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Sample records for ape nest survey

  1. Using simulation models to evaluate ape nest survey techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan H Boyko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservationists frequently use nest count surveys to estimate great ape population densities, yet the accuracy and precision of the resulting estimates are difficult to assess. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mathematical simulations to model nest building behavior in an orangutan population to compare the quality of the population size estimates produced by two of the commonly used nest count methods, the 'marked recount method' and the 'matrix method.' We found that when observers missed even small proportions of nests in the first survey, the marked recount method produced large overestimates of the population size. Regardless of observer reliability, the matrix method produced substantial overestimates of the population size when surveying effort was low. With high observer reliability, both methods required surveying approximately 0.26% of the study area (0.26 km(2 out of 100 km(2 in this simulation to achieve an accurate estimate of population size; at or above this sampling effort both methods produced estimates within 33% of the true population size 50% of the time. Both methods showed diminishing returns at survey efforts above 0.26% of the study area. The use of published nest decay estimates derived from other sites resulted in widely varying population size estimates that spanned nearly an entire order of magnitude. The marked recount method proved much better at detecting population declines, detecting 5% declines nearly 80% of the time even in the first year of decline. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight the fact that neither nest surveying method produces highly reliable population size estimates with any reasonable surveying effort, though either method could be used to obtain a gross population size estimate in an area. Conservation managers should determine if the quality of these estimates are worth the money and effort required to produce them, and should generally limit surveying effort to

  2. Assessment of landscape-scale distribution of sympatric great apes in African rainforests: concurrent use of nest and camera-trap surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko; Nze Nkoguee, Chimene; Inoue, Eiji; Akomo, Etienne-Francois Okoue; Nguema, Philippe Mbehang; Bineni, Thierry Diop; Banak, Ludovic Ngok; Takenoshita, Yuji; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2013-12-01

    Information on the distribution and abundance of sympatric great apes (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are important for effective conservation and management. Although much research has been done to improve the precision of nest-surveys, trade-offs between data-reliability and research-efficiency have not been solved. In this study, we used different approaches to assess the landscape-scale distribution patterns of great apes. We conducted a conventional nest survey and a camera-trap survey concurrently, and checked the consistency of the estimates. We divided the study area (ca. 500 km²), containing various types of vegetation and topography, into thirty 16-km² grids (4 km × 4 km) and performed both methods along 2-km transects centered in each grid. We determined the nest creator species according to the definitions by Tutin & Fernandez [Tutin & Fernandez, 1984, Am J Primatol 6:313-336] and estimated nest-site densities of each species by using the conventional distance-sampling approach. We calculated the mean capture rate of 3 camera traps left for 3 months at each grid as the abundance index. Our analyses showed that both methods provided roughly consistent results for the distribution patterns of the species; chimpanzee groups (parties) were more abundant in the montane forest, and gorilla groups were relatively homogeneously distributed across vegetation types. The line-transect survey also showed that the number of nests per nest site did not vary among vegetation types for either species. These spatial patterns seemed to reflect the ecological and sociological features of each species. Although the consistent results may be largely dependent on site-specific conditions (e.g., high density of each species, distinct distribution pattern between the two species), conventional nest-surveys and a subsequent check of their consistency with independent estimates may be a reasonable approach to obtain certain information on

  3. Estimating sighting proportions of American alligator nests during helicopter survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin; Woodward, Allan R.

    2000-01-01

    Proportions of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nests sighted during aerial survey in Florida were estimated based upon multiple surveys by different observers. We compared sighting proportions across habitats, nesting seasons, and observer experience levels. The mean sighting proportion across all habitats and years was 0.736 (SE=0.024). Survey counts corrected by the mean sighting proportion reliably predicted total nest counts (7?2=0.933). Sighting proportions did not differ by habitat type (P=0.668) or year P=0.328). Experienced observers detected a greater proportion of nests (P<0.0001) than did either less experienced or inexperienced observers. Reliable estimates of nest abundance can be derived from aerial counts of alligator nests when corrected by the appropriate sighting proportion.

  4. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  5. A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, D.T.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Managers of natural landscapes need cost-efficient, accurate, and precise systems to inventory plant diversity. We investigated a nested-intensity sampling design to assess local and landscape-scale heterogeneity of plant species richness in aspen stands in southern Colorado, USA. The nested-intensity design used three vegetation sampling techniques: the Modified-Whittaker, a 1000-m2 multiple-scale plot (n = 8); a 100-m2 multiple-scale Intensive plot (n = 15); and a 100-m2 single-scale Extensive plot (n = 28). The large Modified-Whittaker plot (1000 m2) recorded greater species richness per plot than the other two sampling techniques (P < 0.001), estimated cover of a greater number of species in 1-m2 subplots (P < 0.018), and captured 32 species missed by the smaller, more numerous 100-m2 plots of the other designs. The Intensive plots extended the environmental gradient sampled, capturing 17 species missed by the other techniques, and improved species–area calculations. The greater number of Extensive plots further expanded the gradient sampled, and captured 18 additional species. The multi-scale Modified-Whittaker and Intensive designs allowed quantification of the slopes of species–area curves in the single-scale Extensive plots. Multiple linear regressions were able to predict the slope of species–area curves (adj R2 = 0.64, P < 0.001) at each Extensive plot, allowing comparison of species richness at each sample location. Comparison of species–accumulation curves generated with each technique suggested that small, single-scale plot techniques might be very misleading because they underestimate species richness by missing locally rare species at every site. A combination of large and small multi-scale and single-scale plots greatly improves our understanding of native and exotic plant diversity patterns.

  6. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest.

  7. The APE100 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avico, N.; Battista, C.; Cabasino, S.; Cabibbo, N.; Del Prete, F.; Fucci, A.; Lai, A.; Lombardo, M.P.; Marinari, E.; Marzano, F.; Paolucci, P.S.; Parisi, G.; Pech, J.; Rapuano, F.; Sarno, R.; Salina, G.; Todesco, G.M.; Torelli, M.; Tripiccione, R.; Tross, W.; Vicini, P.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the architecture of APE100, a parallel floating point SIMD engine optimized for LGT simulation is presented. A more detailed descriptoin is given of MAD, the single-chip floating piont unit of APE100. The advantages and design issues related to a massive usage of custom integrated circuits are discussed

  8. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  9. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, Jan; Rádrová, Jana; Skalický, Tomáš; Jirků, Milan; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mihalca, Andrei D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Petrželková, Klára J; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Tsetse and tabanid flies transmit several Trypanosoma species, some of which are human and livestock pathogens of major medical and socioeconomic impact in Africa. Recent advances in molecular techniques and phylogenetic analyses have revealed a growing diversity of previously unidentified tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes potentially pathogenic to livestock and/or other domestic animals as well as wildlife, including African great apes. To map the distribution, prevalence and co-occurrence of known and novel trypanosome species, we analyzed tsetse and tabanid flies collected in the primary forested part of the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, which hosts a broad spectrum of wildlife including primates and is virtually devoid of domestic animals. Altogether, 564 tsetse flies and 81 tabanid flies were individually screened for the presence of trypanosomes using 18S rRNA-specific nested PCR. Herein, we demonstrate that wildlife animals are parasitized by a surprisingly wide range of trypanosome species that in some cases may circulate via these insect vectors. While one-third of the examined tsetse flies harbored trypanosomes either from the Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma simiae complex, or one of the three new members of the genus Trypanosoma (strains 'Bai', 'Ngbanda' and 'Didon'), more than half of the tabanid flies exclusively carried T. theileri. To establish the putative vertebrate hosts of the novel trypanosome species, we further analyzed the provenance of blood meals of tsetse flies. DNA individually isolated from 1033 specimens of Glossina spp. and subjected to high-throughput library-based screening proved that most of the examined tsetse flies engorged on wild ruminants (buffalo, sitatunga, bongo), humans and suids. Moreover, they also fed (albeit more rarely) on other vertebrates, thus providing indirect but convincing evidence that trypanosomes can be transmitted via these vectors among a wide range of

  10. Primatology: advanced ape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, W C

    2004-12-29

    New findings from African rainforests show chimpanzees to have impressively advanced technology. They make tools of vegetation to harvest termites as in East and West Africa, but some apes in Central Africa show different techniques and tool sets geared for different tasks.

  11. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, J.; Rádrová, J.; Skalický, T.; Jirků, M.; Jirsová, D.; Mihalca, A. D.; D'Amico, G.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2015), s. 741-748 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Tsetse * Tabanids * African great apes * Gorillas * Transmission * Bloodmeal * Feeding preference Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  12. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Rádrová, Jana; Skalický, Tomáš; Jirků, Milan; Jirsová, D.; Mihalca, A. D.; D'Amico, G.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 741-748 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0300 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Tsetse * Tabanids * African great apes * Gorillas * Transmission * Bloodmeal * Feeding preference Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  13. Status of APE projects

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, R; Onofri, E; Bartoloni, A; Battista, C; Cabibbo, Nicola; Cosimi, M; Lonardo, A; Michelotti, A; Proietti, B; Rapuano, F; Rossetti, D; Sacco, G; Tassa, S; Torelli, M; Vicini, P; Pène, O; Errico, W; Magazzù, G; Sartori, L; Schiiano, F; Tripiccione, R; De Riso, P; Petronzio, Roberto; Destri, C; Frezzotti, R; Marchesini, G; Gensch, Ulrich; Jansen, K; Kretzschmann, A; Leich, H; Paschedag, N; Pleiter, D; Schwendicke, U; Simma, H; Sommer, Rainer; Sulanke, K; Wegner, P; Fucci, A; Martin, B; Pech, J; Panizzi, E; Petricola, A

    2001-01-01

    This talk is divided in two parts. In the first part, we will summarize the status of the APEmille project that will be completed by the end of the year. We will then devote the rest of the talk to the description of a new project for a multi-TeraFlop machine, ape NEXT. The interested reader will find a much more detailed discussion of all the items touched upon here in the full proposal of the project that will shortly appear on hep-lat. (9 refs).

  14. Predicted fates of ground-nesting bees in soil heated by wildfire: Thermal tolerances of life stages and a survey of nesting depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periodic wildfire defines plant community composition and dynamics in many of the world’s semi-arid biomes, whose climates and floras also favor wild bee diversity. Most solitary bee species in these biomes nest underground (so-called “mining” bees). To evaluate their susceptibility to fire, we te...

  15. Aping the Ape: Kafka's "Report to an Academy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Elmarsafy

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The "Report to an Academy" narrates a curious situation: an ape presents (or rather, performs a report to an academy. What he presents is an autobiography. Like so much in Kafka, the "Report" is a parable about writing in general and about the writer's identity in particular. This essay attempts to address these issues through a close reading of Kafka's text against Blanchot's L'espace littéraire . Central to this endeavour is an analysis of the ape's use of the first-person pronoun as someone who fashions himself while, at the same time, presenting a theatrical autobiography featuring the self in question. My reading then moves on to analyze the act of writing as a negotiation of the passage between self and other, framed as it is by the theatrical context of Kafka's parable.

  16. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape...... genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations....

  17. Preliminary results from APE-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoloni, A.; Battista, C.; Cabasino, S.; Marzano, F.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pech, J.; Rapuano, F.; Sarno, R.; Todesco, G.M.; Torelli, M.; Tross, W.; Vicini, P.; Tripiccione, R.; Cabibbo, N.; Salina, G.; Fucci, A.; Lubicz, V.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Vladikas, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the preliminary results obtained on the 6 Gigaflop prototype which is the building block of the APE-100 computer. Results are presented for pseudoscalar and vector mesons for the Wilson and the improved action with a statistics of about 100 configurations. Static heavy-light meson propagator have also been studied for different smeared operators. We find that large smearing (≥ 9) are bad projectors on the lightest pseudoscalar states. (orig.)

  18. Status of the apeNEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R.; Boucaud, Philippe; Cabibbo, N.; Di Carlo, F.; De Pietri, R.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Fucci, A.; Guagnelli, M.; Kaldass, H.; Lonardo, A.; de Luca, S.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Palombi, F.; Pleiter, D.; Paschedag, N.; Rapuano, F.; De Riso, P.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sartori, L.; Schifano, F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; Boucaud, Ph.; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01755-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  19. Unexplored Archaeal Diversity in the Great Ape Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymann, Kasie; Moeller, Andrew H; Goodman, Andrew L; Ochman, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Archaea are habitual residents of the human gut flora but are detected at substantially lower frequencies than bacteria. Previous studies have indicated that each human harbors very few archaeal species. However, the low diversity of human-associated archaea that has been detected could be due to the preponderance of bacteria in these communities, such that relatively few sequences are classified as Archaea even when microbiomes are sampled deeply. Moreover, the universal prokaryotic primer pair typically used to interrogate microbial diversity has low specificity to the archaeal domain, potentially leaving vast amounts of diversity unobserved. As a result, the prevalence, diversity, and distribution of archaea may be substantially underestimated. Here we evaluate archaeal diversity in gut microbiomes using an approach that targets virtually all known members of this domain. Comparing microbiomes across five great ape species allowed us to examine the dynamics of archaeal lineages over evolutionary time scales. These analyses revealed hundreds of gut-associated archaeal lineages, indicating that upwards of 90% of the archaeal diversity in the human and great ape gut microbiomes has been overlooked. Additionally, these results indicate a progressive reduction in archaeal diversity in the human lineage, paralleling the decline reported for bacteria. IMPORTANCE Our findings show that Archaea are a habitual and vital component of human and great ape gut microbiomes but are largely ignored on account of the failure of previous studies to realize their full diversity. Here we report unprecedented levels of archaeal diversity in great ape gut microbiomes, exceeding that detected by conventional 16S rRNA gene surveys. Paralleling what has been reported for bacteria, there is a vast reduction of archaeal diversity in humans. Our study demonstrates that archaeal diversity in the great ape gut microbiome greatly exceeds that reported previously and provides the basis for

  20. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Recently, adaptive beamformers have been introduced to medical ultrasound imaging. The primary focus has been on the minimum variance (MV) (or Capon) beamformer. This work investigates an alternative but closely related beamformer, the Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) beamformer. APES offers...... added robustness at the expense of a slightly lower resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the APES beamformer on medical imaging data, since correct amplitude estimation often is just as important as spatial resolution. In our simulations we have used a 3.5 MHz, 96...... element linear transducer array. When imaging two closely spaced point targets, APES displays nearly the same resolution as the MV, and at the same time improved amplitude control. When imaging cysts in speckle, APES offers speckle statistics similar to that of the DAS, without the need for temporal...

  1. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  2. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  3. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  4. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures; Procedures de conduite APE (Approche Par Etats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, D. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Depont, G. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Van Dermarliere, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations.

  5. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J., L.

    2004-03-10

    Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.

  6. Molecular survey of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in pet cats across Japan by species-specific nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Negishi, A; Tsujimoto, H; Nishigaki, K; Endo, Y; Maruyama, S

    2017-10-01

    Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of 'cat-scratch disease' in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007-2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1-3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0-2·6).

  7. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  8. Primatology. Human diseases threaten great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, D

    2000-08-25

    Researchers are uncovering disturbing evidence that scientists and tourists are infecting wild primates with human pathogens. In response, ape specialists, including the American Society of Primatologists, are now calling for stricter health standards for researchers and tourists. They are also urging researchers to learn how to diagnose disease in their study animals.

  9. Sequential tool use in great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martin-Ordas

    Full Text Available Sequential tool use is defined as using a tool to obtain another non-food object which subsequently itself will serve as a tool to act upon a further (subgoal. Previous studies have shown that birds and great apes succeed in such tasks. However, the inclusion of a training phase for each of the sequential steps and the low cost associated with retrieving the longest tools limits the scope of the conclusions. The goal of the experiments presented here was, first to replicate a previous study on sequential tool use conducted on New Caledonian crows and, second, extend this work by increasing the cost of retrieving a tool in order to test tool selectivity of apes. In Experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans and bonobos with an out-of-reach reward, two tools that were available but too short to reach the food and four out-of-reach tools differing in functionality. Similar to crows, apes spontaneously used up to 3 tools in sequence to get the reward and also showed a strong preference for the longest out-of reach tool independently of the distance of the food. In Experiment 2, we increased the cost of reaching for the longest out-of reach tool. Now apes used up to 5 tools in sequence to get the reward and became more selective in their choice of the longest tool as the costs of its retrieval increased. The findings of the studies presented here contribute to the growing body of comparative research on tool use.

  10. Natural selection in the great apes

    OpenAIRE

    Cagan, A.; Theunert, C.; Laayouni, H.; Santpere, G.; Pybus, M.; Casals, F.; Prüfer, K.; Navarro, A.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Bertranpetit, J.; Andrés, A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of bot...

  11. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  12. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  13. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions

    OpenAIRE

    Alm?cija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B.; Jungers, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life...

  14. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  15. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and

  16. Do Great Apes Use Emotional Expressions to Infer Desires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, David; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although apes understand others' goals and perceptions, little is known about their understanding of others' emotional expressions. We conducted three studies following the general paradigm of Repacholi and colleagues (1997, 1998). In Study 1, a human reacted emotionally to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the ape was allowed to…

  17. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  18. Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bearzi, M.; Stanford, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Dolphins and African apes are distantly related mammalian taxa that exhibit striking convergences in their socioecology. In both cetaceans and African apes, two or more closely related species sometimes occur in sympatry. However, detailed reviews of the ways in which sympatric associations of

  19. Commentary: Who really wants to save the apes?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-01-31

    Jan 31, 2007 ... Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/032/02/0183-0184. Keywords. AIDS; apes; chimpanzees; Great Ape Project. Author Affiliations. Jonathan Marks1. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA. Dates. Early published ...

  20. Spatial cognition in apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Dedre

    2007-05-01

    The debate on whether language influences cognition is sometimes seen as a simple dichotomy: cognitive development is governed either by innate predispositions or by influences of language and culture. In two recent papers on spatial cognition, Haun and colleagues break new ground in bringing together a comparative cognition approach with a cross-linguistic framework to arrive at a third position: that humans begin with the same spatial reference frames as our near relatives, the great apes, and diverge later owing to the influence of language and culture.

  1. Properties of tooth enamel in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J-W; Morris, Dylan; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Smith, Tanya M; Lawn, Brian R

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study has been made of human and great ape molar tooth enamel. Nanoindentation techniques are used to map profiles of elastic modulus and hardness across sections from the enamel-dentin junction to the outer tooth surface. The measured data profiles overlap between species, suggesting a degree of commonality in material properties. Using established deformation and fracture relations, critical loads to produce function-threatening damage in the enamel of each species are calculated for characteristic tooth sizes and enamel thicknesses. The results suggest that differences in load-bearing capacity of molar teeth in primates are less a function of underlying material properties than of morphology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. DNA repair enzyme APE1 from evolutionarily ancient Hydra reveals redox activity exclusively found in mammalian APE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekhale, Komal; Haval, Gauri; Perween, Nusrat; Antoniali, Giulia; Tell, Gianluca; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ghaskadbi, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    Only mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) has been reported to possess both DNA repair and redox activities. C terminal of the protein is required for base excision repair, while the redox activity resides in the N terminal due to cysteine residues at specific positions. APE1s from other organisms studied so far lack the redox activity in spite of having the N terminal domain. We find that APE1 from the Cnidarian Hydra exhibits both endonuclease and redox activities similar to mammalian APE1. We further show the presence of the three indispensable cysteines in Hydra APE1 for redox activity by site directed mutagenesis. Importance of redox domain but not the repair domain of APE1 in regeneration has been demonstrated by using domain-specific inhibitors. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the redox function of APE1 evolved very early in metazoan evolution and is not a recent acquisition in mammalian APE1 as believed so far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Bania, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable scientific debate. Here, we examined handedness for coordinated bimanual actions in a sample of 777 great apes including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans. We found population......-level right-handedness in chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, but left-handedness in orangutans. Directional biases in handedness were consistent across independent samples of apes within each genus. We suggest that, contrary to previous claims, population-level handedness is evident in great apes but differs...

  4. Comparative Pathology of Aging Great Apes: Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, and Orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstine, L J; McManamon, R; Terio, K A

    2016-03-01

    The great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) are our closest relatives. Despite the many similarities, there are significant differences in aging among apes, including the human ape. Common to all are dental attrition, periodontitis, tooth loss, osteopenia, and arthritis, although gout is uniquely human and spondyloarthropathy is more prevalent in apes than humans. Humans are more prone to frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, longevity past reproductive senescence, loss of brain volume, and Alzheimer dementia. Cerebral vascular disease occurs in both humans and apes. Cardiovascular disease mortality increases in aging humans and apes, but coronary atherosclerosis is the most significant type in humans. In captive apes, idiopathic myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyopathy predominate, with arteriosclerosis of intramural coronary arteries. Similar cardiac lesions are occasionally seen in wild apes. Vascular changes in heart and kidneys and aortic dissections in gorillas and bonobos suggest that hypertension may be involved in pathogenesis. Chronic kidney disease is common in elderly humans and some aging apes and is linked with cardiovascular disease in orangutans. Neoplasms common to aging humans and apes include uterine leiomyomas in chimpanzees, but other tumors of elderly humans, such as breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers, are uncommon in apes. Among the apes, chimpanzees have been best studied in laboratory settings, and more comparative research is needed into the pathology of geriatric zoo-housed and wild apes. Increasing longevity of humans and apes makes understanding aging processes and diseases imperative for optimizing quality of life in all the ape species. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  6. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  7. What's Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys

    2016-07-07

    What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes' imitation skills, a "best case scenario" of non-human apes' imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object-object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes-including imitation-specific training-further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species' dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors.

  8. Language comprehension in ape and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Murphy, J; Sevcik, R A; Brakke, K E; Williams, S L; Rumbaugh, D M

    1993-01-01

    Previous investigations of the linguistic capacities of apes have focused on the ape's ability to produce words, and there has been little concern for comprehension. By contrast, it is increasingly recognized that comprehension precedes production in the language development of normal human children, and it may indeed guide production. It has been demonstrated that some species can process speech sounds categorically in a manner similar to that observed in humans. Consequently, it should be possible for such species to comprehend language if they have the cognitive capacity to understand word-referent relations and syntactic structure. Popular theories of human language acquisition suggest that the ability to process syntactic information is unique to humans and reflects a novel biological adaptation not seen in other animals. The current report addresses this issue through systematic experimental comparisons of the language comprehension skills of a 2-year-old child and an 8 year-old bonobo (Pan paniscus) who was raised in a language environment similar to that in which children are raised but specifically modified to be appropriate for an ape. Both subjects (child and bonobo) were exposed to spoken English and lexigrams from infancy, and neither was trained to comprehend speech. A common caretaker participated in the rearing of both subjects. All language acquisition was through observational learning. Without prior training, subjects were asked to respond to the same 660 novel sentences. All responses were videotaped and scored for accuracy of comprehension of the English language. The results indicated that both subjects comprehended novel requests and simple syntactic devices. The bonobo decoded the syntactic device of word recursion with higher accuracy than the child; however, the child tended to do better than the bonobo on the conjunctive, a structure that places a greater burden on short-term memory. Both subjects performed as well on sentences that

  9. Feedback on SMS reminders to encourage adherence among patients taking antipsychotic medication: a cross-sectional survey nested within a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannisto, Kati Anneli; Adams, Clive E; Koivunen, Marita; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-11-09

    To explore feedback on tailored SMS reminders to encourage medication adherence and outpatient treatment among patients taking antipsychotic medication, and associations related to the feedback. A cross-sectional survey nested within a nationwide randomised clinical trial ("Mobile.Net" ISRCTN27704027). Psychiatric outpatient care in Finland. Between September 2012 and December 2013, 403 of 558 adults with antipsychotic medication responded after 12 months of SMS intervention. Feedback was gathered with a structured questionnaire based on Technology Acceptance Model theory. Data were analysed by Pearson's χ(2) test, binary logistic regression and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Almost all participants (98%) found the SMS reminders easy to use and 87% felt that the SMS did not cause harm. About three-quarters (72%) were satisfied with the SMS received, and 61% found it useful. Divorced people were particularly prone to find SMS reminders useful (χ(2)=13.17, df=6, p=0.04), and people seeking employment were more often 'fully satisfied' with the SMS compared with other groups (χ(2)=10.82, df=4, p=0.029). People who were older at first contact with psychiatric services were more often 'fully satisfied' than younger groups (OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04, p=0.007). The feedback of patients taking antipsychotic medication on SMS services was generally positive. Overall, people were quite satisfied despite considerable variation in their sociodemographic background and illness history. Our results endorse that the use of simple easy-to-use existing technology, such as mobile phones and SMS, is acceptable in psychiatric outpatient services. Moreover, people using psychiatric outpatient services are able to use this technology. This acceptable and accessible technology can be easily tailored to each patient's needs and could be customised to the needs of the isolated or jobless. This is an area in which much careful evaluation is needed. Published by the BMJ

  10. Nest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Serckx

    Full Text Available A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos' grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food 'hot spots' as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos' range using systematic

  11. Estimating populations of nesting brant using aerial videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R. Michael; Anderson, W.H.; Sedinger, J.S.; McDonald, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    We mounted a video camcorder in a single-engine aircraft to estimate nesting density along 10-m wide strip transects in black brant colonies on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska during 1990-1992. A global positioning system (GPS) receiver was connected to the video recorder and a laptop computer to locate transects and annotate video tape with time and latitude-longitude at 1-second intervals. About 4-5 hours of flight time were required to record 30-40 minutes of video tape needed to survey large (>5,000 nests in > 10 km2)colonies. We conducted ground searches along transects to locate and identify nests for determining detection rates of nests in video images. Counts of nests from video transects were correlated with actual numbers of nests. Resolution of images was sufficient to detect 81% of known nests (with and without incubating females). Of these, 68% were correctly identified as brant nests. The most common misidentification of known nests was failure of viewers to see the nest that the detected bird was incubating. Unattended nests with exposed eggs, down-covered nests, and nesting brant, cackling Canada geese, and emperor geese were identified in video images. Flushing of incubating geese by survey aircraft was not significant. About 10% of known nests were unoccupied in video images compared to 16% unoccupied nests observed from tower blinds during periods without aircraft disturbance.

  12. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  15. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some have speculated whether it might be essentially language dependent and therefore uniquely human. Existing studies with non-human primates seem to speak against this hypothesis, but fail to present conclusive evidence due to methodological shortcomings. In the present experiments we set out to test non-linguistic object individuation in three great ape species with a refined manual search methodology. Experiment 1 tested for spatiotemporal object individuation: Subjects saw 1 or 2 objects simultaneously being placed inside a box in which they could reach, and then in both conditions only found 1 object. After retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often when they had seen 2 than when they had seen 1 object. Experiment 2 tested for object individuation according to property/kind information only: Subjects saw 1 object being placed inside the box, and then either found that object (expected) or an object of a different kind (unexpected). Analogously to Experiment 1, after retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often in the unexpected than in the expected condition. These results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that individuating objects according to their property/kind is neither uniquely human nor essentially language dependent. It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient.

  16. Information seeking about tool properties in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Völter, Christoph J

    2017-09-07

    Evidence suggests that great apes engage in metacognitive information seeking for food items. To support the claim that a domain-general cognitive process underlies ape metacognition one needs to show that selective information seeking extends to non-food items. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) either had to determine the location of a desired food item or a property of a non-food item (length of a tool). We manipulated whether subjects received prior information about the item's location or property. During the test, subjects had the opportunity to seek the respective information. Results show that apes engaged in more information seeking when they had no prior knowledge. Importantly, this selective pattern of information seeking applied to food as well as to tools.

  17. A new approach for monitoring ebolavirus in wild great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E Reed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Africa is a "hotspot" for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs of global and local importance, and a current outbreak of ebolavirus is affecting multiple countries simultaneously. Ebolavirus is suspected to have caused recent declines in resident great apes. While ebolavirus vaccines have been proposed as an intervention to protect apes, their effectiveness would be improved if we could diagnostically confirm Ebola virus disease (EVD as the cause of die-offs, establish ebolavirus geographical distribution, identify immunologically naïve populations, and determine whether apes survive virus exposure.Here we report the first successful noninvasive detection of antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV from wild ape feces. Using this method, we have been able to identify gorillas with antibodies to EBOV with an overall prevalence rate reaching 10% on average, demonstrating that EBOV exposure or infection is not uniformly lethal in this species. Furthermore, evidence of antibodies was identified in gorillas thought previously to be unexposed to EBOV (protected from exposure by rivers as topological barriers of transmission.Our new approach will contribute to a strategy to protect apes from future EBOV infections by early detection of increased incidence of exposure, by identifying immunologically naïve at-risk populations as potential targets for vaccination, and by providing a means to track vaccine efficacy if such intervention is deemed appropriate. Finally, since human EVD is linked to contact with infected wildlife carcasses, efforts aimed at identifying great ape outbreaks could have a profound impact on public health in local communities, where EBOV causes case-fatality rates of up to 88%.

  18. Meaning and ostension in great ape gestural communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that while human gestures are produced ostensively and intentionally, great ape gestures are produced only intentionally. If true, this would make the psychological mechanisms underlying the different species' communication fundamentally different, and ascriptions of meaning to chimpanzee gestures would be inappropriate. While the existence of different underlying mechanisms cannot be ruled out, in fact claims about difference are driven less by empirical data than by contested assumptions about the nature of ostensive communication. On some accounts, there are no reasons to doubt that great ape gestural communication is ostensive. If these accounts are correct, attributions of meaning to chimpanzee gestures would be justified.

  19. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  1. Comparative and Familial Analysis of Handedness in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, population-level handedness has been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable debate. This paper summarizes published data on handedness in great apes. Comparative analysis indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos show population-level right…

  2. Commentary: Ethics, animals and the nonhuman great apes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    , animals and the nonhuman great apes. Paola Cavalieri. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 509-512. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/05/0509-0512 ...

  3. Remembering past exchanges: Apes fail to use social cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates can remember events from their distant past. Furthermore, they can distinguish between very similar events by the process of binding. So far, research into long-term memory and binding has focused on the binding of contextual information, such as spatial surroundings. As such, we aimed to investigate if apes can bind and retrieve other types of information, specifically, social information. We presented great apes with three different object types; they learnt to exchange (via reinforcement one of the object types with one experimenter and another type with a second, different, experimenter. The remaining object type was not reinforced by either of the experimenters. After a delay of two or ten weeks, we assessed the apes’ memory of which object type was exchanged with which experimenter. Additionally, we introduced a new experimenter to see if the apes could infer by exclusion that the remaining object type should be exchanged with the new experimenter. The apes successfully remembered which object types were exchanged, but failed to distinguish which object type was exchanged with whom. This failure to bind an object type to a specific person may have resulted from the apes learning to use a rule based on recency, as opposed to learning a conditional rule involving social information. However, results from a second experiment suggested they fail to incorporate social information even when no other information could guide successful performance. Our findings are consistent with research showing long-term memory in primates, but suggest that social information may not be bound in memory as readily as spatial or contextual information.

  4. Nested Term Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; van Oostrom, V.

    2014-01-01

    We report on work in progress on `nested term graphs' for formalizing higher-order terms (e.g. finite or infinite lambda-terms), including those expressing recursion (e.g. terms in the lambda-calculus with letrec). The idea is to represent the nested scope structure of a higher-order term by a

  5. The extracellular role of DNA damage repair protein APE1 in regulation of IL-6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Somsubhra; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Kling, Matthew J; Song, Heyu; Biswas, Pranjal; Shukla, Ashima; Band, Hamid; Joshi, Shantaram; Bhakat, Kishor K

    2017-11-01

    The human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a pleiotropic nuclear protein with roles in DNA base excision repair pathway as well as in regulation of transcription. Recently, the presence of extracellular plasma APE1 was reported in endotoxemic rats. However, the biological significance and the extracellular function of APE1 remain unclear. In this study, we found that monocytes secrete APE1 upon inflammatory challenges. Challenging the monocytic cells with extracellular APE1 resulted in the increased expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Additionally, the extracellular APE1 treatment activated the transcription factor NF-κB, followed by its increased occupancy at the IL-6 promoter, resulting in the induction of IL-6 expression. APE1-induced IL-6 further served to elicit autocrine and paracrine cellular responses. Moreover, the extracellular IL-6 promoted the secretion of APE1, thus indicating a functional feedforward loop in this pathway. Furthermore, we show that APE1 is secreted through extracellular vesicles formation via endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent pathway. Together, our study demonstrates a novel role of extracellular APE1 in IL-6-dependent cellular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity-nesting bird abundance in thinned versus unthinned Massachusetts oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J.E. Welsh; William M. Healy; Richard M. DeGraaf

    1992-01-01

    Cavity-nesting birds provide significant benefits to forest communities, but timber management techniques may negatively affect cavity-nesting species by reducing the availability of suitable nest and foraging sites. We surveyed cavity-nesting birds from transects in eight Massachusetts oak stands to examine the effect of thinning with retention of snag and wildlife...

