WorldWideScience

Sample records for apartment buildings

  1. Cost optimal renovation solutions in the 1960s apartment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    Built environment makes an important contribution to restraining global climate change and improving energy efficiency. At the moment the share of repair construction is approximately 50 % from the total construction volume in Finland. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings has a significant role, because the building stock is renewed slowly. The continuous increase in renovation debt of buildings is also becoming a problem in Finland. Apartment buildings built in the 1960’s a...

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  3. Airways in Apartment Buildings as a Method of Thermal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the majority of modern apartment buildings are rather high. Altitude of such structures attains 50 meters. It is clear that for such high structures every extra meter of elevation costs a lot. For this reason, architects are trying to avoid adding attics above the last floor of the buildings. However, attic is not only an architectural element. It is an important part of the thermal control process of the entire building, especially of the apartments located on the last floor. In this article, construction of airways under the roof is suggested and discussed in detail. Airway acts as an attic, but has a significantly lower construction cost due to the lower height. Application of this technology allows providing comfortable microclimate on the living quarters in an economical way.

  4. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France); Balaras, C. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Bluyssen, P. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands); Flourentzou, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France); Jaggs, M. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Wetzel, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany); Wittchen, K. [Danish Building Reasearch Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock`s usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building`s degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  5. Distribution of heating costs in multi-story apartment buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Under current rules in the Danish Meter Order at least 40% of the total heating costs in multi-story blocks of flats should be distributed by metering the consumption in individual apartments. This fixed share is the result of a previous study that showed that 40% of the total heating costs were......, as in newer and future standard of blocks of flats. Intuitively, we would like to settle 100% of the costs attributable to space heating, by individual meters. Thereby, tenants will pay for their own consumption which encourages energy savings. This is an excellent method for electricity, gas and water...... to the outdoor climate constitutes only a small proportion of the total heating consumption. It is therefore interesting to investigate the consequences for the distribution of heating costs by differentiated indoor temperatures in both older and new multi-story apartment buildings. This paper describes...

  6. Reducing The Operating Costs Of An Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2015-09-01

    Circulation pumps are mechanical devices, which are used to create the overpressure required for the transportation of a heat-transfer medium in heating technology as well as in other related technologies. In a circulation pump the mechanical energy generated by the drive machine - an electric motor is transformed to hydraulic energy, which consists of kinetic and static energy. In the pipeline of a heating system circulation pumps represent a source of hydraulic energy (positive differential pressure), which is consumed to transport the heat-transfer medium. During the flow, the heat-transfer medium puts up resistance to the so-called passive resistors, which consist of pressure losses from friction in the pipes and pressure losses due to local resistance. In this article the authors analyze the effect of a circulation pump on the operating costs in an apartment building. Different types of circulating pumps, ranging from the most unfavorable to the optimal, were selected.

  7. Reducing The Operating Costs Of An Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takács Ján

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Circulation pumps are mechanical devices, which are used to create the overpressure required for the transportation of a heat-transfer medium in heating technology as well as in other related technologies. In a circulation pump the mechanical energy generated by the drive machine – an electric motor is transformed to hydraulic energy, which consists of kinetic and static energy. In the pipeline of a heating system circulation pumps represent a source of hydraulic energy (positive differential pressure, which is consumed to transport the heat-transfer medium. During the flow, the heat-transfer medium puts up resistance to the so-called passive resistors, which consist of pressure losses from friction in the pipes and pressure losses due to local resistance. In this article the authors analyze the effect of a circulation pump on the operating costs in an apartment building. Different types of circulating pumps, ranging from the most unfavorable to the optimal, were selected.

  8. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, D; Greķis, A; Talcis, N

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption in the DHW system. The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildings.

  9. Time dependence of 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Hareuveny, Ronen; Kandel, Shaiela; Ruppin, Raphael

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-four hour measurements of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) in apartment buildings containing transformer stations have been performed. The apartments were classified into four types, according to their location relative to the transformer room. Temporal correlation coefficients between the MF in various apartments, as well as between MF and transformer load curves, were calculated. It was found that, in addition to their high average MF, the apartments located right above the transformer room also exhibit unique temporal correlation properties.

  10. Heat Consumption Assessment of the Domestic Hot Water Systems in the Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Grasmanis, Dzintars; Talcis, Normunds; Greķis, Aldis

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of energy consumption for domestic hot water in apartment buildings in Riga, Latvia. The aggregate data contains information about 39 apartment buildings, including heat energy consumption and domestic hot water (DHW) consumption. The analysis is focused on the heat energy consumption and seasonal characteristics in the DHW system.The analysis characterizes the DHW consumption, energy consumption for DHW and energy losses in the DHW systems in apartment buildi...

  11. Analysis of theoretical and real values of heat consumption in units of the apartment building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavloková, Petra; Richter, Aleš; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on heat consumption in the apartment building and the factors affecting it. The apartment building has three entrances and four over ground floors and one underground floor. In the entire apartment building there are 24 flats, which they are identical (kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom). In flats on radiators were installed the ratio heat meters according to Act 318/2012 Coll. by the Metrology Act. The ratio heat meters are used for fair billing of the heat costs for all owners. Continuous monitoring of the actual heat consumption in the flats were collected data of the real heat consumption. The theoretical values of heat consumption were counted in software ENERGIE. The apartment building is divided into24 flats and the calculation was made for each of them. The theoretical and real heat consumption was compared.

  12. Building a new nest: the experience of women relocating to a seniors-designated apartment building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne M

    2007-12-01

    Although relocation has been a subject of research for the last 30 years, few studies have described the experience of relocating to congregated housing for the elderly. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to describe women's experiences of relocating to an apartment building for seniors and the factors that influence relocation. The 11 women interviewed identified the central issue in relocation as re-establishing the self: the physical and psychosocial changes entailed in constructing a supportive and aesthetically pleasing living space while maintaining a sense of well-being. The basic social process that emerged was building a new nest, a non-linear process comprising 3 phases. The findings offer new insights into an aspect of relocation that is rarely explored in nursing research.

  13. Green Athina: A guide for applying greenery on existing apartment buildings in Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaskareli, M.

    2013-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. The 'polikatikia' building type makes up for 80% of the built environment in Athens; a concrete structure multi-storey apartment building type. The aim of this manual is to provide clear information on how gr

  14. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2014-01-01

    building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... unusual low for a longer period. The dynamic simulations also indicated that air heating during winter can provide a comfortable thermal environment. Dynamic simulations also demonstrated that during summer, apartments with automatic external solar screens had no serious overheating, whereas in apartments......Experience has shown that appropriate design of very low energy dwellings can be a large challenge and that the final design may result in insufficient heating in winter and overheating in summer. The 126 certified Passive House apartments (Ravnsborghusene) in Køge, Denmark are a low energy...

  15. Daylighting estimation and analysis in residential apartment building: GIS based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Mahesh B.; Mhaske, Sumedh Y.

    2016-06-01

    The openings in the building envelope have a great influence on daylighting in the internal area of the building spaces. The amount of opening area, its orientation, outside obstruction & positioning of building affects the inside illumination. Most of the energy consumption occurs during the building's operational phase for heating, cooling & lighting purposes. This paper aims to provide a simplified analytical and GIS based approach to evaluate the potential of daylight inside the room under clear sky conditions. The work evaluates the intensity of internal illumination in residential apartment building from available outside external illumination.

  16. Interactive Configuration of High Performance Renovation of Apartment Buildings by the use of CSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vareilles, E.; Thuesen, Christian; Falcon, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a prospective study which looks at the possibility of configuring high performance renovation of apartment buildings by the use of constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). This study is one part of a project called CRIBA which aims to industrialize high performance thermal renovation...... of mid-rise (up to seven stories) apartment buildings. The renovation is based on external rectangular panels, always comprising insulation and cladding, and sometimes including, in addition, doors, windows or solar modules. The panels can be fixed directly onto the walls or onto a metal structure around...... the whole building. With the new thermal envelope and equipment, the building must achieve a really low energy performance of 25 kWh=m2=year. A configuration system, based on CSP approaches, will simultaneously enable the interactive definition of the renovation, the associated bill of material (BOM...

  17. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...... in Slovakia. Subjective evaluation of the indoor environment and occupant satisfaction using questionnaire has been also performed. The measurements were repeated in January 2016, after the building was energy-renovated. The renovation included thermal insulation of the façade. Natural ventilation was used...

  18. Energy statistics of apartment buildings in 2012; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data regarding energy used for heating and hot water in Swedish apartment buildings (2012) in terms of heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  19. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  20. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele;

    2014-01-01

    Experience has shown that appropriate design of very low energy dwellings can be a large challenge and that the final design may result in insufficient heating in winter and overheating in summer. The 126 certified Passive House apartments (Ravnsborghusene) in Køge, Denmark are a low energy build...... with south oriented windows, static shadings by the balcony overhangs and low ventilation rates, resulted in excessive hours of overheating....

  1. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    OpenAIRE

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Toftum, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Experience has shown that appropriate design of very low energy dwellings can be a large challenge and that the final design may result in insufficient heating in winter and overheating in summer. The 126 certified Passive House apartments (Ravnsborghusene) in Køge, Denmark are a low energy building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoo...

  2. Perceptions of Contractors and Consultants Toward Application of Greenship Rating Tools on Apartment Buildings in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last ten years, the growth of apartment buildings in Surabaya has encountered the bitter experience of global warming, resource depletion, energy scarcity, and other environmental impacts. We cannot avoid them, but we can minimize the negative impacts of global warming. The green building concept is one of the methods to minimize the environmental impact. It takes into account principles of sustainable development in planning, construction, operation, and maintenance. Greenship Rating Tools is used to evaluate and calculate green achievements, prior to green building certification. The aim of this research is to represent the perceptions of contractors and consultants toward application of Greenship Rating Tools on apartment buildings in Surabaya. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaires survey carried out to 41 respondents, the mean value ranking method is used to evaluate the main factors of Greenship. These factors are Appropriate Site Development, Energy Efficiency and Conservation, Water Conservation, Material Resource and Cycle, Indoor Health and Comfort, and Building Environmental Management. In general, the results of this research show that there are a number of differences between perceptions of contractors and consultants toward application of Greenship Rating Tools on apartment buildings in Surabaya. According to the contractors’ perception, Visual Comfort is a factor that would easily to be applied, whilst consultants’ is Landscape. On the other hand, there are factors that would difficult to be applied. Based on contractors’ perceptiom is Climate Change, while consultants’ perception is Renewal Energy. In summary, Greenship Rating Tools can be applied on contractors’ and consultants’ perceptions, whilst there are some variables which can not be applied.

  3. Belgrade apartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Belgrade apartment' is related to two periods and two phenomena: athe concept of apartment in multiple-family buildings in Belgrade between the two world wars (1918-1941 and bactivities of 'Belgrade School' of architecture, formed during the 60's and 70's of the twentieth century. In order for a certain concept of apartment organization to be called 'Belgrade', it had to have clearly defined characteristics which set it apart from other typology of apartments built in its immediate surroundings, or it had to be created in Belgrade, and then spread further. Until today it has never been researched or explained what these characteristics of 'Belgrade apartment' were, as it has been defined in scientific literature as a creative and an authentic type of apartment organization in multiple-family buildings in collective housing. The research discussed types of characteristic concepts of room organizations in apartments built during the two periods, from 1918 to 1941 and 1960 to 1975. The aim of the research was to prove the hypothesis on the existence of the authentic concepts of Belgrade apartments which were designed in the mentioned periods.

  4. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment. [Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France)); Balaras, C. (National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)); Bluyssen, P. (TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)); Flourentzou, F. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France)); Jaggs, M. (Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)); Wetzel, C. (Fraunhofer-Institut

    1999-01-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock's usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building's degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  5. Sustainable heat for apartment buildings in Haarlem, Netherlands; Duurzamewarmte voor Haarlemse flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, J.; Schumacher, R. [CEA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    By means of an innovative combination of solar collectors, heat pumps and underground heat storage it is possible to heat 382 apartment buildings in the winter by using solar energy stored in the summer. The construction for this 2 MW project in district Schalkwijk in Haarlem, Netherlands is in full progress. [Dutch] Een innovatieve combinatie van zonnecollectoren, warmtepompen en ondergrondse warmteopslag maakt het mogelijk 382 flatwoningen uit de jaren vijftig in de winter te verwarmen met zonne-energie die in de zomer is opgeslagen. De bouwwerkzaamheden voor dit 2 MW-project in de Haarlemse Schalkwijk zijn in volle gang.

  6. Experimental Analysis of a Heat Cost Allocation Method for Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Saba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimate of individual thermal energy consumptions, and consequently, a fair heat cost allocation among the residents of apartment buildings with centralized heating systems, represents an important driving force towards energy saving, energy efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Nowadays, in those contexts where direct heat meters cannot be used because of the layout of the hot water distribution system, electronic Heat Cost Allocators (HCAs have the highest market share for the assessment of individual thermal energy consumptions. The uncertainty associated with the parameterization of heat cost allocation devices and the installation effects arising in real applications can negatively affect the accuracy of these devices, as far as the estimation of the individual fractions of thermal energy consumption is concerned. This work deals with the experimental analysis of a novel heat cost allocation method for apartment buildings and its comparison with conventional HCAs. The method allows the indirect estimation of the thermal energy exchanged by water radiators without the need for surface temperature measurements, reducing some of the drawbacks associated with the on-site installation. The experimental analysis was carried out in a full-scale central heating system test facility available at the Italian National Metrology Institute (INRIM and characterized by SI-traceable direct heat meters installed on each water radiator.

  7. Temperature Sensor Feasibility Study of Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Heating Efficiency Maintenance in High-Rise Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freliha B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are responsible for 60%-80% of the world’s energy use and for approximately the same percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. The existing multi-apartment buildings of multifamily housing sector are often energy inefficient, and the heating system does not ensure optimization of heat distribution of individual apartments. Heat distribution, heating system balancing, heat loss detection and calculation, individual heat energy accounting are difficult tasks to accomplish. This article deals with the temperature monitoring system designed to retrieve temperature differences necessary for overall building heat monitoring and individual apartment monitoring. The sensor testing case study process and its measurements are analysed.

  8. Energy renovation of the apartment building Langkaerparken, Tilst, AArhus; Denmark; Energioptimering af etageboligblok Langkaerparken, Tilst, AArhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiselberg, P.

    2010-06-15

    The project's aim was to develop a method and examples of design of energy extensive renovations (low energy class 1) to stimulate energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy in existing buildings. The present report deals with energy renovation of an apartment housing estate. The focus has been to choose simple solutions that do not require large technical knowledge by the residents or operational staff. The project shows that it currently is not profitable to renovate for energy low energy class 2, 1 or 0. With a lifespan of 30 years, however, renovation to low energy class 2 will be viable. Should it be viable for the residents to energy renovate more, financial support is needed. (ln)

  9. ET-DSP{sup TM} for in-situ remediation under an occupied residential apartment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W. [McMillan-McGee Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nevokshonoff, B.; Keenan, K. [Sequoia Environmental Remediation Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, R.J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    An newly developed in-situ remediation technique was applied in a residential apartment building to remove vapour pressure sensitive BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The system called ET-DSP{sup TM} is an in-situ electrical soil heating technique combined with a high vacuum dual phase extraction method. An entire basement suite was drilled in order to place electrodes and extraction wells under the building into the contaminated soil. Noise levels were kept at below acceptable levels and induced surface voltages were essentially eliminated. This remedial action using the ET-DSP was the third of its kind conducted by Shell Canada. The pattern of electrodes in the contaminated zones is such that conventional 3-phase power can be used to heat the soil. A multi-phase, multi-component, 3-dimensional thermal model is used to simulate the process in order to find the ideal pattern of electrode and extraction wells. Excellent agreement was found to exist between field temperature, electrical operating, and energy consumption data and the numerical simulation predictions. Sampling consistently showed a profound reduction in hydrocarbon concentration with non-detect levels being achieved in most samples.

