order of selectivity found in Dowex 50-HCl systems but also similar values for the distribution coefficients. The results are summarized qualitatively and compared to behaviour in aqueous systems (Table VII). (author)

  13. Diaphragm-free fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on tapered hollow silica tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guocheng; Jia, Pinggang; Liang, Ting; Tan, Qiulin; Hong, Yingping; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-07-01

    A miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by splicing a diaphragm-free hollow silica tube to a single-mode fiber and fusing the inner core to a taper is presented. The tapered zone forces lights to propagate from the fiber core into the silica tube, and the lights is reflected from the end faces of the optical fiber and the hollow silica tube. The contrast ratio of the interference fringe is determined by the minimum inner diameter of hollow silica tube. The responses of the proposed interferometer to high-temperature, gas refractive index, liquid refractive index and pressure were measured and were found to be linear with sensitivities of 16.26 pm/°C, 610.47 nm/RIU, -122.36 dB/RIU and 1.56 pm/kPa, respectively.

  14. Thermal stability of neutron irradiation effects on KU1 fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, M. [Materiales Para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: monica.leon@ciemat.es; Martin, P. [Materiales Para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid (Spain); Bravo, D.; Lopez, F.J. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [Materiales Para Fusion, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid (Spain); Rascon, A. [Metrologia Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid (Spain); Mota, F. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, DENIM, Universidad Politecnica, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Optical absorption spectra of neutron irradiated (10{sup 21} n/m{sup 2} and 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2}) KU1 quartz glass samples have been measured. The effects of post-irradiation isochronal thermal annealing, up to 850 deg. C, have been investigated. The general effect of the isochronal annealing is a decrease in the optical absorption bands as the temperature increases. Optical absorption bands have been identified with known defects from the literature, and their concentration temperature dependence has been analyzed. While the annealing curves of the E' and non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC) are similar, that corresponding to oxygen deficiency centres (ODC(II)) is quite different suggesting that the recombination of E' and NBOHC is part of the same process whereas the recombination of ODC is controlled by the presence of another undetected defect.

  15. Isoelectric focusing in continuously tapered fused silica capillary prepared by etching with supercritical water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel; Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2013), s. 4296-4300. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * resolution of ampholytes * supercritical water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.825, year: 2013

  16. Capillary electrophoresis: Imaging of electroosmotic and pressure driven flow profiles in fused silica capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George O., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the summer of 1994 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. This effort is a portion of the ongoing work by the Biophysics Branch of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The work has focused recently on the separation of macromolecules using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two primary goals were established for the effort this summer. First, we wanted to use capillary electrophoresis to study the electrohydrodynamics of a sample stream. Secondly, there was a need to develop a methodology for using CE for separation of DNA molecules of various sizes. In order to achieve these goals we needed to establish a procedure for detection of a sample plug under the influence of an electric field Detection of the sample with the microscope and image analysis system would be helpful in studying the electrohydrodynamics of this stream under load. Videotaping this process under the influence of an electric field in real time would also be useful. Imaging and photography of the sample/background electrolyte interface would be vital to this study. Finally, detection and imaging of electroosmotic flow and pressure driven flow must be accomplished.

  17. Picosecond nonlinear optical response of copper clusters created by ion implantation in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that, the authors have embedded nm-size Cu clusters in optically dense, thin (∼150 nm) layers using standard ion implantation techniques. The size and size distribution of the clusters can be altered by varying such ion-implantation parameters as total dose and current density. The layers exhibit both a thermo-optic and an electronic nonlinear optical response, depending on the mode of laser excitation. The electronic nonlinearity has a response time no longer than 5 ps

  18. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO2 optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  19. Predictive modeling techniques for nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi M; Abdulla, Ghaleb M; Negres, Raluca A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W

    2012-07-01

    Empirical numerical descriptions of the growth of laser-induced damage have been previously developed. In this work, Monte-Carlo techniques use these descriptions to model the evolution of a population of damage sites. The accuracy of the model is compared against laser damage growth observations. In addition, a machine learning (classification) technique independently predicts site evolution from patterns extracted directly from the data. The results show that both the Monte-Carlo simulation and machine learning classification algorithm can accurately reproduce the growth of a population of damage sites for at least 10 shots, which is extremely valuable for modeling optics lifetime in operating high-energy laser systems. Furthermore, we have also found that machine learning can be used as an important tool to explore and increase our understanding of the growth process. PMID:22772252

  20. Damage on fused silica optics caused by laser ablation of surface-bound microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajesh N; Demos, Stavros G; Shen, Nan; Feigenbaum, Eyal; Negres, Raluca A; Elhadj, Selim; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2016-02-01

    High peak power laser systems are vulnerable to performance degradation due to particulate contamination on optical surfaces. In this work, we show using model contaminant particles that their optical properties decisively determine the nature of the optical damage. Borosilicate particles with low intrinsic optical absorption undergo ablation initiating in their sub-surface, leading to brittle fragmentation, distributed plasma formation, material dispersal and ultimately can lead to micro-fractures in the substrate optical surface. In contrast, energy coupling into metallic particles is highly localized near the particle-substrate interface leading to the formation of a confined plasma and subsequent etching of the substrate surface, accompanied by particle ejection driven by the recoil momentum of the ablation plume. While the tendency to create fractured surface pitting from borosilicate is stochastic, the smooth ablation pits created by metal particles is deterministic, with pit depths scaling linearly with laser fluence. A simple model is employed which predicts ~3x electric field intensity enhancement from surface-bound fragments. In addition, our results suggest that the amount of energy deposited in metal particles is at least twice that in transparent particles. PMID:26906835

  1. Investigation and Control of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Nanoscale Patterns in Bulk Fused Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Refractive index changes in a-SiO2 consist of positive index variations or regular nanoscale patterns. We spectroscopically reveal the electronic and structural transformation of glass in the self-organized structures, indicating bond breaking and oxygen deficiency. We equally propose a method of real time control of nanogratings formation under the action of ultra -short laser pulse with variable envelopes. Application as polarizing optical devices is discussed.

  2. Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sheeba; Bellouard, Yves

    2010-09-27

    Femtosecond laser micromachining of glass material using low-energy, sub-ablation threshold pulses find numerous applications in the fields of integrated optics, lab-on-a-chips and microsystems in general. In this paper, we study the influence of the laser-deposited energy on the performance of the micromachining process. In particular, we show that the energy deposited in the substrate affects its etching rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal energy deposition value. These results are not only important from an industrial point-of-view but also provide new evidences supporting the essential role of densification and consequently stress-generation as the main driving factor promoting enhanced etching rate following laser exposure. PMID:20941045

  3. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  4. Thermal Emission by a Subwavelength Aperture

    CERN Document Server

    Joulain, Karl; Carminati, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture filled by vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures filled with vacuum (subwavelength blackbody) have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emittance scales as T 8 instead of T 4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  5. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  6. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stellar Imager, an ultraviolet, sparse-aperture telescope, was one of the fifteen Vision Missions chosen for a study completed last year. Stellar Imager will...

  7. Synthetic Aperture Radar Missions Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the LightSAR project and summarizes actions the agency can undertake to support industry-led efforts to develop an operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capability in the United States.

  8. Fresnel aperture pre-stack depth migration

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, I present the results of a new approach to pre-stack Kirchoff depth migration using the Kirchoff algorithm and the Fresnel aperture features in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic data in depth imaging. Another advantage of this method is that it requires no additionnal measurments compared to the traditionnal PSDM. Indeed, the Fresnel apertures are picked interactively, in a way that is similar to velocity picking, and thereafter used during the migratio...

  9. New multiple aperture arrangements for speckle photography

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Trivi, Marcelo; Bolognini, Néstor

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. We propose a multiple exposure specklegram by using an optical system whose multiple aperture pupil changes between exposures. In particular, we analyze experimentally two arrangements and we show that it is possible to store the required information by employing a minimum number of registers if an adequate selection of the pupil is done. We study the effect of the decorrelation (among the stored speckle pattern) introduced by changing the multiple aperture pupil arrangements betwee...

  10. Synthetic Aperture Techniques for Sonar Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, S&#;rgio Rui; Cunha, S&#;rgio; Matos, An&#;bal; Cruz, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    As demonstrated, synthetic aperture sonar is a technique that enables attainment of high quality, high resolution underwater images. Autonomous surface vehicles provides several advantages for synthetic aperture imagery. Not only it is possible to control the boat motion in this way, it is also possible to obtain navigation measurements with precisions in the order of the wavelength used in high resolution sonar systems. Furthermore unsupervised surveillance applications that combine the high...

  11. An autonomous boat based Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Rui Silva; Sergio Cunha; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) system being developed at the University of Porto to be used in a small autonomous boat for the survey of shallow water environments, such as rivers, deltas, estuaries and dams. Its purpose is to obtain high resolution echo reflectivity maps through synthetic aperture techniques, taking advantage of the high precision navigation system of the boat. In the future the production of bottom tomography maps is also considered through the use of...

  12. Split Bregman method for large scale fused Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Gui-Bo

    2010-01-01

    rdering of regression or classification coefficients occurs in many real-world applications. Fused Lasso exploits this ordering by explicitly regularizing the differences between neighboring coefficients through an $\\ell_1$ norm regularizer. However, due to nonseparability and nonsmoothness of the regularization term, solving the fused Lasso problem is computationally demanding. Existing solvers can only deal with problems of small or medium size, or a special case of the fused Lasso problem in which the predictor matrix is identity matrix. In this paper, we propose an iterative algorithm based on split Bregman method to solve a class of large-scale fused Lasso problems, including a generalized fused Lasso and a fused Lasso support vector classifier. We derive our algorithm using augmented Lagrangian method and prove its convergence properties. The performance of our method is tested on both artificial data and real-world applications including proteomic data from mass spectrometry and genomic data from array...