  7. APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The domain of lightweight cryptography focuses on cryptographic algorithms for extremely constrained devices. It is very costly to avoid nonce reuse in such environments, because this requires either a hardware source of randomness, or non-volatile memory to store a counter. At the same time, a lot...... of cryptographic schemes actually require the nonce assumption for their security. In this paper, we propose APE as the first permutation-based authenticated encryption scheme that is resistant against nonce misuse. We formally prove that APE is secure, based on the security of the underlying permutation......, and Spongent. For any of these permutations, an implementation that supports both encryption and decryption requires less than 1.9 kGE and 2.8 kGE for 80-bit and 128-bit security levels, respectively....

  8. Why Do Knuckle-Walking African Apes Knuckle-Walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott W; Latimer, Bruce; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2018-03-01

    Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial. While many anatomical correlates of knuckle-walking have been identified, a functional explanation of this unusual locomotor pattern has yet to be proposed. Here, we argue that it was adopted by African apes as a means of ameliorating the consequences of repetitive impact loadings on the soft and hard tissues of the forelimb by employing isometric and/or eccentric contraction of antebrachial musculature during terrestrial locomotion. Evidence of this adaptation can be found in the differential size and fiber geometry of the forearm musculature, and differences in torso shape between the knuckle-walking and non-knuckle-walking apes (including humans). We also argue that some osteological features of the carpus and metacarpus that have been identified as adaptations to knuckle-walking are consequences of cartilage remodeling during ontogeny rather than traits limiting motion in the hand and wrist. An understanding of the functional basis of knuckle-walking provides an explanation of the locomotor parallelisms in modern Pan and Gorilla. Anat Rec, 301:496-514, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Burr

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  10. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Herrmann, Esther; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is very little research comparing great ape and human cognition developmentally. In the current studies we compared a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 4-year-old human children (n=48) with a large sample of chimpanzees and bonobos in the same age range (n=42, hereafter: apes) on a broad array of cognitive tasks. We then followed a group of juvenile apes (n=44) longitudinally over 3 years to track their cognitive development in greater detail. In skills of physical cognition (space, causality, quantities), children and apes performed comparably at 2 years of age, but by 4 years of age children were more advanced (whereas apes stayed at their 2-year-old performance levels). In skills of social cognition (communication, social learning, theory of mind), children out-performed apes already at 2 years, and increased this difference even more by 4 years. Patterns of development differed more between children and apes in the social domain than the physical domain, with support for these patterns present in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal ape data sets. These results indicate key differences in the pattern and pace of cognitive development between humans and other apes, particularly in the early emergence of specific social cognitive capacities in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Non-goal-directed recall of specific events in apes after long delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-07-12

    We examined if apes spontaneously remember one-time, distinctive events across long delays when probed by discriminant cues. Apes witnessed an experimenter hide a cache of food, which they could then retrieve. They retrieved one of two food types; one more distinctive than the other. Two, 10 or 50 weeks later, the apes returned to the same enclosure and found a piece of the previously hidden food on the ground. An experimenter who had not hidden the food was also present. Apes immediately searched the location where the food was previously hidden (no food was here), showing recall of the event. One week later, apes returned to the same enclosure, with the same food on the ground, but now the experimenter that had hidden the food was present. Again, apes immediately searched the hiding location. Apes that had not witnessed the hiding event did not search. There was no significant effect of food type, and retention declined from exposure to the two-week delay, then levelled, consistent with the forgetting curve in humans (Ebbinghaus, H. 1964 Memory: a contribution to experimental psychology (transl. H.A. Ruger & C.E. Bussenvis). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1885.)). This is the first study to show apes can recall a one-time, non-goal-directed event longer than two weeks ago and that apes' recall declines in accordance with a standard retention function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Size matters: nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly.We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether twig characteristics (nest entrance size and diversity of nest entrance sizes) and nest strata (canopy shade tree or coffee shrub) affected occupation, species richness, and community composition of twig-nesting ants and whether frequency of occupation of ant species varied with particular nest entrance sizes or strata.We conducted our study in a shaded coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico, between March and June 2012. We studied ant nest colonization by placing artificial nests (bamboo twigs) on coffee shrubs and shade trees either in diverse or uniform treatments. We also examined whether differences in vegetation (no. of trees, canopy cover and coffee density) influenced nest colonization.We found 33 ant species occupying 73% of nests placed. Nest colonization did not differ with nest strata or size. Mean species richness of colonizing ants was significantly higher in the diverse nest size entrance treatment, but did not differ with nest strata. Community composition differed between strata and also between the diverse and uniform size treatments on coffee shrubs, but not on shade trees. Some individual ant species were more frequently found in certain nest strata and in nests with certain entrance sizes.Our results indicate that twig-nesting ants are nest-site limited, quickly occupy artificial nests of many sizes, and that trees or shrubs with twigs of a diversity of entrance sizes likely support higher ant species richness. Further, individual ant species more frequently occupy nests with different sized entrances promoting ant richness on individual coffee

  13. Effect of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu Polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 Expression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that genetic variation in base excision repair (BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. Thus, we evaluated the influence of APE1 T2197G (Asp148Glu polymorphism on APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 expression in normal and tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer. The results indicate a downregulation of OGG1 and an upregulation of XRCC1 expression in tumor tissue. Regarding the anatomical location of APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1, a decrease in gene expression was observed among patients with cancer in the rectum. In patients with or without some degree of tumor invasion, a significant downregulation in OGG1 was observed in tumor tissue. Interestingly, when taking into account the tumor stage, patients with more advanced grades (III and IV showed a significant repression for APE1, OGG1 and PARP-1. XRCC1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in tumor samples and were correlated with all clinical and histopathological data. Concerning the polymorphism T2197G, GG genotype carriers exhibited a significantly reduced expression of genes of the BER repair system (APE1, XRCC1 and PARP1. In summary, our data show that patients with colorectal cancer present expression changes in several BER genes, suggesting a role for APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 and OGG1 and APE1 polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  14. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  15. Risk Factor Associated with Negative Spouse HIV Seroconversion among Sero-Different Couples: A Nested Case-Control Retrospective Survey Study in 30 Counties in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Houlin; Wu, Zunyou; Mao, Yurong; Cepeda, Javier; Morano, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively. A nested case-control study of risk factors of HIV seroconversion among sero-different couples was conducted in April and May of 2013, based on the open cohort. Sero-different couples with the HIV-negative spouse seroconverting at least 3 months after the previous negative diagnosis during cohort observation period were labeled as "case couples". The "control couples" were selected randomly from the same cohort that did not have the HIV-negative spouse seroconversion during the same period. The "case couples" and "control couples" were matched on gender, age, and region of residence. Sexual behaviors among HIV sero-different couples before and after the index spouses notifying their HIV infection status to their HIV-negative spouses were collected via face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with HIV seroconversion among HIV sero-different couples. Of 4481 HIV sero-different couples, a total of 53 seroconversions were observed within 5218 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate was 1.02 (95%CI: 0.76-1.33) per 100 person-years. Forty "case couples" confirmed HIV-negative spouse seroconversions infected via marital sexual transmission, were matched to 80 "control couples". Of the 120 couples, 81(67.5%) were receiving ART, and 70 (58.3%) reported consistently used condoms during intercourse after the index spouse was

  16. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  17. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  18. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Great ape gestures: intentional communication with a rich set of innate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, R W; Cartmill, E; Genty, E; Graham, K E; Hobaiter, C; Tanner, J

    2017-09-08

    Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple. As with human words, ape gestures often have several distinct meanings, which are effectively disambiguated by behavioural context. Compared to the signalling of most other animals, great ape gestural repertoires are large. Because of this, and the relatively small number of intended meanings they achieve, ape gestures are redundant, with extensive overlaps in meaning. The great majority of gestures are innate, in the sense that the species' biological inheritance includes the potential to develop each gestural form and use it for a specific range of purposes. Moreover, the phylogenetic origin of many gestures is relatively old, since gestures are extensively shared between different genera in the great ape family. Acquisition of an adult repertoire is a process of first exploring the innate species potential for many gestures and then gradual restriction to a final (active) repertoire that is much smaller. No evidence of syntactic structure has yet been detected.

  20. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  1. Darwin on the «Planet of the Apes»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ABAD VILA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human and non?human primates have been a source of inspiration for science and art. Planet of the Apes (1968 represented the starting point for a series of films and television series structured in a hypothetical dominated society where the apes dominate the humans.

  2. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fiber Tracking Cylinder Nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.

    1999-01-01

    The fiber tracker consists of 8 concentric carbon fiber cylinders of varying diameters, from 399mm to 1032.2mm and two different lengths. 1.66 and 2.52 meters. Each completed cylinder is covered over the entire o.d. with scintillating fiber ribbons with a connector on each ribbon. These ribbons are axial (parallel to the beam line) at one end and stereo (at 3 deg. to the beam line) at the other. The ribbon connectors have dowel pins which are used to match with the connectors on the wave guide ribbons. These dowel pins are also used during the nesting operation, locating and positioning measurements. The nesting operation is the insertion of one cylinder into another, aligning them with one another and fastening them together into a homogeneous assembly. For ease of assembly. the nesting operation is accomplished working from largest diameter to smallest. Although the completed assembly of all 8 cylinders glued and bolted together is very stiff. individual cylinders are relatively flexible. Therefore. during this operation, No.8 must be supported in a manner which maintains its integrity and yet allows the insertion of No.7. This is accomplished by essentially building a set of dummy end plates which replicate a No.9 cylinder. These end plates are mounted on a wheeled cart that becomes the nesting cart. Provisions for a protective cover fastened to these rings has been made and will be incorporated in finished product. These covers can be easily removed for access to No.8 and/or the connection of No.8 to No.9. Another wheeled cart, transfer cart, is used to push a completed cylinder into the cylinder(s) already mounted in the nesting cart.

  4. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  5. apeNEXT A Multi-Tflops LQCD Computing Project

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, R; Onofri, E.; Bartoloni, A.; Battista, C.; Cabibbo, N.; Cosimi, M.; Lonardo, A.; Michelotti, A.; Rapuano, F.; Proietti, B.; Rossetti, D.; Sacco, G.; Tassa, S.; Torelli, M.; Vicini, P.; Boucaud, Philippe; Pene, O.; Errico, W.; Magazzu, G.; Sartori, L.; Schifano, F.; Tripiccione, R.; De Riso, P.; Petronzio, R.; Destri, C.; Frezzotti, R.; Marchesini, G.; Gensch, U.; Kretzschmann, A.; Leich, H.; Paschedag, N.; Schwendicke, U.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R.; Sulanke, K.; Wegner, P.; Pleiter, D.; Jansen, K.; Fucci, A.; Martin, B.; Pech, J.; Panizzi, E.; Petricola, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a slightly modified and reduced version of the proposal of the {\\bf apeNEXT} project, which was submitted to DESY and INFN in spring 2000. .It presents the basic motivations and ideas of a next generation lattice QCD (LQCD) computing project, whose goal is the construction and operation of several large scale Multi-TFlops LQCD engines, providing an integrated peak performance of tens of TFlops, and a sustained (double precision) performance on key LQCD kernels of about 50% of peak speed.

  6. Meaning in great ape communication: summarising the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Does non-human great ape communication have meaning in the same way as human words (and some other human behaviours)? I recently argued that the answer to this question is most likely to be in the negative (Scott-Phillips in Anim Cogn 18(3):801-805, 2015a). Here, I (1) briefly respond to criticism of this view; (2) describe exactly what sort of empirical study could settle the matter; and (3) discuss what the best working hypotheses should be, in the absence of definitive empirical studies.

  7. Masticatory form and function in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B

    2002-02-01

    This study examines variability in masticatory morphology as a function of dietary preference among the African apes. The African apes differ in the degree to which they consume leaves and other fibrous vegetation. Gorilla gorilla beringei, the eastern mountain gorilla, consumes the most restricted diet comprised of mechanically resistant foods such as leaves, pith, bark, and bamboo. Gorilla gorilla gorilla, the western lowland gorilla subspecies, consumes leaves and other terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) but also consumes a fair amount of ripe, fleshy fruit. In contrast to gorillas, chimpanzees are frugivores and rely on vegetation primarily as fallback foods. However, there has been a long-standing debate regarding whether Pan paniscus, the pygmy chimpanzee (or bonobo), consumes greater quantities of THV as compared to Pan troglodytes, the common chimpanzee. Because consumption of resistant foods involves more daily chewing cycles and may require larger average bite force, the mechanical demands placed on the masticatory system are expected to be greater in folivores as compared to primates that consume large quantities of fleshy fruit. Therefore, more folivorous taxa are predicted to exhibit features that improve load-resistance capabilities and increase force production. To test this hypothesis, jaw and skull dimensions were compared in ontogenetic series of G. g. beringei, G. g. gorilla, P. t. troglodytes, and P. paniscus. Controlling for the influence of allometry, results show that compared to both chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas exhibit some features of the jaw complex that are suggestive of improved masticatory efficiency. For example, compared to all other taxa, G. g. beringei has a significantly wider mandibular corpus and symphysis, larger area for the masseter muscle, higher mandibular ramus, and higher mandibular condyle relative to the occlusal plane of the mandible. However, the significantly wider mandibular symphysis may be an

  8. The Middle Miocene ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus exhibits extant great ape-like morphometric affinities on its patella: inferences on knee function and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Marta; Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M; O'Neill, Matthew C; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The mosaic nature of the Miocene ape postcranium hinders the reconstruction of the positional behavior and locomotion of these taxa based on isolated elements only. The fossil great ape Pierolapithecus catalaunicus (IPS 21350 skeleton; 11.9 Ma) exhibits a relatively wide and shallow thorax with moderate hand length and phalangeal curvature, dorsally-oriented metacarpophalangeal joints, and loss of ulnocarpal articulation. This evidence reveals enhanced orthograde postures without modern ape-like below-branch suspensory adaptations. Therefore, it has been proposed that natural selection enhanced vertical climbing (and not suspension per se) in Pierolapithecus catalaunicus. Although limb long bones are not available for this species, its patella (IPS 21350.37) can potentially provide insights into its knee function and thus on the complexity of its total morphological pattern. Here we provide a detailed description and morphometric analyses of IPS 21350.37, which are based on four external dimensions intended to capture the overall patellar shape. Our results reveal that the patella of Pierolapithecus is similar to that of extant great apes: proximodistally short, mediolaterally broad and anteroposteriorly thin. Previous biomechanical studies of the anthropoid knee based on the same measurements proposed that the modern great ape patella reflects a mobile knee joint while the long, narrow and thick patella of platyrrhine and especially cercopithecoid monkeys would increase the quadriceps moment arm in knee extension during walking, galloping, climbing and leaping. The patella of Pierolapithecus differs not only from that of monkeys and hylobatids, but also from that of basal hominoids (e.g., Proconsul and Nacholapithecus), which display slightly thinner patellae than extant great apes (the previously-inferred plesiomorphic hominoid condition). If patellar shape in Pierolapithecus is related to modern great ape-like knee function, our results suggest that increased

  9. Identification of a novel potential antitumor activity of gossypol as an APE1/Ref-1 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian CY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chengyuan Qian, Mengxia Li, Jiangdong Sui, Tao Ren, Zheng Li, Liang Zhang, Liwei Zhou, Yi Cheng, Dong WangCancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox enhancing factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1, an essential multifunctional protein involved in the repair of oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage and transcriptional regulation, is often overexpressed in tumor tissues and cancer cells. Moreover, APE1/Ref-1 (APE1 overexpression has been linked to chemoresistance in human tumors. Thus, inhibiting APE1 function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome resistance to therapeutic agents. Gossypol is a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3-mimetic agent and is able to bind to the BH3 domain of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 family members. Other studies demonstrated that Bcl-2 directly interacted with APE1 via its BH domains. Using apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP endonuclease assays, we found that gossypol inhibits the repair activity of APE1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual luciferase assays showed that gossypol could also inhibit the redox function of APE1. Using dual polarization interferometry technology, we show that gossypol can directly interact with APE1. Furthermore, addition of gossypol, in conjunction with APE1 overexpression, leads to cancer cell death. The addition of gossypol also enhances the cell killing effect of the laboratory alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate and the clinical agent cisplatin (DDP. Administration of gossypol significantly inhibited the growth of xenografts. Furthermore, the combined treatment of gossypol and DDP resulted in a statistically higher antitumor activity compared with DDP alone in vivo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that gossypol effectively inhibits the repair and redox activity of APE1 through a direct interaction.Keywords: cancer

  10. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  11. Comparative mapping of human alphoid centromeric sequences in great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archidiacono, N.; Antonacci, R.; Marzella, R. [Instituto di Genetica, Bari (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Metaphase spreads from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) have been hybridized in situ with 27 alphoid DNA probes specific for the centromere of human chromosomes, to investigate the evolutionary relationship between centromeric regions of human and great apes. The results showed that most human probes do not recognize their corresponding homologs in great apes. Chromosome X is the only chromosome showing localization consistency in all the four species. Each suprachromosomal family (SCF) exhibits a distinct and peculiar evolutionary history. SCF1 (chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 7, 19, 12, 16) is very heterogeneous: some probes gave intense signals, but always on non-homologous chromosomes; others did not produce any hybridization signal. All probes localized on SCF2 (chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, and 22) recognize a single chromosome: chromosome 11 (phylogenetic IX) in PTR and PPA; chromosome 4 (phylogenetic V) in GGO. SCF3 subsets (chromosomes 1, 11, 17, X) are substantially conserved in PTR and PPA, but not in GGO, with the exception restricted to chromosome X. No signals have been detected on PPA chromosomes I, III, IV, V, VI and in PTR chromosomes V, suggesting that the centromeric region of some chromsomes have probably lost homology with human alphoid sequences.

  12. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  13. The role of Aspartyl aminopeptidase (Ape4 in Cryptococcus neoformans virulence and authophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Assis Gontijo

    Full Text Available In order to survive and cause disease, microbial pathogens must be able to proliferate at the temperature of their infected host. We identified novel microbial features associated with thermotolerance in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans using a random insertional mutagenesis strategy, screening for mutants with defective growth at 37°C. Among several thermosensitive mutants, we identified one bearing a disruption in a gene predicted to encode the Ape4 aspartyl aminopeptidase protein. Ape4 metalloproteases in other fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated by nitrogen starvation, and they are required for autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt pathway. However, none have been previously associated with altered growth at elevated temperatures. We demonstrated that the C. neoformans ape4 mutant does not grow at 37°C, and it also has defects in the expression of important virulence factors such as phospholipase production and capsule formation. C. neoformans Ape4 activity was required for this facultative intracellular pathogen to survive within macrophages, as well as for virulence in an animal model of cryptococcal infection. Similar to S. cerevisiae Ape4, the C. neoformans GFP-Ape4 fusion protein co-localized with intracytoplasmic vesicles during nitrogen depletion. APE4 expression was also induced by the combination of nutrient and thermal stress. Together these results suggest that autophagy is an important cellular process for this microbial pathogen to survive within the environment of the infected host.

  14. ape 3.0: New tools for distance-based phylogenetics and evolutionary analysis in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Andrei-Alin; Huber, Katharina T; Paradis, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Reflecting its continuously increasing versatility and functionality, the popularity of the ape (analysis of phylogenetics and evolution) software package has grown steadily over the years. Among its features, it has a strong distance-based component allowing the user to compute distances from aligned DNA sequences based on most methods from the literature and also build phylogenetic trees from them. However, even data generated with modern genomic approaches can fail to give rise to sufficiently reliable distance estimates. One way to overcome this problem is to exclude such estimates from data analysis giving rise to an incomplete distance data set (as opposed to a complete one). So far their analysis has been out of reach for ape. To remedy this, we have incorporated into ape several methods from the literature for phylogenetic inference from incomplete distance matrices. In addition, we have also extended ape's repertoire for phylogenetic inference from complete distances, added a new object class to efficiently encode sets of splits of taxa, and extended the functionality of some of its existing functions. ape is distributed through the Comprehensive R Archive Network: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ape/index.html Further information may be found at http://ape.mpl.ird.fr/pegas/

  15. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  16. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L.; Jiang, Yanlin; Kelley, Mark R.; Vasko, Michael R.; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  17. Detection probabilities of woodpecker nests in mixed conifer forests in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...

  18. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsem, Edouard; Rua, Réjane; Tortevoye, Patricia; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV) can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP) or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (pro)viral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men) and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436) or Bantus (1085) live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR) were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2%) persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6%) persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39) FV (mainly gorilla). Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39). The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (pro)viral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  19. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  20. Eigenmodes of superconducting cavities calculated on APE- supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Neugebauer, F

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of eigenmodes in superconducting cavities treated fully 3-dimensional is problematic on usual high end workstations due to the large amount of memory needed and the large number of floating point operations to be performed. Therefore the present approach uses a parallel SIMD supercomputer (APE-100) to deal with the task of finding the eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of a large sparse matrix. The matrix is built up by the commercial software tool MAFIA and then sent to the nodes of the supercomputer where the package MAXQ solves the eigenvalue problem. The result of the diagonalization procedure is then read back to the MAFIA host where further data analysis and visualization can be done. (5 refs).

  1. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  2. Neste plans three projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Neste Chemicals (Helsinki) is discussing three joint ventures with local authorities in China, says Mikko Haapavaara, v.p./Asia. The projects should help the Finnish producer to increase sales in Asia by a considerable amount by 2000, he says. The plan involves production of polyethylene (PE), unsaturated polyester resins and PE compounding-all core operations. Sites have not been selected, but Shanghai is the favored location for the PE operations. The company is also looking at a site in the south, near Hong Kong, and at locations near Beijing. The PE plant would need to be near an ethylene unit, says Haapavaara. The PE resin plant would be designed to produce about 150,000 m.t./year and would cost about No. 150 million. A part of the output would need to be exported to take care of the financing, the company says. A feasibility study now under way with the potential Chinese partners should be completed by the end of March. The plant would use Neste's linear low-density PE process, proved in a world-scale plant at Beringen, Belgium. The compounding units would produce specialty PE material for the wire and cable and pipe industry. The company is a joint venture partner in a propane dehydrogenation/polypropylene (PP) plant and a minority partner in a Qualipoly, the 20,000 m.t./year unsaturated polyester resin producer

  3. Density estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire, and Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, Nicolas; Hambuckers, Alain; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography, and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km(2) . These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of two geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of two distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  5. New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengo, Isaiah; Tafforeau, Paul; Gilbert, Christopher C; Fleagle, John G; Miller, Ellen R; Feibel, Craig; Fox, David L; Feinberg, Josh; Pugh, Kelsey D; Berruyer, Camille; Mana, Sara; Engle, Zachary; Spoor, Fred

    2017-08-09

    The evolutionary history of extant hominoids (humans and apes) remains poorly understood. The African fossil record during the crucial time period, the Miocene epoch, largely comprises isolated jaws and teeth, and little is known about ape cranial evolution. Here we report on the, to our knowledge, most complete fossil ape cranium yet described, recovered from the 13 million-year-old Middle Miocene site of Napudet, Kenya. The infant specimen, KNM-NP 59050, is assigned to a new species of Nyanzapithecus on the basis of its unerupted permanent teeth, visualized by synchrotron imaging. Its ear canal has a fully ossified tubular ectotympanic, a derived feature linking the species with crown catarrhines. Although it resembles some hylobatids in aspects of its morphology and dental development, it possesses no definitive hylobatid synapomorphies. The combined evidence suggests that nyanzapithecines were stem hominoids close to the origin of extant apes, and that hylobatid-like facial features evolved multiple times during catarrhine evolution.

  6. Detection of Termites and Other Insects Consumed by African Great Apes using Molecular Fecal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Hamad; Eric Delaporte; Didier Raoult; Fadi Bittar

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 c...

  7. Reimagining the Cuckoo's Nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, David A

    2018-03-01

    One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962) by Ken Kesey and The Devil in Silver (2012) by Victor LaValle are two novels that focus on mental hospitalization as a medical and social practice. Published fifty years apart, however, the books possess important differences in setting, method, and message reflecting the times that spawned them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the changing documentary and metaphorical uses of the asylum novel by comparing an iconic work in the genre with a respectful, but divergent, successor. What emerges from this comparison is an appreciation of the literary conventions shared by Kesey and LaValle but also the ingredients that separate their work. Whereas Kesey produced an enduring tribute to the virtue of nonconformity, LaValle's social criticism expresses itself as a disturbing portrayal of class-based disparities and administrative dysfunction inside the contemporary American mental health system.

  8. Tandem repeat variation in human and great ape populations and its impact on gene expression divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin Sonay, Tugce; Carvalho, Tiago; Robinson, Mark D; Greminger, Maja P; Krützen, Michael; Comas, David; Highnam, Gareth; Mittelman, David; Sharp, Andrew; Marques-Bonet, Tomàs; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) are stretches of DNA that are highly variable in length and mutate rapidly. They are thus an important source of genetic variation. This variation is highly informative for population and conservation genetics. It has also been associated with several pathological conditions and with gene expression regulation. However, genome-wide surveys of TR variation in humans and closely related species have been scarce due to technical difficulties derived from short-read technology. Here we explored the genome-wide diversity of TRs in a panel of 83 human and nonhuman great ape genomes, in a total of six different species, and studied their impact on gene expression evolution. We found that population diversity patterns can be efficiently captured with short TRs (repeat unit length, 1-5 bp). We examined the potential evolutionary role of TRs in gene expression differences between humans and primates by using 30,275 larger TRs (repeat unit length, 2-50 bp). Genes that contained TRs in the promoters, in their 3' untranslated region, in introns, and in exons had higher expression divergence than genes without repeats in the regions. Polymorphic small repeats (1-5 bp) had also higher expression divergence compared with genes with fixed or no TRs in the gene promoters. Our findings highlight the potential contribution of TRs to human evolution through gene regulation. © 2015 Bilgin Sonay et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ancrenaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3 ha(-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations. Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  10. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio) can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Ambu, Laurentius; Sunjoto, Indra; Ahmad, Eddie; Manokaran, Kennesh; Meijaard, Erik; Lackman, Isabelle

    2010-07-09

    Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP) conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM) in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3) ha(-1) of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations). Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  11. The influence of nest-site characteristics on the nesting success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of nest site has important consequences for nest survival. We examined nest-site characteristics relative to nest success in Karoo Prinias breeding in coastal dwarf shrubland, where high nest predation is the main cause of nest failure. Initially, we compared nests that failed during the building, laying, incubation and ...

  12. Neste Corporation - a successful year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1991-01-01

    The past year proved a successful one for Neste Corporation. Profitability was good and operations were consistently developed. Neste is committed to giving high priority to productivity and know- how to ensure that this success continues into the future. Important developments affecting the structure of Neste Corporation during 1990 included the amalgamation of Neste's oil-related activities into a single division, the increasing concentration of Neste Chemicals, activities in Central and Southern Europe and a major strengthening of oil exploration and production operations. Neste Oil turned in a good result during 1990. Neste imported a total of 8.9 million tonnes of crude oil during 1990. Imports from the Soviet Union at 5.2 million tonnes, were over 2 million tonnes less than planned. Some 2.5 million tonnes were imported from the North Sea, and 1.2 million tonnes from the Middle East. The year was one of expansion, diversification, and solid profit for Neste Chemicals. Net sales grew by 18 % compared to 1989 and the division recorded a satisfactory performance. Petrochemicals and polyolefins production increased suhstantially as a result of plants completed, acquired, or leased during 1989. The gas division's net sales during 1990 were 46 % higher than during 1989. This growth largely resulted from an increase in the consumption of natural gas and an expansion in the volume of international IPG business. The division's profitability remained satisfactory

  13. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  14. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  15. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  17. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE RELATING TO CAPTIVE GREAT APE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Victoria J; Grindlay, Douglas; Redrobe, Sharon; Cobb, Malcolm; White, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. This is the first review of the great ape literature published since 1990 and the first-ever systematic literature review of great ape morbidity and mortality. The following databases were searched for relevant articles: CAB Abstracts, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record. A total of 189 articles reporting on the causes of morbidity and mortality among captive great apes were selected and divided into comparative morbidity-mortality studies and case reports-series or single-disease prevalence studies. The content and main findings of the morbidity-mortality studies were reviewed and the main limitations identified. The case reports-case series and single-disease prevalence studies were categorized and coded according to taxa, etiology, and body system. Subsequent analysis allowed the amount of literature coverage afforded to each category to be calculated and the main diseases and disorders reported within the literature to be identified. This review concludes that reports of idiopathic and infectious diseases along with disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal body systems were particularly prominent within the great ape literature during 1990-2014. However, recent and accurate prevalence figures are lacking and there are flaws in those reviews that do exist. There is

  18. Danes commemorating Darwin: apes and evolution at the 1909 anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-10-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: on the one hand, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as 'radical', 'evangelical' and 'safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism prominent among naturalists played only a secondary role in the public arena. This article demonstrates the value of using newspapers as historical sources when looking for public images of Darwin, popular receptions of Darwinism and representations of science in general.

  19. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  20. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  1. Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes: variation in prevalence and timing of defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    2001-11-01

    The prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes has the potential to reveal episodes of physiological stress in early stages of ontogenetic development. However, little is known about enamel defects of deciduous teeth in great apes. Unresolved questions addressed in this study are: Do hypoplastic enamel defects occur with equal frequency in different groups of great apes? Are enamel hypoplasias more prevalent in the deciduous teeth of male or female apes? During what phase of dental development do enamel defects tend to form? And, what part of the dental crown is most commonly affected? To answer these questions, infant and juvenile skulls of two sympatric genera of great apes (Gorilla and Pan) were examined for dental enamel hypoplasias. Specimens from the Powell-Cotton Museum (Quex Park, UK; n = 107) are reported here, and compared with prior findings based on my examination of juvenile apes at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Hamman-Todd Collection; n = 100) and Smithsonian Institution (National Museum of Natural History; n = 36). All deciduous teeth were examined by the author with a x10 hand lens, in oblique incandescent light. Defects were classified using Fédération Dentaire International (FDI)/Defects of Dental Enamel (DDE) standards; defect size and location on the tooth crown were measured and marked on dental outline charts. Enamel defects of ape deciduous teeth are most common on the labial surface of canine teeth. While deciduous incisor and molar teeth consistently exhibit similar defects with prevalences of approximately 10%, canines average between 70-75%. Position of enamel defects on the canine crown was analyzed by dividing it into three zones (apical, middle, and cervical) and calculating defect prevalence by zone. Among gorillas, enamel hypoplasia prevalence increases progressively from the apical zone (low) to the middle zone to the cervical zone (highest), in both maxillary and mandibular canine teeth

  2. Evolution of the auditory ossicles in extant hominids: metric variation in African apes and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf M; Coleman, Mark N; Martínez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The auditory ossicles in primates have proven to be a reliable source of phylogenetic information. Nevertheless, to date, very little data have been published on the metric dimensions of the ear ossicles in African apes and humans. The present study relies on the largest samples of African ape ear ossicles studied to date to address questions of taxonomic differences and the evolutionary transformation of the ossicles in gorillas, chimpanzees and humans. Both African ape taxa show a malleus that is characterized by a long and slender manubrium and relatively short corpus, whereas humans show the opposite constellation of a short and thick manubrium and relatively long corpus. These changes in the manubrium are plausibly linked with changes in the size of the tympanic membrane. The main difference between the incus in African apes and humans seems to be related to changes in the functional length. Compared with chimpanzees, human incudes are larger in nearly all dimensions, except articular facet height, and show a more open angle between the axes. The gorilla incus resembles humans more closely in its metric dimensions, including functional length, perhaps as a result of the dramatically larger body size compared with chimpanzees. The differences between the stapedes of humans and African apes are primarily size-related, with humans being larger in nearly all dimensions. Nevertheless, some distinctions between the African apes were found in the obturator foramen and head height. Although correlations between metric variables in different ossicles were generally lower than those between variables in the same bone, variables of the malleus/incus complex appear to be more strongly correlated than those of the incus/stapes complex, perhaps reflecting the different embryological and evolutionary origins of the ossicles. The middle ear lever ratio for the African apes is similar to other haplorhines, but humans show the lowest lever ratio within primates. Very low levels

  3. Do Predation Rates on Artificial Nests Accurately Reflect Predation Rates on Natural Bird Nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin; Thomas J. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Artificial nests are widely used in avian field studies. However, it is unclear how well predation rates on artificial nests reflect predation rates on natural nests. Therefore, we compared survival rates of artificial nests (unused natural nests baited with House Sparrow eggs) with survival rates of active bird nests in the same habitat at the same sites. Survival...