  10. The Effect Of Thermal Insulation Of An Apartment Building On The Thermo-Hydraulic Stability Of Its Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurčová, Mária

    2015-12-01

    The contribution aims to investigate the effect of the decreased thermal losses of an apartment building due to the thermal insulation of opaque external building constructions and the replacement of transparent constructions. It emphasizes the effect of the thermal characteristics of external constructions on the functionality of the existing heating system in the building and the related requirements for the renovation of the heating system in order to ensure the hydraulic stability of the system and the thermal comfort of the inhabitants.

  11. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment

  12. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  13. Building America Case Study: Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30 percent over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50 percent complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5 percent in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).

  14. The Effect Of Thermal Insulation Of An Apartment Building On The Thermo-Hydraulic Stability Of Its Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurčová Mária

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution aims to investigate the effect of the decreased thermal losses of an apartment building due to the thermal insulation of opaque external building constructions and the replacement of transparent constructions. It emphasizes the effect of the thermal characteristics of external constructions on the functionality of the existing heating system in the building and the related requirements for the renovation of the heating system in order to ensure the hydraulic stability of the system and the thermal comfort of the inhabitants.

  15. Comparison of the heating-related energy consumption of two apartment buildings with an energy-optimized apartment building; Vergleich der Heizenergieverbraeuche von zwei Mehrfamilienhaeusern mit einem Niedrigenergie-Mehrfamilienhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, S. [Ottenser Dreieck Wohnungsgenossenschaft e.G., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In the sector of apartment buildings, knowledge on energy-optimization is being implemented at a slow pace. In Hamburg, an energy-optimized apartment building (MNEH) was erected as a pilot project with grants from the city`s environmental authority and with private funding by the residents. For all energy-related concerns the project was vastly accompanied by the Zentrum fuer Energie, Wasser- und Umwelttechnik (ZEWU) of the Hamburg chamber of trade.- In order to verify the efficacy of energy-saving measures in this sector, the heating energy consumptions of three buildings in Hamburg were compared for the period of a year. Thus, the impact of the different construction of energy-optimized buildings from ``conventional`` buildings is demonstrated. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die Umsetzung der Erkenntnisse zum Niedrigenergiehausbau laeuft, vor allem im Bereich der Mehrfamilienhaeuser, noch sehr schleppend. Ein Pilotprojekt im Sektor Mehrfamilien-Niedrigenergiehaeuser (MNEH) wurde mit Foerdermitteln der Umweltbehoerde Hamburg und Eigenmitteln der Bewohner in Hamburg errichtet. Das Gebaeude wurde energetisch umfangreich vom ZEWU (Zentrum fuer Energie-, Wasser- und Umwelttechnik der Handwerkskammer Hamburg) begleitet. Zur Ueberpruefung der Wirksamkeit von energiesparenden Massnahmen in diesem Bereich wurde der Heizenergieverbrauch von drei Gebaeuden in Hamburg waehrend eines Jahres verglichen. Ziel war es, die Auswirkungen der Niedrigenergiehaus-Bauweise gegenueber der `konventionellen` Bauweise an den verwirklichten Projekten im Mehrfamilienhaus-Bereich aufzuzeigen. (orig./MSK)

  16. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  17. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  18. Building America Case Study: Conway Street Apartments, Greenfield, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While single-family, detached homes account for 63% of households (EIA 2009); multi-family homes account for a very large portion of that remaining housing stock, and this fraction is growing. Through recent research efforts, CARB has been evaluating strategies and technologies that can make dramatic improvements in energy performance in multi-family buildings

  19. Risk Factors of Building Apartments for University Talent through the Agent Construction Mode in China: Interrelationship and Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengrong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apartments for university talent (AUT, are apartments provided to staff at non-market price, in order to attract outstanding scholars from around the world to work in universities and improve educational quality. This has been a critical issue in achieving social sustainability in China during rapid urbanization and industrialization. The agent construction mode has been adopted to build AUT because universities usually lack relevant management experience. The agent construction mode is a type of turnkey engineer construction based on the principal-agent model, project bidding mode, engineering contracting projects, and project supervision system. Risk factors are important considerations for both universities and agent construction companies. Although some studies have investigated the risk factors, only a few studies have identified the hierarchical structure of relevant risk factors. Therefore, the interrelationship and prioritization of the risk factors remain unknown, and this situation presents a barrier to better risk management. This paper investigates the interrelationship of risk factors with interpretative structural modeling (ISM. In addition, fuzzy MICMAC (matric d’impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classemen analysis was conducted to prioritize the risk factors. The findings provide useful references for better risk management of building AUT through the agent construction mode. Although this study focuses on China, the analytical process can also be generalized to other research topics and other countries.

  20. Optimal Scheduling Method of Controllable Loads in DC Smart Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies, such as the solar collector (SC) and photovoltaic generation (PV), have been gaining attention in worldwide. Houses or buildings with PV and heat pumps (HPs) are recently being used in residential areas widely due to the time of use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme which is essentially inexpensive during middle-night and expensive during day-time. If fixed batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) can be introduced in the premises, the electricity cost would be even more reduced. While, if the occupants arbitrarily use these controllable loads respectively, power demand in residential buildings may fluctuate in the future. Thus, an optimal operation of controllable loads such as HPs, batteries and EV should be scheduled in the buildings in order to prevent power flow from fluctuating rapidly. This paper proposes an optimal scheduling method of controllable loads, and the purpose is not only the minimization of electricity cost for the consumers, but also suppression of fluctuation of power flow on the power supply side. Furthermore, a novel electricity pricing scheme is also suggested in this paper.

  1. Economic aspects of remote metering in big apartment buildings; Fernauslesung in grossen Wohnkomplexen - wirtschaftlich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R. [Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH, Bocholt (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Since mid-eighties, Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW) has been offering a district heating service. The first systems were operated as customer property. Since then, a new model has been introduced in which BEW gains ownership by a number of customized services listed in the appendix. Early systems relied on a single heat meter per building but this will be replaced by per unit billing on the request of a Bocholt building society. [German] Die Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW) bietet seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre den Waerme-Direkt-Service unter dem Produktnamen Nahwaerme-Service an. Zunaechst wurde ein Betreibermodell entwickelt, bei dem die Waermeerzeugungsanlage im Eigentum des Hausbesitzers steht. Die Weiterentwicklung fuehrte zu Anlagen die im Eigentum des Energiedienstleistungsunternehmens BEW stehen. Das Eigentum an diesen Anlagen sichert sich die BEW mittels einer beschraenkten persoenlichen Dienstbarkeit. Der Text der Dienstbarkeit findet sich im Anhang. Die Voraussetzung fuer die Abrechnung des Nahwaerme-Service war zunaechst die sogenannte horizontale Verrohrung, damit ein Waermemengenzaehler je Wohn- oder Gewerbeeinheit ausreichte. Seitens eines in Bocholt taetigen Bautraegerunternehmens wurde aus Installationskostengruenden die vertikale Verrohrung der Heizungsanlagen gefordert. (orig.)

  2. Energy retrofitting of a typical old Danish multi-family building to a “nearly-zero” energy building based on experiences from a test apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Rønby, Leif; Mikkelsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research described in this paper was to demonstrate that an old Danish multi-family building built in 1896 could be retrofitted to a “nearly-zero” energy building. Three types of retrofit measures were implemented in a “test” apartment to obtain practical experiences. The first...... components, insulation materials must be sized and cut to fit on site, and that new windows were selected.......The purpose of the research described in this paper was to demonstrate that an old Danish multi-family building built in 1896 could be retrofitted to a “nearly-zero” energy building. Three types of retrofit measures were implemented in a “test” apartment to obtain practical experiences. The first...... measure was the installation of two different types of interior insulation, specifically, an insulation component consisting of an aerogel-stone wool mixture or vacuum insulation panels. The second measure related to the retrofit of windows in which five measures were completed that consisted of applying...

  3. Energy-saving Necessity and Measures of Apartment Buildings of Employees%职工住宅节能的必要性和措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the present situation of energy and building energy consumption in China and makes the discusses on the energy saving issue of the Ansteel' s apartment buildings for employees, proposing the technical modification measures for the energy saving of apartment buildings and looking forward to the future development of the energy-saving apartment buildings in Ansteel.%介绍了我国能源状况和建筑能耗现状,阐述了鞍钢职工住宅节能状况,推荐了住宅节能改造措施,并展望了鞍钢节能住宅的发展。

  4. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  5. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-11-05

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  6. Building America Case Study: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process - Queens, NY; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis.
    CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing. Aerosolized sealing was successful by several measures in this study. Many individual leaks that are labor-intensive to address separately were well sealed by the aerosol particles. In addition, many diffuse leaks that are difficult to identify and treat were also sealed. The aerosol-based sealing process resulted in an average reduction of 71% in air leakage across three apartments and an average apartment airtightness of 0.08 CFM50/SF of enclosure area.

  7. Influence of Energy Efficient Elements on Energy Saving in Residential Buildings: Case Study of Three Apartments in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejad Moghadam M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the energy consumption of energy efficient buildings, and ascertained the extent to which these buildings are efficient when compared to normal buildings. For this purpose, the early literature regarding energy efficient buildings and the related elements have been reviewed, then three energy efficient buildings have been chosen and data collected from their occupants through a questionnaire. The data was then analysed by computing the average yearly electricity consumption per square feet, for both energy efficient buildings and normal buildings. A comparison of the results showed that the energy consumption in energy efficient buildings was almost half that of the normal buildings. Finally a few suggestions are proposed for promoting these types of energy efficient buildings which will eventually lead to economic growth and environment protection.

  8. Thermal comfort and market niches for apartment buildings: Impact of the current Thermal Regulation in the private real estate market in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas Pino, Felipe; De Herde, André; Aguirre Núñez, Carlos; Marmolejo Duarte,Carlos; SET 2009 - 8th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies

    2009-01-01

    Santiago (33°27’S; 70°42’W) is the capital city of Chile and presents a Mediterranean climate. With its 6 million inhabitants concentrates 40% of the population of the country and 65.5% of the private real estate market. According to the National Statistics Institute, 37.4% and 36.0% of new housing during 2006 were built using mainly brick masonry and concrete in their walls, respectively. In both cases, thermal insulation is not traditionally considered. However, nowadays apartment buildings...

  9. Apartment building with controlled ventilation. East Germany: High-efficiency blowers provide fresh air for the heat recovery system of a new apartment building; Miethaus mit kontrollierter Wohnungslueftung. Beim Neubau einer ostdeutschen Wohnanlage erfolgt die Frischluftzufuhr der Waermerueckgewinnungsanlage ueber Hochleistungsluefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-11-01

    The Energy Conservation Ordinance contains specifications for energy conservation in the construction of new buildings and the modernisation of old ones. Ventilation is a crucial point. A wholesome room climate and fresh air are important factors in keeping the inhabitants healthy and well. [German] Bei Erstellung von Neubauten und der Sanierung von Altbauten sollten schon heute die Inhalte der aktuell gueltigen Energiesparverordnung beachtet werden. Sie soll bei der Einsparung von Energie sorgen. Doch besonders in Gebaeuden mit guter Waermedaemmung, insbesondere bei Niedrigenergiehaeusern, muss richtig be- und entlueftet werden. Ein wohliges Klima und gute Luft in Wohnraeumen sind wichtig fuer die Gesundheit der Bewohner. (orig.)

  10. Degraded areas of organised multi-apartment building between 1945 and 1965 in Slovenia – methodology of evaluation and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Zupančič Strojan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available “Degraded” housing areas represent a 9% share of urbanised surfaces of thirty-five in planning terms recently researched Slovenian towns. Above all social housing estates built between 1945 and 1965 present issues since they are isolated, poorly maintained, and cannot reach modern standards. The research contemplates the redirecting of the present abstract planning rationales to the real architectural, user level. Further intentions of the research are to consolidate ideas about the urgency of renewal as the only possible method of solving problems of a certain pattern of building, to determine criteria and measures for renewal and to determine rational or real directions for concrete contributions for the improvement of the standard of living, in short, to a new shift in living culture discussed settlement pattern.

  11. Rodovre apartments, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morck, O. [Cenergia ApS, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1999-07-01

    A combined air/liquid solar collector system was retrofitted to a three-storey apartment building in Copenhagen, originally built in the 1950s. The building has been insulated outside with 100 mm mineral wool. Between the insulation and the original walls there is an air gap. In this air gap the hot air from the solar air collector is circulated to heat the building. Site-built combined air/liquid collectors cover the whole south- facing roof. The collectors were built on top of the existing roof, which serves as the back of the collectors. The solar air system is a dual system, including both a closed collector loop to an air to water heat exchanger and a double envelope. (author)

  12. 5 case studies : boiler system increases availability of hot water in CAP REIT apartment buildings while saving energy : electric-to-gas retrofit drives down energy costs and improves building performance : Novitherm heat reflector panels saves 28 per cent in heating costs for apartment building : Novitherm heat reflector panel installation with system adjustment saves 33.2 per cent in energy costs : natural gas conversion saves over $315,000 a year for condominium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    These 5 case studies presented the details of new systems and retrofits conducted by Enbridge Gas Distribution and its partners to improve the energy efficiency of various public and residential buildings. System retrofits included the installation of boiler system installed to address tenant demands on the domestic hot water systems of properties purchased purchased by the CAP REIT organization. The comprehensive program used to address the problems included replacement of the systems with high efficiency heating boilers designed to integrate space, hot water, ramp, and pool heat. A centralized controller included setback control, trend-following processors, and the isolation of heating equipment. The second case study described an electric-to-gas conversion of a make-up air unit and boiler system at an all-electric apartment building. The system was designed to address excessive air handling and water heating costs. The gas conversion included new heating and hot water boilers, as well as a number of efficiency upgrades. The third and fourth case study described the installation of Novitherm heat reflector panels at apartment buildings in Toronto. The fifth case study described a natural gas conversion project conducted at a luxury condominium. Energy savings for all 5 projects were presented. 9 figs.

  13. Temperature conditions and heat supply of apartments in an apartment house with individual regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevskii, L. N.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of mathematical modeling of the values of the temperature and the heat source power in apartments of an apartment house with individual regulators. It has been shown that for the existing structures of buildings the heat transfer between apartments with individual thermoregulation strongly influences the values of the heat source power established in apartments in the process of regulation. Without changing the total heating load of the building, this process leads to considerable deviations of readings of the thermal energy meters in apartments from the thermal energy actually consumed for their heating. This fact throws doubt upon the expediency of installing individual calorimeters in an apartment house with thermoregulation in each apartment.

  14. Apartment building built to passive-house standard with solar balanced ventilation system; Mehrfamilien-Passivhaus mit solarem Luftsystem. Lueftung/Luftheizung/WRG/Solarfassade an der Rychenbergstrasse, Winterthur - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetermann, A.

    2002-04-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an apartment building in Winterthur, Switzerland, built to passive-house standards and equipped with a solar balanced ventilation system. The building and its convective solar facade are described, as are the fan-assisted, balanced ventilation systems used. The operation of the systems in winter, during transitional periods and in summer is discussed. Domestic hot water preparation is looked at. The energy balance of the building is examined, as is the economic viability of the energy systems. The building, its energy installations and the measurement concept used are considered in detail. Finally, the findings of the study are summarised and commented on.

  15. Focus on Apartment Security,to Build a Harmonious Campus%关注公寓安全共建和谐校园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁宁

    2014-01-01

    安全、规范、和谐的大学生公寓环境是学校宿舍管理能力和水平的集中体现。大学生公寓的安全管理是管理工作的重中之重。目前,大学生公寓安全管理存在学生及公寓管理人员安全意识淡薄、公寓安全管理体制不健全以及大学生普遍自我防范和自我保护能力差等诸多问题。因此,作为大学生公寓的管理者,加强大学公寓安全管理,应从安全宣传、完善安全监督和考评机制、加强外来人员出入管理、加强大学生安全素质教育以及人性化管理五方面进行,才能真正实现高校公寓安全管理。%The safe,regulated and harmonious living condition are the concentrated reflections which embody the ability and level of the school dormitory management.Safety management of student apartments is the priority among the priorities of daily management.At present , numerous problems exist in the safety management of the students’ dormitory,such as students and staff are lack of safety consciousness, management system is not perfect and most students are weak in self-defence and self-protection ability etc.Therefore ,as a college student apartment administrator,I suggest that in order to strengthen the university apartment safety management,safety publicity should be promoted,improve the safety surveillance and evaluation mechanism,strengthen the supervision on foreign personnel,quality education of the college students and human-based management.Only in such ways,can we truly achieve the safe management of college apartments.