  13. Investigation of disintegration and arcing in electric fuses

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert Ernest

    2000-01-01

    This thesis essentially presents the experimental investigation of the fundamental phenomena of electric fuse element disintegration and its causation and influence on the subsequent fragmentation of the fuse elements when subjected to excessive fault currents. The basis of the study involved experimental observation of disintegration of fuse elements and the analysis of the dynamic responses of current-carrying conductors, which precipitate disintegration. The experimental tec...

  14. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Cakmak; Cemal Selcuk Isoglu; Ercument Aziz Peker; Huseyin Tarhan; Ulku Kucuk; Orcun Celik; Ferruh Zorlu; Yusuf Ozlem Ilbey

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vascu...

  15. Fast-acting self-healing metallic fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, F. C.; Renton, C. A.; Rabinovici, B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a fast-acting nonmechanical self-healing mercury fuse capable of protecting a high current circuit or device from overcurrent fault damages. Basically the self-healing fuse consists of two enclosed mercury reservoirs connected by a fine capillary tube filled with mercury that serves as the fusing element. It is pointed out that a better understanding of the energy conversion process involved in the operation of the device could help explore other device configurations (such as a tapering geometry and use of magnetic field to drive the arc into the fuse wall on inductive loads, etc.) and thus extend the range of capabilities for this type of protective device.

  16. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers attach a solar panel to NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  17. Development of a fused slurry silicide coating for the protection of tantalum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C. M.; Perkins, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a research program to develop a reliable high-performance, fused slurry silicide protective coating for a tantalum-10 tungsten alloy for use at 1427 to 1538 C at 0.1 to 10 torr air pressure under cyclic temperature conditions. A review of silicide coating performance under these conditions indicated that the primary wear-out mode is associated with widening of hairline fissures in the coating. Consideration has been given to modifying the oxidation products that form on the coating surface to provide a seal for these fissures and to minimize their widening. On the basis of an analysis of the phase relationships between silica and various other oxides, a coating having the slurry composition 2.5Mn-33Ti-64.5Si was developed that is effective in the pressure range from 1 to 10 torr.

  18. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  19. FUSE spectroscopy of PG1159 Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reiff, E; Rauch, T; Werner, K

    2004-01-01

    PG1159 stars are hot hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars with effective temperatures within a range from 75000 K up to 200000 K. These stars are probably the result of a late helium-shell flash that had occurred during their first descent from the AGB. The lack of hydrogen is caused by flash-induced envelope mixing and burning of H in deeper regions. Now the former intershell matter is seen on the surface of the stars. Hence the stellar atmospheres show metal abundances drastically different from the solar values. Our sample comprises ten PG1159 stars with effective temperatures between 85000 K and 170000 K. We present first results of our spectral analysis based on FUV spectra obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE).

  20. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  1. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08–0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12–0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21–0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology. (paper)

  2. Channel waveguides formed by ion implantation of PECVD grown silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low loss channel waveguides have been formed in silica-on-silicon by implantation with 5 MeV Si and Ge ions. In these experiments, the substrate was comprised of an undoped layer of silica (30 μm thick) which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The optical loss characteristics of the waveguides, as measured at both λ 1300 and 1550 nm, were independent of the implanted ion species. A minimum in the attenuation loss (α) of ∼0.10-0.20 dB/cm was obtained following both a pre-implant (1050oC) and a post-implant (400-500oC) anneal of the waveguides. The ability to produce a minimum in α by pre-implant annealing has been attributed to the thermally induced relaxation of the densified structure in the as-grown layer. Only a comparatively small degree of compaction was measured for Si-implanted samples which did not receive a pre-implant anneal. In contrast, the much larger degree of compaction in the pre-implant annealed samples was similar in magnitiude to that observed in fused silica. These are the first reported examples of ion-implanted waveguides using a substrate of silica grown by PECVD. (author)

  3. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und-pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on two different silica polymorphs (single-crystalline synthetic quartz and commercial fused silica glass) upon irradiation in air with multiple linearly polarized single- and double-fs-laser pulse sequences ({tau} = 150 fs pulse duration, {lambda} = 800 nm center wavelength, temporal pulse separation {Delta}t < 40 ps) is studied experimentally and theoretically. Two distinct types of fs-LIPSS [so-called low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL)] with different spatial periods and orientations were identified. Their appearance was characterized with respect to the experimental parameters peak laser fluence and number of laser pulses per spot. Additionally, the 'dynamics' of the LIPSS formation was addressed in complementary double-fs-pulse experiments with varying delays, revealing a characteristic change of the LSFL periods. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of a Sipe-Drude model considering the carrier dependence of the optical properties of fs-laser excited silica. This new approach provides an explanation of the LSFL orientation parallel to the laser beam polarisation in silica - as opposed to the behaviour of most other materials.

  4. Numerical simulation of the coupling of ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse into landmine by aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen-Ru; Zhao, Hui-Chang; Yang, Li; Wang, Feng-Shan

    2015-09-01

    The modern landmine’s electronic fuse is susceptible to strong interference or can even be damaged by the ultra-wide band electromagnetic pulse (UWB-EMP). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in lossy media with cylindrical coordinates is used to study the interactions of the UWB-EMP with the landmine. First, the coupling of UWB-EMP into the landmine shielding shell through an aperture is numerically simulated. Second, the coupled electromagnetic field of mine shells made of different shielding materials and with apertures of different sizes is plotted. Third, the aperture coupling laws of UWB-EMP into shells are analyzed and categorized. Such an algorithm is capable of effectively preventing ladder similar errors, and consequently improving the calculation precision, and in addition to adopting the message passing interface (MPI) parallel method to divide the total calculating range into more sub-ranges, the overall calculating efficiency is greatly increased. These calculations are surely a constructive reference for modern landmine design against electromagnetic damage. Project supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M552610).

  5. Manufacturing miniature Langmuir probes by fusing platinum bond wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires by fusing for plasma characterization in microplasma sources. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets on the ends of a fused wire, are intended to act as spherical Langmuir probes. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused with different voltages and currents. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 μm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing its dynamics. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, folded, serpentine shaped and semi-spherical. The stub length leveled out at  ∼400 μm as the fusing power increased. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power to yield a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and was fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the I–V characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between  −60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes, and will be considered for further integration. (paper)

  6. Determination and effects of trace elements in high purity vitreous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element impurities in flame hydrolysis Corning Code 7940 fused silica and J.T. Baker ULTREX silicon dioxide have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, spark source mass spectrometry, flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, optical emission spectrography, spectrophotometry, and other chemical methods. Particular care was taken to prepare samples and to carry out analysis in a clean environment with ultrapure reagents. With the exception of chlorine and water, the impurity level in the fused silica is in the parts per billion range for most of the 30 elements determined. Comparison of analytical results obtained by the various methods indicates agreement in most instances, although certain techniques were best applicable to selected elements. Correlation of trace impurities with such properties as transmittance and viscosity met with only limited success, perhaps because of the narrow ranges of impurity levels and properties encountered. (author)

  7. Double exposure specklegrams obtained by using scaled aperture pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Trivi, Marcelo; Bolognini, N??stor

    2001-01-01

    In speckle photography the pupil aperture is usually not modified between exposures. In our work, the change of the pupil aperture scale between exposures is analyzed on the basis of double-exposed image speckle, before and after a diffuse in-plane displacement is done. The apertures have the same shape but its scale is modified between exposures. Note that the relative position of the aperture is maintained. In particular, we analyze a simple case that uses a circular aperture whose diameter...

  8. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

  9. Large-aperture subwavelength grating couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fan; Ma, Qingyan; Wang, Yufei; Zheng, Wanhua

    2016-04-10

    Subwavelength nanostructure grating couplers fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates are used to simplify the fabrication process while maintaining high coupling efficiency. The main obstacle for their application in photonic integrated circuits is the small aperture size of the nanostructure when TE polarization is involved, since they are difficult to achieve with 193 nm deep-ultraviolet lithography and cause problems in inductively coupled plasma etching. A larger lateral period has been used to increase the aperture size. Here, we propose that decreasing the effective index of the nanostructure can also enlarge the aperture size. We analyze the two methods in detail with a rectangle-hole nanostructure and 220 nm thick waveguide layer, aiming at TE polarization centered at 1560 nm. We find performance degenerations for large lateral periods, and this can be simply compensated by adjusting the width of the rectangle hole. The minimum linewidth of the nanostructure can reach 240 nm, while the coupling efficiency is just slightly decreased. The backreflections of a large-aperture grating increase but stay in the same order with ordinary ones, and we also show that this can be overcome by apodizing the grating structure. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the designed large-aperture grating couplers and the coupling efficiencies are higher than 35%, and reach a rectangle-hole width. PMID:27139860

  10. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] aperture workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC Aperture Workshop was held November 5-9, 1984 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The workshop focused on issues related to the selection of an optimum aperture for the SSC. Aperture is a critical issue at this early stage of design, because it strongly affects both the construction cost and the satisfactory commissioning and operation of the collider. The workshop had a double purpose: To design a course of action for determining the needed physical and dynamic aperture and commensurate magnetic field specifications of a high luminosity proton collider with a beam energy of 20 TeV, and to prepare a proposal for carrying out the recommended R ampersand D program in two steps -- a four-month intensive phase to provide knowledge essential for conceptual design and magnet selection, and a longer term effort to supply details and ultimately to support the construction, commissioning, and operation of the new collider. To accomplish these objectives, the participants met in the following working groups, each led by a coordinator, which are discussed in this paper: test lattices; aperture requirements; magnet errors; formats, data bases, networks and lattice codes; tracking codes; analytical screening; and experiments on existing machines

  11. Fuse applied to designing a scram device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a fuse and its application to the building of an emergency shutdown system for liquid sodium cooled fast reactors. The object of this system is to shut down the reactor automatically without manual intervention when an operating anomaly might cause the core fuel elements to melt. There are already aluminium fuses making up a charge in an absorbant substance forming one piece with a fixed part of the reactor and suspended above the free channel of the reactor core. In normal operation, the aluminium fuse melts at 8000C. At normal reactor operating temperature (around 5600) it is found that the fuse creeps and this could prematurely trigger off the emergency shutdown system. The object of this addendum is to improve the fuses described in the main patent specification, making it possible to achieve the cooling of the emergency shutdown system and therefore of the fuse by the sodium coolant of the reactor, whilst retaining the essential characteristics of the fuse. This fuse is not affected by any creep that might occur and this prevents an undesirable triggering off of the emergency shutdown system

  12. Production of silica aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A production facility for silica aerogel has been set up in Lund. Aerogel is now produced in large quantities with the refractive indices of 1.03 and 1.05. The standard block size is 18 x 18 x 3 cm3. (Auth.)