  4. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  5. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : birds nests * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  6. A Minimally Invasive Method for Sampling Nest and Roost Cavities for Fungi: a Novel Approach to Identify the Fungi Associated with Cavity-Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel Lindner; John K. Cianchetti; Adam T. Grisé; Nicholas J. Brazee; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Relationships among cavity-nesting birds, trees, and wood decay fungi pose interesting management challenges and research questions in many systems. Ornithologists need to understand the relationships between cavity-nesting birds and fungi in order to understand the habitat requirements of these birds. Typically, researchers rely on fruiting body surveys to identify...

  7. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  8. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  9. Consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie J Ryan

    Full Text Available Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both "naturally" occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV, and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. Here we explore both the risk of disease to African apes, and the status of potential responses. Through synthesis of published data, we summarize prior disease impact on African apes. We then use a simple demographic model to illustrate the resilience of a well-known gorilla population to disease, modeled on prior documented outbreaks. We found that the predicted recovery time for this specific gorilla population from a single outbreak ranged from 5 years for a low mortality (4% respiratory outbreak, to 131 years for an Ebola outbreak that killed 96% of the population. This shows that mortality rates comparable to those recently reported for disease outbreaks in wild populations are not sustainable. This is particularly troubling given the rising pathogen risk created by increasing habituation of wild apes for tourism, and the growth of human populations surrounding protected areas. We assess potential future disease spillover risk in terms of vaccination rates amongst humans that may come into contact with wild apes, and the availability of vaccines against potentially threatening diseases. We discuss and evaluate non-interventionist responses such as limiting tourist access to apes, community health programs, and safety, logistic, and cost issues that constrain the potential of vaccination.

  10. dAPE: a web server to detect homorepeats and follow their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Pablo; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2017-04-15

    Homorepeats are low complexity regions consisting of repetitions of a single amino acid residue. There is no current consensus on the minimum number of residues needed to define a functional homorepeat, nor even if mismatches are allowed. Here we present dAPE, a web server that helps following the evolution of homorepeats based on orthology information, using a sensitive but tunable cutoff to help in the identification of emerging homorepeats. dAPE can be accessed from http://cbdm-01.zdv.uni-mainz.de/∼munoz/polyx . munoz@uni-mainz.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes, and that a ......The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...

  12. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2014-01-01

    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other? Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Role of the XRCC1 - APE1 interaction in the maintenance of genetic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossou-Becker, M.

    2005-09-01

    This thesis is divided in four chapters: the first one concerns the genetic instability, the second one is devoted to the DNA repair, the third one is related to the XRCC1 and the chapter four concerns APE1. Then, are defined the objectives and the results. This work fits into the studies of repair mechanisms. The physical and functional characterisation of the interaction between XRCC1 and APE1 allowed to understand its involvement in the prevention of the genetic instability at the origin of cancer. (N.C.)

  14. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  15. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krief Sabrina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp., including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour in which they consume plant parts of low nutritional value but that contain compounds with anti-malarial properties suggests that the apes health might be affected by the parasite. The avoidance of the night-biting anopheline mosquitoes is another potential behavioural adaptation that would lead to a decrease in the number of infectious bites and consequently malaria. Methods Mosquitoes were collected over two years using suction-light traps and yeast-generated CO2 traps at the nesting and the feeding sites of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park. The species of the female Anopheles caught were then determined and the presence of Plasmodium was sought in these insects by PCR amplification. Results The mosquito catches yielded a total of 309 female Anopheles specimens, the only known vectors of malaria parasites of mammalians. These specimens belonged to 10 species, of which Anopheles implexus, Anopheles vinckei and Anopheles demeilloni dominated. Sensitive DNA amplification techniques failed to detect any Plasmodium-positive Anopheles specimens. Humidity and trap height influenced the Anopheles capture success, and there was a negative correlation between nest numbers and mosquito abundance. The anopheline mosquitoes were also less diverse and numerous in sites where chimpanzees were nesting as compared to those where they were feeding. Conclusions These observations suggest that the sites where chimpanzees build their nests every night might be

  16. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  17. Measuring Collective Efficacy: A Multilevel Measurement Model for Nested Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.; Drakulich, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This article specifies a multilevel measurement model for survey response when data are nested. The model includes a test-retest model of reliability, a confirmatory factor model of inter-item reliability with item-specific bias effects, an individual-level model of the biasing effects due to respondent characteristics, and a neighborhood-level…

  18. COUNTS OF SURFACE-NESTING SEABIRDS BREEDING AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first midsummer survey of surface-nesting seabirds at Prince Edward Island was conducted during December 2001. It was also the first census for most species since the early 1980s. Despite concerns about the impacts of longline fishing mortality on various albatrosses and giant petrels, there was no evidence that ...

  19. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  20. Nest use is influenced by the positions of nests and drinkers in aviaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentfer, T L; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; von Borell, E

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers on nest use by laying hens in a commercial aviary was assessed. Twenty pens in a laying hen house were equipped with the same commercial aviary system, but the pens differed in the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers. Nests were placed along the walls in 10 pens, and nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. The other 10 pens were equipped with nests placed on a tier within the aviary (integrated nests). Nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. A total of 225 Lohmann Selected Leghorns were housed per pen. The hens were offered 4 nests per pen: 2 facing the service corridor of the laying hen house and 2 facing the outdoor area. The numbers of nest eggs and mislaid eggs were counted daily per pen. At 25, 36, and 43 wk of age, the nest platforms were videotaped and the behavior of laying hens in front of the nests was analyzed. The nest location affected the stationary and locomotive behaviors in front of the nests. Hens in front of the integrated nests and the nests with drinkers displayed more stationary behaviors than hens in front of wall-placed nests or nests without drinkers. No difference in the number of nest eggs could be detected, but the integration of the nests inside the aviary led to a more even distribution of hens while nest searching. In the pens with wall-placed nests, significantly more hens laid eggs in the nests at the wall near the service corridor than at the wall near the outdoor area. Due to this imbalance, crowding in front of the preferred nests occurred and pushing and agonistic interactions on the nest platforms were significantly more frequent. Placement of nipple drinkers in front of nests had no effect on the number of eggs laid in those nests.

  1. Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of hominin culture is well-documented in the archeological and fossil record, but such a record is largely absent for nonhuman primates. An alternative approach to studying cultural evolution is to examine patterns of modern cultural variation. In this article we measure nestedness across human and great ape "cultural repertoires" to gain insight into the accumulation and maintenance of putative cultural diversity in these species. Cultural assemblages are nested if cultures with a small repertoire of traits tend to comprise a proper subset of those traits present in more complex cultures. This nesting will occur if some traits are sequentially gained or lost, which may be because of the differential dispersal or extinction of traits. Here we apply statistical tools from ecology to examine the degree of nestedness in four datasets documenting the presence or absence of specific cultural traits across indigenous human populations in North America and New Guinea. We then compare the human data to patterns observed for putative cultural traits in chimpanzee and orangutan populations. In both humans and chimpanzees, cultural diversity is highly nonrandom, showing significant nested structure for all of the datasets examined. We find no evidence for nestedness in the orangutan cultural data. These findings are consistent with a sequential "layering" of cultural diversity in humans and chimpanzees, but not orangutans. Such an interpretation implies that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  2. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...... Exformatics, a danish provider of case and workflow management systems. We formalize the semantics by giving first a map from Nested to (flat) DCR Graphs with milestones, and then extending the previously given mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata to include the milestone relation....

  3. Charlie Chaplin in Deutschland 1915–1924. Der Tramp kommt ins Kino. von Norbert Aping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krenn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Aping legt ein weiteres, detailreiches Buch über Charlie Chaplin vor. Der renommierte Filmhistoriker und Romy-Schneider-Biograf Günter Krenn hat den Band für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert und führt so ein wichtiges Stück Filmgeschichte vor Augen.

  4. Charlie Chaplin in Deutschland 1915–1924. Der Tramp kommt ins Kino. von Norbert Aping

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Krenn

    2014-01-01

    Norbert Aping legt ein weiteres, detailreiches Buch über Charlie Chaplin vor. Der renommierte Filmhistoriker und Romy-Schneider-Biograf Günter Krenn hat den Band für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert und führt so ein wichtiges Stück Filmgeschichte vor Augen.

  5. Humans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann eRaghanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY plays a role in a variety of basic physiological functions and has also been implicated in regulating cognition, including learning and memory. A decrease in neocortical NPY has been reported for Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, potentially contributing to associated cognitive deficits. The goal of the present analysis was to examine variation in neocortical NPY-immunoreactive axon and varicosity density among haplorhine primates (monkeys, apes, and humans. Stereologic methods were used to measure the ratios of NPY-expressing axon length density to total neuron density (ALv/Nv and NPY-immunoreactive varicosity density to neuron density (Vv/Nv, as well as the mean varicosity spacing in neocortical areas 10, 24, 44, and 22 (Tpt of humans, African great apes, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys. Humans and great apes showed increased cortical NPY innervation relative to monkey species for ALv/Nv and Vv/Nv. Furthermore, humans and great apes displayed a conserved pattern of varicosity spacing across cortical areas and layers, with no differences between cortical layers or among cortical areas. These phylogenetic differences may be related to shared life history variables and may reflect specific cognitive abilities.

  6. What do Natural Categorization Studies tell us about the Concepts of Apes and Bears?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To properly test hypotheses about the emergence of cognitive capacities in humans and other animals, it is important to test species that differ in morphology and ecology. One of the most notable aspects of animal ecology that has been championed as a factor in the evolution of cognitive skills is social complexity. However, to determine the significance of social lifestyle on an organism‟s cognitive abilities, it is important to test both social and less social species in similar tasks. We have conducted a series of natural categorization studies with three great ape species and recently extended this program of research to include American black bears (Ursus Americanus. Here we analyze the bears‟ choices of stimuli from our previously published categorization experiments and compare the pattern of their choices to that of apes tested previously. Like the apes, the individual bears show idiosyncratic choices that do not clearly differentiate between conceptual and perceptual strategies in performing categorization tasks. Despite their relatively asocial lifestyles, bears thus far appear to display cognitive abilities commiserate with those of the great apes. We suggest that researchers broaden their approach to study more diverse species in analogous tasks and make a concerted effort to view experimental tasks from the animals‟ perspectives.

  7. eulerAPE: drawing area-proportional 3-Venn diagrams using ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Luana; Rodgers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Venn diagrams with three curves are used extensively in various medical and scientific disciplines to visualize relationships between data sets and facilitate data analysis. The area of the regions formed by the overlapping curves is often directly proportional to the cardinality of the depicted set relation or any other related quantitative data. Drawing these diagrams manually is difficult and current automatic drawing methods do not always produce appropriate diagrams. Most methods depict the data sets as circles, as they perceptually pop out as complete distinct objects due to their smoothness and regularity. However, circles cannot draw accurate diagrams for most 3-set data and so the generated diagrams often have misleading region areas. Other methods use polygons to draw accurate diagrams. However, polygons are non-smooth and non-symmetric, so the curves are not easily distinguishable and the diagrams are difficult to comprehend. Ellipses are more flexible than circles and are similarly smooth, but none of the current automatic drawing methods use ellipses. We present eulerAPE as the first method and software that uses ellipses for automatically drawing accurate area-proportional Venn diagrams for 3-set data. We describe the drawing method adopted by eulerAPE and we discuss our evaluation of the effectiveness of eulerAPE and ellipses for drawing random 3-set data. We compare eulerAPE and various other methods that are currently available and we discuss differences between their generated diagrams in terms of accuracy and ease of understanding for real world data.

  8. Genetic Differences Between Great Apes and Humans: Implications for Human Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varki, Ajit (University of California, San Diego)

    2004-03-17

    When considering protein sequences, humans are 99-100% identical to chimpanzees and bonobos, our closest evolutionary relatives. The evolution of humans (and the unique features of our species) from a common ancestor with these great apes involved many steps, influenced by interactions amongst factors of genetic, developmental, ecological, microbial, climatic, behavioral, cultural and social origin. The genetic factors can be approached by direct comparisons of human and great ape genomes, genes and gene products, and by elucidating biochemical and biological consequences of the differences. We have discovered multiple genetic and biochemical differences between humans and great apes, particularly in relationship to a family of cell surface molecules called sialic acids. These differences have implications for the human condition, ranging from susceptibility or resistance to microbial pathogens; effects on endogenous receptors in the immune system; potential effects on placental signaling; the expression of oncofetal antigens in cancers; consequences of dietary intake of animal foods; and the development of the mammalian brain. This talk will provide an overview of these and other genetic differences between humans and great apes, with attention to differences potentially relevant to the evolution of humans.

  9. Fungal phosphate transporter serves as a receptor backbone for gibbon ape leukemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; van Zeijl, Marja; Johann, Stephen V

    1997-01-01

    Pit1, the receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), is proposed to be an integral membrane protein with five extracellular loops. Chimeras made between Pit1 homologs differing in permissivity for infection and between Pit1 and the related protein Pit2 have shown that the fourth extracellular...

  10. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  11. High seroprevalence of enterovirus infections in apes and old world monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; McIntyre, Chloe L; Imai, Natsuko; Clasper, Lucy; Djoko, Cyrille F; LeBreton, Matthew; Vermeulen, Marion; Saville, Andrew; Mutapi, Francisca; Tamoufé, Ubald; Kiyang, John; Biblia, Tafon G; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Pépin, Jacques; Njouom, Richard; Njoum, Richard; Smura, Teemu; Fair, Joseph N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Roivainen, Merja; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates.

  12. From Ape to Man. The Phenomenal Growth of Cranial Capacity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 5. From Ape to Man: The Phenomenal Growth of Cranial Capacity and Culture. Srinivasachari Rajappa. General Article Volume 10 Issue 5 May 2005 pp 8-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Processing of abasic DNA clusters in hApeI-silenced primary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eagle Medium; DSB, double-strand break; DTT, dithiothreitol; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HEPES, .... #3 to be used for RNA-silencing experiments. ..... and HeLa cells (Fantini et al. 2008). Although a non-viral- mediated approach is effective for ApeI RNA interference experiments involving cancer cell lines, there ...

  14. Effects of invasive woody plants on avian nest site selection and nesting success in shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Schlossberg; D.I. King

    2010-01-01

    Exotic, invasive plants are a growing conservation problem. Birds frequently use invasive plants as nest substrates, but effects of invasives on avian nesting success have been equivocal in past studies. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed effects of invasive woody plants on avian nest-site selection and nesting success in western Massachusetts shrublands. At the nest scale...

  15. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancucci, Luis; Martin, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  16. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  17. Pierolapithecus and the functional morphology of Miocene ape hand phalanges: paleobiological and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2009-09-01

    The partial skeleton of Pierolapithecus, which provides the oldest unequivocal evidence of orthogrady, together with the recently described phalanges from Paşalar most likely attributable to Griphopithecus, provide a unique opportunity for understanding the changes in hand anatomy during the pronogrady/orthogrady transition in hominoid evolution. In this paper, we describe the Pierolapithecus hand phalanges and compare their morphology and proportions with those of other Miocene apes in order to make paleobiological inferences about locomotor evolution. In particular, we investigate the orthograde/pronograde evolutionary transition in order to test whether the acquisition of vertical climbing and suspension were decoupled during evolution. Our results indicate that the manual phalanges of Miocene apes are much more similar to one another than to living apes. In particular, Miocene apes retain primitive features related to powerful-grasping palmigrady on the basal portion, the shaft, and the trochlea of the proximal phalanges. These features suggest that above-branch quadrupedalism, inherited from stem hominoids, constituted a significant component of the locomotor repertories of different hominoid lineages at least until the late Miocene. Nonetheless, despite their striking morphological similarities, several Miocene apes do significantly differ in phalangeal curvature and/or elongation. Hispanopithecus most clearly departs by displaying markedly-curved and elongated phalanges, similar to those in the most suspensory of the extant apes (hylobatids and orangutans). This feature agrees with several others that indicate orang-like suspensory capabilities. The remaining Miocene apes, on the contrary, display low to moderate phalangeal curvature, and short to moderately-elongated phalanges, which are indicative of the lack of suspensory adaptations. As such, the transition from a pronograde towards an orthograde body plan, as far as this particular anatomical region is

  18. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Nonhuman Apes at Moderate Altitudes: A Comparison with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wilfong, DeeAnn

    2016-12-01

    Mortola, Jacopo P. and DeeAnn Wilfong. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of nonhuman apes at moderate altitudes: a comparison with humans. High Alt Med Biol. 17:323-335, 2016.-We asked to what extent the hematologic response (increase in hematocrit [Hct] and in blood hemoglobin concentration [Hb]) of humans to altitude hypoxia was shared by our closest relatives, the nonhuman apes. Data were collected from 29 specimens of 7 species of apes at 2073 m altitude (barometric pressure Pb = 598 mm Hg); additional data originated from apes located at a lower altitude (1493 m, Pb = 639 mm Hg). The human altitude profiles of Hct and Hb between sea level and 3000 m were constructed from a compilation of literature sources that (all combined) comprised data sets of 10,000-12,000 subjects for each gender. These human data were binned for 0-250 m altitude (sea level) and for each 500 m of progressively higher altitudes. Values of Hb and Hct of both men and women were significantly higher than at sea level at the 1500 bin (1250-1750 m); hence, the altitude threshold for the human hematological responses must be between 1000 and 1500 m. In the nonhuman apes, no increase in Hct or Hb was apparent at 1500 m; at 2000 m, the increase was significant only for the Hb of females. At either altitude in the group of nonhuman apes, the increase in Hct was much less than in humans, and that of Hb was significantly less at 1500 m. We conclude that lack of, or minimal, hematopoietic response to moderate altitude can occur in mammalian species that are not genetically adapted to high altitudes. Polycythemia is not a common response to altitude hypoxia and, at least at moderate altitudes, the degree of the human response may represent the exception among apes rather than the rule.

  19. What’s Special about Human Imitation? A Comparison with Enculturated Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francys Subiaul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What, if anything, is special about human imitation? An evaluation of enculturated apes’ imitation skills, a “best case scenario” of non-human apes’ imitation performance, reveals important similarities and differences between this special population of apes and human children. Candidates for shared imitation mechanisms include the ability to imitate various familiar transitive responses and object–object actions that involve familiar tools. Candidates for uniquely derived imitation mechanisms include: imitating novel transitive actions and novel tool-using responses as well as imitating opaque or intransitive gestures, regardless of familiarity. While the evidence demonstrates that enculturated apes outperform non-enculturated apes and perform more like human children, all apes, regardless of rearing history, generally excel at imitating familiar, over-rehearsed responses and are poor, relative to human children, at imitating novel, opaque or intransitive responses. Given the similarities between the sensory and motor systems of preschool age human children and non-human apes, it is unlikely that differences in sensory input and/or motor-output alone explain the observed discontinuities in imitation performance. The special rearing history of enculturated apes—including imitation-specific training—further diminishes arguments suggesting that differences are experience-dependent. Here, it is argued that such differences are best explained by distinct, specialized mechanisms that have evolved for copying rules and responses in particular content domains. Uniquely derived social and imitation learning mechanisms may represent adaptations for learning novel communicative gestures and complex tool-use. Given our species’ dependence on both language and tools, mechanisms that accelerated learning in these domains are likely to have faced intense selective pressures, starting with the earliest of human ancestors.

  20. Extant ape dental topography and its implications for reconstructing the emergence of early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A; Schroer, Kes

    2017-11-01

    Dental topography reflects diet accurately in several extant and extinct mammalian clades. However, dental topographic dietary reconstructions have high success rates only when closely related taxa are compared. Given the dietary breadth that exists among extant apes and likely existed among fossil hominins, dental topographic values from many species and subspecies of great apes are necessary for making dietary inferences about the hominin fossil record. Here, we present the results of one metric of dental topography, Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), for seven groups of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes and schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri and beringei). Dirichlet normal energy was inadequate at differentiating folivores from frugivores, but was adequate at predicting which groups had more fibrous diets among sympatric African apes. Character displacement analyses confirmed there is substantial dental topographic and relative molar size (M 1 :M 2 ratio; length, width, and area) divergence in sympatric apes when compared to their allopatric counterparts, but character displacement is only present in relative molar size when DNE is also considered. Presence of character displacement is likely due to indirect competition over similar food resources. Assuming similar ecological conditions in the Plio-Pleistocene, the derived masticatory apparatuses of the robust australopiths and early Homo may be due to indirect competition over dietary resources between the taxa, causing dietary niche partitioning. Our results imply that dental topography cannot be used to predict dietary categories in fossil hominins without consideration of ecological factors, such as dietary and geographic overlap. In addition, our results may open new avenues for understanding the community compositions of early hominins and the formation of specific ecological niches among hominin taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  2. Do artificial nests simulate nest success of greater sage-grouse?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Mabray, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nests have been used to study factors affecting nest success because researchers can manipulate them more than natural bird nests. Many researchers have questioned the validity of generalizing the results from artificial nests onto naturally occurring nests. Other studies have assessed the validity of artificial nest studies by simultaneously comparing overall depredation or daily survival rates, depredation timing, predator species, or habitat characteristics of artificial and nat...

  3. Size matters: Nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Soto, E; Philpott, SM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly. We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether ...

  4. Advanced techniques for modeling avian nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, S.J.; White, Gary C.; Knopf, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of avian nest survival has traditionally involved simple measures of apparent nest survival or Mayfield constant-nest-survival models. However, these methods do not allow researchers to build models that rigorously assess the importance of a wide range of biological factors that affect nest survival. Models that incorporate greater detail, such as temporal variation in nest survival and covariates representative of individual nests represent a substantial improvement over traditional estimation methods. In an attempt to improve nest survival estimation procedures, we introduce the nest survival model now available in the program MARK and demonstrate its use on a nesting study of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus Townsend) in Montana, USA. We modeled the daily survival of Mountain Plover nests as a function of the sex of the incubating adult, nest age, year, linear and quadratic time trends, and two weather covariates (maximum daily temperature and daily precipitation) during a six-year study (1995–2000). We found no evidence for yearly differences or an effect of maximum daily temperature on the daily nest survival of Mountain Plovers. Survival rates of nests tended by female and male plovers differed (female rate = 0.33; male rate = 0.49). The estimate of the additive effect for males on nest survival rate was 0.37 (95% confidence limits were 0.03, 0.71) on a logit scale. Daily survival rates of nests increased with nest age; the estimate of daily nest-age change in survival in the best model was 0.06 (95% confidence limits were 0.04, 0.09) on a logit scale. Daily precipitation decreased the probability that the nest would survive to the next day; the estimate of the additive effect of daily precipitation on the nest survival rate was −1.08 (95% confidence limits were −2.12, −0.13) on a logit scale. Our approach to modeling daily nest-survival rates allowed several biological factors of interest to be easily included in nest survival models

  5. Mitochondrial genes support a common origin of rodent malaria parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanquart Samuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute form of human malaria. Most recent studies demonstrate that it belongs to a monophyletic lineage specialized in the infection of great ape hosts. Several other Plasmodium species cause human malaria. They all belong to another distinct lineage of parasites which infect a wider range of primate species. All known mammalian malaria parasites appear to be monophyletic. Their clade includes the two previous distinct lineages of parasites of primates and great apes, one lineage of rodent parasites, and presumably Hepatocystis species. Plasmodium falciparum and great ape parasites are commonly thought to be the sister-group of all other mammal-infecting malaria parasites. However, some studies supported contradictory origins and found parasites of great apes to be closer to those of rodents, or to those of other primates. Results To distinguish between these mutually exclusive hypotheses on the origin of Plasmodium falciparum and its great ape infecting relatives, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on a data set of three mitochondrial genes from 33 to 84 malaria parasites. We showed that malarial mitochondrial genes have evolved slowly and are compositionally homogeneous. We estimated their phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. Inferred trees were checked for their robustness to the (i site selection, (ii assumptions of various probabilistic models, and (iii taxon sampling. Our results robustly support a common ancestry of rodent parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes. Conclusions Our results refute the most common view of the origin of great ape malaria parasites, and instead demonstrate the robustness of a less well-established phylogenetic hypothesis, under which Plasmodium falciparum and its relatives infecting great apes are closely related to rodent parasites. This study sheds light

  6. APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Bret D.; Berman, Zachary; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Lin, Yunfeng; Chang, Timothy; Andres, Sara N.; Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Appel, C. Denise; London, Robert E.; Yan, Shan; Williams, R. Scott

    2016-12-27

    The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.

  7. Nuclear depletion of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is an indicator of energy disruption in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpee; Englander, Ella W

    2012-11-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein critical for cellular survival. Its involvement in adaptive survival responses includes key roles in redox sensing, transcriptional regulation, and repair of DNA damage via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Ape1 is abundant in most cell types and central in integrating the first BER step catalyzed by different DNA glycosylases. BER is the main process for removal of oxidative DNA lesions in postmitotic brain cells, and after ischemic brain injury preservation of Ape1 coincides with neuronal survival, while its loss has been associated with neuronal death. Here, we report that in cultured primary neurons, diminution of cellular ATP by either oligomycin or H(2)O(2) is accompanied by depletion of nuclear Ape1, while other BER proteins are unaffected and retain their nuclear localization under these conditions. Importantly, while H(2)O(2) induces γH2AX phosphorylation, indicative of chromatin rearrangements in response to DNA damage, oligomycin does not. Furthermore, despite comparable diminution of ATP content, H(2)O(2) and oligomycin differentially affect critical parameters of mitochondrial respiration that ultimately determine cellular ATP content. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in neurons, nuclear compartmentalization of Ape1 depends on ATP and loss of nuclear Ape1 reflects disruption of neuronal energy homeostasis. Energy crisis is a hallmark of stroke and other ischemic/hypoxic brain injuries. In vivo studies have shown that Ape1 deficit precedes neuronal loss in injured brain regions. Thus, our findings bring to light the possibility that energy failure-induced Ape1 depletion triggers neuronal death in ischemic brain injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal fluctuation within nests and predicted sex ratio of Morelet's Crocodile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Galván, Armando H; López-Luna, Marco A; Cupul-Magaña, Fabio G

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the interplay between thermal variations and sex ratio in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination is the first step for developing long-term conservation strategies. In case of crocodilians, the information is fragmentary and insufficient for establishing a general framework to consider how thermal fluctuation influence sex determination under natural conditions. The main goal of this study was to analyze thermal variation in nests of Crocodylus moreletii and to discuss the potential implications for predicting offspring sex ratio. The study was carried out at the Centro de Estudios Tecnológicos del Mar N° 2 and at the Sistemas Productivos Cocodrilo, Campeche, Mexico. Data was collected in the nesting season of Morelet's Crocodiles during three consecutive seasons (2007-2009). Thermal fluctuations for multiple areas of the nest chamber were registered by data loggers. We calculate the constant temperature equivalent based on thermal profiles among nests to assess whether there are differences between the nest temperature and its equivalent to constant temperature. We observed that mean nest temperature was only different among nests, while daily thermal fluctuations vary depending on the depth position within the nest chamber, years and nests. The constant temperature equivalent was different among and within nests, but not among survey years. We observed differences between constant temperature equivalent and mean nest temperature both at the top and in the middle of the nest cavities, but were not significantly different at the bottom of nest cavities. Our results enable examine and discuss the relevance of daily thermal fluctuations to predict sex ratio of the Morelet's Crocodile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  10. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  11. Nest defense- Grassland bird responses to snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Predation is the primary source of nest mortality for most passerines; thus, behaviors to reduce the impacts of predation are frequently quantified to study learning, adaptation, and coevolution among predator and prey species. Video surveillance of nests has made it possible to examine real-time parental nest defense. During 1999-2009, we used video camera systems to monitor 518 nests of grassland birds. We reviewed video of 48 visits by snakes to 34 nests; 37 of these visits resulted in predation of active nests. When adult birds encountered snakes at the nest (n = 33 visits), 76% of the encounters resulted in a form of nest defense (nonaggressive or aggressive); in 47% of the encounters, birds physically struck snakes. When defending nests, most birds pecked at the snakes; Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) pecked most frequently in anyone encounter. Also, two Eastern Meadowlarks ran around snakes, frequently with wings spread, and three Bobolinks struck at snakes from the air. Nest defense rarely appeared to alter snake behavior; the contents of seven nests defended aggressively and two nests defended nonaggressively were partially depredated, whereas the contents of six nests defended each way were consumed completely. One fledgling was produced at each of three nests that had been aggressively defended. During aggressive defense, one snake appeared to be driven away and one was wounded. Our findings should be a useful starting point for further research. For example, future researchers may be able to determine whether the behavioral variation we observed in nest defense reflects species differences, anatomic or phylogenetic constraints, or individual differences related to a bird's prior experience. There appears to be much potential for studying nest defense behavior using video recording of both real and simulated encounters. 

  12. On the Denesting of Nested Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    We present the basic theory of denesting nested square roots, from an elementary point of view, suitable for lower level coursework. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for direct denesting, where the nested expression is rewritten as a sum of square roots of rational numbers, and for indirect denesting, where the nested expression is…

  13. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Paupy

    Full Text Available During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  14. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  15. Disparities in prevalence and risk indicators of loneliness between rural empty nest and non-empty nest older adults in Chizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pan; Jin, Yu; Sun, Hongmin; Tang, Zhenhai; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Qinghe; Huang, Fen

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the disparities in prevalence and risk factors of loneliness between rural empty nest and non-empty nest older adults in Chizhou, China. A sample of 730 participants (381 empty nest older adults and 349 non-empty nest older adults) were surveyed using the University of California at Los Angeles-Loneliness Scale, the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Social Support Rate Scale, the Perceived Social Support from Family Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire abbreviated version. The present study showed that the mean level of loneliness did significantly differ between empty nest older adults and non-empty nest older adults (41.52 ± 6.98 vs 39.46 ± 7.38). Empty nesters had significantly higher GDS scores; by contrast, they received lower objective, subjective and family support. Family support, objective support and social interaction were associated significantly with loneliness, which was more pronounced in empty nest older adults, excluding subjective support and psychological domain. The GDS scores (β = 0.237, P loneliness in empty nest older adults. Loneliness obviously prevails among empty nest older adults than non-empty nest older adults. Depressive symptoms showed a stronger risk of empty nest older adults being lonely. Family support was suggested as a protective factor for loneliness in both groups. These findings should be considered when developing intervention strategies to reduce loneliness. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Eigenmodes of superconducting cavities calculated on an APE-100 supercomputer (SIMD)

    CERN Document Server

    Neugebauer, F

    1999-01-01

    The construction of modern accelerators is usually supported by the numerical determination of eigenmodes in the accelerating cavities. Often the rotational symmetry of the cavity is used to simplify the numerical simulation. However, in cases where the cavity lacks rotational symmetry resp. where attached components like couplers have to be taken into account, a fully three dimensional treatment of the Maxwell equations is necessary. This requires more computer power than is available on a normal high end workstation. Therefore, in the present approach a parallel SIMD super computer (APE-100) is used to compute the eigenmodes of accelerating cavities. As an example parts of the superconducting TESLA structure are investigated. The geometry input is parsed by MAFIA which transfers the resulting system matrix, incorporating geometry and material information, to the APE-100. The result of the diagonalization procedure is then read back to the MAFIA host where further data analysis and visualization can be done....

  17. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-03-27

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  18. Experimental study of APE1 RNA interference enhancing the sensitivity of neutron radiation in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Qing Yi; Zhong Zhaoyang; Li Zengpeng; Zhang Xinhong; Yang Yuxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To knock down APE1 gene expression in HOS cells, and explore its antitumor effects in combination with 252 Cf neutron radiotherapy. Methods: pSilence APE1 siBNA plasmid was transfected into HOS cells by SuperFect Transfection liposome. The transfected HOS cells were irradiated by 252 Cf neutron, then MTY assay, clone formation assay and alkaline comet assay were used to detect the radiobiological reaction, and cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The D 37 value was 3.02 vs. 2.42 in the control and transfected HOS cells respectively after irradiation with 252 Cf neutron, the DMF value is 1.43. The tail moments and cell apoptosis rate at 200, 500 and 1000 cGy showed significant difference between the two groups (P 252 Cf neutron radiotherapy may be a promising approach to therapy of human osteosarcoma in the future. (authors)

  19. Superoxide dismutase 1 is positively selected to minimize protein aggregation in great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers...... of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million...... years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster. The high evolutionary rate was partly due to relaxation of some selection pressures and partly to distinct positive selection of SOD1 in great apes. We then show that higher...