  16. Gestão dos aspectos e impactos ambientais em um condomínio com o envolvimento da contabilidade ambiental = Management Of Environmental Aspects And Impacts In An Apartment Building With The Envolvement Of Environmental Accountancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Dahmer Pfitscher

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da população e das necessidades de consumo, crescem também as agressões ao meio ambiente. Com isso, se deve procurar novas formas de um crescimento sustentável. Esta pesquisa discute como a contabilidade, po meio de seus controles, pode auxiliar no processo de gestão do meio ambiente em um condomínio residencial. A metodologia adotada é a pesquisa exploratória e descritiva. Está dividida em quatro fases, em que a primeira se refere à apresentação do tema e problema, e dos objetivos, seguida pela fundamentação teórica e a metodologia aplicada ao estudo. Já a terceira fase, envolve um estudo sobre o sistema de gestão ambiental e o condomínio. Por último, na quarta fase, são mostrados os resultados da pesquisa e proposto um plano resumido de gestão ambiental, o 5W2H (What?Why?When?Where?Who?How? e How much?, evidenciado por meio do método SICOGEA – Sistema Contábil Gerencial Ambiental. Ao final, concluiu-se que os prédios buscam cada vez mais atender aos padrões exigidos de qualidade ambiental. Entre os pontos levantados, notou-se a preocupação com a reutilização da água. A sustentabilidade deste condomínio encontra-se com um grau de 46,67%, considerado “deficitário”, demonstrando o quanto ainda deve evoluir nesse sentido.Because of population growth as well as its consumerism necessities, the environmentalaggressions have also increased. Thus, new ways of sustainable growth should be searched.This research discusses about how the accountancy, through its controls, can help theenvironment management process in an apartment building. The methodology used is thedescriptive and exploratory research. It is divided in four phases. The first one refers totheme, problem, and objective presentation. It is followed by the theoretical frameworkand the methodology used in this study as the second phase. The third phase involves astudy on the environmental management system and the apartment buildings

  17. Luino apartments, Motte, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    These low-energy-consumption buildings are well insulated and incorporate a direct-gain solar air system, a greenhouse and a solar air system. The last of these is an open-loop system comprised of a backpass air collector, a concrete ceiling for storage and heat distribution and a new type of facade-integrated handling unit for ventilation and regulation. The system has annual savings of 40% compared to a traditional building. (author)

  18. A solar air apartment block, Gothenburg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, C.

    1999-07-01

    A double envelope solar air system was installed in a 1950s three-storey apartment block when it was renovated in 1986. The system saves 40% compared to identical conventionally renovated buildings, thanks to the following: The south-facing side of the roof has been converted to a 350 m{sup 2} solar air collector. An extra insulated facade with an integrated air-space of 900 m{sup 2} has been added to all surrounding walls. A DHW system including a 12 m{sup 3} storage tank has been added in order to provide solar heated water to four blocks (96 apartments) during the summer. (author)

  19. Apartment Compartmentalization With an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sean [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Harrington, Curtis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America Team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a new construction multifamily building in Queens, New York. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before-and-after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of an apartment during sealing.

  20. Orthogonal apartments in Hilbert Grassmannians

    OpenAIRE

    Pankov, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Let $H$ be an infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space and let ${\\mathcal L}(H)$ be the logic formed by all closed subspaces of $H$. For every natural $k$ we denote by ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ the Grassmannian consisting of $k$-dimensional subspaces. An orthogonal apartment of ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ is the set consisting of all $k$-dimensional subspaces spanned by subsets of a certain orthogonal base of $H$. Orthogonal apartments can be characterized as maximal sets of mutually compatible eleme...

  1. The Cheapest Apartments in Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankele, Chad; Sommer, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Several surveys are reported of tenants in a low-rent apartment complex in a university town before and after renovation. The tenants were willing to trade off the lack of amenities and anomie in return for low rent and casual lease arrangements. (JP)

  2. Live in Huiyuan Apartments, and enjoy 21st century cyberspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Huiyuan Apartment complex is located within the Beichen Finance and Trade City near the Beijing Asian Games Village, and is owned by the Beichen Industrial Company Limited. Consisting of eight buildings, the apartments are beautifully structured, and feature an innovative architectural design. Huiyuan caters for foreign residents.Rooms within this 736 apartment complex are fully furnished, and equipped with the essential facilities of kitchen and laundry, all in a refined decor. The apartments are in the categories of luxury and economy, the former comprising four bedrooms and two sitting rooms, the latter consisting of one bedroom and one sitting room, thereby meeting both family and single tenant residential requirements.Special services are offered to customers free of charge, such as baby-sitting, household chores, including vacuuming, ironing, shopping and cooking, and provision of everyday household necessities. This service initiated by Huiyuan is the first of its kind in Beijing.Twenty-four-h

  3. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monthly gas and electricity use data from a set of 13 study apartments and 20 control apartments from three apartment buildings (B1 B3) in California were analyzed. The study apartments were retrofit with simultaneous energy savings and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) improvements as the goal. The control apartments were not retrofit. Pre-retrofit modeling indicated annual energy savings of 21percent, 17percent, and 27percent for the study apartments in B1-B3, respectively. Based on a comparison of changes in energy use of study apartments to energy use changes of control apartments, total measured savings of gas energy plus site electrical energy were 28percent in B1, 5percent in B2, and 3percent in B3. Given the small number of study apartments and the substantial changes in energy use within control apartments, the project yielded no conclusive evidence of energy savings. Apartment energy use increased with number of occupants and with floor area; however, the association with occupancy was most evident. Climate differences did not appear to be the major driver for the variability in energy use among apartments. Changes in occupant behaviors affecting energy use may have overwhelmed and obscured the energy savings in this small number of buildings. Much larger prior studies employing similar retrofits indicate that the retrofits usually do save energy.

  4. Taking the Copenhagen Process apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse the EU vocational education and training policy process (The Copenhagen Process) from a critical perspective based on the policy analysis methodology, “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) developed by Professor Carol Bacchi. The main research question...... “How can the European vocational education and training policy process - the Copenhagen Process - be understood from a WPR perspective? “ is addressed in six articles which take apart the Copenhagen Process and deal with specific WPR questions and specific aspects of the Copenhagen Process......: the construction of vocational education and training; changes in governmentality; the genealogy of EC vocational education and training policy; the technologies of Europeanization; and finally the discursive and institutional effects of the policy process in the Danish context. The thesis argues...

  5. Contrasting Attitudes of Dormitory and Apartment Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Clinton I.; Wolosin, Myrna A.

    This study was designed to discover the attitudes that distinguish apartment-dwelling students from dormitory residents at Indiana University. The study appears to support the following conclusions. Apartment dwellers see independence as a major factor in their choice of residence. They also believe that apartments are more convenient than…

  6. Apartment Compartmentalization With an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Harrington, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis. CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing.

  7. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

  8. Team Building and Role Positioning of Counselor in the Students’ Apartment Management%高校学生公寓管理中生活辅导员的队伍建设与角色定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国威

    2014-01-01

    在学生公寓管理人员中有意识培养和选聘一批善于做大学生思想教育工作的骨干担任大学生生活辅导员,发挥他们在公寓管理中对学生的处世、学习、生活及就业等方面的引导作用,使学生养成良好行为习惯,培养健康心理及建立和谐的人际关系,这无疑是学生管理队伍的重要补充,是大学生思想教育工作的有效延伸。%It is no doubt that training and recruiting a number of backbones to do the work of students ’ ideo-logical education as college life counselors in the students ’ apartment management is an important supplement to the student management team and the effective extension of ideological education of college students .They play a guiding role in the student’s life,learning,and employment to enable students to develop good habits , cultivate healthy psychology and establish harmonious interpersonal relationships .

  9. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Auer, Dan [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Clegg, Zach [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  10. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  11. Energy expenditures and comfort in selected office and apartment buildings in Europa. The European research project 'HOPE'; Energieaufwand und Behaglichkeit in ausgewaehlten Buero- und Wohngebaeuden. Die europaeische Studie 'HOPE'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Birgit; Reske, Matina [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Hermann-Rietschel-Institut

    2009-07-01

    In the European study 'HOPE' office and residential buildings were examined in terms of energy demand and the comfort perception of the users. This study shows that the well-being, health and productivity of the users can all be improved with comfortable room temperatures, the design of the facilities and control of technical installations, such as sunscreens, heating and ventilation. (orig.)

  12. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  13. NEW GENERATIONS RAISED IN APARTMENT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Salih ŞEKER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of private preparatory schools is preparing students for higher education institutions, they dealt a severe blow to the formal educatio nal institutions. Various solutions generated to close down these schools brought many concerns led to deepening of the problem. In this study, the issue of closing private preparatory schools, which function for preparation for the university entrance ex am, down and converting them into private schools in the academic year of 2014/2015 by regulations enforced by the ministry is discussed. Obviously, this period will results in generations with obesity, physical impairment, postural disorders, respiratory system disorders, cardiovascular and circulatory disorders as well as permanent diseases. These schools are established in apartments and commercial building employed by private preparatory schools previously. It is clearly seen that these physical condi tions may cause serious problems in physical activities and sport practices. The aim of this study is discussing the predicted problems either experienced or will be faced by students since they will continue formal education at schools called “Basic High School” converted from private preparatory schools into formal educational institutions with same physical conditions but different educational programs.

  14. Live in Huiyuan Apartments,and enjoy 21st century cyberspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Huiyuan Apartment complex is located within the Beichen Finance and Trade City near the Beijing Asian Games Village, and is owned by the Beichen Industrial Company Limited. Consisting of eight buildings, the apartments are beautifully structured, and feature an innovative architectural design. Huiyuan caters for foreign residents.

  15. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  16. Veskitammi kortermajad = The Veskitammi Apartment Buildings / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2004-01-01

    Üks ühe trepikojaga ja kaks kolme trepikojaga kolmekordset puidust korterelamut ümber sisehoovi Laagris. Hoonete puitfassaadid on kujundatud nelja eri pikkusega ja nelja eri värvi laudadest. Projekteerija, maastikukujundus: AB Kosmos. Autorid Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür. Konstruktor: Randväli ja Karema. Projekt ja valmis 2003. Ill.: 6 korruste plaani, 5 värv. välisvaadet

  17. Finding Good Areas for Renting Apartments Using Apartments Information and Users' Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, R.; Lu, M.; Arikawa, M.; Asami, Y.; Iwasaki, J.

    2014-04-01

    Current apartment renting web sites provide services to search apartments by attribute filters while they lack the services to help find areas that are convenient for living and meet customers' personal preference. In many cases, people not only need attributes of the apartments meeting their requirements, but also need the attributes of the area be satisfied. We propose an IT service that can find appropriate areas for customers to rent apartments while they want to move to new places. The areas are picked according to users' life styles mined from their former moving trajectories and to the attributes of the areas calculated from preferences of present rooms of users.

  18. Luetzowstrasse residential building, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroepf, S. [Solar Env. Tech., Amberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Solar air collectors are integrated into the south facade of this apartment building in Berlin. The solar heat is distributed to the 31 apartments by floor hypocausts. Highly insulated walls and roofs minimize the heat losses. (author)

  19. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  20. Should Rich and Poor Live Apart?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    If Beijing real estate mogul Ren Zhiqiang had his way, the rich and poor in China would live apart and there would be a clear distinction between the two. The outspoken businessman made his views known at a recent conference dealing with the real estate industry, and had the audience seeing red. Ren said in the past, the whole of China was a poor community, and now that some people had led others to become wealthier,

  1. Customer satisfaction of an apartment hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Khyarginen, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction becomes the object of a research quite often, especially in business. If the company cares about its customers, it will put effort to know how satisfied they are with the services or products. Satisfied customers are loyal customers, who bring profit and other, new customers. Apartment Hotel Tampere MN, a new and developing company, is interested in keeping its customers satisfied. To expand and improve the services it is important for the hotel to measure customer s...

  2. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    Present research focuses on the use of blinds and curtains in apartments and inhabitants’ operation of them. The objective of the present research is to develop a better understanding of how curtains and blinds are operated by the inhabitants in apartments and the possible consequences it has...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...... facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...

  3. STAKEHOLDERS AND APART HOTELS: MULTIPLE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Freire Ferreira Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Means of accommodation involve a wide range of social actors and agents, as well as different business models. Management strategies in this sector have been increasingly important for long-term sustainability and competitiveness of business organizations. This study aims to analyze the interactions between apart-hotels and their stakeholders to foster an improvement of services provided, aligning the interface of strategic management from the point of view of managers and their key stakeholders. It is an exploratory study, with qualitative chacter, along with multiple case studies of the following establishments: Travel Inn, Hotels Slaviero and Etoile george v. Brazilian enterprises, which manage lodging facilities with apart-hotel concepts, combining features that enable comparative analysis of the study. For conceptual understanding, this study was based on literature about stakeholders, taking the work of Freeman (1984 and Freeman et al (2010 as main references. The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with managers of lodging facilities and their key stakeholders and through direct observation and documentation. We found that not all groups of influence are considered in the planning of service flats. However, the organizations surveyed indicated that the market has realized the importance of the groups that exert influence and are influenced by their goals, and are therefore increasingly alert for integration of such groups in their strategic planning.

  4. Influence of Indoor Environment and Occupant Behaviour on Energy Consumption in Passive House Apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skød Søvsø, Asger; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Køge Boligselskab built 9 building blocks totalling 126 passive house apartments. Their monitored space heating demand (SHD) has been a lot higher than the passive house requirements. The aim of this study was to identify why, and how it relates to indoor environment and occupant behaviour...

  5. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Conway Street Apartments - Greenfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    Through recent research efforts, CARB has been evaluating strategies and technologies that can make dramatic improvements in energy performance in multifamily buildings. In this project, the team helped to transform a 100-year-old empty school building into 12 high performance apartments with low energy costs. The advanced features included an excellent thermal envelope of closed-cell spray foam and triple-pane windows, ductless heat pumps, solar thermal hot water system, and photovoltaic system.

  6. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  7. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on a yearlong post occupancy evaluation of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design of ventilation...

  8. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  9. III.8 Rødovre Apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1999-01-01

    In Task 19: Solar Air Systems the focus is on thedevelopement of better components, analyses,development and optimizing of systems and evaluations of buildings with air solar systems. The results are collected in a handbook made as a projekt guide for engineers and in a "Case Study Book" with exa...

  10. Poles apart: Scott, Amundsen and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    One hundred years ago, teams led by Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott may have been heading in the same direction but they were poles apart in the way they sought their goals. Amundsen led a five-person team of expert Nordic skiers and dog-sledders with a single goal: getting to the South Pole first. He planned and executed the effort brilliantly. Scott, in contrast, led a complex and multi-faceted Antarctic expedition with 33 explorers and scientists, many of whom were focused on ambitious and often taxing scientific research projects that had nothing whatsoever to do with reaching the Pole. Although Scott failed to reach the South Pole first and died with four men on the return trip, his expedition made significant contributions to Antarctic science. Indeed, at least some of Scott's failure to reach the Pole first and the subsequent death of his polar party on the return trip can be attributed to burden of trying to do too much and not focusing on reaching the pole.

  11. Giant black hole rips star apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small

  12. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10

  13. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design...... of ventilation systems. The analysis in present article is based on occupants’ perception of the temperature, indoor air quality and energy consumptions of their apartments. The study shows the perception of occupants of first six months of post occupancy. The study was carried out by conducting interviews...

  14. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  15. Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments in Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Heather [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Grab, Joanna [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30% over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50% complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5% in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).

  16. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  17. Prototype designs for passive-solar apartments and townhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D.

    1981-09-01

    Seven designs of passive solar apartments and townhouses are briefly described. Descriptions of the layouts, thermal insulation, thermal mass, source of passive solar gain, and thermal integrity factor for auxiliary heating are presented.