  13. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The demand for protection of power electronic applications has during the last couple of years increased regarding the high-power IGBT modules. The consequences of electrical faults can be severe in special cases; not only on the equipment but also to people, if safety principles are not applied....... Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  14. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  15. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters...... F-number, number of emissions and the aperture size. They are considered to be the most contributing acquisition factors in the quality of the high resolution images in SA. Therefore, the performance of image quality is quantified in terms of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and the cystic...... resolution (CTR). The results of the study showed that SA imaging with only 32 emissions and maximum sweep angle of 22 degrees yields a very good image quality compared with using 256 emissions and the full aperture size. Therefore the number of emissions and the maximum sweep angle in the SA can be...

  16. Large aperture calorimeter for fusion laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    The authors designed and constructed a large aperture calorimeter intended for laser fusion measurements on beams up to 20 cm diameter. The laser beam is absorbed in a glass disc backed by a disc carry a resistance wire. Although it performs essentially as expected with a noise equivalent energy of 20 mJ and a maximum energy of about 100 J, difficulties in construction give a 17% variation of sensitivity across the aperture. To overcome this problem it would probably be necessary to adopt an integral construction with the resistance bridge formed from an etched film on the back of the absorbing glass.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  18. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  19. A Method for Synthetic Aperture Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    An approach to perform ultrasound spatial compounding using synthetic aperture data is proposed. The approach allows compounding to be performed for any number of directions without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. It is demonstrated how the contrast is improved by compounding and...... obtained when using 5 images. Using the same RF data, a synthetic aperture image without compounding reveals a CNR of -0.36, -0.93, -1.23, and -1.61 dB for the four cysts, respectively....

  20. Fabricating silver nanoplate/hybrid silica gel glasses and investigating their nonlinear optical absorption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chan; Wenzhe, Chen; Xiaoyun, Ye; Cai, Shuguang; Xiao, Xueqing

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoplate/hybrid silica gel glasses were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Analysis of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy extinction spectra confirmed the successful incorporation of silver nanoplates into the hybrid silica gel glasses. The silver nanoplate/hybrid silica gel glass composites are completely noncrystalline because of their low doping level compared with that of the silica matrix. The nonlinear optical absorption behavior of the silver nanoplate/hybrid silica gel glass composites was studied via open-aperture Z-scan technique with 4 ns pulse durations at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoplates are maintained after they were introduced into silica gel glasses. Furthermore, the silver nanoplate/hybrid silica gel glasses exhibit intensity-dependent transformation from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The SA behavior at low excitation intensity can be attributed to the bleaching of ground-state surface plasmon resonance absorption induced by the retarded electronic relaxation process in solid-state gel glasses. By contrast, the RSA at high incident influence may have resulted from excited-state absorption and two-photon absorption.

  1. Fusing website usability and search engine optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene B. Visser

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most websites, especially those with a commercial orientation, need a high ranking on a search engine for one or more keywords or phrases. The search engine optimisation process attempts to achieve this. Furthermore, website users expect easy navigation, interaction and transactional ability. The application of website usability principles attempts to achieve this. Ideally, designers should achieve both goals when they design websites.Objectives: This research intended to establish a relationship between search engine optimisation and website usability in order to guide the industry. The authors found a discrepancy between the perceived roles of search engines and website usability.Method: The authors designed three test websites. Each had different combinations of usability, visibility and other attributes. They recorded and analysed the conversions and financial spending on these experimental websites. Finally, they designed a model that fuses search engine optimisation and website usability.Results: Initially, it seemed that website usability and search engine optimisation complemented each other. However, some contradictions between the two, based on content, keywords and their presentation, emerged. Industry experts do not acknowledge these contradictions, although they agree on the existence of the individual elements. The new model highlights the complementary and contradictory aspects.Conclusion: The authors found no evidence of any previous empirical experimental results that could confirm or refute the role of the model. In the fast-paced world of competition between commercial websites, this adds value and originality to the websites of organisations whose websites play important roles.

  2. IMPROVED SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONAR MOTION COMPENSATION COMBINED DPCA WITH SUB-APERTURE IMAGE CORRELATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Zhang Chunhua; Liu Jiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Estimation precision of Displaced Phase Center Algorithm (DPCA) is affected by the number of displaced phase center pairs, the bandwidth of transmitting signal and many other factors. Detailed analysis is made on DPCA's estimation precision. Analysis results show that the directional vector estimation precision of DPCA is low, which will produce accumulating errors when phase centers' track is estimated. Because of this reason, DPCA suffers from accumulating errors seriously. To overcome this problem, a method combining DPCA with Sub Aperture Image Correlation (SAIC) is presented. Large synthetic aperture is divided into sub-apertures. Micro errors in sub-aperture are estimated by DPCA and compensated to raw echo data. Bulk errors between sub-apertures are estimated by SAIC and compensated directly to sub-aperture images. After that, sub-aperture images are directly used to generate ultimate SAS image. The method is applied to the lake-trial dataset of a 20 kHz SAS prototype system. Results show the method can successfully remove the accumulating error and produce a better SAS image.

  3. Thermal pretreatments of superficially porous silica particles for high-performance liquid chromatography: Surface control, structural characterization and chromatographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Mélanie; Sebban, Muriel; Tchapla, Alain; Mercier, Olivier; Cardinael, Pascal; Peulon-Agasse, Valérie

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the impact of thermal pretreatment between 400 and 1100°C on superficially porous silica particles (e.g. core-shell, fused-core; here abbreviated as SPP silica). The different thermally pretreated SPP silica (400°C, 900°C and 1100°C) were chemically bonded with an octadecyl chain under microwave irradiation. The bare SPP silica, thermally untreated and pretreated, as well as the chemically bonded phases (CBPs) were fully characterized by elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), and solid state cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) (29)Si NMR. The chromatographic properties of the overall set of C18-thermally pretreated SPP silica stationary phases were determined using the Tanaka test. Complementary, the simplified Veuthey test was used to deeply study the silanol activity, considering a set of 7 basic solutes with various physicochemical properties. Both tests were also performed on different commercial SPP silica columns and different types of bonding chemistry (C18, Phenyl-hexyl, RP-amide, C30, aQ). Multivariate data analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were carried out to define groups of stationary phases with similar chromatographic properties and situate them in relation to those commercially available. These different C18-thermally pretreated SPP silicas represented a wide range of stationary phases as they were spread out along the score plot. Moreover, this study highlighted that the thermal pretreatment improved the chemical stability of the SPP silica compare to untreated SPP silica and untreated porous silica. Consequently, higher thermal pretreatment can be applied (up to 900°C) before functionalization without destruction of the silica matrix. Indeed, a significantly lower dissolution of the thermally pretreated SPP silica under aggressive conditions could allow the use of the corresponding functionalized stationary phases at high

  4. Confinement of gold quantum dot arrays inside ordered mesoporous silica thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Yaqing; Zhong Haiqin; Zhang Xueao; Fang Liang; Chang Shengli

    2009-01-01

    Periodic disposed quantum dot arrays are very useful for the large scale integration of single electron devices. Gold quantum dot arrays were self-assembled inside pore channels of ordered amino-functionalized mesoporous silica thin films, employing the neutralization reaction between chloroauric acid and amino groups. The diameters of quantum dots are controlled via changing the aperture of pore channels from 2.3 to 8.3 nm, which are characterized by HRTEM, SEM and FT-IR. UV-vis absorption spectra of gold nanoparticle/mesoporous silica composite thin films exhibit a blue shift and intensity drop of the absorption peak as the aperture of mesopores decreases,which represents the energy level change of quantum dot arrays due to the quantum size effect.

  5. Confinement of gold quantum dot arrays inside ordered mesoporous silica thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic disposed quantum dot arrays are very useful for the large scale integration of single electron devices. Gold quantum dot arrays were self-assembled inside pore channels of ordered amino-functionalized mesoporous silica thin films, employing the neutralization reaction between chloroauric acid and amino groups. The diameters of quantum dots are controlled via changing the aperture of pore channels from 2.3 to 8.3 nm, which are characterized by HRTEM, SEM and FT-IR. UV-vis absorption spectra of gold nanoparticle/mesoporous silica composite thin films exhibit a blue shift and intensity drop of the absorption peak as the aperture of mesopores decreases, which represents the energy level change of quantum dot arrays due to the quantum size effect. (semiconductor physics)

  6. Parametric Beamformer for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a parametric beamformer, which can handle all imaging modalities including synthetic aperture imaging, is presented. The image lines and apodization coefficients are specified parametrically, and the lines can have arbitrary orientation and starting point in 3D coordinates. The beam...

  7. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  8. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  9. Synthetic Aperture Beamformation using the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Schaa, Dana; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    A synthetic aperture ultrasound beamformer is implemented for a GPU using the OpenCL framework. The implementation supports beamformation of either RF signals or complex baseband signals. Transmit and receive apodization can be either parametric or dynamic using a fixed F-number, a reference, and a...