  20. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbirds nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Dirk E. Burhans

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used artificial nest to measure relative rates of nest predation. Recent comparisons show that real and artificial nests may not be depredated at the same rate, but no one has examined the mechanisms underlying these patterns. We determined differences in predator-specific predation rates of real and artificial nests. we...

  1. Avoiding the nest : responses of field sparrows to the threat of nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure in birds (Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992). Birds confronted with an enemy near the nest may use behaviors to deter the prospect of nest predation. The benefits of nest defense have been shown for many agressive species (Martin 1992), but smaller birds that cannot deter predators may need to resort to other behaviors...

  2. Non-human predator interactions with wild great apes in Africa and the use of camera traps to study their dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Casanova, Catarina; Henschel, Philipp; Lee, Phyllis; Rovero, Francesco; Todd, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    The slow life histories of great apes (hereafter 'apes') combined with a growing inventory of predation incidents suggest that apes may be strongly affected by direct predation, as well as by predation risk. Predation risk may shape and increase behavioural flexibility by forcing individuals to adapt their behaviour to predator patterns. Forest leopards are an apex predator of primates in African rain forests and may represent a significant risk to ape populations. More field data are needed to further elucidate the behavioural modifications of apes in response to predation. We present research methods that combine the use of remote camera traps, capture-mark-recapture statistics and occupancy modelling to study predator-African ape relationships and potential antipredator behaviour through spatial variation in species co-occurrence patterns. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Shared Pattern of Endocranial Shape Asymmetries among Great Apes, Anatomically Modern Humans, and Fossil Hominins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of “virtual” 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens. These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself, which is not

  4. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  5. Oreopithecus was a bipedal ape after all: Evidence from the iliac cancellous architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Lorenzo; Bondioli, Luca; Köhler, Meike; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Textural properties and functional morphology of the hip bone cancellous network of Oreopithecus bambolii, a 9- to 7-million-year-old Late Miocene hominoid from Italy, provide insights into the postural and locomotor behavior of this fossil ape. Digital image processing of calibrated hip bone radiographs reveals the occurrence of trabecular features, which, in humans and fossil hominids, are related to vertical support of the body weight, i.e., to bipedality. PMID:10411955

  6. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Gen; Kono, Reiko T; Katoh, Shigehiro; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas

    2007-08-23

    With the discovery of Ardipithecus, Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, our knowledge of hominid evolution before the emergence of Pliocene species of Australopithecus has significantly increased, extending the hominid fossil record back to at least 6 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the dearth of fossil hominoid remains in sub-Saharan Africa spanning the period 12-7 Myr ago, nothing is known of the actual timing and mode of divergence of the African ape and hominid lineages. Most genomic-based studies suggest a late divergence date-5-6 Myr ago and 6-8 Myr ago for the human-chimp and human-gorilla splits, respectively-and some palaeontological and molecular analyses hypothesize a Eurasian origin of the African ape and hominid clade. We report here the discovery and recognition of a new species of great ape, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, from the 10-10.5-Myr-old deposits of the Chorora Formation at the southern margin of the Afar rift. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first fossils of a large-bodied Miocene ape from the African continent north of Kenya. They exhibit a gorilla-sized dentition that combines distinct shearing crests with thick enamel on its 'functional' side cusps. Visualization of the enamel-dentine junction by micro-computed tomography reveals shearing crest features that partly resemble the modern gorilla condition. These features represent genetically based structural modifications probably associated with an initial adaptation to a comparatively fibrous diet. The relatively flat cuspal enamel-dentine junction and thick enamel, however, suggest a concurrent adaptation to hard and/or abrasive food items. The combined evidence suggests that Chororapithecus may be a basal member of the gorilla clade, and that the latter exhibited some amount of adaptive and phyletic diversity at around 10-11 Myr ago.

  7. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Watkins, Paul A; Moser, Hugo W; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Ryder, Oliver A; Hacia, Joseph G

    2011-06-17

    Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC) levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and rodents with plasmalogen disorders, we propose that cross

  8. Functional Implications of Human-Specific Changes in Great Ape microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gallego

    Full Text Available microRNAs are crucial post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression involved in a wide range of biological processes. Although microRNAs are highly conserved among species, the functional implications of existing lineage-specific changes and their role in determining differences between humans and other great apes have not been specifically addressed. We analyzed the recent evolutionary history of 1,595 human microRNAs by looking at their intra- and inter-species variation in great apes using high-coverage sequenced genomes of 82 individuals including gorillas, orangutans, bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. We explored the strength of purifying selection among microRNA regions and found that the seed and mature regions are under similar and stronger constraint than the precursor region. We further constructed a comprehensive catalogue of microRNA species-specific nucleotide substitutions among great apes and, for the first time, investigated the biological relevance that human-specific changes in microRNAs may have had in great ape evolution. Expression and functional analyses of four microRNAs (miR-299-3p, miR-503-3p, miR-508-3p and miR-541-3p revealed that lineage-specific nucleotide substitutions and changes in the length of these microRNAs alter their expression as well as the repertoires of target genes and regulatory networks. We suggest that the studied molecular changes could have modified crucial microRNA functions shaping phenotypes that, ultimately, became human-specific. Our work provides a frame to study the impact that regulatory changes may have in the recent evolution of our species.

  9. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  10. From neurons to nests: nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.

  11. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    Use of nest boxes is an important part of the behavioural repertoire of laying hens kept under commercial conditions. A special form of nest box use is gregarious nesting, which occurs when a hen given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site...... risk of broken or dirty eggs. The main objectives were to investigate the use of nest boxes according to their position and the occurrence of gregarious nesting with age. Twelve groups of 15 Isa Warren hens were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes only differing...... and higher at age 20 weeks than at the other ages (P eggs were laid in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes (P  0.05). The proportion of gregarious visits of the total number of visits, where the hens had a choice between...

  12. Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Coward, Samuel R L; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2016-11-01

    The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited. We devised a novel, custom-made experimental set-up to record the energy expenditure of parkour athletes tree-swaying, jumping and vertical climbing. The latter strategy was vastly more expensive, indicating that when energy economy is the focus arboreal apes will prioritize routes that limit height changes. Whether tree-swaying or jumping was most economical for the athletes depended upon interactions between tree stiffness, the distance to cross, number of tree-sways required and their own mass. Updated analysis of previous interspecific correlations suggests that whether the relative costs to vertical climb are size-invariant across primate species is complicated by details of the climbing context. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Samuel R. L.; Thorpe, Susannah K. S.

    2016-01-01

    The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited. We devised a novel, custom-made experimental set-up to record the energy expenditure of parkour athletes tree-swaying, jumping and vertical climbing. The latter strategy was vastly more expensive, indicating that when energy economy is the focus arboreal apes will prioritize routes that limit height changes. Whether tree-swaying or jumping was most economical for the athletes depended upon interactions between tree stiffness, the distance to cross, number of tree-sways required and their own mass. Updated analysis of previous interspecific correlations suggests that whether the relative costs to vertical climb are size-invariant across primate species is complicated by details of the climbing context. PMID:27881766

  14. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  15. Brief communication: Swimming and diving behavior in apes (Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus): first documented report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Renato; Bender, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Extant hominoids, including humans, are well known for their inability to swim instinctively. We report swimming and diving in two captive apes using visual observation and video recording. One common chimpanzee and one orangutan swam repeatedly at the water surface over a distance of 2-6 m; both individuals submerged repeatedly. We show that apes are able to overcome their negative buoyancy by deliberate swimming, using movements which deviate from the doggy-paddle pattern observed in other primates. We suggest that apes' poor swimming ability is due to behavioral, anatomical, and neuromotor changes related to an adaptation to arboreal life in their early phylogeny. This strong adaptive focus on arboreal life led to decreased opportunities to interact with water bodies and consequently to a reduction of selective pressure to maintain innate swimming behavior. As the doggy paddle is associated with quadrupedal walking, a deviation from terrestrial locomotion might have interfered with the fixed rhythmic action patterns responsible for innate swimming. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dynamics of DNA methylation in recent human and great ape evolution.

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    Irene Hernando-Herraez

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in regulatory processes such as cell differentiation during development, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and susceptibility to complex disease. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation changes between humans and their closest relatives are still poorly understood. We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ∼800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ∼170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution. We identified a significant positive relationship between the rate of coding variation and alterations of methylation at the promoter level, indicative of co-occurrence between evolution of protein sequence and gene regulation. In contrast, and supporting the idea that many phenotypic differences between humans and great apes are not due to amino acid differences, our analysis also identified 184 genes that are perfectly conserved at protein level between human and chimpanzee, yet show significant epigenetic differences between these two species. We conclude that epigenetic alterations are an important force during primate evolution and have been under-explored in evolutionary comparative genomics.

  17. Genetic Differences Between Humans and Great Apes -- Implications for the Evolution of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2004-06-01

    At the level of individual protein sequences, humans are 97-100% identical to the great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. The evolution of humans (and of human intelligence) from a common ancestor with the chimpanzee and bonobo involved many steps, influenced by interactions amongst factors of genetic, developmental, ecological, microbial, climatic, behavioral, cultural and social origin. The genetic factors can be approached by direct comparisons of human and great ape genomes, genes and gene products, and by elucidating biochemical and biological consequences of any differences found. We have discovered multiple genetic and biochemical differences between humans and great apes, particularly with respect to a family of cell surface molecules called sialic acids, as well as in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The hormone differences have potential consequences for human brain development. The differences in sialic acid biology have multiple implications for the human condition, ranging from susceptibility or resistance to microbial pathogens, effects on endogenous receptors in the immune system, and potential effects on placental signaling, expression of oncofetal antigens in cancers, consequences of dietary intake of animal foods, and development of the mammalian brain.

  18. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  19. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Simeonov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available APE1 is the major nuclease for excising abasic (AP sites and particular 3'-obstructive termini from DNA, and is an integral participant in the base excision repair (BER pathway. BER capacity plays a prominent role in dictating responsiveness to agents that generate oxidative or alkylation DNA damage, as well as certain chain-terminating nucleoside analogs and 5-fluorouracil. We describe within the development of a robust, 1536-well automated screening assay that employs a deoxyoligonucleotide substrate operating in the red-shifted fluorescence spectral region to identify APE1 endonuclease inhibitors. This AP site incision assay was used in a titration-based high-throughput screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280, a collection of well-characterized, drug-like molecules representing all major target classes. Prioritized hits were authenticated and characterized via two high-throughput screening assays -- a Thiazole Orange fluorophore-DNA displacement test and an E. coli endonuclease IV counterscreen -- and a conventional, gel-based radiotracer incision assay. The top, validated compounds, i.e. 6-hydroxy-DL-DOPA, Reactive Blue 2 and myricetin, were shown to inhibit AP site cleavage activity of whole cell protein extracts from HEK 293T and HeLa cell lines, and to enhance the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate. The studies herein report on the identification of novel, small molecule APE1-targeted bioactive inhibitor probes, which represent initial chemotypes towards the development of potential pharmaceuticals.

  20. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Braga

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo,Gorilla and (Pan,Homo most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  1. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  2. Toward granting linguistic competence to apes: A review of Savage-Rumbaugh et al.'s Language Comprehension in Ape and Child1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1996-01-01

    Savage-Rumbaugh et al.'s (1993) monograph describes a study that compared the language comprehension of an 8-year-old ape (a bonobo named Kanzi) with that of a normal 2-year-old human (Alia). The primary purpose of the research was to see if Kanzi could comprehend novel and compound spoken English commands without imitative prompts, contrived reinforcement contingencies, or explicit training procedures. As it turned out, Kanzi acquired a complex comprehension repertoire in a pattern similar to the human child's and even performed better than the human child in many cases. Although this review describes these empirical results favorably, it questions the authors' claim that the subjects learned the repertoire on their own, without reinforcement or training. A close examination of the subjects' histories and of the procedures, transcripts, and videos suggested that the training and testing procedures involved a number of independent variables and processes that were not discussed by the authors, including conditioned reinforcement and punishment, verbal prompts, stimulus control, establishing operations, and extinction. Nonetheless, the methodological and empirical contributions to ape and human language research are substantial and deserve behavior analysts' attention and support. Behavior analysts could contribute to this kind of research by applying the analytic and conceptual tools of behavior analysis in general and the concepts from Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957) in particular.

  3. Reconsidering great ape imitation and pantomime. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Anne E.

    2016-03-01

    Like previous commentators, I see Arbib's reconstruction of the mirror neuron system's contribution to language evolution [1] as valuable but in need of revision [2,3]. My concerns focus on his proposed behavioral pathway to language - complex imitation to pantomime to protosign - as it concerns great apes. Arbib portrays these abilities as unique to the human lineage, despite evidence that great apes are capable of all three. I suggest great ape findings worth reconsidering.

  4. Nested polyhedra model of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Ö. D.

    2017-06-01

    A discretization of the wave-number space is proposed, using nested polyhedra, in the form of alternating dodecahedra and icosahedra that are self-similarly scaled. This particular choice allows the possibility of forming triangles using only discretized wave vectors when the scaling between two consecutive dodecahedra is equal to the golden ratio and the icosahedron between the two dodecahedra is the dual of the inner dodecahedron. Alternatively, the same discretization can be described as a logarithmically spaced (with a scaling equal to the golden ratio), nested dodecahedron-icosahedron compounds. A wave vector which points from the origin to a vertex of such a mesh, can always find two other discretized wave vectors that are also on the vertices of the mesh (which is not true for an arbitrary mesh). Thus, the nested polyhedra grid can be thought of as a reduction (or decimation) of the Fourier space using a particular set of self-similar triads arranged approximately in a spherical form. For each vertex (i.e., discretized wave vector) in this space, there are either 9 or 15 pairs of vertices (i.e., wave vectors) with which the initial vertex can interact to form a triangle. This allows the reduction of the convolution integral in the Navier-Stokes equation to a sum over 9 or 15 interaction pairs, transforming the equation in Fourier space to a network of "interacting" nodes that can be constructed as a numerical model, which evolves each component of the velocity vector on each node of the network. This model gives the usual Kolmogorov spectrum of k-5 /3. Since the scaling is logarithmic, and the number of nodes for each scale is constant, a very large inertial range (i.e., a very high Reynolds number) with a much lower number of degrees of freedom can be considered. Incidentally, by assuming isotropy and a certain relation between the phases, the model can be used to systematically derive shell models.

  5. Eggs in the Freezer: Energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird s...

  6. The Influences of Soil Characteristics on Nest-Site Selection in Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R.

    2017-12-01

    A variety of animals dig nests and lay their eggs in soil, leaving them to incubate and hatch without assistance from the parents. Nesting habitat is important for these organisms many of which exhibit temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) whereby the incubation temperature determines the sex of each hatchling. However, suitable nesting habitat may be limited due to anthropogenic activities and global temperature increases. Soil thermal properties are critical to these organisms and are positively correlated with water retention and soil carbon; carbon-rich soils result in higher incubation temperatures. We investigated nest-site selection in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) inhabiting an anthropogenic pond in south central Pennsylvania. We surveyed for turtle nests and documented location, depth, width, temperature, canopy coverage, clutch size, and hatch success for a total of 31 turtle nests. To address the influence of soil carbon and particle size on nest selection, we analyzed samples collected from: 1) actual nests that were depredated, 2) false nests, incomplete nests aborted during digging prior to nest completion, and 3) randomized locations. Soil samples were separated into coarse, medium, and fine grain size fractions through a stack of sieves. Samples were combusted in a total carbon analyzer to measure weight percent organic carbon. We found that anthropogenic activity at this site has created homogenous, sandy, compacted soils at the uppermost layer that may limit females' access to appropriate nesting habitat. Turtle nesting activity was limited to a linear region north of the pond and was constrained by an impassable rail line. Relative to other studies, turtle nests were notably shallow (5.8±0.9 cm) and placed close to the pond. Compared to false nests and random locations, turtle-selected sites averaged greater coarse grains (35% compared to 20.24 and 20.57%) and less fine grains (47% compared to 59 and 59, respectively). Despite

  7. Interactive effects between nest microclimate and nest vegetation structure confirm microclimate thresholds for Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Godar, Alixandra J.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) spans 4 unique ecoregions along 2 distinct environmental gradients. The Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion of the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas is environmentally isolated, warmer, and more arid than the Short-Grass, Sand Sagebrush, and Mixed-Grass Prairie ecoregions in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the northeast panhandle of Texas. Weather is known to influence Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion; regional variation may also influence nest microclimate and, ultimately, survival during incubation. To address this question, we placed data loggers adjacent to nests during incubation to quantify temperature and humidity distribution functions in 3 ecoregions. We developed a suite of a priori nest survival models that incorporated derived microclimate parameters and visual obstruction as covariates in Program MARK. We monitored 49 nests in Mixed-Grass, 22 nests in Sand Shinnery Oak, and 30 nests in Short-Grass ecoregions from 2010 to 2014. Our findings indicated that (1) the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion was hotter and drier during incubation than the Mixed- and Short-Grass ecoregions; (2) nest microclimate varied among years within ecoregions; (3) visual obstruction was positively associated with nest survival; but (4) daily nest survival probability decreased by 10% every half-hour when temperature was greater than 34°C and vapor pressure deficit was less than −23 mmHg during the day (about 0600–2100 hours). Our major finding confirmed microclimate thresholds for nest survival under natural conditions across the species' distribution, although Lesser Prairie-Chickens are more likely to experience microclimate conditions that result in nest failures in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion. The species would benefit from identification of thermal landscapes and management actions that promote cooler, more humid nest microclimates.

  8. A comparative analysis of temporomandibular joint morphology in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B

    2005-06-01

    A number of researchers have suggested a functional relationship between dietary variation and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology, yet few studies have evaluated TMJ form in the African apes. In this study, I compare TMJ morphology in adults and during ontogeny in Gorilla (G.g. beringei, G.g. graueri, and G.g. gorilla) and Pan (P. paniscus, P. troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, and P.t. verus). I test two hypotheses: first, compared to all other African apes, G.g. beringei exhibits TMJ morphologies that would be predicted for a primate that consumes a diet comprised primarily of moderately to very tough, leafy vegetation; and second, all gorillas exhibit the same predicted morphologies compared to Pan. Compared to all adult African apes, G.g. beringei has higher rami and condyles positioned further above the occlusal plane of the mandible, relative to jaw length. Thus, mountain gorillas have the potential to generate relatively more muscle force, more evenly distribute occlusal forces along the postcanine teeth, and generate relatively greater jaw adductor moment. G.g. beringei also exhibits relatively wider mandibular condyles, suggesting these folivorous apes are able to resist relatively greater compressive loads along the lateral and/or medial aspect of the condyle. All gorillas likewise exhibit these same shape differences compared to Pan. These morphological responses are the predicted consequences of intensification of folivory and, as such, provide support for functional hypotheses linking these TMJ morphologies to degree of folivory. The African apes to not, however, demonstrate a systematic pattern of divergence in relative condylar area as a function of intensification of folivory. The ontogenetic trajectories for gorillas are significantly elevated above those of Pan, and to a lesser but still significant degree, mountain gorillas similarly deviate from lowland gorillas (G.g. gorilla and G.g. graueri). Thus, adult shape differences in

  9. Polytypic Functions Over Nested Datatypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hinze

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of polytypic programming is intimately connected with the initial algebra semantics of datatypes. This is both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because the underlying theory is beautiful and well developed. It is a curse because the initial algebra semantics is restricted to so-called regular datatypes. Recent work by R. Bird and L. Meertens [3] on the semantics of non-regular or nested datatypes suggests that an extension to general datatypes is not entirely straightforward. Here we propose an alternative that extends polytypism to arbitrary datatypes, including nested datatypes and mutually recursive datatypes. The central idea is to use rational trees over a suitable set of functor symbols as type arguments for polytypic functions. Besides covering a wider range of types the approach is also simpler and technically less involving than previous ones. We present several examples of polytypic functions, among others polytypic reduction and polytypic equality. The presentation assumes some background in functional and in polytypic programming. A basic knowledge of monads is required for some of the examples.

  10. Vacant Nests and Other Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection of Birds of Prey Based on Case Studies in Forest Habitats in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in 2003–2012 in Eastern Ukraine, in the basin of the Seversky Donets river. The total surveyed area was ca. 900 km2 of nesting habitats suitable for raptors. A total of 69 vacant nests were found, i.e. 33.2 % of the total number of nests (208. Nests occupied by recipient species, i.e. the so-called ‘effective nest pool’, were 23–24, i.e. 33.3–34.7 % of the pool of available nests. Up to 25 % of all pairs of raptors depend on the availability of vacant nests of heterospecifics. Ravens (Corvus corax are the most significant donors of nests: 42.5 % of the pool of available nests is built by this species, and more than 60 % of them are occupied by recipient species. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo comes second with 26.09 and 58.3 %, respectively. The most common recipients of nests are Hobbies (Falco subbuteo, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus and Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus. The most significant factors that govern occupation of vacant nests by recipient species are: availability of nests in the marginal zone of forest plots, i.e. within 500 m from the forest edge, large distance from human settlements (>1500 m, presence of nests located on trees in the canopy storey, and mature and submature age of forest stands. For seven species considered in our research (n=227, the most important factors were position of nests, in the forest canopy layer, no logging activity within300 m of the nest, no regular human disturbance, and presence of “windows” in the canopy made by fallen trees.

  11. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned......Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting materials (straw, peat, wood-shavings). In both experiments six control groups were provided with three identical nest boxes containing wood-shavings. Daily egg collection and video recordings were performed during both experiments (eight and seven days, respectively). The proportion of gregarious...

  12. Eggs in the freezer: energetic consequences of nest site and nest design in Arctic breeding shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulp, Ingrid; Schekkerman, Hans; de Leeuw, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird species. All species chose thermally favourable nesting sites in a higher proportion than expected on the basis of habitat availability. Site choice did not differ between species. Depth to frozen ground, measured near the nests, decreased in the course of the season at similar non-species-specific speeds, but this depth increased with species size. Nest cup depth and nest scrape depth (nest cup without the lining) were unrelated to body mass (we applied an exponent of 0.73, to account for metabolic activity of the differently sized species). Cup depth divided by diameter(2) was used as a measure of nest cup shape. Small species had narrow and deep nests, while large species had wide shallow nests. The thickness of nest lining varied between 0.1 cm and 7.6 cm, and decreased significantly with body mass. We reconstruct the combined effect of different nest properties on the egg cooling coefficient using previously published quantitative relationships. The predicted effect of nest cup depth and lining depth on heat loss to the frozen ground did not correlate with body mass, but the sheltering effect of nest cup diameter against wind and the effects of lining material on the cooling coefficient increased with body mass. Our results suggest that small arctic shorebirds invest more in the insulation of their nests than large species.

  13. Eggs in the freezer: energetic consequences of nest site and nest design in Arctic breeding shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tulp

    Full Text Available Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their nests in thermally favourable microhabitats and/or to invest more in nest insulation than large species. To test this hypothesis, we examined characteristics of nests of six Arctic breeding shorebird species. All species chose thermally favourable nesting sites in a higher proportion than expected on the basis of habitat availability. Site choice did not differ between species. Depth to frozen ground, measured near the nests, decreased in the course of the season at similar non-species-specific speeds, but this depth increased with species size. Nest cup depth and nest scrape depth (nest cup without the lining were unrelated to body mass (we applied an exponent of 0.73, to account for metabolic activity of the differently sized species. Cup depth divided by diameter(2 was used as a measure of nest cup shape. Small species had narrow and deep nests, while large species had wide shallow nests. The thickness of nest lining varied between 0.1 cm and 7.6 cm, and decreased significantly with body mass. We reconstruct the combined effect of different nest properties on the egg cooling coefficient using previously published quantitative relationships. The predicted effect of nest cup depth and lining depth on heat loss to the frozen ground did not correlate with body mass, but the sheltering effect of nest cup diameter against wind and the effects of lining material on the cooling coefficient increased with body mass. Our results suggest that small arctic shorebirds invest more in the insulation of their nests than large species.

  14. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest-site selection between co-occurring avocets and terns, and indicate the effects of physical characteristics and social factors on selection of nesting habitat are dependent on the spatial scale examined. Moreover, these results indicate that islands with abundant area between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, within 10 m of the water's edge, and containing a mosaic of slopes ranging from flat to moderately steep would provide preferred nesting habitat for avocets and terns. © 2016 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Nesting Ecology of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) on Utila, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Lindsey Renee Eggers

    The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has a circumtropical distribution and plays an important role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. Unfortunately, hawksbill populations have been decimated, and estimated numbers in the Caribbean are less than 10% of populations a century ago. The hawksbill is considered Critically Endangered, and researchers are coordinating worldwide efforts to protect this species. One country where we lack knowledge regarding hawksbills is Honduras. This study aimed to increase our understanding of hawksbill nesting ecology in Caribbean Honduras. Characteristics of hawksbill nesting activity and a nesting beach on the island of Utila were elucidated using satellite telemetry, beach profiling, vegetation surveys, beach monitoring, and nest temperature profiles. We affixed satellite transmitters to two nesting hawksbills, and found the turtles migrated to different countries. One turtle traveled 403 km to a bay in Mexico, and the other traveled 181 km to a Marine Protected Area off Belize. This study presents the first description of hawksbill migration routes from Honduras, facilitating protection efforts for turtles that traverse international waters. To investigate nesting beach and turtle characteristics, we conducted beach monitoring during the 2012 nesting season. Nesting turtle carapace sizes were similar to worldwide values, but hatchlings were heavier. To measure nest temperatures, we placed thermocouple data loggers in four nests and four pseudo-nests. Data suggested metabolic heating may be maintaining nest temperatures above the pivotal temperature. However, large temperature fluctuations corresponding to rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto (as determined using a time series cross-correlation analysis) make it difficult to predict sex ratios, and underscore the impact stochastic events can have on nest temperatures. We created topographic and substrate profiles of the beach, and found it was 475 m long, yet hawksbills

  16. The DNA repair gene APE1 T1349G polymorphism and risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 has a central role in the repair of apurinic apyrimidic sites through both its endonuclease and its phosphodiesterase activities. A common APE1 polymorphism, T1349G (rs3136820, was previously shown to be associated with the risk of cancers. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the APE1 T1349G polymorphism is also associated with risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: In a hospital-based case-control study of 338 case patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer and 362 cancer-free controls frequency-matched by age and sex, we genotyped the T1349G polymorphism and assessed its associations with risk of gastric cancer. RESULTS: Compared with the APE1 TT genotype, individuals with the variant TG/GG genotypes had a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.40, which was more pronounced among subgroups of aged ≤ 60 years, male, ever smokers, and ever drinkers. Further analyses revealed that the variant genotypes were associated with an increased risk for diffuse-type, low depth of tumor infiltration (T1 and T2, and lymph node metastasis gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The APE1 T1349G polymorphism may be a marker for the development of gastric cancer in the Chinese population. Larger studies are required to validate these findings in diverse populations.

  17. Analysis of the human and ape foot during bipedal standing with implications for the evolution of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J; Crompton, R H

    2004-12-01

    The ratio of the power arm (the distance from the heel to the talocrural joint) to the load arm (that from the talocrural joint to the distal head of the metatarsals), or RPL, differs markedly between the human and ape foot. The arches are relatively higher in the human foot in comparison with those in apes. This study evaluates the effect of these two differences on biomechanical effectiveness during bipedal standing, estimating the forces acting across the talocrural and tarsometatarsal joints, and attempts to identify which type of foot is optimal for bipedal standing. A simple model of the foot musculoskeletal system was built to represent the geometric and force relationships in the foot during bipedal standing, and measurements for a variety of human and ape feet applied. The results show that: (1) an RPL of around 40% (as is the case in the human foot) minimizes required muscle force at the talocrural joint; (2) the presence of an high arch in the human foot reduces forces in the plantar musculature and aponeurosis; and (3) the human foot has a lower total of force in joints and muscles than do the ape feet. These results indicate that the proportions of the human foot, and the height of the medial arch are indeed better optimized for bipedal standing than those of apes, further suggesting that their current state is to some extent the product of positive selection for enhanced bipedal standing during the evolution of the foot.

  18. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  19. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  20. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuti, Roberto; Chessa, Stefano; Micheli, Alessio; Pucci, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is...

  1. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  2. Marine debris is selected as nesting material by the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) within the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlis, K M; Campbell, M L; Wilson, S P

    2014-10-15

    Many seabirds are impacted by marine debris through its presence in foraging and nesting areas. To determine the extent of this problem, marine debris use in nest material of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was investigated. Nine cays were examined using beach and nest surveys. On average, four marine debris items were found per nest (n=96) with 58.3% of surveyed nests containing marine debris. The source of marine debris in nests and transects were primarily oceanic. Hard plastic items dominated both nest (56.8%) and surveyed beaches (72.8%), however only two item types were significantly correlated between these surveys. Nest surveys indicated higher levels of black and green items compared to beach transects. This selectivity for colours and items suggest these nests are not good indicators of environmental loads. This is the first study to examine S. leucogaster nests for marine debris in this location. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, A. K.; Shrotriya, S.; Rout, S. D.; Dash, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feedi...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in New Hampshire. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting osprey...

  5. Diverse small molecule inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 identified from a screen of a large public collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorjbal Dorjsuren

    Full Text Available The major human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 plays a pivotal role in the repair of base damage via participation in the DNA base excision repair (BER pathway. Increased activity of APE1, often observed in tumor cells, is thought to contribute to resistance to various anticancer drugs, whereas down-regulation of APE1 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, inhibiting APE1 repair endonuclease function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic agent resistance. Despite ongoing efforts, inhibitors of APE1 with adequate drug-like properties have yet to be discovered. Using a kinetic fluorescence assay, we conducted a fully-automated high-throughput screen (HTS of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR, as well as additional public collections, with each compound tested as a 7-concentration series in a 4 µL reaction volume. Actives identified from the screen were subjected to a panel of confirmatory and counterscreen tests. Several active molecules were identified that inhibited APE1 in two independent assay formats and exhibited potentiation of the genotoxic effect of methyl methanesulfonate with a concomitant increase in AP sites, a hallmark of intracellular APE1 inhibition; a number of these chemotypes could be good starting points for further medicinal chemistry optimization. To our knowledge, this represents the largest-scale HTS to identify inhibitors of APE1, and provides a key first step in the development of novel agents targeting BER for cancer treatment.