  18. Radiation exposure modeling for apartment living spaces with multiple radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J S; Chan, C C; Wang, J D; Chang, W P

    1998-03-01

    Since late 1992, over 100 building complexes in Taiwan, including both public and private schools, and 1,000 apartments have been identified as emitting elevated levels of gamma-radiation. These high levels of gamma-radiation have been traced to construction steel contaminated with 60Co. Accurate reconstruction of the radiation exposure dosage among residents is complicated by the discovery of multiple radioactive sources within the living spaces and by the lack of comprehensive information about resident life-style and occupancy patterns within these contaminated spaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of current dose reconstruction approach employed in an epidemiological study for the health effects of these occupants. We apply a statistical method of local smoothing in dose rate estimation and examine factors that are closely associated with radiation exposure from multiple radioactive sources in the apartment. Two examples are used, a simulated measurement in a hypothetical room with three radioactive sources and a real apartment in Ming-Shan Villa, one of the contaminated buildings. The simulated and estimated means are compared along 5-10 selected points of measurement: by local smoothing approach, with the furniture-adjusted space, and with the occupancy time-weighted mean. We found that the local smoothing approach came much closer to theoretical values. The local smoothing approach may serve as a refined method of radiation dose distribution modeling in exposure estimation. Before environmental exposure assessment, "highly occupied zones" (HOZs) in the contaminated spaces must be identified. Estimates of the time spent in these HOZs are essential to obtain accurate dosage values. These results will facilitate a more accurate dose reconstruction in the assessment of residential exposure in apartments with elevated levels of radioactivity.

  19. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    for the inhabitants’ health and well-being, as well as the energy consumption. Present research is an important contribution, because of the increased knowledge about daylights impact on health and well-being as well as daylights impact on the energy consumption in our buildings. However, it is often seen...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...... facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...

  20. Prediction of indoor concentration of 0.5-4 µm particles of outdoor origin in an uninhabited apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Jensen, K.A.; Clausen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    was estimated from concentration rebound measurements following HEPA filtering of the indoor air by fitting a simple deterministic model. The model included measured air exchange rates and published surface deposition loss rates. This model was then used to predict indoor particle concentration. The model...... apartments. The results suggest that factors such as particle chemical composition, within building transport patterns, and occupant behaviour in other apartments should be identified and quantified in future studies, and that these factors need to be included in predictive models. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All...

  1. Life Cycle CO2 Assessment by Block Type Changes of Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonghoon Baek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The block type and structural systems in buildings affect the amount of building materials required as well as the CO2 emissions that occur throughout the building life cycle (LCCO2. The purpose of this study was to assess the life cycle CO2 emissions when an apartment housing with ‘flat-type’ blocks (the reference case was replaced with more sustainable ‘T-type’ blocks with fewer CO2 emissions (the alternative case maintaining the same total floor area. The quantity of building materials used and building energy simulations were analyzed for each block type using building information modeling techniques, and improvements in LCCO2 emission were calculated by considering high-strength concrete alternatives. By changing the bearing wall system of the ‘flat-type’ block to the ‘column and beam’ system of the ‘T-type’ block, LCCO2 emissions of the alternative case were 4299 kg-CO2/m2, of which 26% was at the construction stage, 73% was as the operational stage and 1% was at the dismantling and disposal stage. These total LCCO2 emissions were 30% less than the reference case.

  2. Using Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" in Introductory Geography Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, James

    1993-01-01

    Describes use of Nigerian author, Chinua Achebe's novel, "Things Fall Apart," in an introductory geography course at the secondary school or college level. Provides a summary of the book's story, which deals with the impact of colonialism and Christianity on the culture of eastern Nigeria. Includes recommended instructional strategies…

  3. Influence of heat cost allocation on occupants' control of indoor environment in 56 apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    by comparing indoor environmental measurements between two buildings: one with collective payment and one with individual payment. The measurements were collected at 5 min intervals at a central location in each of 56 apartments in Copenhagen, Denmark over a period of two months. Questionnaires and semi......-structured interviews showed a strong influence of the heat cost allocation plan on the occupants' control strategies. Occupants whose heating bills were based on floor area focused on a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Occupants whose heating bills were based on meter readings focused on energy conservation...... of this paper was to study the indoor environment in buildings with collective and individual heat cost allocation plans, to investigate how the heat cost allocation influenced occupant behaviour and how occupants controlled the indoor environment. The effects of the heat cost allocation type were studied...

  4. Orthogonal apartments in Hilbert Grassmannians. Finite-dimensional case

    OpenAIRE

    Pankov, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space of finite dimension $n\\ge 3$. Denote by ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ the Grassmannian consisting of $k$-dimensional subspaces of $H$. Every orthogonal apartment of ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ is defined by a certain orthogonal base of $H$ and consists of all $k$-dimensional subspaces spanned by subsets of this base. For $n\

  5. Adaptive use of natural ventilation for thermal comfort in Indian apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-06-15

    Thermal comfort research in India is in its nascent stage. Indian codes specify uniform comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings. About 73% of energy in Indian residences is consumed for ventilation and lighting controls. Therefore, a thermal comfort field survey was conducted in apartment buildings in Hyderabad, which included information on the use of building controls. The present analysis is based on this database. Due to the poor availability of adaptive opportunities, 60% of the occupants were uncomfortable in summer. The comfort range obtained (26.0-32.5 C) was way above the standard. The occupants adapted through clothing, metabolism and the use of various controls like windows, balcony and external doors and curtains. The subjects operated the controls, as the indoor temperature moved away from the comfort band. At comfort temperature, maximum use of openings was found, which correlated robustly with indoor/outdoor temperature and thermal sensation. Use of controls was critically impeded by lack of privacy and safety and non-availability of controls. Several design and non-thermal factors, such as operation and maintenance of controls, mosquitoes, noise, and occupant's attitude, age and tenure impacted the occupant's adaptive behaviour and thermal comfort significantly. The building's 'restrained adaptive opportunity' seriously hampered the occupant's thermal satisfaction and adversely affected the sensation vote. (author)

  6. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, K. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Henderson, H. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, the ARIES Building America team collected apartment temperature data from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. Data was analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating in an effort to answer the question, "What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?" This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort.

  7. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  8. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  9. Rust City: Brockport College Apartments, Brockport, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1975-01-01

    To hold down construction costs of student housing, Brockport College decided on a fixed-cost competition, in which architects had to team up with contractors. The winning firm used a French industrialized building system and exterior panels of weathered steel to construct a village of 27 four-story buildings. (JG)

  10. Apar-T: code, validation, and physical interpretation of particle-in-cell results

    CERN Document Server

    Melzani, Mickaël; Walder, Rolf; Folini, Doris; Favre, Jean M; Krastanov, Stefan; Messmer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present the parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) code Apar-T and, more importantly, address the fundamental question of the relations between the PIC model, the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, and real plasmas. First, we present four validation tests: spectra from simulations of thermal plasmas, linear growth rates of the relativistic tearing instability and of the filamentation instability, and non-linear filamentation merging phase. For the filamentation instability we show that the effective growth rates measured on the total energy can differ by more than 50% from the linear cold predictions and from the fastest modes of the simulation. Second, we detail a new method for initial loading of Maxwell-J\\"uttner particle distributions with relativistic bulk velocity and relativistic temperature, and explain why the traditional method with individual particle boosting fails. Third, we scrutinize the question of what description of physical plasmas is obtained by PIC models. These models rely on two building blocks: coarse...

  11. Korterelamu : Aleksandri 35, Tartu = Apartment building : Aleksandri 35, Tartu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Karlova linnaosas asuva korterelamu arhitektuursest lahendusest, žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud elamule. Arhitektid Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik ja Kristiina Arusoo (Salto AB)

  12. Apartment Building%分享阳光--比尔的公寓楼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOG ID,Dieter Schempp; 冯道刚

    2006-01-01

    @@ 这幢位于瑞士比尔郊区的公寓高三层,由8套大小不同的住宅单元所构成,所处位置能够俯瞰整个小镇,具有极佳的视野.下面的部分是跃层式的二层公寓,上面一层则是普通公寓.楼顶为公共活动区域,设有孩子们的游戏室,其屋顶形式与相邻的建筑风格颇为近似.

  13. Korterelamu Tallinnas Weizenbergi 29 = Apartment Building in Tallinn, at 29 Weizenbergi Street / Andres Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Andres, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Puitvoodriga betoonist kastjas hoone. Projekteerija Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Arhitektid Andres Alver ja Tarmo Laht. Eriosad: Eesti Projekt. Projekt 1998, valmis 2000. 3 ill.: põhiplaan, välisvaade, Pille Lausmäe kujundatud korteri vaade

  14. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  15. Pagari 1 kortermaja = Apartment building at Pagari 1 / Reio Raudsepp ; kommenteerinud Reet Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Reio

    2015-01-01

    Pagari 1 kortermaja (Tallinn, vanalinn) renoveerimisest. Hoone arhitekt Hans Schmidt, valmimisaasta 1911. Renoveerimise autorid Reio Raudsepp, Rasmus Tamme, Jaanus Saarepera; projekteerija ARS Projekt

  16. Korterelamu Viimsis Aiandi tee 2A = Apartment Building in Viimsi, Aiandi Rd. 2A

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kaarja põhiplaani ja astmelise fassaadiga elamu projekteeris büroo AT Arhitektuur. Autor Anu Tammemägi, konstruktor Märt Mõttus. Projekt 2000, 19 korteriga hoone valmis 2002. 8 ill.: korruste plaanid, sise- ja välisvaated

  17. Kortermajad Pelgurannas = Apartment buildings in Pelgurand / Velle Kadalipp, Kalle Vellevoog ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadalipp, Velle, 1963-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinnas Helme t. 14 ja 16 asuvate korterelamute arhitektuursest lahendusest. Isikupära annab betoonelementidest kortermajadele hoonekõrgune betoongraafika sissekäigu kõrval. Arhitektid Velle Kadalipp ja Kalle Vellevoog (AB JVR), kaasa töötas Andrus Andrejev

  18. Korterelamud Supilinnas = Apartment buildings in Supilinn / Kaido Kepp ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kepp, Kaido

    2012-01-01

    Tartus Meloni t. 28, Oa t. 31 ja 33 asuvate korterelamute arhitektuursest lahendusest. Kergplokkidest elamud on kaetud laudvoodriga, fassaadi keskmine osa on kaetud dekooriga. Arhitektid Kaido Kepp ja Erik Mutso (Arhitektuuriklubi)

  19. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

  20. "Living Apart Together": Relationships in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Strohm

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in "Living Apart Together" (LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships - these individuals would be classified as "single" in conventional studies that focus on residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive.

  1. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  2. Thermal comfort in apartments in India: Adaptive use of environmental controls and hindrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2011-04-15

    Energy used in buildings in India is ever-increasing. About 47% of total energy in Indian residential buildings is used for ventilation controls alone. Comfort temperatures defined in Indian codes are inappropriate (23-26 C). There are no thermal comfort field studies in residences reported from India. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. The present paper discusses the occupants' methods of environmental control, behavioural adaptation and impediments. Due to poor adaptive opportunities, about 60% of occupants were uncomfortable in summer. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants adapted through the use of personal environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural control actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/c s increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. Air-coolers and A/c s were mostly used in top- floors, as the available adaptive opportunities were insufficient. Behavioural adaptation was higher in summer and was limited in higher economic groups always. Subjects frequently exposed to A/c environments, tolerated thermal extremes little, and desired ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  3. Things Fall Apart: Unpacking the Temporalities of Impermanence for HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsaknaki, Vasiliki; Cohn, Marisa; Boer, Laurens;

    2016-01-01

    and reflection. This one-day NordiCHI'16 workshop will bring together researchers from the fields of design, HCI, and anthropology, in order to unpack the temporalities of these forms of impermanence from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The workshop aims to build a rich lexicon for the material...

  4. Conway Street Apartments: A Multifamily Deep Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-11-01

    While single-family, detached homes account for 63% of households (EIA 2009); multi-family homes account for a very large portion of that remaining housing stock, and this fraction is growing. Through recent research efforts, CARB has been evaluating strategies and technologies that can make dramatic improvements in energy performance in multi-family buildings.

  5. On analysis of residential space design of senior citizens’apartments%老年公寓居住空间设计的分析与探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑祎峰

    2015-01-01

    According to the physical and psychological features of senior citizens,the paper analyzes the design elements for the residential space of their apartments,and points out the design suggestions for their apartments from the residential space,activity space,public corridor,and travel space,so as to build up the apartments for senior citizens.%根据老年人的生理与心理特点,分析了老年公寓居住空间的设计要素,并从居住空间、活动空间、公共走廊与通行空间等方面着手,提出了老年公寓的设计建议,从而建造出适应老年人养老与居住需求的公寓住所。

  6. CO2 Emissions and Cost by Floor Types of Public Apartment Houses in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jae Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In each country in the world, there is a strong need for all industries to reduce CO2 emissions for sustainable development as a preparation for climatic change. The biggest issue in many developed countries, including the United States, is to reduce CO2 emissions for the upcoming implementation of Carbon Emissions Trading. The construction industry, in particular, which accounts for up about 30% of CO2 emissions, will need studies on the amount of CO2 emissions. The purpose of this study is to present the most environmentally friendly and economical apartment house plan types according to the increasing number of layers by evaluating the amount of CO2 emissions and economic efficiency. The results indicated that flat and Y-shaped types are more eco-friendly and economical in lower levels of less than 20 stories. However, the L-shaped type is more highly eco-friendly and economically efficient in higher levels of more than 20 stories. The results of this paper would help to make a decision on the building types and the number of stories in the early stages of construction.

  7. Workaholic and work engaged employees: dead ringers or worlds apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ilona; Taris, Toon W; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2011-10-01

    Building on Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory and Meijman and Mulder's Effort-Recovery Model, the present study examined the nature, antecedents, and consequences of working hard (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) in a Dutch convenience sample of 1,246 employees. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that workaholism and work engagement were two largely independent concepts. Crossing these two concepts yielded four types of workers: workaholic employees, engaged employees, engaged workaholics, and nonworkaholic/nonengaged employees. MANOVA and subsequent ANOVAs were used to compare these four groups regarding their motivation, working hours, and levels of burnout. As expected, study results revealed that workaholic employees were driven by controlled motivation, whereas engaged employees were driven by autonomous motivation. Engaged workaholics were driven by both controlled and autonomous motivation. In addition, the results revealed that engaged workaholics spent most time on working. Unlike workaholic employees, engaged workaholics did not experience the highest levels of burnout, suggesting that high engagement may buffer the adverse consequences of workaholism. The present study emphasizes the importance of differentiating among at least three categories of employees who work hard: workaholic employees, engaged employees, and-for the first time-engaged workaholics.

  8. RESIDENTS CLOSE THEIR MACEIO SEASHORE APARTMENT VERANDAHS: ADAPTATION TO A NEW LIFESTYLE OR NON-ADAPTATION TO THE CLIMATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Márcio Toledo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available : This paper aims to verify the reason why the apartments verandahs are being closed, a tendency mainly observed at beach cities, and as well the new uses for the rooms, stuffs and typologies in the closing. The methodology applied consisted in photographic surveys and questionnaire applications with residents from nine apartment buildings in the city of Maceio who made up the verandah closure, focusing the handling of door and windows and on the perception of the natural ventilation on summertime and wintertime. It was claimed that the excessive ventilation and the unwished incidence of rain as the major environmental reasons to verandahs closure. It was verified that after the closure, the residents started to utilize it more frequently, keeping the original usage or modifying it. This paper contributes to understand the residents’ reasons, perceptions and choices about the verandahs, creating the conception of new spaces that more and more focus their needs, bringing up elements of projects to architects and project designers.