  10. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. - Highlights: • A dataset containing all structural information of a given position is recorded. • The dataset allows reconstruction of virtual diffraction patterns or images. • Specific virtual apertures are designed to image precipitates in a complex alloy. • Virtual diffraction patterns from arbitrarily small regions can be established. • Using STEM diffraction to record the dataset is more efficient than TEM dark-field

  11. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleasman, Timothy; F. Imani, Mohammadreza; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  12. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the...... geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  13. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R. [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 27708 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  14. Analytic inversion in synthetic aperture radar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothaus, O. S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of processing synthetic aperture radar signals that avoids some of the approximations currently in use that appear to be responsible for severe phase distortions is described. As a practical matter, this method requires N3 numerical operations, as opposed to the N2 ln N currently the case, but N3 is now easily managed, for N in the range of interest.

  15. Experiences on synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging based on the synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT) improves the reliability of sizing and characterisation of structural discontinuities found in non-destructive testing of nuclear components. One of the main advantages of this technique is an improvement of signal-to-noise-ratio. The advantages are discussed in terms of practical applications and theory. (orig.)

  16. Compound imaging using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Hemmsen, Martin Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) is a technique with low complexity and the ability to yield a more uniform lateral resolution with range. However, the presence of speckle artifacts in ultrasound images degrades the contrast. In conventional imaging speckle is reduced by using...

  17. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometers : an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; McKague, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes 1) the progress of the work of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Instrumentation and Future Technologies Technical Committee (IFT-TC) Microwave Radiometer Working Group and 2) an overview of the development of interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometers as an introduction to a dedicated session.

  18. Synthetic Aperture Imaging in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Pedersen, Morten;

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) ultrasound imaging is a relatively new and unexploited imaging technique. The images are perfectly focused both in transmit and receive, and have a better resolution and higher dynamic range than conventional ultrasound images. The blood flow can be estimated from SA images...

  19. Aniline incorporated silica nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; Ian Maclaren; T Pradeep

    2006-09-01

    We report the synthesis of stearate functionalized nanobubbles of SiO2 with a few aniline molecules inside, represented as C6H5NH2@SiO2@stearate, exhibiting fluorescence with red-shifted emission. Stearic acid functionalization allows the materials to be handled just as free molecules, for dissolution, precipitation, storage etc. The methodology adopted involves adsorption of aniline on the surface of gold nanoparticles with subsequent growth of a silica shell through monolayers, followed by the selective removal of the metal core either using sodium cyanide or by a new reaction involving halocarbons. The material is stable and can be stored for extended periods without loss of fluorescence. Spectroscopic and voltammetric properties of the system were studied in order to understand the interaction of aniline with the shell as well as the monolayer, whilst transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the silica shell.

  20. Computational model of exploding metallic fuses for multimegajoule switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model for determining the time-dependent behavior of exploding metallic fuses is formulated. The model draws on an atomic data base and gives insight into the temporal behavior of the material density and temperature of the fuse as well as the nonlinear electrical circuit interaction. The model includes an embedding insulating tamper and leads to a plausible explanation of fuse ''restrike.'' The model predicts time-scale compression of 500 for inductive store systems powered by explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. A scenario for achieving multimegajoule foil implosions is predicted

  1. Experimental Realization of the Fuse Model of Crack Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Otomar, D. R.; Menezes-Sobrinho, I. L.; Couto, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present an experimental investigation of the fuse model. Our main goal was to study the influence of the disorder on the fracture process. The experimental apparatus used consisted of an $L\\times L$ square lattice with fuses placed on each bond of the lattice. Two types of materials were used as fuses: copper and steel wool wires. The lattice composed only by copper wires varied from a weakly disordered system to a strongly disordered one. The lattice formed only by steel woo...

  2. Three-dimensional synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new method for resolving three-dimensional (3D) fluid velocity fields using a technique called synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV). By fusing methods from the imaging community pertaining to light field imaging with concepts that drive experimental fluid mechanics, SAPIV overcomes many of the inherent challenges of 3D particle image velocimetry (3D PIV). This method offers the ability to digitally refocus a 3D flow field at arbitrary focal planes throughout a volume. The viewable out-of-plane dimension (Z) can be on the same order as the viewable in-plane dimensions (X–Y), and these dimensions can be scaled from tens to hundreds of millimeters. Furthermore, the digital refocusing provides the ability to 'see-through' partial occlusions, enabling measurements in densely seeded volumes. The advantages are achieved using a camera array (typically at least five cameras) to image the seeded fluid volume. The theoretical limits on refocused plane spacing and viewable depth are derived and explored as a function of camera optics and spacing of the array. A geometric optics model and simulated PIV images are used to investigate system performance for various camera layouts, measurement volume sizes and seeding density; performance is quantified by the ability to reconstruct the 3D intensity field, and resolve 3D vector fields in densely seeded simulated flows. SAPIV shows the ability to reconstruct fields with high seeding density and large volume size. Finally, results from an experimental implementation of SAPIV using a low cost eight-camera array to study a vortex ring in a 65 × 40 × 32 mm3 volume are presented. The 3D PIV results are compared with 2D PIV data to demonstrate the capability of the 3D SAPIV technique

  3. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas: near-unity aperture efficiency from arbitrarily-large apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Ariel; Eleftheriades, George V

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly-directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source cavity excitation is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectrum typical to standard partially-reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern. As shown, a single semianalytical formalism can be followed to achieve control of a variety of radiation features, such as the d...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  6. Photochemical welding of silica microspheres to silicone rubber by ArF excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent fused silica (SiO2) microspheres 2.5 μm in diameter were photochemically welded to transparent, flexible silicone rubber ([SiO(CH3)2]n) substrate by 193 nm ArF excimer laser induced photochemical modification of silicone into silicon oxide. Single layer of silica microspheres was easily formed on an adhesive silicone rubber before laser irradiation after dropping of silica microspheres dispersed in ethanol and subsequent tape peeling. The welding rate, the percentage of welded microspheres tested by ultrasonic cleaning with ethanol, was examined by varying the single pulse fluence and irradiation time of ArF excimer laser. The welding layer underneath microsphere, silicon oxide, was also found to emit white light of strong intensity under UV light illumination.

  7. Silica coating of polymer nanowires produced via nanoimprint lithography from femtosecond laser machined templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Deepak; Costa, Lino; Terekhov, Alexander; Lansford, Kathleen; Hofmeister, William

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication of regular arrays of silica nanoneedles by deposition of a thin layer of silica on patterned arrays of polymer nanowires (or polymer nanohair). An array of high-aspect-ratio nanoscale diameter holes of depths greater than 10 µm was produced at the surface of a fused silica wafer by an amplified femtosecond laser system operated in single-pulse mode. Cellulose acetate (CA) film was imprinted into the nanoholes and peeled off to form a patterned array of standing CA nanowires, a negative replica of the laser machined nanoholes. The cellulose acetate replica was then coated with silica in a chemical vapor deposition process using silicon tetrachloride vapor at 65 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam sectioning, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the silica nanoneedles. Precisely patterned, functionalized arrays of standing silica nanoneedles are useful for a number of applications.

  8. Modeling AXAF Obstructions with the Generalized Aperture Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; Stern, I.

    The generalized aperture program is designed to simulate the effects on the incident photon stream of physical obstructions, such as thermal baffles and pre- and post-collimators. It can handle a wide variety of aperture shapes, and has provisions to allow alterations of the photons by the apertures. The philosophy behind the aperture program is that a geometrically complicated aperture may be modeled by a combination of geometrically simpler apertures. This is done by incorporating a language, lua, to lay out the apertures. User provided call-back functions enable the modeling of the interactions of the incident photon with the apertures. This approach allows for maximum flexibility, since the geometry and interactions of obstructions can be specified by the user at run time.

  9. Coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays for mapping terahertz beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kannegulla, Akash; Rahman, Syed; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Cheng, Li-Jing; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We report terahertz coded-aperture imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays on a silicon wafer. The coded aperture was implemented using programmable illumination from a commercially available digital light processing projector. At 590 GHz, each of the array element apertures can be optically turned on and off with a modulation depth of 20 dB and a modulation rate of ~1.3 KHz. Prototype demonstrations of 4 by 4 coded-aperture imaging using Hadamard coding have been performed and this technique has been successfully applied to mapping THz beams by using a 6 by 6 aperture array at 590 GHz. The imaging results agree closely with theoretical calculations based on Gaussian beam transformation, demonstrating that this technique is promising for realizing real-time and low-cost terahertz cameras for many applications. The reported approach provides a simple but powerful means to visualize THz beams, which is highly desired in quasi-optical system alignment, quantum-cascade laser design and characte...

  10. Technical report on galvanic cells with fused-salt electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Crouthamel, C. E.; Fischer, A. K.; Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Johnson, C. E.; Shimotake, H.; Tevebaugh, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report is presented on sodium and lithium cells using fused salt electrolytes. It includes a discussion of the thermally regenerative galvanic cell and the secondary bimetallic cell for storage of electricity.

  11. High-Speed Fuses in IGBT based Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The demand for protection of power electronic applications has during the last couple of years increased regarding the high-power IGBT modules. Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if IGBT fuses do not protect it....... By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBTs can be achieved. This paper is a complete overview of a research project carried out in cooperation by Aalborg University, Denmark and Cooper Bussmann International. This paper discusses three main issues regarding the...... IGBT fuse protection. First, the problem of adding inductance in the DC-link circuit is treated, second a short discussion of the protection of the IGBT module is done, and finally, the impact of the high frequency loading on the current carrying capability of the fuses is presented....