  6. Enamel biorhythms of humans and great apes: the Havers-Halberg Oscillation hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Patrick; Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Pitfield, Rosie; Deter, Chris; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-02-01

    The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth. We proposed the biorhythm might not remain constant within an individual. Here, we test our findings. RP is compared between deciduous second and permanent first molars within the maxillae of four human children. Following this, we report the first RPs for deciduous teeth from modern great apes (n = 4), and compare these with new data for permanent teeth (n = 18) from these species, as well as with previously published values. We also explore RP in teeth that retain hypoplastic defects. Results show RP changed within the maxilla of each child, from thinner to thicker enameled molars, and from one side of a hypoplastic defect to the other. When considered alongside correlations between RP and cusp formation time, these observations provide further evidence that RP is associated with enamel growth processes and does not always remain constant within an individual. RP of 5 days for great ape deciduous teeth lay below the lowermost range of those from permanent teeth of modern orangutan and gorilla, and within the lowermost range of RPs from chimpanzee permanent teeth. Our data suggest associations between RP and enamel growth processes of humans might extend to great apes. These findings provide a new framework from which to develop the HHO hypothesis, which can incorporate enamel growth along with other physiological systems. Applications of the HHO to fossil teeth should avoid transferring RP between deciduous and permanent enamel, or including

  7. Exceptional Evolutionary Expansion of Prefrontal Cortex in Great Apes and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaers, Jeroen B; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Parks, Ashley N; Sherwood, Chet C

    2017-03-06

    One of the enduring questions that has driven neuroscientific enquiry in the last century has been the nature of differences in the prefrontal cortex of humans versus other animals [1]. The prefrontal cortex has drawn particular interest due to its role in a range of evolutionarily specialized cognitive capacities such as language [2], imagination [3], and complex decision making [4]. Both cytoarchitectonic [5] and comparative neuroimaging [6] studies have converged on the conclusion that the proportion of prefrontal cortex in the human brain is greatly increased relative to that of other primates. However, considering the tremendous overall expansion of the neocortex in human evolution, it has proven difficult to ascertain whether this extent of prefrontal enlargement follows general allometric growth patterns, or whether it is exceptional [1]. Species' adherence to a common allometric relationship suggests conservation through phenotypic integration, while species' deviations point toward the occurrence of shifts in genetic and/or developmental mechanisms. Here we investigate prefrontal cortex scaling across anthropoid primates and find that great ape and human prefrontal cortex expansion are non-allometrically derived features of cortical organization. This result aligns with evidence for a developmental heterochronic shift in human prefrontal growth [7, 8], suggesting an association between neurodevelopmental changes and cortical organization on a macroevolutionary scale. The evolutionary origin of non-allometric prefrontal enlargement is estimated to lie at the root of great apes (∼19-15 mya), indicating that selection for changes in executive cognitive functions characterized both great ape and human cortical organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying linear enamel hypoplasia in Virunga Mountain gorillas and other great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kate; El-Zaatari, Sireen; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Stanton, Margaret A; Reid, Donald J; Stoinski, Tara S; Cranfield, Michael R; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2018-02-20

    Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is a condition marked by localized reductions in enamel thickness, resulting from growth disruptions during dental development. We use quantitative criteria to characterize the depth of LEH defects and "normal" perikymata in great apes. We test the hypothesis that mountain gorillas have shallow defects compared to other taxa, which may have led to their underestimation in previous studies. Previous attempts to characterize LEH morphology quantitatively have been limited in sample size and scope. We generated digital elevation models using optical profilometry (Sensofar PLu Neox) and extracted 2D coordinates using ImageJ to quantify depths in canines from three great ape genera (N = 75 perikymata; 255 defects). All defect depths fall outside the distribution of perikymata depths. Mountain gorilla defects are significantly shallower than those of other great ape taxa examined, including western lowland gorillas. Females have significantly deeper defects than males in all taxa. The deepest defect belongs to a wild-captured zoo gorilla. Virunga mountain gorilla specimens collected by Dian Fossey exhibit deeper defects than those collected recently. Shallow defect morphology in mountain gorillas may have led to an underestimation of LEH prevalence in past studies. Defect depth is used as a proxy for insult severity, but depth might be influenced by inter- and intra-specific variation in enamel growth. Future studies should test whether severe insults are associated with deeper defects, as might be the case with Haloko, a wild-captured gorilla. Ongoing histologic studies incorporating associated behavioral records will test possible factors that underlie differences in defect morphology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  10. Metacarpal torsion in apes, humans, and early Australopithecus: implications for manipulatory abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S.M. Drapeau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human hands, when compared to that of apes, have a series of adaptations to facilitate manipulation. Numerous studies have shown that Australopithecus afarensis and Au. africanus display some of these adaptations, such as a longer thumb relative to the other fingers, asymmetric heads on the second and fifth metacarpals, and orientation of the second metacarpal joints with the trapezium and capitate away from the sagittal plane, while lacking others such as a very mobile fifth metacarpal, a styloid process on the third, and a flatter metacarpo-trapezium articulation, suggesting some adaptation to manipulation but more limited than in humans. This paper explores variation in metacarpal torsion, a trait said to enhance manipulation, in humans, apes, early australopithecines and specimens from Swartkrans. This study shows that humans are different from large apes in torsion of the third and fourth metacarpals. Humans are also characterized by wedge-shaped bases of the third and fourth metacarpals, making the metacarpal-base row very arched mediolaterally and placing the ulnar-most metacarpals in a position that facilitate opposition to the thumb in power or cradle grips. The third and fourth metacarpals of Au. afarensis are very human-like, suggesting that the medial palm was already well adapted for these kinds of grips in that taxon. Au. africanus present a less clear human-like morphology, suggesting, perhaps, that the medial palm was less suited to human-like manipulation in that taxa than in Au. afarensis. Overall, this study supports previous studies on Au. afarensis and Au. africanus that these taxa had derived hand morphology with some adaptation to human-like power and precision grips and support the hypothesis that dexterous hands largely predated Homo.

  11. Role of the XRCC1 - APE1 interaction in the maintenance of genetic stability; Etude du role de l' interaction entre XRCC1 et APE1 dans la stabilite genetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossou-Becker, M.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis is divided in four chapters: the first one concerns the genetic instability, the second one is devoted to the DNA repair, the third one is related to the XRCC1 and the chapter four concerns APE1. Then, are defined the objectives and the results. This work fits into the studies of repair mechanisms. The physical and functional characterisation of the interaction between XRCC1 and APE1 allowed to understand its involvement in the prevention of the genetic instability at the origin of cancer. (N.C.)

  12. Role of AP-endonuclease (Ape1) active site residues in stabilization of the reactant enzyme-DNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batebi, Hossein; Dragelj, Jovan; Imhof, Petra

    2018-04-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) is an important metal-dependent enzyme in the base excision repair mechanism, responsible for the backbone cleavage of abasic DNA through a phosphate hydrolysis reaction. Molecular dynamics simulations of Ape1 complexed to its substrate DNA performed for models containing 1 or 2 Mg 2+ -ions as cofactor located at different positions show a complex with 1 metal ion bound on the leaving group site of the scissile phosphate to be the most likely reaction-competent conformation. Active-site residue His309 is found to be protonated based on pKa calculations and the higher conformational stability of the Ape1-DNA substrate complex compared to scenarios with neutral His309. Simulations of the D210N mutant further support the prevalence of protonated His309 and strongly suggest Asp210 as the general base for proton acceptance by a nucleophilic water molecule. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes: implications for the evolution of handedness in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Bania, Amanda; Calcutt, Sarah E; Gardner, Molly; Russell, Jamie; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Ross, Stephen R; Schapiro, Steven J

    2011-05-01

    Whether or not nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable scientific debate. Here, we examined handedness for coordinated bimanual actions in a sample of 777 great apes including chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans. We found population-level right-handedness in chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, but left-handedness in orangutans. Directional biases in handedness were consistent across independent samples of apes within each genus. We suggest that, contrary to previous claims, population-level handedness is evident in great apes but differs among species as a result of ecological adaptations associated with posture and locomotion. We further suggest that historical views of nonhuman primate handedness have been too anthropocentric, and we advocate for a larger evolutionary framework for the consideration of handedness and other aspects of hemispheric specialization among primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests: An experiment using artificial nests

    OpenAIRE

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in five different grazing treatments in an experimental design. We use buried clay pigeon targets as artificial mimics of bird nests to obtain reliable estimates of trampling risk and compare these wit...

  15. Biomechanical testing of materials in avian nests provides insight into nest construction behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia E.; Deeming, D. Charles; Goodman, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that use materials to build nest structures have long since fascinated biologists and engineers alike. Avian nests are generally composed of collected materials brought together into a cup-like structure in which the bird sits to incubate eggs and, in many cases, it is where chicks are reared. Hence, the materials in a nest can be presumed to be loaded in compression, but relatively few studies have investigated the mechanical role of the nest elements and their position w...

  16. Comparative psychology and the great apes - Their competence in learning, language, and numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of comparative studies conducted for the past three decades is presented. These studies have led to the establishment of the Language Research Center that provides facilities for research into questions of primate behavior and cognition. Several experiments conducted among chimpanzees are discussed and comparative analyses with the lesser apes, monkeys, and humans are offered. Among the primates, brain complexity varies widely and the evidence is strong that encephalization and enhanced brain complexity facilitate the learning of concepts, the transfer of learning to an advantage, and mediational and observational learning.

  17. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests : An experiment using artificial nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in

  18. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  19. A comparative analysis of nested subset patterns of species composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David H; Patterson, Bruce D; Mikkelson, Greg M; Cutler, Alan; Atmar, Wirt

    1997-12-01

    We present a broad comparative assessment of nested subsets in species composition among ecological communities. We assembled presence-absence data from a broad range of taxa, geographic regions, and spatial scales; and subjected this collection of datasets to common analyses, including a variety of metrics for measuring nestedness and null hypotheses against which to evaluate them. Here we identify ecological patterns in the prevalence and strength of nested subset structure, and assess differences and biases among the available methodologies. In all, we compiled 279 presence-absence matrices, of which 163 do not overlap in their coverage of species and sites. The survey includes studies on vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, plants, and other taxa; from north temperate, tropical, and south temperate latitudes. Our results were as follows. Statistically significant nestedness was common. Assemblages from landbridge archipelagos were strongly nested, and immigration experiments were least nested. This adds further empirical support to the hypothesis that extinction plays a major role in producing nested structure. Nestedness was positively correlated with the ratio of the areas of the largest and smallest sites, suggesting that the range in area of sites affects nestedness. Taxonomic differences in nestedness were weak. Higher taxonomic levels showed stronger nesting than their constituent lower taxa. We observed no effect of distance of isolation on nestedness; nor any effects of latitude. With regard to methodology, the metrics Nc and Ut yielded similar results, although Nc proved slightly more flexible in use, and deals differently with tied sites. Similarities also exist in the behavior of N0 ("N") and Up, and between N1 and Ua. Standardized nestedness metrics were mostly insensitive to matrix size, and were useful in comparative analyses among presence-absence matrices. Most metrics were affected by the proportion of presences in the matrix. All analyses of

  20. 7 CFR 29.6027 - Nested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nested. 29.6027 Section 29.6027 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6027 Nested. Any tobacco which has been loaded, packed, or arranged to...

  1. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  2. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  3. [Effects on survival of shRNA mediated APE/Ref1 gene silencing in rat spiral ganglion cells in oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhendong; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Taijun; Xiang, Zhaolan; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of reducing APE/Ref1 expression in the cultures of rat spiral ganglion cells with oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2). Primary cultured rat spiral ganglion cells were infected with small interfering RNA to APE/Ref1 (Ape1siRNA) for 72 h, followed by treating with H(2)O(2) (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 300 µmol/L) for 1 h , and then cultured in normal medium for 24 h. Western blot were used to detect the level of APE/Ref1 protein and phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX in the infected cells. The caspase3 activation was tested by spectrophotometric method . The cell viability was determined by MTT and the apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick and labeling (TUNEL). Western blot showed that infection with Ape1siRNA resulted in APE/Ref1 reduced expression in the spiral ganglion cells. Exposing spiral ganglion cultures with reduced expression of APE/Ref1 to H(2)O(2) (50, 100, 300 µmol/L) for 1 h resulted in increasing in the phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX. The reduction in APE/Ref1 significantly reduced cell viability in cultures 24 h after 1 h expression to 50-300 µmol/L H(2)O(2). The apoptosis of cells and caspase 3 activity was detected significantly improved. The induced of APE/Ref1 results in significantly decrease in spiral ganglion cells viability in oxidative stress. The repairing function of APE/Ref1 is necessary for optimal levels of neuronal rat spiral ganglion cells survival.

  4. Identification and quantification of DNA repair protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 in human cells by liquid chromatography/isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldal Kirkali

    Full Text Available Unless repaired, DNA damage can drive mutagenesis or cell death. DNA repair proteins may therefore be used as biomarkers in disease etiology or therapeutic response prediction. Thus, the accurate determination of DNA repair protein expression and genotype is of fundamental importance. Among DNA repair proteins involved in base excision repair, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the major endonuclease in mammals and plays important roles in transcriptional regulation and modulating stress responses. Here, we present a novel approach involving LC-MS/MS with isotope-dilution to positively identify and accurately quantify APE1 in human cells and mouse tissue. A completely (15N-labeled full-length human APE1 was produced and used as an internal standard. Fourteen tryptic peptides of both human APE1 (hAPE1 and (15N-labeled hAPE1 were identified following trypsin digestion. These peptides matched the theoretical peptides expected from trypsin digestion and provided a statistically significant protein score that would unequivocally identify hAPE1. Using the developed methodology, APE1 was positively identified and quantified in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts of multiple human cell lines and mouse liver using selected-reaction monitoring of typical mass transitions of the tryptic peptides. We also show that the methodology can be applied to the identification of hAPE1 variants found in the human population. The results describe a novel approach for the accurate measurement of wild-type and variant forms of hAPE1 in vivo, and ultimately for defining the role of this protein in disease development and treatment responses.

  5. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  6. Superoxide dismutase 1 is positively selected to minimize protein aggregation in great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this select......Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers...... of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million...... years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster. The high evolutionary rate was partly due to relaxation of some selection pressures and partly to distinct positive selection of SOD1 in great apes. We then show that higher...

  7. Culture extends the scope of evolutionary biology in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-07-24

    Discoveries about the cultures and cultural capacities of the great apes have played a leading role in the recognition emerging in recent decades that cultural inheritance can be a significant factor in the lives not only of humans but also of nonhuman animals. This prominence derives in part from these primates being those with whom we share the most recent common ancestry, thus offering clues to the origins of our own thoroughgoing reliance on cumulative cultural achievements. In addition, the intense research focus on these species has spawned an unprecedented diversity of complementary methodological approaches, the results of which suggest that cultural phenomena pervade the lives of these apes, with potentially major implications for their broader evolutionary biology. Here I review what this extremely broad array of observational and experimental methodologies has taught us about the cultural lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans and consider the ways in which this knowledge extends our wider understanding of primate biology and the processes of adaptation and evolution that shape it. I address these issues first by evaluating the extent to which the results of cultural inheritance echo a suite of core principles that underlie organic Darwinian evolution but also extend them in new ways and then by assessing the principal causal interactions between the primary, genetically based organic processes of evolution and the secondary system of cultural inheritance that is based on social learning from others.

  8. APES: Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer - A High Time Resolution Monodirectional Magnetic Deflection Electron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G., II; Ogasawara, K.; Miller, G.; Trevino, J. A.; Webster, J.; Stange, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) that was designed and built for the Ground-to-Rocket Electron Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) auroral sounding rocket mission. The purpose was to measure the precipitating electron spectrum with high time resolution, on the order of milliseconds. The trade-off made in order to achieve high time resolution was to limit the aperture to only one look direction. The energy selection was done by using a permanent magnet to separate the incoming electrons, such that the different energies would fall onto different regions of the microchannel plate and therefore be detected by different anodes. A rectangular microchannel plate (MCP) was used (15 mm x 100 mm), and there was a total of 50 discrete anodes under the MCP, each one 15 mm x 1.5 mm, with a 0.5 mm spacing between anodes. The target energy range of APES was 200 eV to 30 keV.

  9. Social organization and the evolution of cumulative technology in apes and hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gauri R; Tennie, Claudio; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-07-01

    Culturally supported accumulation (or ratcheting) of technological complexity is widely seen as characterizing hominin technology relative to that of the extant great apes, and thus as representing a threshold in cultural evolution. To explain this divide, we modeled the process of cultural accumulation of technology, which we defined as adding new actions to existing ones to create new functional combinations, based on a model for great ape tool use. The model shows that intraspecific and interspecific variation in the presence of simple and cumulative technology among extant orangutans and chimpanzees is largely due to variation in sociability, and hence opportunities for social learning. The model also suggests that the adoption of extensive allomaternal care (cooperative breeding) in early Pleistocene Homo, which led to an increase in sociability and to teaching, and hence increased efficiency of social learning, was enough to facilitate technological ratcheting. Hence, socioecological changes, rather than advances in cognitive abilities, can account for the cumulative cultural changes seen until the origin of the Acheulean. The consequent increase in the reliance on technology could have served as the pacemaker for increased cognitive abilities. Our results also suggest that a more important watershed in cultural evolution was the rise of donated culture (technology or concepts), in which technology or concepts was transferred to naïve individuals, allowing them to skip many learning steps, and specialization arose, which allowed individuals to learn only a subset of the population's skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observations of sea turtles nesting on Misali islan, Pemba | Pharoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nest-recording programme has collected data over five years from turtles nesting on Misali Island, off the West coast of Pemba, Tanzania. Five species of sea turtle are known to occur in Zanzibar waters, two of these species nested regularly on the island, with green turtle nests outnumbering hawksbill turtle nests by a ...

  11. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest predation is a primary cause of nesting mortality for many bird species, particularly passerines. Nest location can affect predation, and it has also been demonstrated that predation risk can alter nest site selection. Birds can limit predation risk by selecting specific habitat characteristics; by changing nest site ...

  12. Nest height of the red bishop (Eupiectes orix)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest site selection has been studied in a variety of birds since. Preston's ... of eggs, while an 'unsuccessful' nest produced no flying young from the ... Table 1 Seasonal changes in nest and reed height at a red bishop colony in Zimbabwe. Nest. Reed. Nest heightl. Sample height height reed height 070. Date size. (x; S.E.).

  13. Spatial Ecology of Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Nesting in a Fragmented Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that oil palm plays in the Lower Kinabatangan region of Eastern Sabah is of considerable scientific and conservation interest, providing a model habitat for many tropical regions as they become increasingly fragmented. Crocodilians, as apex predators, widely distributed throughout the tropics, are ideal indicator species for ecosystem health. Drones (or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs were used to identify crocodile nests in a fragmented landscape. Flights were targeted through the use of fuzzy overlay models and nests located primarily in areas indicated as suitable habitat. Nests displayed a number of similarities in terms of habitat characteristics allowing for refined modelling of survey locations. As well as being more cost-effective compared to traditional methods of nesting survey, the use of drones also enabled a larger survey area to be completed albeit with a limited number of flights. The study provides a methodology for targeted nest surveying, as well as a low-cost repeatable flight methodology. This approach has potential for widespread applicability across a range of species and for a variety of study designs.

  14. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  15. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  16. Triatominae in furnariid nests of the Argentine Gran Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, G A; Echeverria, M G; Waleckx, E; Susevich, M L; Balsalobre, A; Gorla, D E

    2014-06-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) are bloodsucking insects involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, an important public health problem in Latin America. The triatomine species found in sylvatic habitats generally play a limited epidemiological role compared to domestic species, but they may act as a reinfestation source of dwellings after insecticide spraying and have to be carefully considered in control strategies of Chagas disease transmission. The objectives of this work were to carry out a survey of the sylvatic triatomine species colonizing Furnariidae nests in a typical area of the Chaco region of Argentina during the winter and to study the parasites and natural enemies associated with the collected triatomines. Sixty-three triatomine specimens were collected from Furnariidae nests (Coryphistera alaudina and Phacellodomus sibilatrix) randomly selected within the study area. Fifty-four were identified as Psammolestes coreodes, seven as Triatoma platensis, and two as Triatoma infestans. Specimens of T. infestans and T. platensis were found in one nest. The first finding of instar nymphs of T. infestans x T. platensis in a sylvatic habitat is reported. For the first time, sylvatic collected specimens of T. platensis were found infected by T. cruzi. Triatoma virus was found in one Ps. coreodes specimen. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. Conservation Education and Environmental Communication in Great Ape Re-Introduction Projects: Two Cases from the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Barbara J.; Wall, John E.; Kaya, J. A. Placide

    2012-01-01

    Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and…

  18. The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments in the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jamie L.; Lyn, Heidi; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2011-01-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5-year-old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on…

  19. Lineage-specific expansions of retroviral insertions within the genomes of African great apes but not humans and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Yohn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral infections of the germline have the potential to episodically alter gene function and genome structure during the course of evolution. Horizontal transmissions between species have been proposed, but little evidence exists for such events in the human/great ape lineage of evolution. Based on analysis of finished BAC chimpanzee genome sequence, we characterize a retroviral element (Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus 1 [PTERV1] that has become integrated in the germline of African great ape and Old World monkey species but is absent from humans and Asian ape genomes. We unambiguously map 287 retroviral integration sites and determine that approximately 95.8% of the insertions occur at non-orthologous regions between closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the endogenous retrovirus reveals that the gorilla and chimpanzee elements share a monophyletic origin with a subset of the Old World monkey retroviral elements, but that the average sequence divergence exceeds neutral expectation for a strictly nuclear inherited DNA molecule. Within the chimpanzee, there is a significant integration bias against genes, with only 14 of these insertions mapping within intronic regions. Six out of ten of these genes, for which there are expression data, show significant differences in transcript expression between human and chimpanzee. Our data are consistent with a retroviral infection that bombarded the genomes of chimpanzees and gorillas independently and concurrently, 3-4 million years ago. We speculate on the potential impact of such recent events on the evolution of humans and great apes.

  20. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  1. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  2. Cross-institutional knowledge-based planning (KBP) implementation and its performance comparison to Auto-Planning Engine (APE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.; Kusters, M.; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Dijkema, T.; McNutt, T.; Sanguineti, G.; Bzdusek, K.; Dritschilo, A.; Pang, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate (1) whether a plan library established at one institution can be applied for another institution's knowledge-based planning (KBP); (2) the performance of cross-institutional KBP compared to Auto-Planning Engine (APE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radboud University

  3. A critical review of the "enculturation hypothesis": the effects of human rearing on great ape social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M

    2004-10-01

    Numerous investigators have argued that early ontogenetic immersion in sociocultural environments facilitates cognitive developmental change in human-reared great apes more characteristic of Homo sapiens than of their own species. Such revamping of core, species-typical psychological systems might be manifest, according to this argument, in the emergence of mental representational competencies, a set of social cognitive skills theoretically consigned to humans alone. Human-reared great apes' capacity to engage in "true imitation," in which both the means and ends of demonstrated actions are reproduced with fairly high rates of fidelity, and laboratory great apes' failure to do so, has frequently been interpreted as reflecting an emergent understanding of intentionality in the former. Although this epigenetic model of the effects of enculturation on social cognitive systems may be well-founded and theoretically justified in the biological literature, alternative models stressing behavioral as opposed to representational change have been largely overlooked. Here I review some of the controversy surrounding enculturation in great apes, and present an alternative nonmentalistic version of the enculturation hypothesis that can also account for enhanced imitative performance on object-oriented problem-solving tasks in human-reared animals.

  4. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  5. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian M; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch ( Pyrrhula pyrrhula ) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  6. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Biddle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  7. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  8. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  9. Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Austin; Lukas, Kristen E; Kendall, Corinne J; Slavin, Michelle A; Ross, Elizabeth A; Robbins, Martha M; van Weeghel, Dagmar; Bergl, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Annual survival of Florida nesting loggerheads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 30 PAT tags were deployed on nesting loggerhead turtles at Juno Beach, FL in June 2012. There have been three premature pop-offs, one of which appeared to be a...

  11. Practice makes perfect: Performance optimisation in 'arboreal' parkour athletes illuminates the evolutionary ecology of great ape anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Coward, Samuel R L; Crompton, Robin H; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2017-02-01

    An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes. We studied the oxygen consumption of parkour athletes while they traversed an arboreal-like course as an elite model ape, to test the ecomorphological and behavioural mechanisms by which a large-bodied ape could optimize its energetic performance during tree-based locomotion. Our results show that familiarity with the arboreal-like course allowed the athletes to substantially reduce their energy expenditure. Furthermore, athletes with larger arm spans and shorter legs were particularly adept at finding energetic savings. Our results flesh out the scanty fossil record to offer evidence that long, strong arms, broad chests and a strong axial system, combined with the frequent use of uniform branch-to-branch arboreal pathways, were critical to off-setting the mechanical and energetic demands of large mass in ancestral apes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-institutional knowledge-based planning (KBP) implementation and its performance comparison to Auto-Planning Engine (APE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Kusters, Martijn; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Dijkema, Tim; McNutt, Todd; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Bzdusek, Karl; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Pang, Dalong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate (1) whether a plan library established at one institution can be applied for another institution's knowledge-based planning (KBP); (2) the performance of cross-institutional KBP compared to Auto-Planning Engine (APE). Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC) provided 35 oropharyngeal cancer patients (68Gy to PTV 68 and 50.3Gy to PTV 50.3 ) with clinically-delivered and comparative APE plans. The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) contributed a three-dose-level plan library consisting of 179 clinically-delivered plans. MedStar Georgetown University Hospital (MGUH) contributed a KBP approach employing overlap-volume histogram (OVH-KBP), where the JHU library was used for guiding RUMC patients' KBP. Since clinical protocols adopted at RUMC and JHU are different and both approaches require protocol-specific planning parameters as initial input, 10 randomly selected patients from RUMC were set aside for deriving them. The finalized parameters were applied to the remaining 25 patients for OVH-KBP and APE plan generation. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical comparison. PTV 68 and PTV 50.3 's V 95 in OVH-KBP and APE were similar (p>0.36). Cord's D 0.1 cc in OVH-KBP was reduced by 5.1Gy (p=0.0001); doses to other organs were similar (p>0.2). APE and OVH-KBP's plan quality is comparable. Institutional-protocol differences can be addressed to allow cross-institutional library sharing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bonobo habituation in a forest-savanna mosaic habitat: influence of ape species, habitat type, and sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narat, Victor; Pennec, Flora; Simmen, Bruno; Ngawolo, Jean Christophe Bokika; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Habituation is the term used to describe acceptance by wild animals of a human observer as a neutral element in their environment. Among primates, the process takes from a few days for Galago spp. to several years for African apes. There are also intraspecies differences reflecting differences in habitat, home range, and ape-human relationship history. Here, we present the first study of the process of bonobo habituation in a fragmented habitat, a forest-savanna mosaic in the community-based conservation area led by the Congolese nongovernmental organization Mbou-Mon-Tour, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this area, local people use the forest almost every day for traditional activities but avoid bonobos because of a traditional taboo. Because very few flight reactions were observed during habituation, we focused on quantitative parameters to assess the development of ape tolerance and of the tracking efficiency of observer teams. During the 18-month study period (May 2012-October 2013), 4043 h (319 days) were spent in the forest and bonobos were observed for a total of 405 h (196 contacts on 134 days). The average contact duration was stable over time (124 min), but the minimal distance during a contact decreased with habituation effort. Moreover, bonobo location and tracking efficiency, daily ratio of contact time to habituation effort, and the number of observations at ground level were positively correlated with habituation effort. Our observations suggest that bonobos become habituated relatively rapidly. These results are discussed in relation to the habitat type, ape species, and the local sociocultural context of villagers. The habituation process involves changes in ape behavior toward observers and also more complex interactions concerning the ecosystem, including the building of an efficient local team. Before starting a habituation process, knowledge of the human sociocultural context is essential to assess the balance between risks and benefits.

  14. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  15. Discovery of a new Kittlitz's murrelet nest: Clues to habitat selection and nest-site fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1999-01-01

    On 13 June 1993, a new Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nest was discovered near Red Mountain on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The nest was on a 22° slope at about 900 m elevation with a northeast aspect, and contained a 60.2 × 40.6 mm egg that weighed 49.0 g. Downy feathers and weathered fecal material found at the nest indicated re-use from a previous year, suggesting possible nest site fidelity. The nest was located in an area scoured by winds and free of snow during early spring, suggesting that this may be an important mesoscale factor influencing selection of nesting habitat. Proximity to suitable foraging habitat, particularly sheltered bays and glacial river outflows, may affect breeding habitat choice over larger spatial scales.

  16. Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and landscape structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2010), s. 597-603 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependent predation * littoral patch * landscape type * nest predators * nest success * simulated nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2010

  17. NEST CHARACTERISTICS AND NESTING SUCCESS OF THE INDIAN PIED MYNA (GRACUPICA CONTRA) IN JAMMU REGION (J&K).

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Kumari; Prof. D. N. Sahi; Prof. Seema Langer.

    2018-01-01

    The nest characteristics and nesting success of the Indian Pied Myna (Gracupica contra) were studied from May, 2013 to September, 2015 in Jammu region of J&K State. A total of 55 nests were studied. Nesting started in April and continued till August. Fourteen plant species were used for nesting and maximum number of nests was found on Mangifera indica. The nest was quite untidy but the innermost chamber was examined to be flask-shaped and nest constructed by plant, animal and artificial matte...

  18. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes.

  19. The ecology of nest movement in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Terrence P

    2012-01-01

    Social insect colonies are typically mobile entities, moving nests from one location to another throughout the life of a colony. The majority of social insect species-ants, bees, wasps, and termites-have likely adopted the habit of relocating nests periodically. The syndromes of nest relocation include legionary nomadism, unstable nesting, intrinsic nest relocation, and adventitious nest relocation. The emergence of nest movement is a functional response to a broad range of potential selective forces, including colony growth, competition, foraging efficiency, microclimate, nest deterioration, nest quality, parasitism, predation, and seasonality. Considering the great taxonomic and geographic distribution of nest movements, assumptions regarding the nesting biology of social insects should be reevaluated, including our understanding of population genetics, life-history evolution, and the role of competition in structuring communities. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  2. Enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes: do differences in defect prevalence imply differential levels of physiological stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents new data on enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous canine teeth of great apes. The enamel defect under consideration is known as localized hypoplasia of primary canines (LHPC), and is characterized by an area of thin or missing enamel on the labial surface of deciduous canine teeth (Skinner [1986a] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 69:59-69). Goals of this study are: 1) to determine if significant differences in the frequency of LHPC occur among three genera of great apes, and 2) to evaluate variation in LHPC prevalence among great apes as evidence of differential physiological stress. Infant and juvenile apes with deciduous teeth were examined at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (n = 100) and at the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (n = 36). Deciduous teeth were observed under oblique incandescent light, with the naked eye and with a 10x hand lens. Enamel hypoplasia was scored using Federation Dentaire International (FDI)-Defects of Dental Enamel (DDE) standards. Hypoplasias were recorded by drawing defect location and size on a dental chart, and by measuring defect size and location with Helios needlepoint dial calipers. The prevalence of LHPC is reported by genus and sex, using two approaches: 1) the frequency of affected individuals-those having one or more deciduous canine teeth scored positive for LHPC; and 2) the number of canine teeth scored positive for LHPC as a percentage of all canine teeth observed. Variation in defect size and location will be described elsewhere. Localized hypoplasia of primary canine teeth was found in 62.5% of 128 individual apes, and in 45.5% of 398 great ape deciduous canines. As in humans, LHPC is the most common form of enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes, while LEH is rare or absent. The distribution and pattern of expression of LHPC in great apes is similar to that described in humans: side differences are not significant, but mandibular canines exhibit the defect two to

  3. Nesting Activity of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta at Göksu Delta, Turkey during 2004 and 2008 nesting seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih H. Durmus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta. This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5% nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008 and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6% were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9% hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 – 143. The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main problems are negatively affecting loggerhead turtle population at Göksu Delta are dense jackal predation both adult and eggs and inundation in nests. The average nesting effort here (mean: 119.5 nests/season confirms that Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in Turkey.

  4. Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995, NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (SJMAC-DEM) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995 NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, "Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance...

  5. Use of artificial nests to investigate predation on freshwater turtle nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael N. Marchand; John A. Litvaitis; Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has raised concerns that populations of generalist predators have increased and are affecting a diverse group of prey. Previous research has included the use of artificial nests to investigate the role of predation on birds that nest on or near the ground. Because predation also is a major factor limiting populations of freshwater turtles, we...

  6. Eggs in the Freezer: energetic Consequences of Nest Site and Nest Design in Arctic Breeding Shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds construct nests for several reasons. For species that breed in the Arctic, the insulative properties of nests are very important. Incubation is costly there and due to an increasing surface to volume ratio, more so in smaller species. Small species are therefore more likely to place their

  7. Landscaping pebbles attract nesting by the native ground-nesting bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most species of bees nest underground. Recent interest in pollinator-friendly gardens and landscaping focuses on planting suitable flowering species for bees, but we know little about providing for the ground-nesting needs of bees other than leaving them bare dirt surfaces. In this study, a surfac...

  8. Nest defense behaviors of native cavity-nesting birds to European Starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney G. Olsen; Kathryn L. Purcell; David. Grubbs

    2008-01-01

    We used behavioral experiments to evaluate competition for nest sites and the extent to which European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seen as a threat by native bird species at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera County, CA. We quantified the level of aggressive behavior of four species of native cavity-nesting birds to starlings at active...

  9. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Polak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi–natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding.

  10. Lack of nest site limitation in a cavity-nesting bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffry R. Waters; Barry R. Noon; Jared Verner

    1990-01-01

    We examined the relationship between nest site availability and density of secondary cavitynesting birds by blocking cavities in an oak-pine (Quercus spp.-Pinus sp. ) woodland. In 1986 and 1987we blocked 67 and 106 cavities, respectively, on a 37-ha plot. The combined density of secondary cavity-nesting birds did not decline...