  9. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  10. Analysis on the SANAA's Okurayama Apartment%浅析SANAA的大仓山集合住宅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛建荣; 蔡晓峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Japanese SANAA architectural firm, their design concepts and design heritage .It elaborates the design background of Japanese residence, introduces the concept of green building to analyze the Okurayama Apartment according to the design style of SANAA architectural firm. This article unscrambles the Okurayama Apartment in many aspects such as transportation, function, space, entity, ecology etc. Okurayama makes people in it can communicate with nature and their neighbors, designed by Sejima on the basis of surroundings and environment. It is a breakthrough in the form of residence, producing interactive links from people inside, the environment and the building itself.%该文介绍了日本建筑事务所SANAA及其设计思想和设计传承.文章阐述了日本集合住宅设计的背景,并根据SANAA建筑事务所的设计风格,引入绿色建筑的理念分析了大仓山集合住宅.文章从场地、交通、功能、空间、实体、生态等多个方面解读了大仓山集合住宅的设计.妹岛和世的大仓山集合住宅根据周边的环境进行设计,使得居住在里面的人们能够与自然沟通,与周围邻里沟通,是集合住宅形式上的一次突破,它使得建筑内部的人、环境和建筑本身都产生了一种互动的联系.

  11. A Field Survey of Window-Opening Behavior and Thermal Conditions in Apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arethusa, Meita Tristida; Kubota, Tetsu; Nugroho, Agung Murti; Antaryama, I Gusti Ngurah; Ekasiwi, Sri Nastiti; Uno, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia to investigate occupants’ window-opening behavior and their thermal conditions. A total of 347 households were interviewed and about 30 houses were covered for measurements of thermal conditions. It was seen that occupants in the naturally ventilated apartments tend to open windows or doors as much as possible at least during daytime for satisfying air flow and ventilation in particular. The average duration of opening windows/...

  12. Utilizing the resource of twins reared apart: their distribution across nine provinces or cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenjing; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2015-04-01

    Twins reared apart provide a fascinating experiment to distinguish genetic from environmental influences. However, there is as yet no broad report on distribution of twins reared apart, especially in the Chinese population. In this study, information on 18,295 volunteer twin pairs of all age groups was compiled in nine provinces or cities of China, and questionnaires were used for zygosity determination. It was discovered that twins reared apart from 0 to 10 years of age accounted for 2.2% of all twin interviewees, with the proportion of this 0-10 group separated before 1, 2, and 5 years old, accounting for 65.3%, 76.1%, and 91.3%, respectively. The proportion of twins reared apart is not significantly related to zygosity or gender, but it is related to region and twin age. As the age of twins lowers, the proportion of those reared apart gradually decreases. Twins reared apart will become rarer in the future and therefore should be cherished as a resource.

  13. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Johner, N.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Müller, B.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a c

  14. APARTMENT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Somerset Grand Fortune Garden Beijing Somerset Grand Fortune Garden Beijing arranged a Lobby Surprise for its residents on Thanksgiving Day, November 25. The team prepared traditional Thanksgiving food, such as turkey and

  15. Thermal performance of residential buildings in Lisbon with large glazing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Márcia; Gonçalves, Helder; Bastos, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of residential buildings (multi-family apartments) with glazing areas greater than 75% of the total façade area, and for different solar exposures in Lisbon. These buildings were designed after the implementation of the first Portuguese Buildings Thermal Regulation and they are intrinsically related with the construction and architecture practiced in the last few years. The analysis includes the thermal behaviour of the apartments select...

  16. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  17. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  18. Neither single, nor in a couple. A study of living apart together in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Regnier-Loilier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among living arrangements, living apart together relationships arouse curiosity on the part of sociologists, demographers and even the media. From a scientific point of view, how have noncohabiting relationships evolved in recent decades? How can we recognise these relationships, and who are the populations concerned? The present study provides an overall view into noncohabiting relationships in France, shedding light on the characteristics of both the individuals concerned and their relationships. There has been no recent increase in the prevalence of this living arrangement. It competes with cohabiting relationships both among students and among people with cohabiting children. Four main groups of living apart relationships are described: "Young adults", "Out of a family", "Seniors." The reasons for living apart as well as future intentions vary considerably across these groups.

  19. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... buildings (not greater than three stories) such as condominiums and garden apartments. If the Secretary... determinations.'' (NRDC, No. 4 at p. 2) RECA also expressed agreement with the Department that the thermal... include: Building thermal envelope improvements Increases in prescriptive insulation levels of...

  20. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... three stories) such as condominiums and garden apartments. If the Secretary determines that the revision...: Building thermal envelope improvements. Increases in prescriptive insulation levels of walls, roofs and... Efficiency Building Thermal Envelope Improvements Table R402.1.1 which specifies prescriptive...

  1. Reconstruction of Wide-apart Double Defect Using a Branch-based Chimeric Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Liu, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Wide-apart double defect in head and neck region is rare and difficult to reconstruct at one time. Double free flaps are normally used for this scenario and often tedious and technically complicated. This study presented a technique using branch-based anterolateral thigh free flap to simultaneously reconstruct the 2 defects separated wide apart. The concept, indications, surgical technique, and anatomical variations are discussed. Branch-based anterolateral thigh flap is a safe technique and the dissection will be easy when the oblique branch is present.

  2. Pagari 1 korterelamu restaureerimine = Restoration of an old town apartment building Pagari 1 / Rasmus Tamme, Jaanus Saarepera, Reio Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud korterelamu Tallinna vanalinnas Pagari tänav 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Rasmus Tamme, Jaanus Saarepera, Reio Raudsepp (ARS Projekt), sisearhitekt Reio Raudsepp. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  3. Kortervilla : elamu Kreutzwaldi tn. 10 Tallinnas = Apartment villa : residential building at F. R. Kreutzwaldi st. 10 in Tallinn / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Endise Eesti Telefoni keskjaama rekonstrueerimine korterelamuks. Projekteerija: Agabush, Endjärv & Truverk Arhitektid OÜ. Autorid: Eero Endjärv, Mattias Agabush, Illimar Truverk. Konstruktor Tõnu Peipman. Projekt 2003, valmis 2004. Ill.: II, III, IV ja V korruse plaanid, 2 värv. välis- ja 2 sisevaadet

  4. Veskitammi kortermaja : ridaelamu Laagris Urva tn. 7 = Veskitammi Apartment Building : Row House in Laagri,Urva Str. 7

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Projekteerija: COO Arhitektid. Autorid Ott Kadarik, Mihkel Tüür. Konstruktsioonid: Leo Lipre. Projekt 2001, hoone valmis 2002. Maja aluseks oli Raivo Puusepa projekteeritud ridamaja keldrikorrus. Hoone on kaetud laudisega, igas korteris on kamin ja saun, maja taga on aed. 7 ill.: II korruse plaan, välisvaated

  5. Lutheri mööblivabriku renoveerimine korterelamuks = Renovation of the Luther furniture factory into an apartment building / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Tallinnas Vana-Lõuna 39 ja 39a asuva hoone (Aleksei Bubõr, Nikolai Vassiljev, 1912) muinsuskaitse eritingimused koostas Monika Eensalu, vastutav arhitekt Rasmus Tamme, arhitektid Andrei Pleskatšov, Jaanus Saarepera ja Evelin Eelma, sisearhitektid Reio Raudsepp, Eero Jürgenson (projektijuht) ja Liina Kink. Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  6. Façade Greening: High-rise apartment building in Milan using pre-stressed concrete slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenning; Li, Mingxin; Han, Yinong; Wang, Moqi; Ansourian, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this project, one single level of the Façade Greening was designed and modelled using finite element method in Strand7. A static analysis was performed in order to understand the deflection and the stress due to the extra loads imposed by the soil and plants. The results produced by the linear static solver are compared with the strength of the materials and the European limitations. The maximum tension stress which exceeds the tensile strength in concrete is found in the root of the cantilever balcony. An alternative design of the cantilevered balcony with pre-stressed concrete slab is modelled separately for the balcony. Decrease is found in the tension stress and the significant improvement of deflection of the balcony with pre-stressed concrete slab. The dynamic loads such as wind and earthquake did not suggest significant effect on the pre-stressed concrete slab.

  7. Korterelamud Haapsalus : Kastani 28 ja 36 = Apartment buildings in Haapsalu : Kastani 28 and 36 / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Nõukogude ajal lõpetamata jäänud majakarpide ümberehitus. Arhitektid: Urmas Muru, Peeter Pere, ksaasa töötasid Reet Viigipuu, Berit Freivald, Doris Orasi ja Aleksandr Zverev. Peatöövõtja: Mapri Projekt OÜ. 2 põhiplaani, 2 värv. välisvaadet

  8. Building renovation with interior insulation on solid masonry walls in Denmark - A study of the building segment and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Tommy; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Rode, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    The segment size of the Danish multi-story building stock from the period 1851-1930 is established through a unique major database managed by the Danish authorities. The outcome illustrates a large segment with 219,202 apartment units distributed over 14,832 unique buildings, all sharing characte...

  9. 新形势下高职院校公寓党建工作现状及存在问题分析%Analysis on the Present Situation and Problems of Apart-ment Party Construction in Higher Vocational Colleges under the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长伟

    2014-01-01

    In the new period, university student's Party building work has a diversification trend. The Party construction in apart-ment is beneficial to improve the effectiveness of college Party building. The present situation is that the majority of colleges and universities ignore the importance of apartment Party building, and the supervision mechanism has not yet formed and they lack Party building platform. There are the following problema lack of overall arrangement makes the development unbalanced and inadequate;the one-sided pursuit of"flower pot"effect;the or-ganization is not perfect;the team quality is not high. The position for Party construction is single and the effect is not prominent;the characteristics of higher vocational education are not prominent. This paper will analyze the causes of the problems, and provide references for finding a solution.%新的时期,大学生党建工作呈多样化发展趋势,党建进公寓是提高高校党建成效的一种有益探索,目前的现状是,多数高校忽视公寓党建的重要性,监管机制尚未形成,党建平台匮乏等,存在缺乏统筹安排发展态势不均衡、深度不够、追求“花盆”效应、组织不健全队伍素质不高、阵地单一、党建成效不明显、高职特色不突出套用本科院校模式等现实问题,分析问题成因,为找到解决办法提供借鉴。

  10. 聊城市区民众对老年公寓养老模式接受度调查与研究%Investigation and Research on Liaocheng Urban Resi-dents' Acceptance of the Mode of Elderly Care in Apart-ments for the Aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢爽; 曹先鹏

    2016-01-01

    Elderly care in apartments for the aged, as one of the forms of realizing house-for-pension program, to a certain extent, can alleviate the increasingly family support and increasingly weakened home-based elderly care and the insufficient national and social old-age support supply.Based on the materials ob-tained in the investigation, this paper studies Liaocheng urban residents' acceptance of the mode of elderly care in apartments for the aged and the influencing factors, and makes further de-scriptions and demonstrations:the demand situation of the"mode of elderly care in apartments for the aged", the policy foundation of the government to implement the mode of elderly care in a-partments for the aged, the feasibility of enterprise project invest-ment, and the theoretical support for the selection of building plans for apartments for the aged.%老年公寓养老是以房养老模式的实现形式之一,可以在一定程度上缓解家庭养老日渐衰弱、国家和社会养老供给不足的问题。文章基于调查所得资料,研究聊城市区民众对老年公寓养老模式的接受度及其影响因子,进一步描述和论证民众“老年公寓养老模式”的需求情况、政府推行“老年公寓”养老模式的政策基础、企业项目投资可行性和老年公寓建设方案的筛选理论支撑。

  11. A Calculated Gamble Pays Off: Villa Julie College's Leasing of Off-Campus Apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2007-01-01

    Officials at Villa Julie College marvel at how quickly the institution's transformation took place, from serving commuters to becoming a much more residential campus. As recently as the 2003-2004 academic year, Villa Julie, located in an affluent suburb of Baltimore, was leasing off-campus apartments to house more than 300 students because zoning…

  12. The Cultural Impact upon Human Struggle for Social Existence in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dessouky, Mohamed Fawzy

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing an insight into the nature of cultural conflict as depicted in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart." This study shows how the African black culture represented by Ibo tribe comes into disagreement with the white one imposed by the British imperialism. The greatness of Achebe lies in the vivid description of…

  13. Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart": Oral and Literary Strategies. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Chinua Achebe is one of Africa's best-known contemporary writers. His first novel, "Things Fall Apart," deals with the clash of cultures and the violent transitions in life and values brought about by the onset of British colonialism in Nigeria at the end of the 19th century. Published in 1958, just before Nigerian independence, the…

  14. From Fiction to Field Notes: Observing Ibo Culture in "Things Fall Apart."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how introducing students to African literature can appeal to their imaginations and encourage them to develop their insights into African culture. Outlines the procedures in a middle school class where the students are transformed into anthropologists as they read Chinua Achebe's, "Things Fall Apart." (MJP)

  15. Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart": Teaching through the Novel. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Chinua Achebe is one of Africa's best-known and most influential contemporary writers. His first novel, "Things Fall Apart," is a narrative about the European colonization of Africa told from the viewpoint of the colonized people. Published in 1958, the novel recounts the life of the warrior and village hero Okonkwo and describes the…

  16. Why do intimate partners live apart? Evidence on LAT relationships across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.; Seltzer, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most research asks whether or not cohabitation has come to rival marriage. Little is known about the meaning of living apart together (LAT) relationships, and whether LAT is a n alternative to marriage and cohabitation or a dating relationship. OBJECTIVE We examine across Europe: 1) the p

  17. Worlds Apart in the Curriculum: Heidegger, Technology, and the "Poietic" Attunement of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article I elucidate a conception of small worlds, or "ontological" contexts, within the curriculum that stand out and beyond the horizon of technological-scientific reality, which might be linked with forgotten, marginal ways of being and thinking. As I attempt to demonstrate, it is possible that such ontological worlds apart from…

  18. Tandem bike design for apartment residents as an idea to reduce air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandriawan Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical housing is recently popular in urban areas since the availability of land is very limited. A strong preference for living in the city is mainly due to the home to work travel that is relatively close for those who work in the city. While residing in the vertical housing (i.e. apartment can be an advantage, several accommodation facilities are often provided at their minimum standards. As such, a special design of bicycle for apartment residents may an effective solution. Multi-function bike, ridden either by one or two riders and its aesthetic part of interior element can be an attractive offer. Identification of marketing objectives and observation of comparable products were a crucial step in the initial process of tandem bike design. The use of bicycle in urban areas can overcome a number of motorized vehicles operating wherever the using of them may create issues such as traffic jam and air pollution. This study aims to adjust the tandem bike which can be produced commercially for the apartment residents. Stated in the research problems, the design process was successfully fulfilled. Fabrication and product testing were positively completed. A concise and comfortable bike to carry from the lobby to the apartment unit, or vice versa, was successfully created.

  19. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  20. Incêndio real em um apartamento de interesse social: um estudo de caso A real fire in a social interest apartment: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Pignatta e Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito o comportamento da estrutura de perfis formados a frio (PFF submetida ao incêndio ocorrido em um apartamento de um conjunto habitacional de baixo custo, com quatro blocos idênticos de quatro pavimentos e oito apartamentos por andar. Cada apartamento tem 44 m² de área total. Segundo a Norma Brasileira, esse tipo de edifício é isento de verificação estrutural em situação de incêndio. Foram realizados ensaios para a caracterização do aço empregado nos pilares e vigas e ensaios metalográficos para estimar a temperatura atingida pelo aço durante o incêndio. O modelamento CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics do cenário do incêndio foi feito utilizando-se o programa de computador SMARTFIRE. A análise térmica da estrutura de aço em situação de incêndio foi realizada por meio do programa SUPERTEMPCALC. A verificação estrutural foi feita empregando-se as expressões da Norma Brasileira para o projeto dos PFF em temperatura ambiente, com base no AISI/USA, mas usando os fatores de redução de resistência recomendados pelo Eurocode 3 part1.2.This paper describes the behavior of a cold-formed steel (CFS framed structure in response to a real fire that occurred in a residential apartment. A set of residential buildings is composed by four identical four-story blocks of eight apartments per floor, housed by poor people; each apartment has 44 m² of total area. The Brazilian Code does not require that this type of building be checked for fire safety. A real fire in a residential apartment was modeled, as well the structural fire resistance; the maximum fire temperature reached during the burning on the structural material was assessed by scanning electron microscopy tests for the further comparative analysis between the theoretical and actual results. A CFD scenario representative of the actual building geometry, materials and fire behavior was modeled by means of the software SMARTFIRE. A steel thermal analysis in fire

  1. Behavioural adaptation and the use of environmental controls in summer for thermal comfort in apartments in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-15

    Building energy use in India is rising phenomenally. Indian codes prescribe a very narrow comfort temperature range (23-26 C) for summer. Ventilation controls alone consume 47% of total energy in residences. Thermal comfort field studies in Indian residences were not attempted. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. This paper presents the occupants' methods of environmental and behavioural adaptation and impediments in using controls. Only about 40% of the occupants were comfortable in summer due to inadequate adaptive opportunities. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants used many adaptation methods: the environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/cs increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. A/c and air cooler usage was higher in top floors. Behavioural adaptation was better in summer and was restricted in higher economic groups always. Thermal tolerance was limited in subjects using A/cs and resulted in ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  2. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Reisbacka, H; Vinha, J

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30% lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h(-1), the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100% in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h(-1). This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30% lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on applied creativity: A reared-apart twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Jaime A; Segal, Nancy L; Horwitz, Briana N

    2015-03-01

    Applied creativity involves bringing innovation to real-life activities. The first reared-apart twin study assessing genetic and environmental origins of applied creativity, via Draw-a-House (DAH) and Draw-a-Person (DAP) tasks, is presented. Participants included 69 MZA and 53 DZA twin pairs from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Drawings were evaluated by four artists and four non-artists. Genetic effects were demonstrated for the DAP (.38-.47), but not for the DAH. Creative personality showed genetic effects (.50), and modest, but significant correlations with scores on the two drawings (rs = .17-.26). Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences underlie variance in applied creativity. Individuals concerned with enhancing creativity among students and others may better understand individual differences in performance and training.