  12. Fused Cast Alumina Refractory Products for Glass Tank Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Keyin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 Subject and Scope The standard specifies the requirement, testing method, inspection rule and requirements for the labeling, packing, shipping and storing of the fused cast alumina refractory products for glass tanks.

  13. Polymer Matrix Composites using Fused Deposition Modeling Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology that allows fabrication of complex three-dimensional geometries layer-by-layer. The goal of...

  14. Fused number representation systems and their barcode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sarkis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on: a) enhancing the performance of existing barcode systems and b) building a barcode system for mobile applications. First we introduce a new concept of generating a parametric number representation system by fusing a number of representation systems that use multiplication, addition, and other operations. Second we show how one can generate a secure, reliable, and high capacity color barcode by using the fused system. The representation, symbols, and colors may be used as encryption keys that can be encoded into barcodes, thus eliminating the direct dependence on cryptographic techniques. To supply an extra layer of security, the fused system also allows one to encrypt given data using different types of encryption methods. In addition, this fused system can be used to improve image processing applications and cryptography.

  15. Cesium iodide crystals fused to vacuum tube faceplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, H. G.

    1964-01-01

    A cesium iodide crystal is fused to the lithium fluoride faceplate of a photon scintillator image tube. The conventional silver chloride solder is then used to attach the faceplate to the metal support.

  16. Multi-static synthetic aperture radar and inverse scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2004-01-01

    In this paper synthetic aperture radar is analyzed from an inverse scattering perspective. It is shown that the classical point scattering model can be generalized to a dipole scattering model. The dipole scattering model reduces to the point scattering model for small aperture angles. For large aperture angles or multiple illumination apertures the dipole model gives an anisotropic reflectivity such that orthogonal scattering processes are separated. Moreover, it is shown th...

  17. Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, R. G.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Kim, T.-H.; Sekhar, P. K.; Bhansali, S.

    2008-05-01

    Infrared optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires is shown to have property characteristic of the material nanostructure and to provide the basis for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and biosensors. Silica nanowires of approximately 150 nm diameter were grown on a silicon wafer by metal-induced growth using a thin (20 nm) sputter-deposited palladium layer as a catalyst. The resulting wires were then ion implanted with 110 keV ErO- ions and annealed at 900 °C to optically activate the erbium. These wires exhibited photoluminescence emission at 1.54 μm, characteristic of the I415/2-I413/2 transition in erbium; however, comparison to similarly implanted fused silica layers revealed stronger thermal quenching and longer luminescence lifetimes in the nanowire samples. The former is attributed to an increase in defect-induced quenching partly due to the large surface-volume ratio of the nanowires, while the latter is attributed to a reduction in the optical density of states associated with the nanostructure morphology. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications.

  18. Optical absorption of neutron-irradiated silica fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, D.W.; Farnum, E.H.; Bennett, B.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Induced-loss spectra of silica-based optical fibers exposed to high (10{sup 23} n-m{sup {minus}2}) and low (10{sup 21} n-m{sup {minus}2}) fluences of neutrons at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) have been measured. Two types of fibers consisting of a pure fused silica core with fluorine-doped ({approximately}4 mole %) cladding were obtained from Fiberguide Industries and used in the as-received condition. Anhydroguide{trademark} and superguide{trademark} fibers contained less than 1 ppm, and 600 to 800 ppm of OH, respectively. The data suggest that presently available silica fibers can be used in plasma diagnostics, but the choice and suitability depends upon the spectral region of interest. Low-OH content fibers can be used for diagnostic purposes in the interval {approximately}800 to 1400 mn if the exposure is to high-fluence neutrons. For low-fluence neutron exposures, the low-OH content fibers are best suited for use in the interval {approximately}800 to 2000 nm, and the high-OH content fibers are the choice for the interval {approximately}400 to 800 nm.

  19. Functionally fused antibodies--a novel adjuvant fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin; Jensen, Kim Bak; Christensen, Peter Astrup;

    2008-01-01

    -, radioactivity- or effector-domain delivery. There is now a growing interest in using anti-idiotypic antibodies or other antigen mimics to induce potent immune responses against antigen structures in question. We have earlier reported on the functional rescue of antibodies that are active when fused to the phage......-idiotypic antibodies in mice, and facilitates the use of antibodies that are non-functional as non-fused soluble protein...

  20. Interdisciplinary Treatment of a Fused Lower Premolar with Supernumerary Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimli, Cengiz; Sari, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe combined orthodontic and endodontic treatment of a fused mandibular premolar with supernumerary tooth. The patient was a 15 year old girl seeking orthodontic treatment for the correction of maxillary and mandibular crowding. Cephalometric examination revealed skeletally Class I relationship. The panoramic radiograph showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers and two separate root canals connecting in apical third. After the endodontic trea...

  1. In-vivo examples of synthetic aperture vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2007-01-01

    would be needed. Synthetic aperture vector flow imaging could potentially provide this. The purpose of this paper is to test the synthetic aperture vector flow imaging method on challenging in-vivo data. Two synthetic aperture in-vivo data sets are acquired using a commercial linear array transducer and...

  2. An optimization algorithm for volumetrically segmented aperture-based IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few algorithms to create aperture-based IMRT such as Iterative least-square algorithm, Simultaneous projection algorithm (Cimmino's algorithm), Mixed integer programming, etc. In this present work, a Volumetrically Segmented Aperture Optimization (VSAO) algorithm is introduced and its usefulness in generating aperture-based IMRT plans is investigated in different case studies

  3. High Gain, Very Low Areal Density, Scalable RF Apertures Enabled by Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) approach be expanded with a specific focus on space exploration orbiting comm network RF aperture...

  4. A fused side-pumping optical fiber coupler based on twisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bokai; Chang, Xinzu; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Chen, Zilun; Zhao, Guomin

    2014-12-01

    Pumping coupler technology is one of the critical technologies for high power laser and amplifier. Side-pumping technology can couple pumping beam into inner cladding of the double-clad fiber through the side of the fiber. Compared to the end-pumping technology by tapered fused bundle (TFB), it has many superiorities. That the signal fiber was not disconnected guarantees high transmission efficiency, providing the possibility of transmitting a high power signal. Additionally, the pump light is coupled into the double-cladding fiber all along the coupler's body (~5-10 cm long), which reduces the thermal effects caused by leakage of pumping light, resulting in high pump power handling capabilities. For the realization of reliable, rugged and efficient high power fiber amplifiers and fiber laser systems, a novel kind of fused side-pumping coupler based on twisting is developed. The complete simulations were carried out for the process of side-pumping. From detailed information about simulations, we found that the pump efficiencies, one of the vital parameters of pumping coupler, have a significant influence with coupling length, the numerical aperture (NA) and taper ratio of pump fiber. However, the diversification of the parameters drops the high transmission efficiency barely. Optimized the parameters in the simulations, the pump and signal coupling efficiencies are 97.3% and 99.4%, respectively. Based on theoretical analysis, the side-pumping coupler was demonstrated at the pump and signal coupling efficiencies are 91.2% and 98.4%, respectively. This fiber coupler can be implemented in almost any fiber laser or amplifier architecture.

  5. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  6. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  7. Polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Xu, Yang; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional optical microscopy suffers from the well-known compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field. This is true for both structural imaging methods and their functional extensions. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) is a solution to the 3D coherent microscopy inverse problem that provides depth-independent transverse resolution. We demonstrate the extension of ISAM to polarization sensitive imaging, termed polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (PS-ISAM). This technique is the first functionalization of the ISAM method and provides improved depth-of-field for polarization-sensitive imaging. The basic assumptions of polarization-sensitive imaging are explored, and refocusing of birefringent structures is experimentally demonstrated. PS-ISAM enables high-resolution volumetric imaging of birefringent materials and tissue.

  8. Flame Reconstruction Using Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Preston; Tree, Dale; Truscott, Tadd

    2011-01-01

    Flames can be formed by burning methane (CH4). When oxygen is scarce, carbon particles nucleate into solid particles called soot. These particles emit photons, making the flame yellow. Later, methane is pre-mixed with air forming a blue flame; burning more efficiently, providing less soot and light. Imaging flames and knowing their temperature are vital to maximizing efficiency and validating numerical models. Most temperature probes disrupt the flame and create differences leading to an inaccurate measurement of the flame temperature. We seek to image the flame in three dimensions using synthetic aperture imaging. This technique has already successfully measured velocity fields of a vortex ring [1]. Synthetic aperture imaging is a technique that views one scene from multiple cameras set at different angles, allowing some cameras to view objects that are obscured by others. As the resulting images are overlapped different depths of the scene come into and out of focus, known as focal planes, similar to tomogr...

  9. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes;

    2013-01-01

    Conventional color flow images are limited in velocity range and can either show the high velocities in systole or be optimized for the lower diastolic velocities. The full dynamics of the flow is, thus, hard to visualize. The dynamic range can be significantly increased by employing synthetic...... aperture flow imaging as demonstrated in this paper. Synthetic aperture, directional beamforming, and cross-correlation are used to produce B-mode and vector velocity images at high frame rates. The frame rate equals the effective pulse repetition frequency of each imaging mode. Emissions for making the B...... estimation is −1.8% and the relative standard deviation 5.4%. The approach can thus estimate both high and low velocities with equal accuracy and thereby makes it possible to present vector flow images with a high dynamic range. Measurements are made using the SARUS research scanner, a linear array...