  11. Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1983-01-01

    Availability of nesting sites can limit accipiter populations. Because accipiters nest in dense forest stands, any alteration that opens these stands is likely to lessen their desirability as nest sites. Tree growth and the associated changes in the vegetative structure of aging nest sites limit the number of years sites will be suitable. Therefore, prospective...

  12. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  13. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose and... active or inactive nest where necessary to alleviate a safety emergency; (ii) An inactive eagle nest when...

  14. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  15. Factors affecting nesting success in the Great-crested Grebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall nesting success was 70.4% (N = 209), with nest failure caused mainly by predation (65%) and flooding (23%). Breeding outcome was significantly and positively related to nest size, with bigger nests conferring better survival to eggs and young probably through affording better protection during spells of adverse ...

  16. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  17. Heavy metals in some termite species and their nests in Ojo, Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites feed on decaying organic matter including plant parts and wood, concentrating heavy metals in the process. The main campus of Lagos State University was surveyed for termite species and their heavy metal contents. Nests including mounds, wooden structures and discarded wood products were observed for ...

  18. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.

    2013-03-22

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  19. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-20

    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  1. Subterranean ant nests: Trace fossils past and future?

    OpenAIRE

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2003-01-01

    Many species of ants excavate complex, species-typical nests in soil. The basic structural units of many nests are descending tunnels connecting flattened, generally horizontal chambers of oval to lobed outline. The species-typical structure of many nests results from variation in the size, shape, number and arrangement of these basic elements. Nest architecture can be rendered by filling subterranean nests with a thin slurry of orthodontal plaster, then excavating and reconstructing the hard...

  2. Simulating large-scale spiking neuronal networks with NEST

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, Johanna; Diesmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Neural Simulation Tool NEST [1, www.nest-simulator.org] is the simulator for spiking neural networkmodels of the HBP that focuses on the dynamics, size and structure of neural systems rather than on theexact morphology of individual neurons. Its simulation kernel is written in C++ and it runs on computinghardware ranging from simple laptops to clusters and supercomputers with thousands of processor cores.The development of NEST is coordinated by the NEST Initiative [www.nest-initiative.or...

  3. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...

  4. Homogenization and texture development in rapidly solidified AZ91E consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N. R.; Whalen, S. A.; Bowden, M. E.; Olszta, M. J.; Kruska, K.; Clark, T.; Stevens, E. L.; Darsell, J. T.; Joshi, V. V.; Jiang, X.; Mattlin, K. F.; Mathaudhu, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) -a novel processing route that combines high shear and extrusion conditions- was evaluated as a processing method to densify melt spun magnesium alloy (AZ91E) flake materials. This study illustrates the microstructural regimes and transitions in crystallographic texture that occur as a result of applying simultaneous linear and rotational shear during extrusion. Characterization of the flake precursor and extruded tube was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microindentation techniques. Results show a unique transition in the orientation of basal texture development. Despite the high temperatures involved during processing, uniform grain refinement and material homogenization are observed. These results forecast the ability to implement the ShAPE processing approach for a broader range of materials with novel microstructures and high performance.

  5. Sexual selection and the evolution of visually conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits in male monkeys, apes, and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Alan; Dixson, Barnaby; Anderson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Striking secondary sexual traits, such as brightly colored "sexual skin," capes of hair, beards, and other facial adornments occur in adult males of many anthropoid primate species. This review focuses upon the role of sexual selection in the evolution of these traits. A quantitative approach is used to measure sexually dimorphic characters and to compare their development in the monogamous, polygynous, and multimale-multifemale mating systems of monkeys, apes, and human beings.

  6. Nest design in a changing world: great tit Parus major nests from a Mediterranean city environment as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M; Charmantier, Anne; Demeyrier, Virginie; Lucas, Annick; Perret, Samuel; Abouladzé, Matthieu; Bonnet, Michel; Canonne, Coline; Faucon, Virginie; Grosset, Stéphanie; le Prado, Gaëlle; Lidon, Frédéric; Noell, Thierry; Pagano, Pascal; Perret, Vincent; Pouplard, Stéphane; Spitaliéry, Rémy; Bernard, Cyril; Perret, Philippe; Blondel, Jacques; Grégoire, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of urbanization effects on birds have focused mainly on breeding traits expressed after the nest-building stage (e.g. first-egg date, clutch size, breeding success, and offspring characteristics). Urban studies largely ignored how and why the aspects of nest building might be associated with the degree of urbanization. As urban environments are expected to present novel environmental changes relative to rural environments, it is important to evaluate how nest-building behavior is impacted by vegetation modifications associated with urbanization. To examine nest design in a Mediterranean city environment, we allowed urban great tits ( Parus major ) to breed in nest boxes in areas that differed in local vegetation cover. We found that different measures of nest size or mass were not associated with vegetation cover. In particular, nests located adjacent to streets with lower vegetation cover were not smaller or lighter than nests in parks with higher vegetation cover. Nests adjacent to streets contained more pine needles than nests in parks. In addition, in nests adjacent to streets, nests from boxes attached to pine trees contained more pine needles than nests from boxes attached to other trees. We suggest that urban-related alterations in vegetation cover do not directly impose physical limits on nest size in species that are opportunistic in the selection of nesting material. However, nest composition as reflected in the use of pine needles was clearly affected by habitat type and the planted tree species present, which implies that rapid habitat change impacts nest composition. We do not exclude that urbanization might impact other aspects of nest building behaviour not covered in our study (e.g. costs of searching for nest material), and that the strengths of the associations between urbanization and nest structures might differ among study populations or species.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  8. Precision of Nest Method in Estimating Orangutan Population and Determination of Important Ecological Factors for Management of Conservation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Santosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orangutan as an umbrella species is closely interlinked with sustainable forest management meaning that the protection of this species has implications on the protection of other species and maintain ecosystem stability.  The total natural habitat required to support orangutan’s population could only be determined by the appropriate population size. It is associated with the carrying capacity to accommodate or fulfill the habitat requirements of a wildlife population. Selection and delineation of core and wilderness zones as habitat preference should be based on the results of preference test shown by the spatial distribution of orangutan population. Value of the coefficient  of  variation (CV was used to observe the precision of the population estimation and to identify important ecological factors in selection of nesting trees.  The study resulted in varied CV spatial values for various habitat types: 22.60%,  11.20%, and 13.30% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. In the other side, CV temporal values for various habitat types were 5.35%, 22.60%, and 17.60% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. This indicated that the population density in each type of forest ecosystems had a variation based on location and did not varied according to time of survey.  The use of  nest survey technique showed good reliable results in estimating orangutan population density.  Efforts to improve the precision of estimation can be done by formulating r value as the harmonic average of nest production rates and t as the average of nest decay time per nest category. Selection of habitat preference and nest trees were influenced by food availability thus should form important consideration in conducting nest survey to avoid bias in estimating orangutan populations.Keywords: conservation forest management, nest survey, orangutan, population size, ecological factors

  9. Incremental distribution of strontium and zinc in great ape and fossil hominin cementum using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Christopher; Le Cabec, Adeline; Spiers, Kathryn; Zhang, Yi; Garrevoet, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Cementum and the incremental markings it contains have been widely studied as a means of ageing animals and retrieving information about diet and nutrition. The distribution of trace elements in great ape and fossil hominin cementum has not been studied previously. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) enables rapid scanning of large tissue areas with high resolution of elemental distributions. First, we used SXRF to map calcium, phosphorus, strontium and zinc distributions in great ape dentine and cementum. At higher resolution, we compared zinc and strontium distributions in cellular and acellular cementum in regions where clear incremental markings were expressed. We then mapped trace element distributions in fossil hominin dentine and cementum from the 1.55-1.65 million year old site of Koobi Fora, Kenya. Zinc, in particular, is a precise marker of cementum increments in great apes, and is retained in fossil hominin cementum, but does not correspond well with the more diffuse fluctuations observed in strontium distribution. Cementum is unusual among mineralized tissues in retaining so much zinc. This is known to reduce the acid solubility of hydroxyapatite and so may confer resistance to resorption by osteoclasts in the dynamic remodelling environment of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Adenovirus and Herpesvirus Diversity in Free-Ranging Great Apes in the Sangha Region of the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Olson, Sarah H.; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J.; Joly, Damien O.; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992

  11. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007). Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI), a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, Inc., 1999). The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008), the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface. However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python/C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python/C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches. In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI) for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011). Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike. PMID:24672470

  12. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Yury V; Morrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007). Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI), a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, Inc., 1999). The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008), the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface. However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python/C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python/C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches. In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI) for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011). Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike.

  13. CyNEST: a maintainable Cython-based interface for the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Zaytsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a simulator for large-scale networks of spiking point neuron models (Gewaltig and Diesmann, 2007. Originally, simulations were controlled via the Simulation Language Interpreter (SLI, a built-in scripting facility implementing a language derived from PostScript (Adobe Systems, 1999. The introduction of PyNEST (Eppler et al., 2008, the Python interface for NEST, enabled users to control simulations using Python. As the majority of NEST users found PyNEST easier to use and to combine with other applications, it immediately displaced SLI as the default NEST interface.However, developing and maintaining PyNEST has become increasingly difficult over time. This is partly because adding new features requires writing low-level C++ code intermixed with calls to the Python / C API, which is unrewarding. Moreover, the Python / C API evolves with each new version of Python, which results in a proliferation of version-dependent code branches.In this contribution we present the re-implementation of PyNEST in the Cython language, a superset of Python that additionally supports the declaration of C/C++ types for variables and class attributes, and provides a convenient foreign function interface (FFI for invoking C/C++ routines (Behnel et al., 2011. Code generation via Cython allows the production of smaller and more maintainable bindings, including increased compatibility with all supported Python releases without additional burden for NEST developers. Furthermore, this novel approach opens up the possibility to support alternative implementations of the Python language at no cost given a functional Cython back-end for the corresponding implementation, and also enables cross-compilation of Python bindings for embedded systems and supercomputers alike.

  14. Connecting Spatial Memories of Two Nested Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.; Wang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the manner in which people use spatial reference directions to organize spatial memories of 2 conceptually nested layouts. Participants learned directions of 8 remote cities centered to Beijing or Edmonton, where the experiments occurred, using a map or using direct pointing. The map and the environment were aligned,…

  15. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage, gender, and age. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2014;19:376. April 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/empty-nest-syndrome/art-20047165 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  16. Flattening Queries over Nested Data Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, J.

    2006-01-01

    The theory developed in this thesis provides a method to improve the efficiency of querying nested data. The roots of this research lie in the tension between data model expressiveness and performance. Obviously, more expressive data models are more convenient for application programmers. For many

  17. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  18. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further re- search in numerical contact angle estimates.

  19. Mitochondrial evidence for multiple radiations in the evolutionary history of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, Van Ngoc; Mootnick, Alan R; Geissmann, Thomas; Li, Ming; Ziegler, Thomas; Agil, Muhammad; Moisson, Pierre; Nadler, Tilo; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

    2010-03-12

    Gibbons or small apes inhabit tropical and subtropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and adjacent regions, and are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives. With up to 16 species, gibbons form the most diverse group of living hominoids, but the number of taxa, their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogeography is controversial. To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies. Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions, several monophyletic clades were detected, corresponding to genera, species and subspecies. A significantly supported branching pattern was obtained for members of the genus Nomascus but not for the genus Hylobates. The phylogenetic relationships among the four genera were also not well resolved. Nevertheless, the new data permitted the estimation of divergence ages for all taxa for the first time and showed that most lineages emerged during four short time periods. In the first, between approximately 6.7 and approximately 8.3 mya, the four gibbon genera diverged from each other. In the second (approximately 3.0 - approximately 3.9 mya) and in the third period (approximately 1.3 - approximately 1.8 mya), Hylobates and Hoolock differentiated. Finally, between approximately 0.5 and approximately 1.1 mya, Hylobates lar diverged into subspecies. In contrast, differentiation of Nomascus into species and subspecies was a continuous and prolonged process lasting from approximately 4.2 until approximately 0.4 mya. Although relationships among gibbon taxa on various levels remain unresolved, the present study provides a more complete view of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the hylobatid family, and a more solid genetic basis for the taxonomic classification of the surviving taxa. We also show that mtDNA constitutes a useful marker for the accurate identification of individual gibbons, a tool which is

  20. Ants' learning of nest entrance characteristics (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2014-02-01

    Young workers, experimentally removed from their nest and set in front of it, are not very good at finding the nest entrance and entering the nest. I examined how young ants learn their nest entrance characteristics, dealing only with the entrance sensu stricto, not with its vicinity. I observed that young ants have the innate behavior of trying to exit and re-enter their nest. I found that they are imprinted with the nest entrance odor while they are still living inside their nest and that they learn the visual aspect of their nest entrances, thanks to operant conditioning, when they exit their nest and succeed in re-entering in the course of their first short trips outside.

  1. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  2. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector points in this...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for gulls and terns in Mississippi. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species...

  5. Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Schmitt, Daniel

    2009-08-25

    Despite decades of debate, it remains unclear whether human bipedalism evolved from a terrestrial knuckle-walking ancestor or from a more generalized, arboreal ape ancestor. Proponents of the knuckle-walking hypothesis focused on the wrist and hand to find morphological evidence of this behavior in the human fossil record. These studies, however, have not examined variation or development of purported knuckle-walking features in apes or other primates, data that are critical to resolution of this long-standing debate. Here we present novel data on the frequency and development of putative knuckle-walking features of the wrist in apes and monkeys. We use these data to test the hypothesis that all knuckle-walking apes share similar anatomical features and that these features can be used to reliably infer locomotor behavior in our extinct ancestors. Contrary to previous expectations, features long-assumed to indicate knuckle-walking behavior are not found in all African apes, show different developmental patterns across species, and are found in nonknuckle-walking primates as well. However, variation among African ape wrist morphology can be clearly explained if we accept the likely independent evolution of 2 fundamentally different biomechanical modes of knuckle-walking: an extended wrist posture in an arboreal environment (Pan) versus a neutral, columnar hand posture in a terrestrial environment (Gorilla). The presence of purported knuckle-walking features in the hominin wrist can thus be viewed as evidence of arboreality, not terrestriality, and provide evidence that human bipedalism evolved from a more arboreal ancestor occupying the ecological niche common to all living apes.

  6. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian; Deeming, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in a...

  7. From neurons to nests : nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Zachary Jonas; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan Denise

    2015-01-01

    This work was supported by funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/ I019502/1 to SDH and SLM) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant number PGSD3-409582-2011 to ZJH) and Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (SLM). Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, s...

  8. Genetic Load of Loss-of-Function Polymorphic Variants in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valles-Ibáñez, Guillem; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Luisi, Pierre; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Casals, Ferran

    2016-03-26

    Loss of function (LoF) genetic variants are predicted to disrupt gene function, and are therefore expected to substantially reduce individual's viability. Knowing the genetic burden of LoF variants in endangered species is of interest for a better understanding of the effects of declining population sizes on species viability. In this study, we have estimated the number of LoF polymorphic variants in six great ape populations, based on whole-genome sequencing data in 79 individuals. Our results show that although the number of functional variants per individual is conditioned by the effective population size, the number of variants with a drastic phenotypic effect is very similar across species. We hypothesize that for those variants with high selection coefficients, differences in effective population size are not important enough to affect the efficiency of natural selection to remove them. We also describe that mostly CpG LoF mutations are shared across species, and an accumulation of LoF variants at olfactory receptor genes in agreement with its pseudogenization in humans and other primate species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. The grand challenge of great ape health and conservation in the anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Lonsorf, Elizabeth V; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2018-01-01

    "Ecosystem Health recognizes the inherent interdependence of the health of humans, animals and ecosystems and explores the perspectives, theories and methodologies emerging at the interface between ecological and health sciences." This broad focus requires new approaches and methods for solving problems of greater complexity at larger scales than ever before. Nowhere is this point more salient than the case of disease emergence and control at the human-non human primate interface in shrinking tropical forests under great anthropogenic pressure. This special edition brings together transdisciplinary experts who have created successful partnerships leading to advances in ecosystem approaches to health for wild ape populations with relevance to all developing country tropical forest environments. It is no coincidence that the advances herein highlight two long term health projects-the Gombe Ecosystem Health Project (Gombe National Park, Tanzania), and the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire-since standardizing and validating noninvasive disease surveillance, risk assessment and management methods presents a special series of challenges where time is a major factor. Advances highlighted in this addition include: health surveillance and monitoring, health risk analysis, field immobilization and interventions, human-NHP networks/interfaces, diagnostic tool development, and cutting edge molecular and genetic techniques. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  11. Endangered Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas of the Northern Mariana Islands: Nesting Ecology, Poaching, and Climate Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Summers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles in the western Pacific remain threatened by anthropogenic impacts, but the region lacks long-term biological data for assessing conservation status and trends. The Central West Pacific (CWP population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas was listed as Endangered by the U.S. in 2016, highlighting a need to fill existing data gaps. This study focuses on the subset of this population nesting in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using 11 years of nesting data, we (i estimate reproductive demographic parameters, (ii quantify abundance and trends, and (iii estimate the impacts of anthropogenic threats, such as poaching of nesting females and increasing sand temperatures. In 2006–2016, nesting beach surveys, identification tagging, and nest excavations were conducted on Saipan, and rapid assessments of nesting activity were conducted on Tinian and Rota. On Saipan, temperature data-loggers were deployed inside nests and evidence of poaching (adults and eggs was recorded. This study documents year-round nesting with a peak in March–July. Nester abundance for the three islands combined was 11.9 ± 5.7 (mean ± standard deviation females annually, with at least 62.8 ± 35.1 nests observed per year. For 39 tagged individuals, straight carapace length was 95.6 ± 4.5 cm, remigration interval was 4.6 ± 1.3 years, and somatic growth was 0.3 ± 0.2 cm/yr. Reproductive parameter estimates included clutch frequency of 7.0 ± 1.3 nests per female, inter-nesting interval of 11.4 ± 1.0 days, clutch size of 93.5 ± 21.4 eggs, incubation period of 56.7 ± 6.4 days, hatching success of 77.9 ± 27.0%, and emergence success of 69.6 ± 30.3%. Mean nest temperature of 30.9 ± 1.5°C was above the pivotal threshold of 29.0°C for temperature dependent sex determination, suggesting a female bias may already exist. Model results suggest (i hatching success decreases and embryonic death increases when nests experience maximum temperatures

  12. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  13. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  14. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  15. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feeding evidence, and we sampled plot–based quadrats to assess the availability of resources. We used Manly’s resource selection function and log–likelihood test ratios to analyse the data for preference. The mean encounter rate of the Indian giant squirrel was 0.57 (± 0.18 SD individuals/km. Haldinia cordifolia (Wi = 4.899, p < 0.001 and Mangifera indica (Wi = 4.322, p = 0.001 were the preferred tree for nesting, whereas Xylia xylocarpa (31.30% and Bauhinia vahlii (28.24% were the most commonly eaten plants. Nest site preference was for taller tree species. As current management practices directly damage the preferred nesting sites and food resources, our findings aim to promote effective conservation of the Indian giant squirrel.

  16. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  17. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  18. Nested Surface Coils for Multinuclear NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, Arthur; Gruetter, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the design of surface coils for multinuclear applications. The relative sensitivities of several NMR-visible nuclei of biological interest are considered, and the motivations to operate an RF coil at multiple frequencies, both sequentially and simultaneously, are reviewed. The design of nested surface coils is then developed. Magnetic fields generated by planar loop and butterfly coils are first introduced. The benefits of quadrature design are briefly considered, and ...

  19. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-09-13

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo, a mini-app for Truchas, which is the ASC code for casting and additive manufacturing. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further research in contact angle estimates and surface tension calculations.

  20. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  1. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  2. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given...... the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  3. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility....... Nesting and spacing behaviour were video recorded for 5 days in each of three distinct periods; (a) pre-predator; a pre-exposure period, (b) predator; a period with daily exposure to a simulated attack by a lifelike flying model of a hooded crow (Corvus cornix, a potential egg-predator), and (c) post...

  4. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbuti

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating. Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN. We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours, the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  5. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuti, Roberto; Chessa, Stefano; Micheli, Alessio; Pucci, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN). We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours), the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  6. Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luis M.; Bustamante, Javier; Hiraldo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti was quantitatively assessed. Nest sites chosen did not differ from the available habitat with regard to physiography and vegetation, but the eagles tended to avoid areas affected by human disturbance. Nest sites used by subadults and those of adults that were recently established tended to be in more disturbed areas than those used by adults or in traditional nesting localities. Management recommendations for more e...

  7. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is a prognostic factor in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal and pancreatico-biliary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, A; Gossage, L; Fareed, K R; Shehata, M; Mohammed, M; Zaitoun, A M; Soomro, I; Lobo, D N; Abbotts, R; Chan, S; Madhusudan, S

    2010-02-16

    Altered DNA repair may be associated with aggressive tumour biology and impact upon response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated whether expression of human AP endonuclease (APE1), a key multifunctional protein involved in DNA BER, would impact on clinicopathological outcomes in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary cancer. Formalin-fixed human ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary cancers were constructed into TMAs. Expression of APE1 was analysed by IHC and correlated to clinicopathological variables. In ovarian cancer, nuclear APE1 expression was seen in 71.9% (97 out of 135) of tumours and correlated with tumour type (P=0.006), optimal debulking (P=0.009), and overall survival (P=0.05). In gastro-oesophageal cancers previously exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 34.8% (16 out of 46) of tumours were positive in the nucleus and this correlated with shorter overall survival (P=0.005), whereas cytoplasmic localisation correlated with tumour dedifferentiation (P=0.034). In pancreatico-biliary cancer, nuclear staining was seen in 44% (32 out of 72) of tumours. Absence of cytoplasmic staining was associated with perineural invasion (P=0.007), vascular invasion (P=0.05), and poorly differentiated tumours (P=0.068). A trend was noticed with advanced stage (P=0.077). Positive clinicopathological correlations of APE1 expression suggest that APE1 is a potential drug target in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary cancers.

  8. Nest-site partitioning in a strandveld shrubland bird community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest-site selection may vary adaptively among co-existing species as a result of competitive interactions among the species or in response to density-dependent nest predation. We examined nest-site characteristics and degree of partitioning among 14 co-existing bird species breeding in dwarf strandveld shrubland at ...

  9. UBV-photometry of nests of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-observations of 19 nests of interacting galaxies, made at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Institute, are given. Most of the nests observed were found to be and to have high luminosity. The UBV and spectral data show a large amount of gas inside many nests [ru

  10. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  11. Short Note Ground cavity nest temperatures and their relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue Swallows Hirundo atrocaerulea are Critically Endangered within South Africa. They nest in natural underground holes in mist-belt grasslands. Temperature dataloggers were used to record ground cavity nest (Tn) and ambient temperature (Ta) for one artificial and 11 natural Blue Swallow nests. Mean ground cavity Tn ...

  12. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class 2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  13. Language Nests and Language Acquisition: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Eve K.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…

  14. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  15. Ensatina eschscholtzii nests at a managed forest site in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Olson; R.S. Nauman; L.L. Ellenburg; B.P. Hansen; S.S. Chan

    2006-01-01

    The first Ensatina nests are described for Oregon. Fourteen nests were found during implementation of a forest density management project, seven before and seven after harvest. Nest detections are presented relative to search effort, salamander capture rates, and downed wood availability.

  16. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  17. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  18. Food provisioning and parental status in songbirds: can occupancy models be used to estimate nesting performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Catherine Corbani

    Full Text Available Indirect methods to estimate parental status, such as the observation of parental provisioning, have been problematic due to potential biases associated with imperfect detection. We developed a method to evaluate parental status based on a novel combination of parental provisioning observations and hierarchical modeling. In the summers of 2009 to 2011, we surveyed 393 sites, each on three to four consecutive days at Forêt Montmorency, Québec, Canada. We assessed parental status of 2331 adult songbirds based on parental food provisioning. To account for imperfect detection of parental status, we applied MacKenzie et al.'s (2002 two-state hierarchical model to obtain unbiased estimates of the proportion of sites with successfully nesting birds, and the proportion of adults with offspring. To obtain an independent evaluation of detection probability, we monitored 16 active nests in 2010 and conducted parental provisioning observations away from them. The probability of detecting food provisioning was 0.31 when using nest monitoring, a value within the 0.11 to 0.38 range that was estimated by two-state models. The proportion of adults or sites with broods approached 0.90 and varied depending on date during the sampling season and year, exemplifying the role of eastern boreal forests as highly productive nesting grounds for songbirds. This study offers a simple and effective sampling design for studying avian reproductive performance that could be implemented in national surveys such as breeding bird atlases.

  19. Swainson's Hawk Survey Grid - DFG Region 2 [ds697

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — 5 km x 5 km landscape blocks used for Ca. Dept. of Fish and Game central valley Swainson's hawk nest surveys since 2000, edited for 2009 surveys using the following...

  20. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  1. Light pollution affects nesting behavior of loggerhead turtles and predation risk of nests and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton; Marco, Adolfo; da Graça, Jesemine; Pérez, Héctor; Abella, Elena; Patino-Martinez, Juan; Martins, Samir; Almeida, Corrine

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitats is a rapidly expanding aspect of global change, which has many negative impacts on a wide range of taxa. In this experimental study, which took place on a beach located on the island of Boa Vista (Cabo Verde), three types of artificial light were tested on nesting loggerhead sea turtles as well as on ghost crabs, which intensively predate on nests and hatchlings, to determine the effects they would produce on the behavior of both species. Over the course of 36days, female loggerheads and ghost crabs were studied under yellow, orange and red lights, with observations also being made on dark nights that served as a control treatment. During this period, the frequencies of nesting attempts, the time taken by turtles to complete each phase of the nesting process, and ghost crab abundance and behaviors were carefully recorded. 1146 loggerhead nesting attempts were observed and recorded during the experiments, and results showed a decrease in nesting attempts of at least 20% when artificial lighting was present. A significant decline in successful attempts was also observed within the central sections of the beach, which corresponded to those that received more light. This artificial lighting significantly increased the time that turtles spent on the nesting process and forced them to do more extensive beach crawls. Despite this, the presence of light had no apparent effect on the final selection of the nesting site. Yellow and orange lights significantly disrupted the sea finding behavior and turtles were often unable to orient themselves seaward under these color lights. Disoriented turtles were observed crawling in circuitous paths in front of the light source for several minutes. In addition, artificial lights had the potential to increase the number of ghost crabs present within the illuminated stretches of the beach. However, only yellow lighting produced a significant change on aggressive and prey

  2. Dental wear, wear rate, and dental disease in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, Alison A

    2010-06-01

    The African apes possess thinner enamel than do other hominoids, and a certain amount of dentin exposure may be advantageous in the processing of tough diets eaten by Gorilla. Dental wear (attrition plus abrasion) that erodes the enamel exposes the underlying dentin and creates additional cutting edges at the dentin-enamel junction. Hypothetically, efficiency of food processing increases with junction formation until an optimal amount is reached, but excessive wear hinders efficient food processing and may lead to sickness, reduced fecundity, and death. Occlusal surfaces of molars and incisors in three populations each of Gorilla and Pan were videotaped and digitized. The quantity of incisal and molar occlusal dental wear and the lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were measured in 220 adult and 31 juvenile gorilla and chimpanzee skulls. Rates of dental wear were calculated in juveniles by scoring the degree of wear between adjacent molars M1 and M2. Differences were compared by principal (major) axis analysis. ANOVAs compared means of wear amounts. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the relationship between molar wear and incidence of dental disease. Results indicate that quantities of wear are significantly greater in permanent incisors and molars and juvenile molars of gorillas compared to chimpanzees. The lengths of dentin-enamel junctions were predominantly suboptimal. Western lowland gorillas have the highest quantities of wear and the most molars with suboptimal wear. The highest rates of wear are seen in Pan paniscus and Pan t. troglodytes, and the lowest rates are found in P.t. schweinfurthii and G. g. graueri. Among gorillas, G. b. beringei have the highest rates but low amounts of wear. Coefficients between wear and dental disease were low, but significant when all teeth were combined. Gorilla teeth are durable, and wear does not lead to mechanical senescence in this sample.

  3. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  4. Simulation of a two-dimensional dipolar system on a APE100/quadrics SIMD architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, A.; Pisacane, F.; Rosato, V.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature behavior of a system of dipoles with long-range interactions has been simulated via a two-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo on a massively (SIMD) platform (Quadrics/APE100). Thermodynamic quantities have been evaluated in order to locate and to characterize the phase transition in absence of applied field. Emphasis is given to the code implementation on the SIMD architecture and to the relevant features which have been used to improve code capabilities and performances. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of at least k spanning clusters has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the 2D square lattice with free boundaries at the bond percolation threshold p c = 1/2. It is found that the probability of k and more Incipient Spanning Clusters (ISC) have the values P(k > 1) ∼ 0.00658(3) and P(k > 2) ∼ 0.00000148(21) provided that the limit of these probabilities for infinite lattices exists. The probability P(k > 3) of more than three ISC could be estimated to be of the order of 10 -11 and is beyond the possibility to compute such a value by nowadays computers. So, it is impossible to check in simulations the Aizenman law for the probabilities when k much-gt 1. We have detected a single sample with four ISC in a total number of about 1010 samples investigated. The probability of this single event is 1/10 for that number of samples. The influence of boundary conditions is discussed in the last section

  5. The interpretive power of infraorbital foramen area in making dietary inferences in extant apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Deane, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is located below the orbit and transmits the sensory infraorbital nerve (ION) to mechanoreceptors located throughout the maxillary region. The size of the IOF correlates with the size of the ION; thus, the IOF appears to indicate relative touch sensitivity of maxillary region. In primates, IOF size correlates well with diet. Frugivores have relatively larger IOFs than folivores or insectivores because fruit handling/processing requires increased touch sensitivity. However, it is unknown if the IOF can be used to detect subtle dietary differences among closely related hominoid species. Hominoids are traditionally grouped into broad dietary categories, despite the fact that hominoid diets are remarkably diverse. This study examines whether relative IOF size is capable of differentiating among the dietary preferences of closely related species with overlapping, yet divergent diets. We measured IOF area in Hylobates lar, Symphalangus syndactulus, Pongo pygmaeus spp., Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri, and Gorilla beringei beringei. We classified each species as a dedicated folivore, mixed folivore/frugivore, soft object frugivore, or hard object frugivore. The IOF is documented to be larger in more frugivorous species and smaller in more folivorous taxa. Interestingly, G.b. beringei, had the largest relative IOF of any gorilla, despite being a dedicated folivore. G.b. beringei does have unique food processing behavior that relies heavily on maxillary mechanoreception, thus this finding is not entirely unsupported behaviorally. The results of this study provide evidence that the IOF is an informative feature in interpretations of fossil apes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relative placement of the mandibular fossa in great apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Richard J; Rowley, Rebecca B; Ward, Steven C

    2002-07-01

    Several researchers have investigated, or commented on, the relative placement of the hominin mandibular fossa with regard to brain expansion and masticatory function. Two confounding factors are identified in this previous work. First, a number of different measurement techniques have been applied, confusing comparisons between studies. Second, the effects of squamous thickening due to temporal bone pneumatization are shown to influence measurements based relative to the ectocranial margin of the skull. To investigate the influence of these factors, a sample of adult human (n=12), chimpanzee (n=12), gorilla (n=15), and orang-utan (n=8) skulls from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin Zoology Museum, and University of Wisconsin Anthropology collections, were CT scanned. Coronal scans were horizontally aligned and measured on a personal computer using ImageJ (NIH). To identify fossa placement, fossa breadth was measured as the projected distance in the coronal plane between the tip of the entoglenoid to lateral margin of the articular surface. A second distance, from the tip of the entoglenoid to a sagittal plane, tangent to the lateralmost margin of the endocranial surface was taken to indicate the extent of medial placement of the fossa. By eliminating the influence of pneumatization, these data unambiguously confirmed the medial placement of the human fossa and show all great apes as having a laterally placed fossa. Similar measurements on three fossil hominins, KNM-BC 1 (Homo sp. indet.), OH 5 and KNM-ER 23000 (Paranthropus boisei) demonstrate that, while all specimens demonstrate a broad fossa, only KNM-BC 1 is characterized by a relatively medial placement while the latter two display lateral placement. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  8. Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, A.P.; Adriaensen, F.; Artemyev, A.; Bańbura, J.; Barba, E.; Biard, C.; Blondel, J.; Bouslama, Z.; Bouvier, J.-C.; Camprodon, J.; Cecere, F.; Chaine, A.; Charmantier, A.; Charter, M.; Cichoń, M.; Cusimano, C.; Czeszczewik, D.; Doligez, B.; Doutrelant, C.; Dubiec, A.; Eens, M.; Eeva, T.; Faivre, B.; Ferns, P.N.; Forsman, J.T.; García-del-Rey, E.; Goldshtein, A.; Goodenough, A.E.; Gosler, A.G.; Góźdź, I.; Grégoire, A.; Gustafsson, L.; Hartley, I.R.; Heeb, P.; Hinsley, S.A.; Isenmann, P.; Jacob, S.; Järvinen, A.; Juškaitis, R.; Kania, W.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Laaksonen, T.; Leclercq, B.; Lehikoinen, E.; Loukola, O.; Lundberg, A.; Mainwaring, M.C.; Mänd, R.; Massa, B.; Mazgajski, T.D.; Merino, S.; Mitrus, C.; Mönkkönen, M.; Morales-Fernaz, J.; Moreno, J.; Morin, X.; Nager, R.G.; Nilsson, J.-Å.; Nilsson, S.G.; Norte, A.C.; Orell, M.; Perret, P.; Perrins, C.M.; Pimentel, C.S.; Pinxten, R.; Priedniece, I.; Quidoz, M.-C.; Remeš, V.; Richner, H.; Robles, H.; Russell, A.; Rytkönen, S.; Senar, J.C.; Seppänen, J.T.; Pascoal da Silva, L.; Slagsvold, T.; Solonen, T.; Sorace, A.; Stenning, M.J.; Török, J.; Tryjanowski, P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; von Numers, M.; Walankiewicz, W.; Lambrechts, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    * Secondary hole-nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide

  9. Genistein alleviates radiation-induced pneumonitis by depressing Ape1/Ref-1 expression to down-regulate inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Dong; Xia, Lei; Zhu, Jian-Wu; Ou, Shan; Li, Meng-Xia; He, Yong; Luo, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Xue-Qin; Shan, Jin-Lu; Wang, Ge; Wang, Dong; Yang, Zhen-Zhou

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of genistein in alleviating radiation-induced pneumonitis(RIP) through down-regulating levels of the inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1). Fifty female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into a control group, a pure irradiation (IR) group and a genistein + IR group. At the four time points after IR, hematoxylin, and Masson’s trichrome stainings were used to examine the pathological changes and collagen fiber deposition. Flow cytometry was used to detect reactive oxygen system (ROS) changes, EMSA was used to estimate the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activities and an ELISA assay was used to measure the levels of TGF-β1, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 2 weeks after IR.The pathological detection results showed acute inflammatory/fibrinoid exudation of the thoracic tissue after IR,which was significantly alleviated with genistein. The IR inducedan APE1 protein expression increase and NF-jB was effectively suppressed by genistein (P < 0.05). The induction of the inflammatory cytokines TGF-β1, IL-1β,TNF-α, and IL-6 by IR were in turn inhibited in the serum and BALF of the genistein-pretreated mice (P < 0.05). In addition, the ROS production was significantly boosted in the A549 cells after IR, which could be down-regulated by the pretreatment of genistein. The results demonstrate that genistein alleviates RIP by attenuating the inflammatory response in the initiation of RIP. A possible target of genistein is the Ape1/ref-1, which regulates key inflammatory cytokines by activating the NF-κB.