  4. Drawing theories apart the dispersion of Feynman diagrams in postwar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, David

    2005-01-01

    Winner of the 2007 Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. Feynman diagrams have revolutionized nearly every aspect of theoretical physics since the middle of the twentieth century. Introduced by the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-88) soon after World War II as a means of simplifying lengthy calculations in quantum electrodynamics, they soon gained adherents in many branches of the discipline. Yet as new physicists adopted the tiny line drawings, they also adapted the diagrams and introduced their own interpretations. Drawing Theories Apart traces how generations of young theorists learned to frame their research in terms of the diagrams—and how both the diagrams and their users were molded in the process.Drawing on rich archival materials, interviews, and more than five hundred scientific articles from the period, Drawing Theories Apart uses the Feynman diagrams as a means to explore the development of American postwar physics. By focusing on the ways young physicists learned new calcul...

  5. Role of Colonial Subjects in Making Themselves Inferior in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Chinua Achebe in his novel Things Fall Apart gives us a unique picture of life in Africa before the arrival of Christianity and colonization and the era afterwards. He shows how African people lost their traditional culture and values, replacing them with foreign beliefs. In this article, the way black people lived before the arrival of white people, how they encountered and reacted to white colonizers, in addition to how they converted to Christianity and subsequently to White culture, as po...

  6. Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart Abstract  The evolutionary process of separatist efforts such as colonialism, imperialism, globalization, neo-colonialism or any nationalism are outdated because global resources are becoming scarce every day, so such terms as human solidarity, Cosmopolitanism, and co-existence will have to endure in order to make use of the resources in the most optimum way. Mankind will have to understand that global samen...

  7. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies.

  8. Symptoms and perceived indoor air quality among occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.; Roennberg, R.; Majanen, A.; Seppaenen, O. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Jaakkola, J.J.K. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland) Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and the perception of poor indoor air quality among the occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. The study population consisted of the 473 occupants of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area who responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 93.1%) after a two-week period of indoor air quality measurements. The symptoms of interest were those often related to poor indoor air quality including dryness or itching of the skin; dryness, irritation or itching of the eyes; nasal congestion (''blocked nose''); nasal dryness; nasal discharge (''runny nose''); sneezing; cough; breathlessness; headache or migraine; and lethargy, weakness or nausea. Perception of coldness; warmness; draught; dryness; stuffiness; and sufficiency of air exchange was also requested. The age-standardized period prevalences of the symptoms and complaints were systematically more common among the occupants of the apartments than those of the houses. The occupants of the houses with natural ventilation seemed to have more symptoms and complaints than those with balanced ventilation. However, in the apartments with blanced ventilation the occupants reported, in general, more symptoms and complaints than those with natural ventilation. (au) (9 refs.).

  9. Bristles reduce force required to fling wings apart in small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shannon; Yun, Young; Hedrick, Tyson; Griffith, Boyce; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The smallest flying insects commonly possess wings with long bristles. Little quantitative information is available on the morphology of these bristles, and the functional importance of these bristles remains a mystery. In this study, we used the immersed boundary method to determine via numerical simulation if bristled wings reduced the force required to fling the wings apart during "clap and fling". The challenge of studying the fluid dynamics of bristles was in resolving the fluid flow between the bristles. The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, bristle spacing, and wing-wing interactions were investigated. We found that a bristled wing experiences less force than a solid wing, however bristled wings may act more like solid wings at lower angles of attack than they do at higher angles of attack. In wing-wing interactions, bristled wings significantly decrease the drag required to fling two wings apart compared with solid wings, especially at lower Reynolds numbers. These results support the idea that bristles may offer an aerodynamic benefit during clap and fling by reducing the force required to fling the wings apart in tiny insects.

  10. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  11. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. within and between Apartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cooper

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar, adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  12. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  13. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  14. Climate Change and Buildings Energy Efficiency – the Key Role of Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezis Martins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe today is confronted with an unavoidable problem - the multifamily apartment building stock is deteriorating but apartment owners do not have sufficient access to resources be they organizational, financial, technical or legal. In addition, destructive myths have grown about the Soviet era buildings despite their continued resilience or the ex- GDR experience in the 90s with the same buildings. Further, without resources, decision making in residential apartments is seen as a major obstacle and used as an explanation why renovation has not taken place in Latvia. This is important not only in the context of a potential housing crisis but also because the renovation of the apartment buildings is an effective solution to significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It has a proven potential to effectively finance the long term renovation of these buildings. This paper summarizes the first findings of a comprehensive and in-depth study of apartment buildings, their owners and the processes relating to renovation, combining social and environmental engineering research methods. It seeks to understand how owners of multi-family buildings in Eastern Europe understand their buildings and then to answer two questions - how to motivate owners to renovate their homes and increase energy efficiency and what business models should be used to implement economically viable and high quality projects.

  15. Climate Change and Buildings Energy Efficiency - the Key Role of Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miezis, Martins; Zvaigznitis, Kristaps; Stancioff, Nicholas; Soeftestad, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Eastern Europe today is confronted with an unavoidable problem - the multifamily apartment building stock is deteriorating but apartment owners do not have sufficient access to resources be they organizational, financial, technical or legal. In addition, destructive myths have grown about the Soviet era buildings despite their continued resilience or the ex- GDR experience in the 90s with the same buildings. Further, without resources, decision making in residential apartments is seen as a major obstacle and used as an explanation why renovation has not taken place in Latvia. This is important not only in the context of a potential housing crisis but also because the renovation of the apartment buildings is an effective solution to significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It has a proven potential to effectively finance the long term renovation of these buildings. This paper summarizes the first findings of a comprehensive and in-depth study of apartment buildings, their owners and the processes relating to renovation, combining social and environmental engineering research methods. It seeks to understand how owners of multi-family buildings in Eastern Europe understand their buildings and then to answer two questions - how to motivate owners to renovate their homes and increase energy efficiency and what business models should be used to implement economically viable and high quality projects.

  16. 17 CFR 240.15a-2 - Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment houses from section 15(a). 240.15a-2 Section 240.15a-2 Commodity and... Securities from Section 15(a) § 240.15a-2 Exemption of certain securities of cooperative apartment...

  17. Notes on the Psychological Basis of Environmental Design: The Right-Left Dimension in Apartment Floor Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael R.

    1977-01-01

    The previously recognized right-left asymmetry in aesthetic balance was applied to preferences in architectural design. Preferences for right-and left-oriented apartments in apartment floor plan layouts were noted in sophomore psychology students. Data examined from preferences of 67 right-handed and 5 left-handed students revealed that…

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...

  19. Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1991-11-01

    Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank

  20. Apartment block with heat-pumps and solar energy; Mit Waermepumpe und Sonnenenergienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haltiner, E. W.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the owner of an apartment block in Zurich, Switzerland has moved away from conventional heating-oil and installed two air/water heat pumps and 36 m{sup 2} of solar collectors to provide the necessary heating power and domestic hot water. The new installation, which also features speed-controlled circulation pumps in the heating circuit is briefly described. Subsidies received and tax-saving aspects are discussed. The heat pumps, which use the Enhanced Vapour Injection EVI system are briefly looked at. This system allows higher flow temperatures to be attained.

  1. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  2. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  3. Pull-apart origin of the Satpura Gondwana basin, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandan Chakraborty; Sanjoy Kumar Ghosh

    2005-06-01

    The Gondwana basins of peninsular India are traditionally considered as extensional-rift basins due to the overwhelming evidence of fault-controlled synsedimentary subsidence. These basins indeed originated under a bulk extensional tectonic regime, due to failure of the attenuated crust along pre-existing zones of weakness inherited from Precambrian structural fabrics. However, disposition of the basins and their structural architecture indicate that the kinematics of all the basins cannot be extensional. To maintain kinematic compatibility with other basins as well as the bulk lateral extension, some basins ought to be of strike-slip origin. The disposition, shape and structural architecture of the Satpura basin, central India suggest that the basin could be a pull-apart basin that developed above a releasing jog of a left-stepping strike-slip fault system defined by the Son-Narmada south fault and Tapti north fault in consequence to sinistral displacement along WSW-ENE. Development of a sedimentary basin under the above-mentioned kinematic condition was simulated in model experiments with sandpack. The shape, relative size, stratigraphic and structural architecture of the experimental basin tally with that of the Satpura basin. The experimental results also provide insights into the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Satpura basin in particular and pull-apart basins in general.

  4. Role of Colonial Subjects in Making Themselves Inferior in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe in his novel Things Fall Apart gives us a unique picture of life in Africa before the arrival of Christianity and colonization and the era afterwards. He shows how African people lost their traditional culture and values, replacing them with foreign beliefs. In this article, the way black people lived before the arrival of white people, how they encountered and reacted to white colonizers, in addition to how they converted to Christianity and subsequently to White culture, as portrayed in this novel, will be analyzed. The purpose of this study is to trace the roots of this rapid pace of colonialism back to when colonial subjects lost their original culture to the new-coming people and to what extent those colonized people were affectively actualizing their inferiority and subordination to the white society. Frantz Fanon’s theories on the relation between language and culture or language and civilization, as well as his discussion of White notion of Blacks and Blacks’ conception of themselves are discussed and analyzed in Achebe’s masterpiece Things Fall Apart to prove that black people attempted to make up for their deep feeling of incompleteness by imitating white people and forming a white personality in a black statue as a result of their own conscious volition.

  5. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  6. Dose reduction factors from a radioactive cloud for large buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, J. le; Roux, Y.; Patau, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    A set of complex and accurate computer codes has been established to determine the transport of photons emitted from a radioactive cloud through various media. The geometrical and physical description of large buildings with various numbers of floors and rooms can be done by the user. The codes can calculate, in any room or apartment, the characteristics of the photon fields (photon flux, energy flux and distribution, direction distribution) and whole-body absorbed dose rates in a phantom standing or lying on the floor. The dose reduction factor is then the quotient of the mean absorbed dose rate in the apartment to the absorbed dose rate in the phantom standing on the ground outdoors. Applications to several modern multistorey buildings are presented. The results show the influence of various parameters such as density and composition of building materials, the fraction of the external building surface containing apertures and initial photon energy.

  7. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... three stories) such as condominiums and garden apartments. If the Secretary determines that the revision... efficiency of the code. Multifamily buildings, which in the past have had separate, less stringent thermal... requirements, the thermal impact when these spaces are not actively conditioned is negligible. Therefore,...

  8. A New Design of Student Apartment Bed Based on Kansei Engineering and Ergonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ming-yu; YANG Guang-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the defects of the products available on the market at present and basing on the Kansei Engineering and Ergonomics, a new kind of student apartment bed which can prove its humanity more clearly is designed, and its design direction is gotten through the questionnaire and the design starts from the real actual needs of students. After the original design was finished, the later investigation on the students was engaged with and made the engineering analysis. The conclusion is that the sum of"perfect"and"good"membership rates is up to 64%, hence the comprehensive assessment of the design is perfect. That is to say, this design is able to realize and meet the needs of users, and there is no doubt that it will have a good business prospects.

  9. Why do intimate partners live apart? Evidence on LAT relationships across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aart C. Liefbroer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most research asks whether or not cohabitation has come to rival marriage. Little is known about the meaning of living apart together (LAT relationships, and whether LAT is an alternative to marriage and cohabitation or a dating relationship. Objective: We examine across Europe: (1 the prevalence of LAT, (2 the reasons for LAT, and (3 the correlates of (a LAT relationships vis-à-vis being single, married, or cohabiting, and (b different types of LAT union. Methods: Using Generations and Gender Survey data from ten Western and Eastern European countries, we present descriptive statistics about LATs and estimate multinominal logistic regression models to assess the correlates of being in different types of LAT unions. Results: LAT relationships are uncommon, but they are more common in Western than Eastern Europe. Most people in LAT unions intend to live together but are apart for practical reasons. LAT is more common among young people, those enrolled in higher education, people with liberal attitudes, highly educated people, and those who have previously cohabited or been married. Older people and divorced or widowed persons are more likely to choose LAT to maintain independence. Surprisingly, attitudinal and educational differences are more pronounced in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. Conclusions: A tentative conclusion is that LAT is more often a stage in the union formation process than an alternative to marriage and cohabitation. Yet some groups do view LAT as substituting for marriage and cohabitation, and these groups differ between East and West. In Eastern Europe a cultural, highly educated elite seems to be the first to resist traditional marriage norms and embrace LAT (and cohabitation as alternative living arrangements, whereas this is less the case in Western Europe. In Western Europe, LAT unions are mainly an alternative for persons who have been married before or had children in a prior relationship.

  10. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  11. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  12. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  13. [Moisture and mold on the inner walls of prefabricated building slabs--investigating a strange cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, T; Fiedler, K; Jung, G; Lindner, M; Gassel, R P

    1997-04-01

    Reasons for indoor-moisture beyond the normal level can be caused by penetrating dampness, condensation-water, and apartment misuse. A fall in the air temperature below the dew point in connection with moulding inside buildings becomes evident mostly at places like badly insulated outer-walls or room-corners. In a number of houses built between 1980 and 1983 in the so called "Plattenbauweise" (prefabricated slabs), exclusively the inner-walls were covered in mould around cracks in the walls. Examinations showed connections between the apartment and the outer-corridor with a slight exchange of air through the cracks. Warm, wet air escaped from the apartment into the outer-corridor, and cold air entered the apartment from the outer-corridor. This temporary fall below the dewpoint caused by suitable variation of temperature probably resulted in the building materials and wallpapers becoming damp, as well as the growth of mould.

  14. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  15. Living Apart Together en España. ¿Noviazgos o parejas independientes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuso, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the Living Apart together (LAt names partnerships that do not live habitually in the same residence. in Spain this phenomenon has increased in the last years as consequence of the retard in the familiar emancipation. nevertheless, this conceptualization groups into social very diverse realities. this study analyzes a sample of 692 women in LAt between 20 and 79 years proceeding from estudio 2,639, Fecundidad y valores en la España del siglo XXI elaborated by the CiS in 2006. in Spain there are 8% of women in this situation, of which 60% can be considered to be engagements. this phenome non concerns all the marital statuses, with social characteristics and different attitudes. There are 11% of “alternative” LAT to the conventional unions. They identify as the principal person of the home and reject the marriage; his profile answers to women of medium age, work independent and with children.El fenómeno de los Living Apart Together (LAT hace referencia a parejas que no conviven habitualmente en la misma residencia. en españa este fenómeno ha proliferado en los últimos años como consecuencia del retraso en la emancipación familiar. Sin embargo, esta conceptualización agrupa realidades sociales muy diversas. este estudio analiza una muestra de 692 mujeres en LAt de entre 20 y 79 años procedentes del estudio 2.639, Fecundidad y valores en la España del siglo XXI, elaborado por el Centro de estudios Sociológico (CiS en 2006. en españa existe un 8% de mujeres en esta situación, de las cuales, un 60% pueden considerarse como noviazgos. este fenómeno afecta a todos los estados civiles, con características sociodemográficas y actitudinales diferentes. Existe un 11% de “alternativas” a las uniones convencionales. Se identifican como la persona principal del hogar y rechazan el matrimonio; su perfil responde a mujeres de mediana edad, independientes laboralmente y con hijos.