  10. Gel-silica science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-gel techniques can be used to produce two new types of optical silicas, termed Type V for the full density material and Type VI for the optically transparent porous material. This paper summarizes the processing differences between these six types of commercial silicas. The primary emphasis of this paper is to discuss the scientific basis for the processing of Types V and VI optical silica. First, however, the use of sol-gel processing of other systems will be briefly reviewed. The controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides has also been used to produce submicrometer TiO2, doped TiO2 (17), ZrO2 (18), doped ZrO2 (18), doped SiO2 (19), SrTiO3 (20), and corderite (20) powders. Emulsions have been employed to produce spherical powders of mixed cation oxides, such as yttrium aluminum garnets (YAG) and many other systems (20). Sol-gel powder processes have also been applied to fissile elements (21) where spray form sols UO2, and rigid gel spheres of UO-PuO2 are formed during passage through a column of heated liquid. Both crystalline and vitreous ceramic fibers have been prepared using the sol-gel method. Compositions include TiO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 glass fibers (22), high purity SiO2 waveguide fibers (23), Al2O3, ZrO2, ThO2, MgO, TiO2, ZrSiO4, 3AlO3-2SiO2 fibers (24). Sol-gel derived alumina grains are important commercial products (25)

  11. Variable-Aperture Reciprocating Reed Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Yang, Hong Q. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable-aperture reciprocating reed valve includes a valve body defining a through hole region having a contoured-profile portion. A semi-rigid plate is affixed on one side thereof to the valve body to define a cantilever extending across the through hole region. At least one free edge of the cantilever opposes the contoured-profile portion of the through hole region in a non-contact relationship.

  12. A Tutorial on Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Alberto; Prats-Iraola, Pau; Younis, Marwan; Krieger, Gerhard; Hajnsek, Irena; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for Earth remote sensing for more than 30 years. It provides high-resolution, day-and-night and weather-independent images for a multitude of applications ranging from geoscience and climate change research, environmental and Earth system monitoring, 2-D and 3-D mapping, change detection, 4-D mapping (space and time), security-related applications up to planetary exploration. With the advances in radar technology and geo/bio-physical paramet...

  13. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire, process, and display the ISAM reconstructed images at frame rates of 2.25 frames per second for 512 × 1024 pixel images. This system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems.

  14. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Tyler S; Marks, Daniel L; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-02-18

    An interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire, process, and display the ISAM reconstructed images at frame rates of 2.25 frames per second for 512 X 1024 pixel images. This system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems. PMID:18542337

  15. Motion compensation of Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, David; Long, David

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a digital signal processing technique which enhances the azimuth resolution of a radar image using the target doppler history created by the motion of the radar platform. If the platform deviates from a constant velocity, straight-line path then image quality is lost and image details become unfocused. Motion compensation (MOCO) is a technique in which the position and attitude of the platform is recorded or estimated and then used to correct the scene's dopp...

  16. Simultaneous Navigation and Synthetic Aperture Radar Focusing

    OpenAIRE

    Sjanic, Zoran; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipment is a radar imaging system that can be used to create high-resolution images of a scene by utilizing the movement of a flying platform. Knowledge of the platforms trajectory is essential to get good and focused images. An emerging application field is real-time SAR imaging using small and cheap platforms where estimation errors in navigation systems imply unfocused images. This contribution investigates a joint estimation of the trajectory and SAR image...

  17. Feasibility of Swept Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenus, Nick; Long, Will; Zhang, Haichong K; Jakovljevic, Marko; Bradway, David P; Boctor, Emad M; Trahey, Gregg E

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound image quality is often inherently limited by the physical dimensions of the imaging transducer. We hypothesize that, by collecting synthetic aperture data sets over a range of aperture positions while precisely tracking the position and orientation of the transducer, we can synthesize large effective apertures to produce images with improved resolution and target detectability. We analyze the two largest limiting factors for coherent signal summation: aberration and mechanical uncertainty. Using an excised canine abdominal wall as a model phase screen, we experimentally observed an effective arrival time error ranging from 18.3 ns to 58 ns (root-mean-square error) across the swept positions. Through this clutter-generating tissue, we observed a 72.9% improvement in resolution with only a 3.75 dB increase in side lobe amplitude compared to the control case. We present a simulation model to study the effect of calibration and mechanical jitter errors on the synthesized point spread function. The relative effects of these errors in each imaging dimension are explored, showing the importance of orientation relative to the point spread function. We present a prototype device for performing swept synthetic aperture imaging using a conventional 1-D array transducer and ultrasound research scanner. Point target reconstruction error for a 44.2 degree sweep shows a reconstruction precision of 82.8 μm and 17.8 μm in the lateral and axial dimensions respectively, within the acceptable performance bounds of the simulation model. Improvements in resolution, contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio are demonstrated in vivo and in a fetal phantom. PMID:26863653

  18. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generati...

  19. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed

  20. Class of near-perfect coded apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method. It is shown that the reconstructed image in the URA system contains virtually uniform noise regardless of the structure in the original source. Therefore, the improvement over a single pinhole camera will be relatively larger for the brighter points in the source than for the low intensity points. In the case of a large detector background noise the URA will always do much better than the single pinhole regardless of the structure of the object. In the case of a low detector background noise, the improvement of the URA over the single pinhole will have a lower limit of approximately (1/2f)/sup 1/2 / where f is the fraction of the field of view which is uniformly filled by the object

  1. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  2. Large-aperture hybrid photo-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the first complete large-aperture (13-inch diameter) hybrid photo-detector (HPD). The withstanding voltage problem has been overcome and we were able to attain an HPD operating voltage of +20 kV. Adoption of our newly developed backside illumination avalanche diode (AD) was also critical in successfully countering the additional problem of an increase in AD leakage after the activation process. We observed single photon signal timing jitter of under 450 ps in FWHM, electron transit time of ∼12 ns, and clear pulse height separation up to several photoelectron peaks, all greatly superior to the performance of any conventional large-aperture photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In addition, our HPD has a much simpler structure than conventional large-aperture PMTs, which simplifies mass production and lowers manufacturing cost. We believe that these attributes position our HPD as the most suitable photo-detector for the next generation mega-ton class water-Cherenkov detector, which is expected to be more than 20x larger than the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector

  3. Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik

    2010-04-01

    A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

  4. Coded-aperture imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coded-aperture imaging of the heart combines the advantages of tomography with good sensitivity, high resolution, and accurate size scaling. Since the images are multiplexed, the method may be adapted to small, portable cameras for bedside use without sacrificing image resolution. A new coded aperture designed especially for cardiac imaging has been constructed and tested. This aperture incorporates significant improvements over previous designs. Longitudinal tomograms are calculated at 1-cm intervals using a modified ART algorithm. Experimental lateral resolution at 140 keV with a portable scintillation camera is 3.8 mm FWHM at 4 cm, and 7.8 mm FWHM at 12 cm. Depth resolution determined from a sloping line source is 1.1 cm FWHM at 4 cm, and 2.9 cm at 12 cm. The calculated point-source sensitivities in air at 4 cm and 12 cm, respectively, are 20 and 8 cps/μCi. Images of good diagnostic quality have been obtained in phantoms and in a dog model of acute myocardial infarction, using thallium-201, technetium-99m pyrophosphate, and gated ventricular blood-pool imaging with Tc-labeled red blood cells. Preliminary studies in humans confirm the good results in animals

  5. Numerical aperture characteristics of angle-ended plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng; Farrell, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    With the increasing information rates demanded in consumer, automotive and aeronautical applications, a low cost and high performance physical transmission medium is required. Compared with Silica Optical Fiber, Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) offers an economic solution for a range of high-capacity, short-haul applications in industrial and military environments. Recently, a new type of POF, the perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber (PF GI-POF), has been introduced that has low losses and high bandwidth at the communication wavelengths 850 nm and 1300nm. POF is normally terminated perpendicular to the fiber axis. We propose an angle-ended POF, which is terminated at non-perpendicular angles to the fiber axis. The aim of the research is to investigate the numerical aperture (NA) characteristics of angle-ended POF along the major axis of the elliptical endface. A theoretical model indicates that the NA of the angle-ended POF will increase nonlinearly with tilt-angle and the acceptance cone will be deflected with the angle of the deflection increasing nonlinearly with tilt-angle. We present results for the measured NA and the measured deflection angle using the far-field radiation method. Results are presented for 13 angle-ended SI-POF tilt-angles. We also present results for theoretical value of NA and deflection angle as a function of tilt-angle. The agreement between the measured and theoretical value is good up to tilt-angles of about 15 degrees, beyond which deviation occurs.

  6. Jacobi-Bessel Analysis Of Antennas With Elliptical Apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Coordinate transformation improves convergence pattern analysis of elliptical-aperture antennas. Modified version of Jacobi-Bessel expansion for vector diffraction analysis of reflector antennas uses coordinate transformation to improve convergence with elliptical apertures. Expansion converges rapidly for antennas with circular apertures, but less rapidly for elliptical apertures. Difference in convergence behavior between circular and elliptical Jacobi-Bessel algorithms indicated by highest values of indices m, n, and p required to achieve same accuracy in computed radiation pattern of offset paraboloidal antenna with elliptical aperture.

  7. Cluster speckle structures through multiple apertures forming a closed curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, E.; Tebaldi, M.; Lencina, A.; Bolognini, N.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, cluster-like speckle patterns are analyzed. These patterns are generated when a diffuser illuminated by coherent light is imaged by a lens having a pupil mask with multiple apertures forming a closed curve. We show that the cluster structure results from the complex modulation produced inside each speckle which is generated by multiple interferences of light through the apertures. In particular, when the apertures are uniformly distributed along a closed curve, the resulting image speckle cluster replicates the pupil aperture distribution. Experimental results and theoretical simulations show that cluster features depend on the apertures distribution and the size of the closed curves.

  8. Calibration of the TUD Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The TUD Synthetic Aperture Radiometer is a 2-channel demonstration model that can simulate a thinned aperture radiometer having an unfilled aperture consisting of several small antenna elements. Aperture synthesis obtained by interferometric measurements using the antenna elements in pairs......, followed by an image reconstruction based on an inverse Fourier transform, results in an imaging instrument without the need of mechanical scan. The thinned aperture and the non-scanning feature make the technique attractive for low frequency spaceborne radiometer systems, e.g. at L-band. Initial...