  10. The relationships among jaw-muscle fiber architecture, jaw morphology, and feeding behavior in extant apes and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    The jaw-closing muscles are responsible for generating many of the forces and movements associated with feeding. Muscle physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA) and fiber length are two architectural parameters that heavily influence muscle function. While there have been numerous comparative studies of hominoid and hominin craniodental and mandibular morphology, little is known about hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture. We present novel data on masseter and temporalis internal muscle architecture for small- and large-bodied hominoids. Hominoid scaling patterns are evaluated and compared with representative New- (Cebus) and Old-World (Macaca) monkeys. Variation in hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture is related to both absolute size and allometry. PCSAs scale close to isometry relative to jaw length in anthropoids, but likely with positive allometry in hominoids. Thus, large-bodied apes may be capable of generating both absolutely and relatively greater muscle forces compared with smaller-bodied apes and monkeys. Compared with extant apes, modern humans exhibit a reduction in masseter PCSA relative to condyle-M1 length but retain relatively long fibers, suggesting humans may have sacrificed relative masseter muscle force during chewing without appreciably altering muscle excursion/contraction velocity. Lastly, craniometric estimates of PCSAs underestimate hominoid masseter and temporalis PCSAs by more than 50% in gorillas, and overestimate masseter PCSA by as much as 30% in humans. These findings underscore the difficulty of accurately estimating jaw-muscle fiber architecture from craniometric measures and suggest models of fossil hominin and hominoid bite forces will be improved by incorporating architectural data in estimating jaw-muscle forces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  12. A unique genomic sequence in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome [WHS] region of humans is conserved in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzami, S T; Kringstein, A M; Conte, R A; Verma, R S

    1996-10-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 band 16.3 (4p 16.3). A unique-sequence human DNA probe (39 kb) localized within this region has been used to search for sequence homology in the apes' equivalent chromosome 3 by FISH-technique. The WHS loci are conserved in higher primates at the expected position. Nevertheless, a control probe, which detects alphoid sequences of the pericentromeric region of humans, is diverged in chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The conservation of WHS loci and divergence of DNA alphoid sequences have further added to the controversy concerning human descent.

  13. Nesting habitat and reproductive success of southwestern riparian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, B.F.; Steidl, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Vegetation structure and floristic composition strongly influence the structure of bird communities. To assess the influence of vegetation and other environmental characteristics on songbirds, we quantified nest-site characteristics and reproductive success of a riparian songbird community in Arizona. Although we found interspecific variation in characteristics associated with nest sites, we identified two suites of species that chose sites with similar characteristics. These 'nest groups' were explained largely by nest height and characteristics of nest trees. Overall, nest success was low for songbirds in this community, and averaged 23%. The most common cause of nest failure was predation (81%), although brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) was highest at nests of Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii) (29%). No vegetation or environmental features were associated with the likelihood of cowbird parasitism for any species; nest success for Bell's Vireos was negatively associated with the amount of netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) in the understory. Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii) and netleaf hackberry trees contained 41% and 17% of all nests, respectively, and therefore provide critically important nesting substrates for birds in this rare yet diverse vegetation community.

  14. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N; Bond, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ), prairie falcons ( Falco mexicanus ), and American kestrels ( F. sparverius ) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  15. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  16. Nest density and other observations on a population of Aneuretus simoni Emery, 1893 (Formicidae, Aneuretinae and other ants in Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake K. S. Dias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lankan Relict Ant, Aneuretus simoni Emery, survives in several wet zone and intermediate zone forests in Sri Lanka. Nests of this species and other ants were surveyed at 159 m and 291 m elevations in Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve by laying 20 quadrats of 1 m × 1 m at two plots of each locality in December, 2015. The number of ant nests within each quadrat was recorded; then the frequency of nest occurrence out of 40 quadrats, percentage nest abundance and mean nest density of A. simoni, as well as associated ant fauna were calculated. Percentage frequency of worker ant occurrence was also investigated using pitfall traps. Eighteen genera and 21 species in Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae and Ponerinae were recorded from the two methods. Nests of A. simoni were found only in the locality at 291 m altitude in the forest; 17.5 % of quadrats with an A. simoni colonies, 9.7% of nest abundance in relation to that of other ant species and 0.18 m2 of mean nest density were observed. Nest density of A. simoni had the fourth rank among that of the other species. Frequency of occurrence of A. simoni workers in the pitfall traps at lower and upper elevations was 2% and 3%, respectively. An actualized map showing the current distribution of A. simoni is produced.

  17. Study of Implosion of Combined Nested Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Branitsky, A. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.

    2017-12-01

    New experimental data on the implosion of plasma of nested kapron-tungsten arrays are obtained at the Angara-5-1 facility. The mode of plasma implosion is implemented in which a shock wave region forms in the space between the inner and outer arrays where a transition from the super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) to sub-Alfvénic ( V r Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse with a peak power of 4 TW and duration of about 5 ns.

  18. Analysis of dual coupler nested coupled cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, George A; Sabry, Yasser M; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-12-01

    Coupled ring resonators are now forming the basic building blocks in several optical systems serving different applications. In many of these applications, a small full width at half maximum is required, along with a large free spectral range. In this work, a configuration of passive coupled cavities constituting dual coupler nested cavities is proposed. A theoretical study of the configuration is presented allowing us to obtain analytical expressions of its different spectral characteristics. The transfer function of the configuration is also used to generate design curves while comparing these results with analytical expressions. Finally, the configuration is compared with other coupled cavity configurations.

  19. Tufted Puffins nesting in estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Sanger, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    The Tufted Puffin (Lunda cirrhata) apparently has the most extensive breeding distribution of any North Pacific seabird, extending in the western North Pacific from Hokkaido to the north Chukotsk Peninsula on the Chukchi Sea, and in North America from Cape Lisburne on the Chukchi Sea, south to the Farallon Islands off central California (Udvardy 1963). Despite this wide breeding distribution, the reported nesting habitat is generally restricted to steep, rocky islands and continental headlands (see Dement’ev and Gladkov 1951, Kozlova 1957, Gabrielson and Lincoln 1959, Portenko 1973, Sealy 1973, and Sowls et al. 1978). Nests are typically excavated in steep slopes and/or on vegetated plateaus, well above normal tidal influence but occasionally within the spray or storm-wash zone. Nowhere has L. cirrhata or any other puffin species been reported to nest in a flat, estuarine habitat in substrate normally affected by tides during the breeding season. Portenko (1973: 137) refers to Tufted Puffins breeding on Alyumka Island in the Anadyr "estuary" (64°40'N, 177°37'E), but Alyumka Island is a rocky coastal island having immediate offshore waters between 3-18 m deep (A.A. Kistchinski, The Ringing Center, Moscow, and George Tyner, U.S. Defense Mapping Agency, pers. comm.).During the summers of 1976, 1977, and 1978, we found 14-18 pairs of Tufted Puffins nesting on 4 narrow sand islands (5-7 ha each) along the northcentral Alaska Peninsula at Nelson Lagoon (56°00'N, 161°10'W). As of June 1979, 25 active burrows had been reported there (Margaret R. Petersen, pers. comm.). The islands lie approximately 1.3 km from the Bering Sea coast and are protected from the sea by a long, narrow (0.5 kin) sand peninsula. The main deepwater channel in the lagoon, 3-7 m deep and 100-300 m wide at mean low water (MLW), separates the islands from the peninsula. The islands, which are free of permafrost, have a uniformly low profile with the highest elevation 1-2 m above mean high water

  20. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  1. Effectiveness of nest site restoration for the endangered northern map turtle : report 2 : use of artificial nesting sites and wildlife exclusion fences to enhance nesting success : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Map Turtle, is a state Endangered Species, found only in the : lower Susquehanna River in Maryland. The only area where nests of this : species are not heavily impacted by predators is in the town of Port Deposit. : However, turtles nest...

  2. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  3. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  4. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  5. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.

    1987-10-16

    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  6. Molecular evidence for the presence of Rickettsia Felis in the feces of wild-living African apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Kabinet Keita

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is a common emerging pathogen detected in mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that, as with malaria, great apes may be exposed to the infectious bite of infected mosquitoes and release R. felis DNA in their feces.We conducted a study of 17 forest sites in Central Africa, testing 1,028 fecal samples from 313 chimpanzees, 430 gorillas and 285 bonobos. The presence of rickettsial DNA was investigated by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by a second PCR using primers and a probe targeting a specific gene for R. felis. All positive samples were sequenced.Overall, 113 samples (11% were positive for the Rickettsia-specific gltA gene, including 25 (22% that were positive for R. felis. The citrate synthase (gltA sequence and outer membrane protein A (ompA sequence analysis indicated 99% identity at the nucleotide level to R. felis. The 88 other samples (78% were negative using R. felis-specific qPCR and were compatible with R. felis-like organisms.For the first time, we detected R. felis in wild-living ape feces. This non invasive detection of human pathogens in endangered species opens up new possibilities in the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of infectious diseases, beside HIV and malaria.

  7. Complexity, Compassion and Self-Organisation: Human Evolution and the Vulnerable Ape Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick P. Winder

    2015-06-01

    allowed genetically vulnerable populations to negotiate new ways of being fit. The extended synthesis allows for the possibility that great apes were agents long before they were human and that this agency enabled them to fit their environments to their own needs. This article summarises features of the extended synthesis that seem most relevant to archaeology. Some of the topics it discusses may seem abstruse and perhaps unnecessary because they amount to an acknowledgement of socio-natural complexities archaeologists have understood for decades. However, they are extremely significant in study-domains where biology and archaeology intersect. Archaeologists can no longer uncritically accept the conclusions drawn by molecular geneticists because the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology is under reconstruction.

  8. Differential L1 regulation in pluripotent stem cells of humans and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Maria C N; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Denli, Ahmet M; Benner, Christopher; Lazzarini, Thomas A; Nathanson, Jason L; Paquola, Apuã C M; Desai, Keval N; Herai, Roberto H; Weitzman, Matthew D; Yeo, Gene W; Muotri, Alysson R; Gage, Fred H

    2013-11-28

    Identifying cellular and molecular differences between human and non-human primates (NHPs) is essential to the basic understanding of the evolution and diversity of our own species. Until now, preserved tissues have been the main source for most comparative studies between humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, these tissue samples do not fairly represent the distinctive traits of live cell behaviour and are not amenable to genetic manipulation. We propose that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be a unique biological resource to determine relevant phenotypical differences between human and NHPs, and that those differences could have potential adaptation and speciation value. Here we describe the generation and initial characterization of iPS cells from chimpanzees and bonobos as new tools to explore factors that may have contributed to great ape evolution. Comparative gene expression analysis of human and NHP iPS cells revealed differences in the regulation of long interspersed element-1 (L1, also known as LINE-1) transposons. A force of change in mammalian evolution, L1 elements are retrotransposons that have remained active during primate evolution. Decreased levels of L1-restricting factors APOBEC3B (also known as A3B) and PIWIL2 (ref. 7) in NHP iPS cells correlated with increased L1 mobility and endogenous L1 messenger RNA levels. Moreover, results from the manipulation of A3B and PIWIL2 levels in iPS cells supported a causal inverse relationship between levels of these proteins and L1 retrotransposition. Finally, we found increased copy numbers of species-specific L1 elements in the genome of chimpanzees compared to humans, supporting the idea that increased L1 mobility in NHPs is not limited to iPS cells in culture and may have also occurred in the germ line or embryonic cells developmentally upstream to germline specification during primate evolution. We propose that differences in L1 mobility may have

  9. Nesting of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo on man-made structures in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sidorenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ukraine the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758 uses a rather wide range of habitats for nesting: islands, trees and shrubs, reedbeds and a variety of man-made structures. In general, the strategy of nesting on man-made structures is uncommon both in Ukraine and Europe, and Cormorantsdo this only in the absence of other sites suitable for nesting. Special research onCormorant colonies on technogenic constructions was carried out during the field expeditions by the Research Institute of Biodiversity of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems of Ukraine in 2002–2003 and 2012–2016. Besides this, we used retrospective and current data from the literature and Internet resources. Most of the field work was carried out by making surveys by boat and on foot. As a result, we found 8 Cormorant colonies on technogenic constructions in Ukraine: gas platforms in the Sea of Azov (near the village Strilkove, Henichesk district of Kherson region; sunken ships – targets for bombing training near the Arabat Spit (these are also known as «ship islands»; electricity pylons of the high-voltage Enerhodar Dnipro Power Line where it crosses the Kakhovka Reservoir; the dock in Yahorlyk Bayk, used in the past as a target for bombing training bombing; artificial island-platforms on Lake Chernine (Kinburn Peninsula; an artificial island on the Sasyk Lagoon (Odessa region; artificial islands, made as navigation markers on the Kremenchuk and Kiev reservoirs. The study found that in most cases the accompanying species was the CaspianGull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811, which actively destroys the Cormorants’ nests and eats their eggs and chicks. The number of nests in the colonies varied greatly (5–30 nests on the navigation marker islands and ca. 2 000–2 300 on the «ship-islands» and gas platforms. This is due, primarily, to the area of the breeding territory. The research found that fierce territorial competition was observed in most of the

  10. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E; Hughes, George R

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (orcoastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  11. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  12. Functional Error Models to Accelerate Nested Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, L.; Elsheikh, A. H.; Demyanov, V.; Lunati, I.

    2014-12-01

    The main challenge in groundwater problems is the reliance on large numbers of unknown parameters with wide rage of associated uncertainties. To translate this uncertainty to quantities of interest (for instance the concentration of pollutant in a drinking well), a large number of forward flow simulations is required. To make the problem computationally tractable, Josset et al. (2013, 2014) introduced the concept of functional error models. It consists in two elements: a proxy model that is cheaper to evaluate than the full physics flow solver and an error model to account for the missing physics. The coupling of the proxy model and the error models provides reliable predictions that approximate the full physics model's responses. The error model is tailored to the problem at hand by building it for the question of interest. It follows a typical approach in machine learning where both the full physics and proxy models are evaluated for a training set (subset of realizations) and the set of responses is used to construct the error model using functional data analysis. Once the error model is devised, a prediction of the full physics response for a new geostatistical realization can be obtained by computing the proxy response and applying the error model. We propose the use of functional error models in a Bayesian inference context by combining it to the Nested Sampling (Skilling 2006; El Sheikh et al. 2013, 2014). Nested Sampling offers a mean to compute the Bayesian Evidence by transforming the multidimensional integral into a 1D integral. The algorithm is simple: starting with an active set of samples, at each iteration, the sample with the lowest likelihood is kept aside and replaced by a sample of higher likelihood. The main challenge is to find this sample of higher likelihood. We suggest a new approach: first the active set is sampled, both proxy and full physics models are run and the functional error model is build. Then, at each iteration of the Nested

  13. Sexually selected nest-building--Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O; Kvarnemo, C

    2003-09-01

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  14. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that parents should invest less in dependent offspring with lower reproductive value, such as those with a high risk of predation. Moreover, high predation risk can favor reduced parental activity when such activity attracts nest predators. Yet, the ability of parents to assess ambient nest-predation risk and respond adaptively remains unclear, especially where nest-predator assemblages are diverse and potentially difficult to assess. We tested whether variation in parental investment by a multi-brooded songbird (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri) in an environment (sagebrush steppe) with diverse predators was predicted by ambient nest-predation risk or direct experience with nest predation. Variation among eight sites in ambient nest-predation risk, assayed by daily probabilities of nest predation, was largely uncorrelated across four years. In this system risk may therefore be unpredictable, and aspects of parental investment (clutch size, egg mass, incubation rhythms, nestling-feeding rates) were not related to ambient risk. Moreover, investment at first nests that were successful did not differ from that at nests that were depredated, suggesting parents could not assess and respond to territorylevel nest-predation risk. However, parents whose nests were depredated reduced clutch sizes and activity at nests attempted later in the season by increasing the length of incubation shifts (on-bouts) and recesses (off-bouts) and decreasing trips to feed nestlings. In this unpredictable environment parent birds may therefore lack sufficient cues of ambient risk on which to base their investment decisions and instead rely on direct experience with nest predation to inform at least some of their decisions. ?? 2010 The Cooper Ornithological Society.

  15. Nested Focusing Optics for Compact Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) have developed novel neutron grazing incidence optics for use with small-scale portable neutron generators. The technology was developed to enable the use of commercially available neutron generators for applications requiring high flux densities, including high performance imaging and analysis. Nested grazing incidence mirror optics, with high collection efficiency, are used to produce divergent, parallel, or convergent neutron beams. Ray tracing simulations of the system (with source-object separation of 10m for 5 meV neutrons) show nearly an order of magnitude neutron flux increase on a 1-mm diameter object. The technology is a result of joint development efforts between NASA and MIT researchers seeking to maximize neutron flux from diffuse sources for imaging and testing applications.

  16. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  17. Hatching and fledging times from grassland passerine nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.; Grant, Todd A.; Ribic, Christine A.; Thompson, Frank R.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually Accurate estimates of fledging age are needed in field studies to avoid inducing premature fledging or missing the fledging event. Both may lead to misinterpretation of nest fate. Correctly assessing nest fate and length of the nestling period can be critical for accurate calculation of nest survival rates. For researchers who mark nestlings, knowing the age at which their activities may cause young to leave nests prematurely could prevent introducing bias to their studies. We obtained estimates of fledging age using data from grassland bird nests monitored from hatching through fledging with video-surveillance systems in North Dakota and Minnesota during 1996–2001. We compared these values to those obtained from traditional nest visits and from available literature. Mean and modal fledging ages for video-monitored nests were generally similar to those for visited nests, although Clay-colored Sparrows (Spizella pallida) typically fledged 1 day earlier from visited nests. Average fledging ages from both video and nest visits occurred within ranges reported in the literature, but expanded by 1–2 days the upper age limit for Clay-colored Sparrows and the lower age limit for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Video showed that eggs hatched throughout the day whereas most young fledged in the morning (06:30–12:30 CDT). Length of the hatching period for a clutch was usually >1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually information and for corroborating published statements related to hatching and fledging chronology. Comparison of data collected from video and nest visits showed that carefully conducted nest visits generally can provide reliable data for deriving estimates of survival.

  18. Chimeras of receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus/feline leukemia virus B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus reveal different modes of receptor recognition by retrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Johann, Stephen V; van Zeijl, Marja

    1995-01-01

    Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences...

  19. Parental nest defense on videotape: More reality than "myth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2005-01-01

    Predation is recognized as the primary source of nest mortality in most passerine species (e.g. Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992a); thus, it is no surprise that parental nest defense has received considerable scientific attention (see below). By nest defense, we refer to any parental behavior that decreases the probability that a predator (or brood parasite) will harm the nest contents and that simultaneously entails some cost to the bird engaged in the behavior—either by increasing the bird's risk of injury or death (Montgomerie and Weatherhead 1988) or by at least increasing its expenditure of time and energy (Buitron 1983).

  20. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  1. Nest-site biology of the California condor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ramey, R.R.; Sibley, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 72 historical and recent nests of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) has revealed considerable variability in nest-site characteristics. This paper primarily summarizes the data on nest elevations and dimensions, entrance orientations, nest longevity and re-use, vulnerability of sites to natural enemies, and use of sites by other species. Although all known nests have been natural cavities, some have been little more than overhung ledges on cliffs, while others have been deep, dark caves with nest chambers completely concealed from the outside. Two sites have been cavities in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Contrary to previous assumptions, condors do modify the characteristics of their nest sites significantly and commonly construct substrates of coarse gravel on which to rest their eggs. Many nests have been completely accessible to terrestrial predators, many have been poorly protected from avian predators, and some have had structural flaws leading directly to nesting failure. The use of suboptimal sites has not been clearly related to a scarcity of better quality sites.

  2. Artificial nest experiments in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, G.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted artificial nest experiments in a Neotropical montane forest in the eastern Andes, Colombia, in order to test the effect of placing the nests in forest fragments or continuous forests, at two nest heights and for two different climatic seasons. Predation was not consistently different between nests placed in fragments and controls. However, we found that nests on the ground had a higher daily probability of being predated than nests in the understory. Also, daily nest mortality rate (DNM) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Most of the predated nests were attributed to mammals (56%), and predation occurred mostly on the ground (78%). Our estimates of DNM are quite low (= 0.023) and similar to another Neotropical montane forest and other Neotropical sites. Comparisons of DNM between Neotropical and temperate sites suggests that predation rates are similar. Our results suggest that fragmentation may not have a large negative impact in nest predation for bird populations breeding in fragments compared to other sites in tropical and temperate regions. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  3. Common cuckoos Cuculus canorus change their nest-searching strategy according to the number of available host nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 1 (2014), s. 189-197 ISSN 0019-1019 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo perch * edge effect host aggression * host choice * nest height * nest visibility * nest volume Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2014

  4. Direct observation of preferential processing of clustered abasic DNA damages with APE1 in TATA box and CpG island by reaction kinetics and fluorescence dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Kumari, Bhavini; Maity, Banibrata; Seth, Debabrata; Das, Prolay

    2014-01-01

    Sequences like the core element of TATA box and CpG island are frequently encountered in the genome and related to transcription. The fate of repair of clustered abasic sites in such sequences of genomic importance is largely unknown. This prompted us to investigate the sequence dependence of cleavage efficiency of APE1 enzyme at abasic sites within the core sequences of TATA box and CpG island using fluorescence dynamics and reaction kinetics. Simultaneous molecular dynamics study through steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using unique ethidium bromide dye release assay confirmed an elevated amount of abasic site cleavage of the TATA box sequence as compared to the core CpG island. Reaction kinetics showed that catalytic efficiency of APE1 for abasic site cleavage of core CpG island sequence was ∼4 times lower as compared to that of the TATA box. Higher value of Km was obtained from the core CpG island sequence than the TATA box sequence. This suggests a greater binding effect of APE1 enzyme on TATA sequence that signifies a prominent role of the sequence context of the DNA substrate. Evidently, a faster response from APE1 was obtained for clustered abasic damage repair of TATA box core sequences than CpG island consensus sequences. The neighboring bases of the abasic sites in the complementary DNA strand were found to have significant contribution in addition to the flanking bases in modulating APE1 activity. The repair refractivity of the bistranded clustered abasic sites arise from the slow processing of the second abasic site, consequently resulting in decreased overall production of potentially lethal double strand breaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preference of rabbit does among different nest materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Farkas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest quality is important for the survival of new-born rabbits. Nesting material in rabbit farms generally consists of wood shavings, which is completely different from the dry grass used by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The aim of the experiments was to examine which nest materials are preferred by rabbit does when building their nest. In experiment 1, the choice of multiparous rabbit does (n=37 among nest boxes bedded with different nesting materials was monitored. In each pen (1.0×1.83 m 1 doe and 4 nest boxes (0.37×0.23×0.31 m with different nest materials (meadow hay [H], wheat straw [S], fine fibre material [Lignocel®, L] or wood shavings [W] were placed 3 days before the expected parturition (gestation length is about 31 d in the Pannon White breed. Some 48.6% of the does kindled in nest boxes that contained pure materials (L: 40.5%, S: 5.4%, H: 2.7%, and 51.3% of the does kindled in nest boxes where the nest materials of different nest boxes were mixed by the does (S with L: 21.5%, S with L and H: 5.4%, W with L: 8.1%, L with H and S: 5.4%. Does preferred kindling in the nest box bedded with L, and most of them refused the nest box with W. In experiment 2/a (n=32 does and 2/b (n=25 does, each pen (1×0.91 m was equipped with 3 and 2 hay racks and filled with H, S or L, and H or S, respectively. The experiments lasted from the 27th day of pregnancy until the day of parturition and 24-h video recordings (10 does/experiment were evaluated throughout the experiment. The events of carrying the nest materials from the hay racks were registered. In experiment 2/a, the frequency of nest material carrying was highest on the day of parturition. The preferred nest material was L (compared to H and S on each experimental day except day 30 of pregnancy. At the day of kindling, 87.5, 6.3 and 6.3% of the nests contained pure L, mixed L-H and L-S, respectively. In experiment 2/b, the frequency of nest material carrying (mostly S

  6. How much can the number of jabiru stork (Ciconiidae) nests vary due to change of flood extension in a large Neotropical floodplain?

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão,Guilherme; Tomas,Walfrido; Campos,Zilca

    2010-01-01

    The jabiru stork, Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819), a large, long-legged wading bird occurring in lowland wetlands from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is considered endangered in a large portion of its distribution range. We conducted aerial surveys to estimate the number of jabiru active nests in the Brazilian Pantanal (140,000 km²) in September of 1991-1993, 1998, 2000-2002, and 2004. Corrected densities of active nests were regressed against the annual hydrologic index (AHI), a...

  7. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  8. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings.We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots.This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  9. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Dall'Acqua Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57% and 18/107 (17% animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1% and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27. The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.

  10. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Selene Dall'Acqua; Burke, Julieta Catarina; de Paula, Catia Dejuste; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-06-01

    Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.

  11. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Selene Dall'Acqua; Burke, Julieta Catarina; de Paula, Catia Dejuste; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations. PMID:26273273

  12. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  13. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Anders P.; Adriaensen Frank; Artemyev Alexandr; Banbura Jerzy; Barba Emilio; Biard Clotilde; Blondel Jacques; Bouslama Zihad; Bouvier Jean-Charles; Camprodon Jordi; Cecere Francesco; Charmantier Anne; Charter Motti; Cichon Mariusz; Cusimano Camillo

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited...

  14. Oak tree selection by nesting turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Giusti; R.J. Keiffer; Shane Feirer; R.F. Keiffer

    2015-01-01

    Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) are a ubiquitous component of California’s oak woodland faunal assemblage. Though obvious, they are one of the least studied vertebrates found in our hardwood forests. This study attempts to define the role of oak trees as nesting sites for this large avian species. Verified nest trees are evaluated to determine...

  15. Observations of nesting avifauna under gamma-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An opportunity arose to observe the nesting success of birds (up to the time of fledging) when the Enterprise Forest Radiation Facility was established for a study of the effects of gamma radiation on the flora and fauna of northern forest communities. The results of these observations on the fate of the nest occupants in relation to radiation exposure are presented

  16. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  17. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  18. A helping hand: artificial nest site provisioning increases breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common white terns Gygis alba lay a single egg balanced on rocks or branches and consequently are at risk of low nesting success. A novel technique of hollowing out coconut husks and providing artificial nest sites was developed on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Our study aimed to critically assess whether common white ...

  19. Usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report an instance of usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by a pair of African Wattled Lapwings Vanellus senegalensis. The nest, which originally contained a single Crowned Lapwing egg, eventually contained an additional three Wattled Lapwing eggs, before it was predated. Although parents of ...

  20. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  1. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  2. The nest architecture of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of the subterranean nests of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, was studied through excavation and casting. Nests are composed of two basic units: descending shafts and horizontal chambers. Shafts form helices with diameters of 4 to 6 cm, and descend at an angle of about 15-20° near the surface, increasing to about 70° below about 50 cm in depth. Superficial chambers (< 15 cm deep appear to be modified shafts with low angles of descent, and are distinct from deeper chambers. In larger nests, they have a looping, connected morphology. Chambers begin on the outside of the helix as horizontal-floored, circular indentations, becoming multi-lobed as they are enlarged. Chamber height is about 1 cm, and does not change with area. Chamber area is greatest in the upper reaches of the nest, and decreases with depth. Vertical spacing between chambers is least in the upper reaches and increases to a maximum at about 70 to 80% of the maximum depth of the nest. The distribution of chamber area is top-heavy, with about half the total area occurring in the top quarter of the nest. Each 10% depth increment of the nest contains 25 to 40% less area than the decile above it, no matter what the size of the nest.

  3. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  4. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  5. Hurricane disturbance benefits nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.; Schulte, Shiloh A.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activity, introduced species, sea level rise, and storm activity. Hurricanes are a powerful destructive force, but can also renew coastal habitats. In 2003, Hurricane Isabel altered the barrier islands of North Carolina, flattening dunes and creating sand flats. American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) are large shorebirds that inhabit the coastal zone throughout the year. Alternative survival models were evaluated for 699 American Oystercatcher nests on North Core Banks and South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, from 1999–2007. Nest survival on North Core Banks increased from 0.170 (SE = 0.002) to 0.772 (SE = 0.090) after the hurricane, with a carry-over effect lasting 2 years. A simple year effects model described nest survival on South Core Banks. Habitat had no effect on survival except when the overall rate of nest survival was at intermediate levels (0.300–0.600), when nests on open flats survived at a higher rate (0.600; SE = 0.112) than nests in dune habitat (0.243; SE = 0.094). Predator activity declined on North Core Banks after the hurricane and corresponded with an increase in nest survival. Periodic years with elevated nest survival may offset low annual productivity and contribute to the stability of American Oystercatcher populations.

  6. Development of camera technology for monitoring nests. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; M. Shane Pruett; Thomas J. Benson; Scott J. Chiavacci; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Photo and video technology has become increasingly useful in the study of avian nesting ecology. However, researchers interested in using camera systems are often faced with insufficient information on the types and relative advantages of available technologies. We reviewed the literature for studies of nests that used cameras and summarized them based on study...