  16. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.

    2014-12-01

    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  17. Chinua Achebe's novel Things fall apart as a response to the negative portrayal of Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Babnik

    2009-12-01

    Given that Achebe’s fi rst novel, whose publication sparked an incident at Ibadan University in 1952, was in itself an act of rebellion and a form of rejoinder to the colonial representation of Africans, it is understandable that the absence of personality, historicity, and understanding are integral to his novels. Writing an »African« novel or »anti-novel« meant transcending the »objectivity« of colonial discourse and drawing into one’s consciousness the history and culture of the Igbo people (primarily from southeast Nigeria, although the description of pre-colonial society at the moment of its fi rst contact with the white man does not imply a nostalgic return to the past, as is notable for instance in the négritude movement. Th e potency of Achebe’s novel lies in the fact that by invoking Igbo culture he has turned the colonial perception of Africans as inferior on its head, although the anti-colonial dialectics are intimately bound up with his representation of the African woman. Achebe’s women are marginalized just as in Fanon’s work – the novel Th ings Fall Apart is in some ways a response to Fanon’s theoretical work Th e Wretched of the Earth. Women in Achebe’s trilogy Th ings Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God have above all a symbolic and metaphorical role, being represented as the mother of the land, whereas men are individual fi gures. Th is representation of women is linked to the fact that the fi rst two novels, which were written before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, develop the idea of the national struggle for liberation, which reaffi rms the humanity and manhood of the colonized, whereas colonialism only assigned to Africans the attributes of children or at best those of women. In Achebe’s favor, one can say that Okunkwo, as the reincarnation of the social ideal of manhood, is continually fi ghting with the basic tenet of both the preceding (i.e., his father’s and future (i.e., his son’s generation

  18. Brief Analysis on Management of College StudentsˊApartment Based on Apartment Culture%浅析以公寓文化为基础的高校学生公寓管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾峰

    2015-01-01

    Management of college studentsˊapartment is an important part of daily management of colleges and uni-versities ,the quality of apartment management is critical to whether the college students have a good living environ-ment while the construction of apartment culture,as a means of apartment management,plays its unique role. Good apartment culture can not only drive the apartment management to make the management convenient and effective, but also create a harmonious and wonderful learning and living atmosphere for the students to make great contribu-tion to their healthy growth and improvement of comprehensive quality.%高校学生公寓管理是高校日常管理的重要组成部分,公寓管理的好坏关系着大学生们是否拥有一个良好的生活环境,而公寓文化的建设作为公寓管理的一种手段,有着其独特的作用,良好的公寓文化不仅能带动公寓管理,使管理变得方便有效,更能为学生营造一个和谐美好的学习和生活气氛,为他们的健康成长和综合素质水平的提高做出不小的贡献。

  19. Evaluation of Building Performance in Use - A Case Study of the Seager Distillery Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Michael CN; Ross, David; Harper, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A two-year post-occupancy performance evaluation has been undertaken of the apartments within Galliard Homes’ Seager Distillery redevelopment site in London. The Seager Distillery site is typical of the many new high-density developments in London, reflecting the tightening standards on energy use and pressure on land use. This paper presents the energy and environmental performance of three apartments studied in detail, including the assessment of the performance of the building fabric, MVHR...

  20. Energy efficiency in small houses and apartment blocks; Energieffektivitet i smaahus och flerbostadshus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin Ferdman, Ulrika

    2001-05-01

    The report shows examples of energy efficient small houses as a basis for estimation of the potentials for future small houses with low energy consumption. The study also describes building technology that affects the energy use in dwellings and how energy efficiency can be improved.

  1. A novel solution for reducing the transfer of particles and gases among adjacent apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    A unique type of fabric membrane has been developed by a Swedish company. That membrane is design to trap the emission from surfaces. To test the performance of the said membrane for trapping particles and gases, a study was conducted by the Danish Building Research Institute (SBi). The study...

  2. The willingness to pay for green apartments : The case of Nanjing China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Geertman, S.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of developing sustainable cities, the Chinese government sets green construction as part of the national strategy to reduce energy consumption. However, the consumer market has shown limited response to such policies. To upscale green building, it is crucial to understand th

  3. BUILDING SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: A RENOVATION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜNALAN,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the conservation of energy and respect for the natural environment appears to be the most important phenomena in all areas. In this regard, "sustainability" concept emerged and the architectural platform "Sustainable Architecture" is composed of a research subject to the new and permanent. Architecture underlying the "design" as including also the new concept of "sustainable architectural design" has revealed that field. Sustainable architecture "building in-house", "building envelope" and "physical environment" as shown in three different areas of development. Each consisting of three fields that directly affect andconcern. Sustainable architectural design within the scope of this study, "Building Envelope" developments will be discussed. In this context, building envelope, "the new building design" and "existingstructures" as appeared in two different ways. Existing structures, building envelope, sustainable architectural design in the literature in terms of "renovation" is considered within the scope. In terms of energy efficiency and performance (as Energy Performance of Buildings [BEP] with the energy policies of the various measures are being taken to reduce the energy consumption of the new building design. Not been received, but no measures in existing buildings (apartment buildings until 2012, except for heat insulation Remodeling obligation, energy consumption has remained constant. Therefore, the energy consumption of buildings on a sectoral basis is changing in the range 36-25% share of the portion of (Anonim 2011, but can not be reduced. In addition, operating costs of existing buildings and to reduce reliance on energy-environment systems (except for collectors used is noteworthy. In this study the appropriate design of sustainable architecture, renewable energy systems can be integrated into the shell structure will be investigated. In this context, a renovation project of the Department of Architecture at Anadolu

  4. Proposal for a change of contractor to operate the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to inform the Finance Committee of the final outcome of the negotiations with the firm to which the contract was adjudicated for the operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service and to request approval for the contract placed with the second lowest bidder. In September 2000, the Finance Committee agreed to the negotiation of a contract with VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH) (cf. CERN/FC/4311). For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is now invited to approve a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH) - ISS GEBAEUDESERVICE (DE), the second lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, from 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 7 206 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract includes an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the cont...

  5. Okonkwo’s fate and the worldview of Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Foley

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that despite the apparently exhaustive critical attention paid to Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958, certain key aspects of the novel’s meaning remain unresolved. At the heart of the problem lies the question of how to interpret the reasons for Okonkwo’s downfall or fate. The article suggests that a number of different sources of explanation appear to be plausible at various levels, but it goes on to demonstrate that at least some of these putative explanations are incompatible if not mutually exclusive. The more general difficulty arising from this is that several of these explanations are underpinned by worldviews which differ from and even conflict with each other. The article intends, therefore, through an exploration of the possible reasons for Okonkwo’s demise, to consider what worldview the novel finally supports and, indeed, whether the novel’s outlook is coherent at all. The chief conclusion is that although the overall perspective of the novel is highly complex, it does not necessarily follow that the actual meaning of the novel itself is either illogical or selfcontradictory.

  6. Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart Abstract  The evolutionary process of separatist efforts such as colonialism, imperialism, globalization, neo-colonialism or any nationalism are outdated because global resources are becoming scarce every day, so such terms as human solidarity, Cosmopolitanism, and co-existence will have to endure in order to make use of the resources in the most optimum way. Mankind will have to understand that global sameness has to prevail despite long years of hostility, violence and bloodshed. In line with such an understanding, cosmopolitanism, as a term refers to world citizenship and 'a tolerance for things and people who are different’ and 'morality which is not rooted locally, but globally.’ Chinua Achebe tries to change the African images created by the writers depending on Eurocentric and Afrocentric perspectives. He handles the same periphery from an unusual viewpoint that is because he utilizes a different approach in representing Africa and composes counter discourses in response to colonial, imperial and racial discourses presented in colonial contexts.

  7. REPRESENTASI KOLONISASI TERHADAP MASYARAKAT KULIT HITAM AFRIKA DALAM NOVEL THINGS FALL APART KARYA CHINUA ACHEBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Hadiyanto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses white-skinned race colonization and its impacts on African black-skinned race tribal society and culture in African Anglophone novel Things Fall Apart written by Chinua Achebe. The approach used in this research is post-colonial approach by using post-colonial theory to analyze phenomena as well as the implication of the colonizer and the colonized relationship. The result of this research indicates that the coming of white-skinned race colonialists in African Ibo tribe community with their colonization and cultural imperialism is implemented with varied strategies. Those strategies are proven effectively in strengthening white-skinned race’s colonial hegemony in Africa. The white-skinned race colonialists’ imperialism results in horizontal conflict and cultural-social disintegration in African native society; between the pro-colonial and the anti-colonial. Anti-colonial resistence is shown by most African native society to fight against colonial government arrogance and to resist white-skinned race imperialism in Africa. Keywords: African black-skinned race traditional culture, white-skinned race colonization, horizontal conflict, social-cultural disintegration

  8. Does the mind fall apart in multiple personality disorder? Some proposals based on a psychoanalytic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, R M

    1997-01-01

    A psychoanalytic study of some of the phenomena of multiple personality disorder (MPD), this paper takes issue with the view that a falling apart, fragmentation, or disaggregation of the mind is at the bottom of MPD's characteristic symptoms. Since first proposed by Janet in 1889, the view that ordinarily integrated parts of the mind separate from the center, accounting for the appearance of separate "selves," has prevailed among workers in this field. The close psychoanalytic study of a case of MPD suggests that, to the contrary, the appearance of multiplicity may derive from an essentially unitary but nonetheless powerful set of organizing fantasies centering on the idea that one's body and mind can be taken over and controlled by persons other than oneself. The data of the case under study suggest, further, that certain of the details of these patients' histories of childhood sexual and physical abuse may be of great importance in explaining the extraordinary organizing power of their fantasies of being occupied and controlled. In this connection, special attention is directed to the very commonly reported experiences of forced violation and the involuntary filling and emptying of their bodies during childhood.

  9. Healthy-daylighting design for the living environment in apartments in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gon [Division of Architecture, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-701 (Korea); Kim, Jeong Tai [Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    An essential part of an indoor environment design is to deliver both the visual task needed as well as a healthy lighting system. In this article, healthy residential environment is discussed as an architectural field of light. The development and consolidation of health promotion is presented focusing the discussion on two areas of action: providing healthy light and eliminating harmful light within apartments. In Korea, the possibility for occupants to spend a large amount of time in the sun without proper protection is growing since, many balconies have been eliminated and there is a preference for large windows with improper orientation for the opening. When a balcony as a visual buffer space is eliminated, the distance between occupants and balcony window becomes closer and thus, there is a lager glass area of the window in the field of human view. Eliminating the balcony also removes the overhang structure which works as an obstruction to block the excessive penetration of sunlight. This results in the advent of harmful light in quantitative and qualitative ways; too much light, uncomfortable glare, and UV penetration. This paper discusses issues related to light and healthy living environment. Initially, it deals with the establishment of all design elements in terms of light and surveys examples of current designs. Architectural and optical solutions both to attenuate the harmfulness of light and to improve the visual satisfaction are given issued and their performance is reviewed. (author)

  10. Thermal Performance Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Floor Structure with Radiant Floor Heating System in Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the resilient materials in the radiant floor heating systems of reinforced concrete floor in apartment housing is closely related to the reduction of the floor impact sound and the heating energy loss. This study examined the thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene (EPS foam used for the resilient material in South Korea and analysed the thermal transfer of reinforced concrete floor structure according to the thermal conductivity of the resilient materials. 82 EPS specimens were used to measure the thermal conductivity. The measured apparent density of EPS resilient materials ranged between 9.5 and 63.0 kg/m3, and the thermal conductivity ranged between 0.030 and 0.046 W/(m·K. As the density of resilient materials made of expanded polystyrene foam increases, the thermal conductivity tends to proportionately decrease. To set up reasonable thermal insulation requirements for radiant heating floor systems, the thermal properties of floor structure according to thermal insulation materials must be determined. Heat transfer simulations were performed to analyze the surface temperature, heat loss, and heat flow of floor structure with radiant heating system. As the thermal conductivity of EPS resilient material increased 1.6 times, the heat loss was of 3.4% increase.

  11. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  12. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...... of the external envelope and the thermal capacity of the internal walls as the main parameters that affect the load shifting potential of the apartment....... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...

  13. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  14. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  15. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  16. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  17. Design of the composite flooring slab with profiled sheets t-153 (ruukki) for a residential building

    OpenAIRE

    Alysheva, Stanislava

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyse the structure of the composite slab with profiled sheets as permanent formwork; to work with Russian building norms and carry out the limit state design in order to determine characteristics of the structure and find out if it can be used in residential buildings. The study was commissioned by engineers of company Ruukki rus as they are willing to expand their market from designing industrial buildings to residential apartments. An excel file was cr...

  18. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  19. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  20. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  1. Improved energy efficiency and optimization of microclimate in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunovič Dragišić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is possible to reduce energy consumption without losing comfort as a result of using efficient energy saving technologies and advanced environment control methods for buildings. One of the measures to improve energy performance of buildings can be installation of decentralized air intake and exhaust mechanical ventilation systems with plate heat exchangers in apartments making it possible to «return» up to 85% of thermal energy. The article deals with the decentralized system controlled ventilation with heat recovery and alternative solutions heating supply air in residential buildings.