  9. Crossed aperture lenses for the correction of chromatic and aperture aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromatic and aperture aberrations of crossed five-aperture lenses are analyzed by direct ray tracing. The apertures are rectangular and the voltages are applied in such a way that the first-order properties of the crossed lens are similar to those of a quadrupole doublet. It is shown that in astigmatic modes the chromatic and aperture aberrations of one of the linear images can be simultaneously eliminated or made negative. It is also shown that stigmatic modes exist in which the magnification is different in two perpendicular planes and in which the image blurring caused by the chromatic and aperture aberrations in the direction of smaller magnification is ten times smaller than that given by a round lens of the same focal length and the blurring in the other direction is at least two times smaller. The stigmatic crossed lens also gives a larger working distance than the equivalent round lens. The crossed lens will therefore be preferable for many probe forming systems. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Parameters for HL-LHC aperture calculations and comparison with aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Fartoukh, S; Giovannozzi, M; Redaelli, S; Tomas, R; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    When β∗ is squeezed to smaller values in the LHC, the beam size in the inner triplet increases so that the aperture risks to be exposed to unwanted beam losses. A 2D calculation model was used during the design stage to study the aperture margins, both there and at other potential bottlenecks. Based on assumptions on orbit and optics errors, as well as mechanical tolerances, it gives the available aperture in units of the RMS beam size, which can be compared with what can be protected by the collimation system. During the LHC Run I in 2010-2013, several of the error tolerances have been found smaller than the design assumptions. Furthermore, the aperture has been measured with beam several times and the results are compatible with a very well aligned machine, with results close to the design values. In this report, we therefore review the assumptions in the model and propose an updated set of input parameters to be used for aperture calculations at top energy in HL-LHC. The new parameter set is based on th...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12037 - Fuses in high-potential circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuses in high-potential circuits. 57.12037... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12037 Fuses in high-potential circuits. Fuse tongs or hotline tools, shall be used when fuses are removed or replaced in high-potential circuits....

  12. 30 CFR 56.12037 - Fuses in high-potential circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuses in high-potential circuits. 56.12037 Section 56.12037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12037 Fuses in high-potential circuits. Fuse tongs or hot line tools shall be used when fuses...

  13. 30 CFR 28.3 - Installation, use, and maintenance of approved fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuses. 28.3 Section 28.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT... maintenance of approved fuses. Approved fuses shall be installed and maintained in accordance with...

  14. Electrochemically Formed Porous Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Chazalviel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled electrochemical formation of porous silica can be realized in dilute aqueous, neutral-pH, fluoride medium. Formation of a porous film is initiated by sweeping the potential applied to silicon to values higher than 20 V. Film formation, reaching a steady state, may be pursued in a wide range of potentials, including lower potentials. The origin of a threshold potential for porous film initiation has been explained quantitatively. All of the films appear mesoporous. Films grown at high potentials exhibit a variety of macrostructures superimposed on the mesoporosity. These macrostructures result from selective dissolution of silica induced by local pH lowering due to oxygen evolution. Films grown at potentials lower than 15 V appear uniform on the micrometer scale. However, all of the films also exhibit a stratified structure on the scale of a few tens of nanometres. This periodic structure can be traced back to the oscillatory behavior observed during the electrochemical dissolution of silicon in fluoride medium. It suggests that periodic breaking of the growing film may be responsible for this morphology.

  15. Silica aerogel Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method for making silica aerogel Cherenkov counters has been developed at KEK, and some tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the counters. The method for making silica aerogel with refractive index between 1.01 and 1.06 is explained in detail. Chemical reaction with methanol, pressure and temperature conditions, and the structure of the autoclave are described together with the whole process. About 20 l aerogel is now produced per week at KEK. The dimensions of the aerogel module is 200 x 100 x 300 mm3. The aerogel with refractive index larger than 1.06 is produced from the aerogel with refractive index 1.06 by heating it up to about 900 deg C. The refractive index can be controlled by the temperature and duration of heating. Refractive index in relation to these conditions is listed in a table. However, the dispersion of the index is about ten times as large as that for the aerogel with lower index (<1.06). The wave length dependence of the transmission length of light for the aerogel was measured and compared with other data obtained at various laboratories. The performance of the counter was evaluated through the experiment with π beam. Average number of photoelectrons gathered is plotted in relation to momentum. It is deduced from the experiment that the saturation thickness of the aerogel is about 10 cm. Two examples of the practical use of the aerogel counter at KEK are also shortly described. (Aoki, K.)

  16. Aperture Size Effect on Extracted Negative Ion Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Svensson, L.; Riz, D.

    2009-03-01

    This paper discusses experimental results obtained at the 1 MV testbed at CEA Cadarache that appear to show a higher extracted D- current density from small apertures. Plasma grids with different shapes have been installed and tested. All grids had one single aperture. The tests were done in volume operation and in caesium operation. We tested four grids, two with O/14 mm, one with O/11 mm and one with O/8 mm apertures. No aperture size effect was observed in volume operation. In caesiated operation the extracted current density for the O/8 mm aperture appears to be significantly higher (˜50%) than for the O/14 mm aperture. Simulations with a 3D Monte Carlo Trajectory Following Code have shown an aperture size effect of about 20%. Finally, as byproducts of the experiments, data on backstreaming positive ions and the temperature of the plasma grid have been obtained.

  17. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F., E-mail: bernard.phlips@nrl.navy.mil; Hutcheson, Anthony L., E-mail: anthony.hutcheson@nrl.navy.mil; Wulf, Eric A., E-mail: eric.wulf@nrl.navy.mil

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  18. Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate

  19. Implantation-induced surface and structural modification of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ion irradiation of silica results in compaction of the substrate over the extent of the ion range where the resulting increase in refractive index has applications to optical waveguide fabrication. For the present report, several non-conventional analytical techniques have been utilised to characterise the surface and structural modifications of silica resulting from ion implantation with the aim of yielding further insight into this technologically-relevant process. Substrates of both fused silica and PECVD-grown silica-on-Si were implanted with Si ions at an energy of 5 MeV and a temperature of -196 deg C over a range of ion doses. Compaction of the substrate was characterised as a function of ion dose with both standard profilometry and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). With the former, saturation of the compaction at an ion dose of 1E15 /cm2 was observed. With the latter, complementary information on implantation-induced changes at the atomic scale were determined, specifically, EXAFS was used to differentiate the influences of bond length and bond angle changes in the compaction process. Furthermore, a novel in-situ photographic technique has been developed to record the state of the substrate surface, at a temperature of -196 deg C and under vacuum conditions, during ion implantation. Cracking of the surface, as a means of stress relief, was observed at doses less than that required for saturation of the compaction. Crack formation was studied as a function of both ion dose and energy, the latter to differentiate the influences of electronic and nuclear stopping processes. Thereafter, the evolution of the cracked surface was characterised as a function of temperature, pressure and ambient

  20. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin C. Lechner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed.

  1. Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system

    OpenAIRE

    Ming CAI; Hunziker, Guido; Vahala, Kerry J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-optical passive four-port system including a fused silica microsphere and two tapered fibers is proposed and demonstrated for the application as a channel adding-dropping device. It is shown that channels can be selectively exchanged between two fibers by coupling to a whispering gallery mode resonance in the microsphere. Finesse in excess of 11150 is measured for the loaded whispering gallery modes.

  2. Modification of silica surface by sub- and supercritical water with potential improvement in analytical and microfluidic devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal; Grym, Jakub; Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, Lenka; Planeta, Josef

    Latvia: Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, 2011 - (Kažoka, H.). s. 93 [Nordic Separation Science Society Conference /6./. 24.09.2011-27.09.2011, Riga] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : supercritical water * surface treatment * fused silica and glass Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.nosss.eu

  3. Influence of System Parameters on Fuse Protection Use in Regenerative DC Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Salman Qamber; Hedaia Al-Asooly; Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-01-01

    Current limiting fuses are widely used to protect the thyristors in DC drive systems. One very important problem is the choice of the correct voltage rating for fuses protecting regenerative DC drives, where many types of fault may occur, which makes fuse protection difficult. In the event of a commutation failure while regenerating, the fuses need to interrupt the loop supplied by the AC and DC voltages acting in series, which is the most difficult case for protection by fuses. In this paper...

  4. Optimization of synthetic aperture image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generating high resolution SA images. Optimization of the image quality is mainly performed based on measures such as F-number, number of emissions and the aperture size. They are considered to be the most contributing acquisition factors in the quality of the high resolution images in SA. Therefore, the performance of image quality is quantified in terms of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and the cystic resolution (CTR). The results of the study showed that SA imaging with only 32 emissions and maximum sweep angle of 22 degrees yields a very good image quality compared with using 256 emissions and the full aperture size. Therefore the number of emissions and the maximum sweep angle in the SA can be optimized to reach a reasonably good performance, and to increase the frame rate by lowering the required number of emissions. All the measurements are performed using the experimental SARUS scanner connected to a λ/2-pitch transducer. A wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom containing anechoic cysts are scanned using the optimized parameters for the transducer. Measurements coincide with simulations.

  5. On Fusing Recursive Traversals of K-d Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; Kim, Jinsung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Pouchet, Louis-Noel; Rastello, Fabrice; Harrison, Robert J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2016-03-17

    Loop fusion is a key program transformation for data locality optimization that is implemented in production compilers. But optimizing compilers currently cannot exploit fusion opportunities across a set of recursive tree traversal computations with producer-consumer relationships. In this paper, we develop a compile-time approach to dependence characterization and program transformation to enable fusion across recursively specified traversals over k-ary trees. We present the FuseT source-to-source code transformation framework to automatically generate fused composite recursive operators from an input program containing a sequence of primitive recursive operators. We use our framework to implement fused operators for MADNESS, Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation. We show that locality optimization through fusion can offer more than an order of magnitude performance improvement.