  7. Predator identity can explain nest predation patterns. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of dominant predators is necessary to identify predation patterns and mitigate losses to nest predation, especially for endangered songbirds. We monitored songbird nests with timelapse infrared video cameras at Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas, from 1997 to 2002 and 2005, and in Austin, Texas, during 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009. Predation was the most...

  8. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  9. Preference of nesting material by village weaver birds ( Ploceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangifera indica is the most preferred nest – building support in Abuja campus, Casuarina equisetifolia in Choba campus and Terminalia mantaly at Delta campus. Some plant species such as Azadirachta indica (50%) and Terminalia catappa (24.07%) were neither used for nest building nor support by Ploceus Cucullatus ...

  10. Geographic variation in avian clutch size and nest predation risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographic variation in avian clutch size is thought to be related to the variation in nest predation rate and food availability. We studied predation on artificial ground nests along a large-scale geographic gradient in South Africa characterised by increasing productivity from the deserts in the west to humid savannas in the ...

  11. Faster comparison of stopping times by nested conditional Monte Carlo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickmann, Fabian; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    We show that deliberately introducing a nested simulation stage can lead to significant variance reductions when comparing two stopping times by Monte Carlo. We derive the optimal number of nested simulations and prove that the algorithm is remarkably robust to misspecifications of this number. The

  12. nest-building behaviour in aethomys chrysophilus, praomys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mice tested were mature animals. Pregnant or lactating females were excluded from the experi- mental groups. Two types of test were employed. One involved the amount of cotton removed per twenty- four hours from a container and the type of nest constructed. The other concerned preference for certain nesting materials.

  13. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  14. Use of a fiberscope for examining cavity nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    1997-01-01

    A system is described that uses a fiberscope to view nests in cavities to provide detailed information on eggs and nestlings. The flexible probe can be inserted around bends, and the tip articulates to allow viewing of the entire cavity and nest. A light guide bundle furnishes light to enable viewing of dark cavities and optical fibers transmit the impage from the lens...

  15. Adapting the Adapted: The Black Rapist Myth in E.R. Burroughs’ Tarzan of the Apes and Its Film Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Oklopčić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether in art or science, adaptation does not refer to something original but to a mutated and permutated version of a pre-existing original. In literature, adaptation occurs first when real-life stories are adapted into fiction; these fictions then often undergo a second technological adaptation as literary works are adapted into theatrical productions for stage or film. This paper explores one such doubled adaptation; it examines how the black rapist myth, which grew out of the social and cultural realities of the Jim Crow South, was transformed in E.R. Burroughs’ portrayal of Terkoz in the popular adventure novel, Tarzan of the Apes (1914, and then how this fiction was adapted into multiple and varied films between 1918 and 2016.

  16. Orosomucoid typing of apes (family Pongidae) by isoelectric focusing: Among primates do only humans have two functional orosomucoid loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, I. (Tottori University School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Umetsu, K. (Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan)); Udono, T.; Sasaoka, S. (Primate Center, Misumi (Japan)); Suzuki, R.; Shotake, T.; Kawamoto, Y.; Takenaka, O.; Nozawa, K. (Kyoto University, Inuyama (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that human orosomucoid (ORM) is controlled by more than one functional loci, while Macaca ORM is controlled by one locus. To examine the time when the ORM gene was duplicated in the evolution of primates, plasma samples from 118 apes (family Pongidae) belonging to 4 genera and 12 species were investigated for ORM polymorphism using isoelectric focusing followed by immunoprinting. The band patterns of ORM in the subfamily Ponginae showed quantitatively different products as in humans. A pedigree study of common chimpanzees supported the two-locus model for ORM. Gibbons (subfamily Hylobatinae) displayed highly variable band patterns, but the number of loci was not determined unequivocally. Thus, this study shows that duplication of the ORM gene in primates occurred either before or after the divergence of hylobatinae and Ponginae, consistent with a previous prediction from the molecular evolutionary rate of ORM.

  17. Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Serrano

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of

  18. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus.Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages.Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  20. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  1. Nocturnal behavior by a diurnal ape, the West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), in a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jill D

    2018-02-08

    I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization. I scored their activity as occurring after moonrise or before moonset and considered the influence of moon phase (fuller versus darker phases) as well as season on chimpanzee nocturnal behavior in the analyses. Results indicate that apes were more active after moonrise or before moonset during fuller moon phases in the dry season but not the wet season. Most night-time activity involved movement (travel or forage), followed by social behavior, and long-distance vocal communication. Animals in highly seasonal habitats often exhibit thermoregulatory adaptations but, like other primates, chimpanzees lack physiological mechanisms to combat thermal stress. This study provides evidence that they may exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid high temperatures in a savanna environment, such as feeding and socializing at night during the hottest time of year and in the brightest moon phases. The results support theories invoking thermal stress as a selective pressure for hominins in open environments where heat would constrain temporal foraging niches, and suggest an adaptability of sleeping patterns in response to external factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  3. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Leghorn hens housed in furnished cages. Welfare indicators were measured between 61 and 70 wk of age in birds excluded from their nests for 5 consecutive d and control birds that had continuous access to nests. Baseline recordings were carried out in both groups prior to and post exclusion period....... The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed...... that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest...

  4. Learning Recursion: Multiple Nested and Crossed Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinou de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Language acquisition in both natural and artificial language learning settings crucially depends on extracting information from ordered sequences. A shared sequence learning mechanism is thus assumed to underlie both natural and artificial language learning. A growing body of empirical evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. By means of artificial language learning experiments, we may therefore gain more insight in this shared mechanism. In this paper, we review empirical evidence from artificial language learning and computational modeling studies, as well as natural language data, and suggest that there are two key factors that help deter-mine processing complexity in sequence learning, and thus in natural language processing. We propose that the specific ordering of non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed, as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved simultaneously (i.e. two or three are important factors in gaining more insight into the boundaries of human sequence learning; and thus, also in natural language processing. The implications for theories of linguistic competence are discussed.

  5. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  6. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera:Apidae:Tetrapediini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Camillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce, Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. garofaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T.curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April. The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200, and in T. garofaloi (n=51, from 1 to 8 (n=30 in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37 in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m.and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis , T. rugulosa and T. garofaloi did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis, 1:1; T. rugulosa , 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1; T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other

  8. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  9. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  10. Interspecific interactions in solitary Aculeata - is the presence of heterospecifics important for females establishing nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, J; Miler, K; Celary, W; Woyciechowski, M

    2018-02-01

    There are several possible causes of aggregated nesting in solitary Aculeata, one being joint defense against parasites. We tested whether females prefer nesting in aggregations, even if they consist of heterospecifics. We compared the colonization and nesting parasitism of trap-nests with and without a red mason bee aggregation. The results did not support our hypothesis that females prefer nesting in aggregations. The numbers of wild Aculeata nests did not differ between trap-nests with and without an aggregation. Unexpectedly, parasitism rates were higher in trap-nests with aggregations. When analyzing only nests of wild insects (mostly wasps), the differences in parasitism disappeared. Natural nesting sites may be such a limited resource that females nested in the first trap-nest they encountered and did not discriminate between our treatments, or wasps might share too few parasites species with bees to benefit from joint nest defense.

  11. Does removal of mammalian predators significantly affect success of simulated nests in linear habitats? Case study on American mink Mustela vison \\& Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and habitat type

    OpenAIRE

    PADYŠÁKOVÁ, Eliška

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is made up of two studies dealing with predation of waterfowl nests. in the first study, we determined wheather removal of introduced predator Mustela vison affected nest survival of simulated duck nests in linear habitat. In the second study, we tested two hypothesis: 1)predation depends on density of waterfowl nests, 2)mammals are main predators in forest habitat and birds mainly depredate nests deployed in open land.

  12. APE1 modulates cellular responses to organophosphate pesticide-induced oxidative damage in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Shweta; Dhiman, Monisha; Mantha, Anil K

    2018-04-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) and chlorpyrifos (CP) are widely used organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), speculated to be linked with human pathologies including cancer. Owing to the fact that lung cells are most vulnerable to the environmental toxins, the development and progression of lung cancer can be caused by the exposure of OPPs. The present study investigates the oxidative DNA damage response evoked by MCP and CP in human non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. A549 cells were exposed to MCP and CP; cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured to select the non-toxic dose. In order to establish whether MCP and CP can initiate the DNA repair and cell survival signalling pathways in A549 cells, qRT-PCR and Western blotting techniques were used to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of DNA base excision repair (BER)-pathway enzymes and transcription factors (TFs) involved in cell survival mechanisms. A significant increase in cell viability and ROS generation was observed when exposed to low and moderate doses of MCP and CP at different time points (24, 48 and 72 h) studied. A549 cells displayed a dose-dependent accumulation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after 24 h exposure to MCP advocating for the activation of AP endonuclease-mediated DNA BER-pathway. Cellular responses to MCP- and CP-induced oxidative stress resulted in an imbalance in the mRNA and protein expression of BER-pathway enzymes, viz. PARP1, OGG1, APE1, XRCC1, DNA pol β and DNA ligase III α at different time points. The treatment of OPPs resulted in the upregulation of TFs, viz. Nrf2, c-jun, phospho-c-jun and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Immunofluorescent confocal imaging of A549 cells indicated that MCP and CP induces the translocation of APE1 within the cytoplasm at an early 6 h time point, whereas it promotes nuclear localization after 24 h of treatment, which suggests that APE1 subcellular distribution is dynamically regulated in response to

  13. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7-22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2-4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6-25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily grazed

  14. Habitat patch size and nesting success of yellow-breasted chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick E. Burhans; Frank R. Thompson III

    1999-01-01

    We measured vegetation at shrub patches used for nesting by Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) to evaluate the importance of nesting habitat patch features on nest predation, cowbird parasitism, and nest site selection. Logistic regression models indicated that nests in small patches (average diameter

  15. The nest predator assemblage for songbirds in Mono Lake basin riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard

    2012-01-01

    Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at...

  16. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  17. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  18. An object-oriented approach to nested data parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation technique for integrating nested data parallelism into an object-oriented language. Data-parallel programming employs sets of data called 'collections' and expresses parallelism as operations performed over the elements of a collection. When the elements of a collection are also collections, then there is the possibility for 'nested data parallelism.' Few current programming languages support nested data parallelism however. In an object-oriented framework, a collection is a single object. Its type defines the parallel operations that may be applied to it. Our goal is to design and build an object-oriented data-parallel programming environment supporting nested data parallelism. Our initial approach is built upon three fundamental additions to C++. We add new parallel base types by implementing them as classes, and add a new parallel collection type called a 'vector' that is implemented as a template. Only one new language feature is introduced: the 'foreach' construct, which is the basis for exploiting elementwise parallelism over collections. The strength of the method lies in the compilation strategy, which translates nested data-parallel C++ into ordinary C++. Extracting the potential parallelism in nested 'foreach' constructs is called 'flattening' nested parallelism. We show how to flatten 'foreach' constructs using a simple program transformation. Our prototype system produces vector code which has been successfully run on workstations, a CM-2, and a CM-5.

  19. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  20. How much can the number of jabiru stork (Ciconiidae nests vary due to change of flood extension in a large Neotropical floodplain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mourão

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The jabiru stork, Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819, a large, long-legged wading bird occurring in lowland wetlands from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is considered endangered in a large portion of its distribution range. We conducted aerial surveys to estimate the number of jabiru active nests in the Brazilian Pantanal (140,000 km² in September of 1991-1993, 1998, 2000-2002, and 2004. Corrected densities of active nests were regressed against the annual hydrologic index (AHI, an index of flood extension in the Pantanal based on the water level of the Paraguay River. Annual nest density was a non-linear function of the AHI, modeled by the equation 6.5 · 10-8 · AHI1.99 (corrected r² = 0.72, n = 7. We applied this model to the AHI between 1900 and 2004. The results indicate that the number of jabiru nests may have varied from about 220 in 1971 to more than 23,000 in the nesting season of 1921, and the estimates for our study period (1991 to 2004 averaged about 12,400 nests. Our model indicates that the inter-annual variations in flooding extent can determine dramatic changes in the number of active jabiru nests. Since the jabiru stork responds negatively to drier conditions in the Pantanal, direct human-induced changes in the hydrological patterns, as well as the effects of global climate change, may strongly jeopardize the population in the region.

  1. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  2. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group....... We discriminated between stillborn and live-born kits dying early using autopsy. The access to more than one resource (RES-3) of nest building material had a profound effect on kit mortality in the firs week of life compared to access to straw only (χ²(1) = 13.7, P

  3. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  4. Behavior at a nest of Amazilia lactea (Aves, Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshika Oniki

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832 built a nest in São Paulo, Brazil, in the spring (Oct and added lichens during incubation. The female incubated over 70 per cent of the day, 1-56 min per visit, and brooded two small young somewhat less; brooding stopped by about 10 days of age, as did night brooding. Lack of night brooding for large young hummingbirds may reflect lack of space in a small nest. Young stayed in the nest 19 days. Feedings were widely spaced, and presence of possible predators caused alarm.

  5. Solid-phase nested deletion: a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohda, M; Kato, N; Endo, I

    1995-08-31

    We have developed a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions which we have termed Solid-Phase Nested Deletion. The basic procedure for this method is as follows. The target DNA fragment is cloned in the multiple cloning site of a cloning vector, pUC or its derivatives, and amplified by PCR using a set of primers, one of which is 5'-biotinylated. The amplified DNA is partially digested by a restriction enzyme with a 4-base recognition sequence. The digested DNA is ligated with a synthetic adapter DNA. Monodiverse beads coupled with streptavidin (Dynabeads M-280 streptavidin) are added to the mixture and the biotinylated DNA fragments are separated by applying magnetic field. The unidirectionally deleted DNA fragments are recovered by PCR from the magnetic beads, and size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments are amplified by PCR and used for sequencing. We demonstrate the potential of this method using a 4878-bp EcoRI fragment of lambda phage DNA.

  6. An Improved Adaptive Received Beamforming for Nested Frequency Offset and Nested Array FDA-MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibei Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the conventional FDA-MIMO (frequency diversity array multiple-input-multiple-output Radar with uniform frequency offset and uniform linear array, the DOFs (degrees of freedom of the adaptive beamformer are limited by the number of elements. A better performance—for example, a better suppression for strong interferences and a more desirable trade-off between the main lobe and side lobe—can be achieved with a greater number of DOFs. In order to obtain larger DOFs, this paper researches the signal model of the FDA-MIMO Radar with nested frequency offset and nested array, then proposes an improved adaptive beamforming method that uses the augmented matrix instead of the covariance matrix to calculate the optimum weight vectors and can be used to improve the output performances of FDA-MIMO Radar with the same element number or reduce the element number while maintain the approximate output performances such as the received beampattern, the main lobe width, side lobe depths and the output SINR (signal-to-interference-noise ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulations.

  7. Why don't we ask? A complementary method for assessing the status of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Species conservation is difficult. Threats to species are typically high and immediate. Effective solutions for counteracting these threats, however, require synthesis of high quality evidence, appropriately targeted activities, typically costly implementation, and rapid re-evaluation and adaptation. Conservation management can be ineffective if there is insufficient understanding of the complex ecological, political, socio-cultural, and economic factors that underlie conservation threats. When information about these factors is incomplete, conservation managers may be unaware of the most urgent threats or unable to envision all consequences of potential management strategies. Conservation research aims to address the gap between what is known and what knowledge is needed for effective conservation. Such research, however, generally addresses a subset of the factors that underlie conservation threats, producing a limited, simplistic, and often biased view of complex, real world situations. A combination of approaches is required to provide the complete picture necessary to engage in effective conservation. Orangutan conservation (Pongo spp. offers an example: standard conservation assessments employ survey methods that focus on ecological variables, but do not usually address the socio-cultural factors that underlie threats. Here, we evaluate a complementary survey method based on interviews of nearly 7,000 people in 687 villages in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We address areas of potential methodological weakness in such surveys, including sampling and questionnaire design, respondent biases, statistical analyses, and sensitivity of resultant inferences. We show that interview-based surveys can provide cost-effective and statistically robust methods to better understand poorly known populations of species that are relatively easily identified by local people. Such surveys provide reasonably reliable estimates of relative presence and relative

  8. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D González

    Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  9. Ascomycete diversity in soil-feeding termite nests and soils from a tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Brygoo, Yves; Harry, Myriam

    2004-05-01

    Molecular microbial ecology has revealed remarkable biodiversity - prokaryotic and eukaryotic - in numerous soil environments. However, no culture-independent surveys of the termitosphere exists, although termites dominate tropical rainforests. Here, we focused on soil feeders, building nests with their soil-born faeces, enriched with clay-organic complexes, thus contributing to the improvement of soil fertility. In order to assess the fungal community composition of these termitaries compared with soils not foraged by termites, samples of the two types were collected in the Lopé rainforest, Gabon, and processed for generation of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries. Although primers were universal, most of the recovered sequences represented Ascomycete that were previously uncharacterized and the proportions of which reached 72.5% in soils and 80% in termitaries. Their affiliation with identified fungi was analysed in performing a phylogenetic tree based on 5.8S rDNA. Furthermore, the ascomycete communities of soil-feeding termitaries and soils shared only 6.3% of sequences. This discrepancy of composition between soil and nest may result from the building behaviour of termites, as the organic matter in the nest is chemically modified, and some vacant ecological microniches are available for more specialized fungi.

  10. Nest liquid resources of several cavity nesting bees in the genus Centris and the identification of a preservative, levulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, S Bradleigh; Frankie, Gordon W; Williams, H J

    2006-09-01

    Twig-nesting species of bees in the genus Centris including C. bicornuta, C. analis, C. vittata, and C. nitida, found in the dry forest of Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica, provision their nests with pollen and nectar, rather than pollen and oil as reported for other Centris species. The liquid contents of the nests of these four species were found to contain sugars including 66-75% fructose, 25-33% glucose, and a trace of sucrose. The sugar concentration averaged 47.2%, slightly higher than most flower nectars. No tri-, di-, or monoglycerides, the main components of the flower oil of Byrsonima crassifolia, were detected in the nest provisions. Although these four Centris species are also known to collect oil from B. crassifolia, the oil appears to be used for activities other than nest provisioning. The liquid nest contents did have a slight goat-like odor, suggesting the presence of short-chain fatty acids, and were found to contain a small amount (less than 1%) of three fatty acids. Two of these, butanoic and octanoic acid, were found in trace amounts and are responsible for the goat-like odor. A third was identified as levulinic acid, which made up about 99% of the nest fatty acid contents. This fatty acid had little odor, but may be important as a fungicidal agent. Attempts to determine the source of the fatty acids, were not successful.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarchi, A.A.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  12. Variables associated with nest survival of Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) among vegetation communities commonly used for nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinger, Kyle R.; Terhune, Theron M.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Confer,  John L.; Flaspohler, David J.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Loegering, John P.; Percy, Katie L.; Roth, Amber M.; Smalling, Curtis G.

    2015-01-01

    Among shrubland- and young forest-nesting bird species in North America, Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) are one of the most rapidly declining partly because of limited nesting habitat. Creation and management of high quality vegetation communities used for nesting are needed to reduce declines. Thus, we examined whether common characteristics could be managed across much of the Golden-winged Warbler’s breeding range to increase daily survival rate (DSR) of nests. We monitored 388 nests on 62 sites throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and West Virginia. We evaluated competing DSR models in spatial-temporal (dominant vegetation type, population segment, state, and year), intraseasonal (nest stage and time-within-season), and vegetation model suites. The best-supported DSR models among the three model suites suggested potential associations between daily survival rate of nests and state, time-within-season, percent grass and Rubus cover within 1 m of the nest, and distance to later successional forest edge. Overall, grass cover (negative association with DSR above 50%) and Rubus cover (DSR lowest at about 30%) within 1 m of the nest and distance to later successional forest edge (negative association with DSR) may represent common management targets across our states for increasing Golden-winged Warbler DSR, particularly in the Appalachian Mountains population segment. Context-specific adjustments to management strategies, such as in wetlands or areas of overlap with Blue-winged Warblers (Vermivora cyanoptera), may be necessary to increase DSR for Golden-winged Warblers.

  13. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is a prognostic factor in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal and pancreatico-biliary cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attar, A; Gossage, L; Fareed, K R; Shehata, M; Mohammed, M; Zaitoun, A M; Soomro, I; Lobo, D N; Abbotts, R; Chan, S; Madhusudan, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Altered DNA repair may be associated with aggressive tumour biology and impact upon response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated whether expression of human AP endonuclease (APE1), a key multifunctional protein involved in DNA BER, would impact on clinicopathological outcomes in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary cancer. Methods: Formalin-fixed human ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary cancers were constructed into TMAs. Expression ...

  14. Effect of Slave Raiding of Polyergus samurai on Nest Persistency of Its Host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of slave raiding of Polyergus samurai on nest persistency of its host, Formica (Serviformica) japonica was investigated. Nest persistence rate after the raiding season was not different between raided and unraided nests. Many raided nests stopped aboveground activities for 2-3 weeks after a raiding but surviving workers maintained underground nest structure. These observations suggest that it is required to reconsider the previous interpretation that the raided nests died out from ...

  15. Nest characteristics of Yellow-billed Kites Milvus aegyptius in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow-billed Kite nests averaged 9.6 m (SD = 2.4; range 4–14.8 m; n = 64 nests) above ground level and 64% (41 of 64 nests) were in tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica). Nest trees mean DBH was 63.9 cm (SD = 28.1, range 25–200 cm; n = 64 nests). Keywords: Manambolomaty Lakes Complex, Milvus aegyptius, nest ...

  16. Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jiji Sun; Siyu Wang; Yanping Wang; Deyu Shao; Ping Ding

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk, we placed 726 artificial ground nests with chicken or quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs on 16 islands in edge and interiorlocations in Thousand Island Lake from April to August 2010. We compared nest predation rates between nests with different egg types and between the nests located at different distances from the edge. We also evaluated the relationships between nest predation and island area, isolation, shape in...

  17. Exact Analysis of the Cache Behavior of Nested Loops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Parker, Erin; Hanlon, Philip J; Lebeck, Alvin R

    2001-01-01

    The authors develop from first principles an exact model of the behavior of loop nests executing in a memory hierarchy by using a nontraditional classification of misses that has the key property of composability...

  18. Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nesting raptor and raven populations resident in the mountains of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. We also assess the conservation value of these populations to inform the future management of the newly-established Table Mountain National ...

  19. Efficient use of iterative solvers in nested topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Stolpe, Mathias; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, it is suggested to reduce this computational cost by using an approximation to the solution of the nested problem, generated...... by a Krylov subspace iterative solver. By choosing convergence criteria for the iterative solver that are strongly related to the optimization objective and to the design sensitivities, it is possible to terminate the iterative solution of the nested equations earlier compared to traditional convergence...... measures. The approximation is shown to be sufficiently accurate for the practical purpose of optimization even though the nested equation system is not solved accurately. The approach is tested on several medium-scale topology optimization problems, including three dimensional minimum compliance problems...

  20. Behavior of greedy sparse representation algorithms on nested supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We study the links between recovery properties of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and the whole General MP class for sparse signals with nested supports, i.e., supports that share an inclusion relationship. In particular, we show that the support recovery optimality of those algorithms is not l......We study the links between recovery properties of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and the whole General MP class for sparse signals with nested supports, i.e., supports that share an inclusion relationship. In particular, we show that the support recovery optimality of those algorithms...... is not locally nested: there is a dictionary and supports Γ ⊃ Γ′ such that OMP can recover all signals with support Γ, but not all signals with support Γ′. We also show that the support recovery optimality of OMP is globally nested: if OMP can recover all s-sparse signals, then it can recover all s...

  1. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  5. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid de Carvalho Guimarães

    Full Text Available In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species.

  6. Neste in 1996: Oil integration and new Chemicals plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1997-01-01

    Neste's net sales in 1996 continued at the previous year's level. Although trading losses weakened the Group's performance, the debt burden decreased substantially and there was a fundamental improvement in the equity-to-assets ratio. Neste's integrated downstream oil business began operations, oil production in Norway and Oman increased, and Chemicals commissioned several production units. In addition, a number of interesting oil and natural gas pipeline projects were moving forward. (orig.)

  7. The nested-doorway model of multistep compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    The multistep compound contribution to preequilibrium reaction are discussed within the nested-doorway model. Emphasis is placed on the generalized cross-section auto-correlation function. Several of the more widely used concepts in the conventional, one-class, statistical analysis are discussed and generalized to the multiclass case. A summary of the formal results of the nested-doorway model, obtained within Feshbach's projection operator theory is given. (Author) [pt

  8. The complex nest architecture of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Márlon César; Batista, Nathan Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Candida Anitta Pereira; Antonialli, William Fernando

    2018-01-01

    In social insects, nests are very important structures built to provide a protected microhabitat for immature development and food storage and are the places where most interactions between all members of a colony occur. Considering that nest architecture is an important behavioural trait that can clarify essential points of the social level of the species, here we describe the architectural model of the Ponerinae ant Odontomachus chelifer. Five subterranean nests were excavated; one of them filled with liquid cement for extraction of casts of chambers, shafts and tunnels. All nests were found in a woodland area, with Dystrophic Red Latosol soil, associated with roots of large trees and, differently from the pattern currently described for this subfamily, presented a complex structure with multiple entrances and more than one vertical shaft connected by tunnels to relatively horizontal chambers. The number of chambers varied from 24 to 77, with mean volume ranging from 200.09 cm3 to 363.79 cm3, and maximum depth of 134 cm. Worker population varied between 304 and 864 individuals with on average 8.28 cm2 of area per worker. All nests had at least one Hall, which is a relatively larger chamber serving as a distribution centre of the nest, and to our knowledge, there is no record of Ponerinae species building similar structure. All nests had chambers "paved" with pieces of decaying plant material and on the floor of some of them, we found a fungus whose identification and function are being investigated. Thus, our findings provide evidence to suggest that nests of O. chelifer can be considered complex, due to the great number and organization of chambers, shafts and connections, compared to those currently described for Ponerinae species. PMID:29298335

  9. Social media usage among rally fans : Case: Neste Rally Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Linnaluoma, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the social media usage of rally fans to optimize social media communication. The thesis was assigned by AKK Sports Ltd, which operates as the marketing company of Neste Rally Finland event. The research was conducted by using quantitative research method, which purpose was to clarify the target group's social media usage in general and also around the context of Neste Rally Finland. The research data was gathered with an electronic questionnai...

  10. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  11. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  12. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plastic and the nest entanglement of urban and agricultural crows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the impacts of plastics and other debris on marine organisms, but the effects of plastic on terrestrial organisms have been largely ignored. Detrimental effects of terrestrial plastic could be most pronounced in intensively human-modified landscapes (e.g., urban and agricultural areas, which are a source of much anthropogenic debris. Here, we examine the occurrence, types, landscape associations, and consequences of anthropogenic nest material in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, a North American species that breeds in both urban and agricultural landscapes. We monitored 195 nestlings in 106 nests across an urban and agricultural gradient in the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. We found that 85.2% of crow nests contained anthropogenic material, and 11 of 195 nestlings (5.6% were entangled in their nests. The length of the material was greater in nests in agricultural territories than in urban territories, and the odds of entanglement increased 7.55 times for each meter of anthropogenic material in the nest. Fledging success was significantly lower for entangled than for unentangled nestlings. In all environments, particularly urban, agricultural, and marine, careful disposal of potential hazards (string, packing and hay bale twine, balloon ribbon, wire, fishing line could reduce the occurrence of entanglement of nestling birds.

  14. Nesting biology of Centris (Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo. Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.

  15. Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Ninhos do esquilo brasileiro Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele A. Alvarenga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. In this study, a survey was made of the distribution of S. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the Serra do Caraça Reserve, in state of Minas Gerais, where there is a high concentration of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. The nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.Não existe na literatura a descrição de ninhos de Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901. Neste estudo, foi examinada a distribuição espacial de ninhos desta espécie, localizados em área de vegetação de crescimento secundário, próxima a área construída da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, onde há grande concentração da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman, entre outras espécies exóticas de árvores. O comportamento de construção e as características dos ninhos, tais como, altura em relação ao solo, circunferência total, diâmetro da entrada e a posição dos ninhos na árvore foram descritos.

  16. Effectiveness of nest site restoration for the endangered northern map turtle : report 2 : use of artificial nesting sites and wildlife exclusion fence to enhance nesting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Map Turtle, Graptemys geographica, is a Maryland state endangered species, found only in the lower Susquehanna River in Maryland. The only area where nests of this species are not heavily impacted by predators occurs in the town of Port ...

  17. Killing Effect of Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA Recombinant Adenovirus in Combination with Hematoporphrphyrin Derivative-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy on Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to investigate the killing effects and molecular mechanism of photodynamic therapy (PDT mediated by the Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA recombinant adenovirus in combination with a hematoporphrphyrin derivative (HpD in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro to provide a theoretical reference for treating lung cancer by HpD-PDT. By using the technologies of MTT, flow cytometry, ELISA, and western blot, we observed that the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of the A549 cells were significantly higher than the control group ( after HpD-PDT was performed. The inhibitory efficiency is dependent on the HpD concentration and laser intensity dose. The inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells of Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA is more significant after combining with PDT, as indicated by a significant elevation of the intracellular ROS level and the expression of inflammatory factors (. The HpD-PDT-induced expression of the APE1 protein reached the peak after 24 h in A549 cells. The inhibition of APE1 expression in A549 cells was most significant after 48 hours of infection by Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA recombinant adenovirus (10 MOI. In conclusion, the Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA recombinant adenovirus could efficiently inhibit the HpD-PDT-induced APE1 expression hence could significantly enhance the killing effect of HpD-PDT in lung cancer cells.

  18. Striped-tailed Yellow-finch nesting success in abandoned mining pits from central Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DT. Gressler

    Full Text Available Suitability of degraded areas as breeding habitats can be tested through assessment of nest predation rates. In this study we estimated nest success in relation to several potential predictors of nest survival in the Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina breeding in abandoned mining pits at Brasília National Park. We monitored 73 nests during the 2007-breeding season. Predation was the main cause of nest failure (n = 48, 66%; while six nests were abandoned (8% and 19 nests produced young (26%. Mayfield’s daily survival rates and nest success were 0.94 and 23%, respectively. Our results from nest survival models on program MARK indicated that daily survival rates increase linearly towards the end of the breeding season and decrease as nests aged. None of the nest individual covariates we tested - nest height, nest size, nest substrate, and edge effect - were important predictors of nest survival; however, nests placed on the most common plant tended to have higher survival probabilities. Also, there was no observer effect on daily survival rates. Our study suggests that abandoned mining pits may be suitable alternative breeding habitats for Striped-tailed Yellow-finches since nest survival rates were similar to other studies in the central cerrado region.

  19. Rethinking incisor size and diet in anthropoids: diet, incisor wear and incisor breadth in the African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Melanie A

    2007-07-01

    In a seminal study Hylander (1975) concluded that the length of the incisor row in catarrhines considered frugivores is longer relative to body mass than in those classified as folivores. Assuming that large fruits require greater incisal processing than do leaves, stems, berries, and seeds, he argued that the larger incisors of frugivores increased their resistance to wear. The present analysis examines diet, incisor wear, and incisor crown breadth in cranial samples of western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees. Incisor wear rate was assessed on the basis of the extent of incisor crown reduction observed at sequential stages of first molar wear. Incisor metrics were obtained from the unworn teeth of juveniles. Results suggest that incisor wear is greater in the more folivorous western lowland gorillas than in more frugivorous chimpanzees. Moreover, incisor crown dimensions do not differ appreciably among African apes. These findings fail to support the hypothesis that slower wear rates are associated with broader incisor crowns, and raise new questions regarding the significance of incisor row length in anthropoids. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The ethics of killing human/great-ape chimeras for their organs: a reply to Shaw et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically examine David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, and Guido de Wert's arguments in favour of the procurement of human organs from human/nonhuman-primate chimeras, specifically from great-ape/human chimeras. My main claim is that their arguments fail and are in need of substantial revision. To prove this I first introduce the topic, and then reconstruct Shaw et al.'s position and arguments. Next, I show that Shaw et al.: (1) failed to properly apply the subsidiarity and proportionality principles; (2) neglected species overlapping cases in their ethical assessment; (3) ignored the ethics literature on borderline persons; and (4) misunderstood McMahan's two-tiered moral theory. These mistakes render an important part of their conclusions either false or problematic to the point that they would no longer endorse them. Finally I will briefly mention a possible multipolar solution to the human organ shortage problem that would reduce the need for chimeras' organs.