  6. Ferrocene-fused derivatives of acenes, tropones and thiepins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Bidhya Laxmi

    This research project is concentrated on tuning the properties of small organic molecules, namely polyacenes, tropones and thiepins, by incorporating redox-active transition metal centers pi-bonded to terminal cyclopentadienyl ligands. Organometallicfused acenequinones, tropones, thiepins and cyclopentadiene-capped polyacenes were synthesized and characterized. This work was divided into three parts: first, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused acenequinones, cyclopentadiene-capped acenequinones and their subsequent aromatization to polyacenes; second, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused tropones, thiotropones and tropone oxime; and third, the synthesis of ferrocene-fused thiepins. Ferrocene-fused quinones are the precursors to our target complexes. Our synthetic route to ferrocenequinones involved two-fold aldol condensation between 1,2- diformylferrocene and naphthalene-1,4-diol or anthracene-1,4-diol, and four-fold condensation between 1,2-diformylferrocene and 1,4-cyclohexanedione. Reduction of ferrocene-fused quinones with borane in THF resulted in ferrocene-fused dihydroacenes. Attempts to reduce ferrocene-fused acenequinones with sodium dithionite led to metalfree cyclopentadiene- (Cp-) capped acenequinones. Cp-capped acenequinones were aromatized to bis(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl polyacenes by using lithium (triisopropylsilyl)acetylide (TIPSC≡CLi) with subsequent dehydroxylation by stannous chloride. The compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. Further, the electronic properties of these compounds were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry showed oxidation potentials of Cp-capped TIPS-tetracene and bis-Cp-capped TIPS-anthracene as 0.49 V and 0.61 V, respectively (vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium). The electrochemical band gaps were 2.15 eV and 2.58 eV, respectively. Organic thin-film transistor device performance of Cp-capped polyacenes was studied using solution deposition

  7. CROSSED FUSED RENAL ECTOPIA MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crossed renal ectopia is one of the rarest congenital malformations where a kidney is located on the side opposite to the side of its ureteral insertion into the urinary bladder and is generally fused with the normally located ipsilateral mate. Generally this anomaly remains as a silent clinical entity and is incidentally detected during evaluation for other conditions. We report here three such cases of crossed fused renal ectopia detected by multidetector row contrast enhanced computed tomography. Crossed fused renal ectopia of inferior type was observed in a male on the right side with the ureter of the ectopic left kidney crossing the midline. In two female patients, L-shaped or tandem kidney was noted, one on the right and another on the left side. Over all in two cases the left kidney was ectopic and in one the right kidney. No renal pathologies like urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis or hematuria were found in our patients.

  8. Endodontic Treatment of Fused Teeth with Talon Cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Miri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth anomalies are rare phenomena that may be reported by patients as chief complaints or may be discovered by dentists in the oral examination. In a few cases, rare anomalies are found together in one mouth. Decision to treat such anomalies depends on whether or not they interfere with function and esthetics and also the patient's preference. In the present case, a 19-year-old male presented with two right maxillary fused central and lateral incisors and a geminated left maxillary central incisor. A talon-like projection was found at the junction site of the fused teeth. His chief complaint was sensitivity to cold at the site of the giant fused tooth. This report describes the process of diagnosis and treatment of the two anomalies according to patient preference and needs.

  9. Biogenic nanostructured silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon is by far the most abundant element in the earth crust and also is an essential element for higher plants, yet its biology and mechanisms in plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses are poorly understood. Based on the molecular mechanisms of the biosilicification in marine organisms such as diatoms and sponges, the cell wall template-mediated self-assembly of nanostructured silica in marine organisms and higher plants as well as the related organic molecules are discussed. Understanding of the templating and structure-directed effects of silicon-processing organic molecules not only offers the clue for synthesizing silicon-based materials, but also helps to recognize the anomaly of silicon in plant biology.

  10. Silica aerogel core waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, M D W; Leon-Saval, S G; England, R; Birks, T A

    2010-10-11

    We have selectively filled the core of hollow photonic crystal fibre with silica aerogel. Light is guided in the aerogel core, with a measured attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 1540 nm comparable to that of bulk aerogel. The structure guides light by different mechanisms depending on the wavelength. At long wavelengths the effective index of the microstructured cladding is below the aerogel index of 1.045 and guidance is by total internal reflection. At short wavelengths, where the effective cladding index exceeds 1.045, a photonic bandgap can guide the light instead. There is a small region of crossover, where both index- and bandgap-guided modes were simultaneously observed. PMID:20941148

  11. Multibeam synthetic aperture radar for global oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    A single-frequency multibeam synthetic aperture radar concept for large swath imaging desired for global oceanography is evaluated. Each beam iilluminates a separate range and azimuth interval, and images for different beams may be separated on the basis of the Doppler spectrum of the beams or their spatial azimuth separation in the image plane of the radar processor. The azimuth resolution of the radar system is selected so that the Doppler spectrum of each beam does not interfere with the Doppler foldover due to the finite pulse repetition frequency of the radar system.

  12. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined...... with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between...

  13. Cancellation of singularities for synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caday, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a basic model for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, one wishes to recover a function or distribution f from line integrals over circles whose centers lie on a given curve γ. In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the singularities (wavefront set) of f given its SAR data, and specifically whether it is possible to choose a singular f whose singularities are hidden from γ, meaning that its SAR data is smooth. We show that f 's singularities can be hidden to leading order if a certain discrete reflection map is the identity, and give examples where this is the case. Finally, numerical experiments illustrate the hiding of singularities.

  14. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmetík, Viliam; Vítovec, Bohumil; Jiran, L.; Němcová, Š.; Zicha, J.; Inneman, A.; Mikuličková, L.; Pavlica, R.

    Vol. 9442. Bellingham: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2015 - (Kovačičinová, J.; Vít, T.), 94420L-94420L. (SPIE). ISBN 978-1-62841-557-5. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optics and Measurement Conference 2014 (OaM 2014). Liberec (CZ), 07.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010878 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Large aperture * adaptive optics * deformable mirror * bimorph deformable mirror * composite optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2175713 .

  15. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  16. Cancellation of singularities for synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a basic model for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, one wishes to recover a function or distribution f from line integrals over circles whose centers lie on a given curve γ. In this paper, we consider the problem of recovering the singularities (wavefront set) of f given its SAR data, and specifically whether it is possible to choose a singular f whose singularities are hidden from γ, meaning that its SAR data is smooth. We show that f 's singularities can be hidden to leading order if a certain discrete reflection map is the identity, and give examples where this is the case. Finally, numerical experiments illustrate the hiding of singularities. (paper)

  17. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  18. Nondestructive detection system of faults in fuses using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is developed to show the viability of non-destructive detection of the faults of explosive safety fuses which are manufactured by Fabrica da Estrela do Ministerio do Exercito. The faults are detected by an ion-chamber based on the variation of the intensity of the beta particles that penetrate the fuse which passes through a collimator. The beta particles are emitted by Strontium-90 + Yttrium-90 encapsulated in either stainless steel or aluminum. The concept of 'bucking Voltage' is applied to differentiate electronically the signal generated by the ion-chamber. (author)

  19. Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Danny; Stepanian, Christopher J.; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels that consist, variously, of neat silica/polymer alloys and silica/polymer alloy matrices reinforced with fibers have been developed as materials for flexible thermal-insulation blankets. In comparison with prior aerogel blankets, these aerogel blankets are more durable and less dusty. These blankets are also better able to resist and recover from compression . an important advantage in that maintenance of thickness is essential to maintenance of high thermal-insulation performance. These blankets are especially suitable as core materials for vacuum- insulated panels and vacuum-insulated boxes of advanced, nearly seamless design. (Inasmuch as heat leakage at seams is much greater than heat leakage elsewhere through such structures, advanced designs for high insulation performance should provide for minimization of the sizes and numbers of seams.) A silica/polymer aerogel of the present type could be characterized, somewhat more precisely, as consisting of multiply bonded, linear polymer reinforcements within a silica aerogel matrix. Thus far, several different polymethacrylates (PMAs) have been incorporated into aerogel networks to increase resistance to crushing and to improve other mechanical properties while minimally affecting thermal conductivity and density. The polymethacrylate phases are strongly linked into the silica aerogel networks in these materials. Unlike in other organic/inorganic blended aerogels, the inorganic and organic phases are chemically bonded to each other, by both covalent and hydrogen bonds. In the process for making a silica/polymer alloy aerogel, the covalent bonds are introduced by prepolymerization of the methacrylate monomer with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate, which serves as a phase cross-linker in that it contains both organic and inorganic monomer functional groups and hence acts as a connector between the organic and inorganic phases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the silanol groups of the inorganic phase and the

  20. Molecular dynamics study of defect in amorphous silica; generation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fused silica is a material of interest due to its increasing number of applications in many different technology fields. In thermonuclear fusion it is one of candidate materials for both final focusing optics of lasers for NIF and future inertial fusion reactors and diagnostics of the Safety and Control Systems of the ITER machine as well as DEMO magnetic fusion reactors. In operation, these materials will be exposed to high neutron irradiation fluxes and it can result in point defect. Materials properties of interest (optical absorption, radioluminescence, mechanical properties,...) are closely related to the presence of defects. These defects can be generated directly by irradiation or by the presence of impurities in the material. We present molecular dynamic simulation of displacement cascade due to energetic recoils in amorphous silica without hydrogen atoms and with 1% of hydrogen atoms trying to identify defects formation and we present molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of hydrogen atoms in this material and their interaction with defects; The diffusion coefficients and mechanisms of H mobility in fused silica has been calculated and compared with those existing in the literature. The interatomic potential developed by Feuston and Garofallini has been used in both studies