  2. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  3. Soils apart from equilibrium – consequences for soil carbon balance modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Many projections of the soil carbon sink or source are based on kinetically defined carbon pool models. Parameters of these models are often determined in a way that the steady state of the model matches observed carbon stocks. The underlying simplifying assumption is that observed carbon stocks are near equilibrium. This assumption is challenged by observations of very old soils that do still accumulate carbon. In this modelling study we explored the consequences of the case where soils are apart from equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium states of soils that are currently accumulating small amounts of carbon were performed using the Yasso model. It was found that already very small current accumulation rates cause big changes in theoretical equilibrium stocks, which can virtually approach infinity. We conclude that soils that have been disturbed several centuries ago are not in equilibrium but in a transient state because of the slowly ongoing accumulation of the slowest pool. A first consequence is that model calibrations to current carbon stocks that assume equilibrium state, overestimate the decay rate of the slowest pool. A second consequence is that spin-up runs (simulations until equilibrium overestimate stocks of recently disturbed sites. In order to account for these consequences, we propose a transient correction. This correction prescribes a lower decay rate of the slowest pool and accounts for disturbances in the past by decreasing the spin-up-run predicted stocks to match an independent estimate of current soil carbon stocks. Application of this transient correction at a Central European beech forest site with a typical disturbance history resulted in an additional carbon fixation of 5.7±1.5 tC/ha within 100 years. Carbon storage capacity of forest soils is potentially much higher than currently assumed. Simulations that do not adequately account for the transient state of soil carbon stocks neglect a substantial amount of

  4. Can We Tell Winners and Losers Apart? : Social and Cultural Effects on Facial Expressions of Children and Adults in Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mui, Hoi Ching; Goudbeek, Martijn; Swerts, Marc; Freitas-magalhães, A

    2015-01-01

    Can we tell winners and losers apart, on the basis of their facial expressions? In this chapter, we investigate the effects of social and cultural factors on expressions associated with winning and losing in games. Eight-year-olds and adults, who were either Dutch or Chinese, played games alone or w

  5. Reunifying versus Living Apart Together Across Borders: A Comparative Analysis of Sub-Saharan Migration to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beauchemin, C.; Nappa, J.; Schoumaker, B.; Baizan, P.; González-Ferrer, A.; Caarls, K.; Mazzucato, V.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the process of reunification in Europe among “living apart together across borders” (LATAB) couples of African origin (DR Congo, Ghana, and Senegal). Couple reunion is conceived as a multilevel process, wherein state selection (through immigration policies in destination countri

  6. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  7. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  10. Exercise-induced bronchospasm and atopy in Ghana: two surveys ten years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergic diseases have increased in the developed countries. It is important to determine whether the same trends are occurring in the developing countries in Africa. We aimed to determine the time trend in the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB and atopic sensitisation over a ten-year period in Ghanaian schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two surveys conducted using the same methodology ten years apart (1993 and 2003 among schoolchildren aged 9-16 years attending urban rich (UR, urban poor (UP, and rural (R schools. Exercise provocation consisted of free running for six minutes. Children were skin tested to mite, cat, and dog allergen. 1,095 children were exercised in 1993 and 1,848 in 2003; 916 were skin tested in 1993 and 1,861 in 2003. The prevalence of EIB increased from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2%-4.3% to 5.2% (4.3%-6.3%; absolute percentage increase 2.1% (95% CI 0.6%-3.5%, p < 0.01; among UR, UP, and R children EIB had approximately doubled from 4.2%, 1.4%, and 2.2% to 8.3%, 3.0% and 3.9% respectively. The prevalence of sensitisation had also doubled from 10.6%, 4.7%, and 4.4% to 20.2%, 10.3%, and 9.9% (UR, UP, and R respectively. Mite sensitisation remained unchanged (5.6% versus 6.4%, but sensitisation to cat and dog increased considerably from 0.7% and 0.3% to 4.6% and 3.1%, respectively. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, sensitisation (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.12-2.81, age (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98, school (the risk being was significantly lower in UP and R schools: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.68 and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86, respectively and year of the study (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.13-2.66 remained significant and independent associates of EIB. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both EIB and sensitisation has approximately doubled over the ten-year period amongst 9- to 16-year-old Ghanaian children irrespective of location, with both EIB and atopy being more common among the UR than the UP and R

  11. MODULAR APARTMENT,TEMPLE UNIVERSITY —A CASE STUDY ON MODULAR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION%天普大学模块住宅——模块化设计与建造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高崧

    2011-01-01

    在资源稀缺,提倡绿色节能环保的现今社会,工厂化预制式模块建造技术的运用对于推动建筑业可持续性发展有重要的作用。我国预制装配式住宅经过20多年的发展,已从研究阶段走向工程实施阶段,运用在住宅、工业等领域。然而如何推动这一技术在我国建造出高品质的建筑?本文试图通过对美国天普大学(Temple University)一学生公寓的案例研究,尝试总结出有借鉴性的方法。%Prefabricated modular construction plays an important role in promoting the sustainable development of the building industry.In China,prefabricated housing construction has been studied for more than twenty years,moving from research into implementation.However,how to make the best use of this technique in the design and construction process in order to build high-quality buildings? This paper attempts to illustrate an approach by introducing a student apartment,Modular Apartment at Temple University.

  12. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  13. Pemetaan batimetri sebagai informasi dasar untuk penempatan fish apartment di perairan Bangsring, Kabupaten Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur (Bathymetry mapping as basic information for fish apartment placement in Bangsring waters, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zainul Fuad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to map the bathymetry of the Bangsring coastal area, Banyuwangi. Depth data obtained are used to consider the suitable location for fish apartment placement. The depth of the water was measured using a single beam echosounder with a frequency of 50 Hz. The data obtained by sounding process corrected by Tidal data. The tidal data measured during sampling with the observation interval of 30 minutes. The tidal correction was performed to get the depth value relative to lowest Water Surface (LWS. The results showed the depth of the Bangsring coastal area ranged from 2-49 meters. The deepest region is in the southeast of the research area. Based on the depth of the waters, the locations that can be an alternative placement of fish apartment is located by distance of 200- 250 meters in front of Bangsring coastal area with total area  approximately 30 Ha Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan kedalaman perairan Bangsring, Banyuwangi. Data kedalaman yang didapat dari pemeruman selanjutnya digunakan sebagai pertimbangan untuk mencari alternatif lokasi penempatan fish apartment. Kedalaman perairan di ukur menggunakan Single Beam Echosounder dengan frekuensi 50 Hz. Pemeruman dilakukan selama 2 hari yaitu pada tanggal 17 dan 18 Maret 2016 dengan metode zig zag . Hasil pengukuran kedalaman selanjutnya di koreksi terhadap pasang surut. Pasang surut diukur selama pelaksanaan pemeruman dengan interval pengamatan 30 menit. Koreksi pasang surut dilakukan untuk mendapatkan nilai kedalaman relatif terhadap Lowest Water Surface (LWS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kedalaman Perairan Bangsring Berkisar antara 2-49 meter. Wilayah terdalam berada dibagian tenggara area penelitian. Berdasarkan kedalaman perairan tersebut, maka lokasi Perairan di Bangsring yang dapat dijadikan alternatif penempatan fish apartment adalah di perairan depan pantai bagian timur dengan jarak sejauh 200-250 meter dari garis pantai Bangsring dengan

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  15. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  16. Multi-family Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apartments and condos that have earned the label will have WaterSense labeled toilets, faucets, and showerheads that have been independently certified to be high-performing and water-efficient, saving 20 percent more water than standard models.

  17. Selection of material for building pressure vessels and chemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, P.H.; Retter, A.

    1979-06-01

    The authors give on extensive survey on the materials used in building pressure vessels and chemical plants for a temperature region of -200 to +1000/sup 0/C. The effect of various influences on the material behaviour is critically examined on the existing control plant, where the differences to foreign control are indicated. NE metals also come into consideration apart from steels, especially with low-temperature application.

  18. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  19. Living apart together: reflections on bioethics, global inequality and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mupenda Bavon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Significant inequalities in health between and within countries have been measured over the past decades. Although these inequalities, as well as attempts to improve sub-standard health, raise profound issues of social justice and the right to health, those working in the field of bioethics have historically tended to devote greater attention to ethical issues raised by new, cutting-edge biotechnologies such as life-support cessation, genomics, stem cell research or face transplantation. This suggests that bioethics research and scholarship may revolve around issues that, while fascinating and important, currently affect only a small minority of the world's population. In this article, we examine the accusation that bioethics is largely dominated by Anglophone and industrialized world interests, and explore what kinds of positive contributions a 'bioethics from below' (as Paul Farmer calls it can make to the field of bioethics in general. As our guide in this exploration, we make use of some experiences and lessons learned in our collaborative bioethics project in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Building Bioethics Capacity and Justice in Health. We conclude that while there is some evidence of increased attention to bioethical challenges in developing countries, this development should be further cultivated, because it could help expand the horizons of the field and enhance its social relevance wherever it is practiced.

  20. Development and Realisation of the Concept House ‘Delft’ Prototype: An Example of a Collaborative Concept Development for Energy Positive Apartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Delft Prototype is a single apartment from a not yet realized Concept House Urban Villa, which consists of 16 apartments on 4 floors. Both the urban villa and the prototype demonstrate the characteristics of high level industrial production with an extremely low ecological footprint, as well as

  1. Mäekalda kortermaja : Lucca küla, Tabasalu = Mäekalda Apartment Building : Lucca küla, Tabasalu / Oliver Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Oliver, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Elamu kergust rõhutavad galeriid teepoolsel fassaadil, treppe katavad varikatused, pankranniku poolses küljes on avatav klaassein, mille taga on igal korteril veranda. Üldpind: 1071 mø, korterite arv: 8. Projekteerija: HTMd. Autor Oliver Alver. Konstruktor Eino Hint (Ehitusekspertiisibüroo). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I, II ja III korruse plaan, 3 värv. välisvaadet

  2. Äri- ja kortermajad : Rotermanni 5/Roseni 10, Tallinn = Commercial and apartment buildings : Rotermanni 5/ Roseni 10, Tallinn / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Arhitektid: Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür. Peatöövõtja: KMG Ehitus AS. Oranzhi ja musta maja fassaadid ning ühisruumid on kaetud erikujuliste tellistega, valget ja pruuni maja katavad plaadid. Asendiplaan, I korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis- ja 2 sisevaadet

  3. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  4. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  5. Building Place Identity through Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra PACESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, the fading specificity is producing homogeneous images that make cities more and more difficult to tell apart. The market economy tends to commodify each and every aspect of urban life, even those belonging to the cultural realm. As a consequence, a need for differentiators arises, which can be best embodied by the local heritage. The present paper is trying to establish a link between the concept of Place Identity, seen from a marketing point of view, and Heritage, as a key factor to build or emphasize a ‘point of difference’ for ‘a unique selling proposition’. Although ‘brands’ are commonly associated with globalization and its supposed tendency to erase defining characteristics, their marketing principles could prove to be the very solution to regaining the lost specificity, since they help embed local heritage, already an asset, into the ‘mix’ that determines ‘place identity’. Building and promoting an identity is also the endeavor of branding, hence the overlapping of these two concepts. It is therefore useful to examine the evolution of brands from simple marks of identity to entities which develop complex relations with the users. The need for a ‘a unique selling proposition’ that brands have already acknowledged should be considered when building the place identity so much needed by cities in their fierceful competition for attracting activities. Branding through heritage could prove to be a safe bet to reinforce the particular in the globalised market, if correctly managed and planned. Promoting the city and salvaging one of its key differentiators at the same time is, for sure, a win-win situation.

  6. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  7. Integrating Innovation Skills in an Introductory Engineering Design-Build Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Leon; Mathews, Edward Henry

    2012-01-01

    Modern engineering curricula have started to emphasize design, mostly in the form of design-build experiences. Apart from instilling important problem-solving skills, such pedagogical frameworks address the critical social skill aspects of engineering education due to their team-based, project-based nature. However, it is required of the…

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  9. Indoor environmental input parameters for the design and assessment of energy performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The first international standard that dealtwith all indoor environmental parameters (thermal comfort, air quality, lightingand acoustic) was published in 2007 asEN15251. This standard prescribed inputparameters for design and assessment ofenergy performance of buildings and was apart of the set...

  10. Investigation on Future Apartment Mode for Elderly Patients%未来老年公寓模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚荣

    2015-01-01

    我国已经进入老龄化阶段,养老问题已经成为人们日益关注的焦点问题。自实行计划生育以来,老年人在我国的总人口中占的比重越来越大。我国的社会养老已经初具规模,但是现在占主流的养老模式还是家庭养老。经过向西方国家的借鉴与学习,专家表明老年公寓是提升养老水平的有效途径,但是老年公寓的养老模式在我国的发展历史比较短,同时重视度也不高。本文就未来老年公寓的模式进行简单探讨。%Our society has stepped into the aging stage,so the pension issue has become the focus of people’s concern. Since the implementation of family planning,the old people have accounted for a growing proportion of population in our country. China’s social pension has begun to take shape, however,the prevalent pension mode is stil the family pension mode. By learning from western countries,experts discovers that apartment for elderly people is an effective way to enhance the pension level,but senior apartment mode experiences a relatively short history of development and it has not be paid much attention yet. This paper makes an investigation on future apartment mode for elderly patients.

  11. Things fall apart de Chinua Achebe como romance de fundação da literatura nigeriana em lingua inglesa

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho se propõe a analisar o primeiro livro do romancista nigeriano Chinua Achebe, Thingslall apart, comoromance de fundação da literatura nigeriana de língua inglesa. A partir de considerações teóricas das características do texto fundacional, buscamos identificar no decorrer da narrativa os elementos textuais que indicam uma possível leitura deste romance como fundacional, atentandopara os aspectos discursivos da História da África e da Literatura Africana em geral, da const...

  12. Comparison of fuel-cell and diesel integrated energy systems and a conventional system for a 500-unit apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical and thermal energy utilization efficiencies of a 500 unit apartment complex are analyzed and compared for each of three energy supply systems. Two on-site integrated energy systems, one powered by diesel engines and the other by phosphoric-acid fuel cells were compared with a conventional system which uses purchased electricity and on-site boilers for heating. All fuels consumed on-site are clean, synthetic fuels (distillate fuel oil or pipeline quality gas) derived from coal. Purchased electricity was generated from coal at a central station utility. The relative energy consumption and economics of the three systems are analyzed and compared.

  13. Numerical simulation of the thermomechanical processes resulting in the major pull-apart basins at the Dead Sea Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Petrunin; Stephan V. Sobolev; Z. Garfunkel; [Child, Sir Josiah, bart.] 

    2004-01-01

    The continental transform boundary between the Arabian and African plates marked by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) accommodated ca 105 km of relative transform displacement during the last 15-20 Myr. The strike-slip deformation resulted in a string of the pull-apart basins along the DST, with up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover. The reconstruction of the pre-DST basement topography indicates that there was a crystalline basement high close to the DST trace between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, ...

  14. Maintenance of Heritage Building: A Case Study from Ipoh, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Seong Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritage buildings represent the tangible cultural heritage of a community. However, many of the heritage buildings have being left neglected. Ipoh as a city rich in heritage, has many dilapidated heritage buildings which are experiencing a resurging interest. However, the problems faced by many owners are the lack of technical information of such buildings, leading to premature abandonment and demolition. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the types and extent of defects present in the building studied. To achieve these objectives, a case study of a century old heritage property in Ipoh, Perak was conducted. The study aims to provide reference to owners and those responsible for the conservation of heritage buildings with similar conditions to identify and prioritize critical defects in relation to the building life span to determine its condition. The findings determined the probable causes of defects such as settlement and façade cracks, which are over 30 years old, were attributed to leaking plumbing pipes, rainwater ingress and the construction of an adjacent 20 story apartment building. The major issues to address were stabilizing the foundation through cement grouting, reinforcing the existing structural systems and roof systems as well as arresting the decay of timber floor structure. In conclusion, major maintenance guidelines are need to address structural issues and weather tightness of the building envelope, especially its roof and drainage systems.

  15. LED Lightbulbs as a Source of Electricity Saving in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today a number of renewable energy technologies are available for power generation, but fossil fuels are still providing a dominant share nevertheless. In order to decrease the electric bill and save our environment, energy conservation is always crucial. In this paper a very interesting idea is presented which is economically viable to reduce electricity usage in our buildings. An effort has been made to estimate the amount of energy that could be saved in the dormitory section of the IMOP building in Russia. Although there are many ways to reduce the consumption of electricity in this building but here the emphasis is on changing light bulbs inside the rooms, kitchen, toilet and bathroom of each apartment. The scope of the study is to figure out monthly electricity saving by replacing traditional light bulbs by LED light bulbs in the building under consideration. The total investment required and the payback period is also presented.

  16. Thermal insulation made to measure. Buildings made of concrete. Planning documentation, construction information, calculation examples. 6. ed. Waermeschutz nach Mass. Hochbauten aus Beton. Planungsgrundlagen, Konstruktionshinweise, Rechenbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Krieger, R.; Moritz, H.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains hints, working aids and proposed solutions; it addresses, preferably, all those who are projecting new buildings. Apart from thermal insulation, it also goes into moisture-proofing, sound abatement, and fire protection. There are tables presenting the physical characteristics of all standard walls, roofs, and ceilings accepted by the building authorities. (BWI).

  17. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  18. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  19. A virtual reality apartment as a measure of medication management skills in patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Baker, Elizabeth; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Astur, Robert S

    2007-09-01

    Performance on a novel, virtual reality (VR) assessment of medication management skills, the Virtual Reality Apartment Medication Management Assessment (VRAMMA), was investigated in 25 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched healthy controls. The VRAMMA is a virtual 4-room apartment consisting of a living room with an interactive clock and TV, a bedroom, a kitchen, and a bathroom with an interactive medicine cabinet. After an exploratory phase, participants were given a mock prescription regimen to be taken 15 minutes later from pill bottles located in the medicine cabinet in the bathroom of the virtual environment. The VRAMMA was administered with a validated measure of medication management skills, several neurocognitive tests, and a symptom scale. Results revealed that (1) schizophrenic patients made significantly more quantitative errors in the number of pills taken, were less accurate at taking the prescribed medications at the designated time, and checked the interactive clock less frequently than healthy controls; (2) in patients with schizophrenia, there was significant agreement in classification of adherence vs nonadherence between a validated measure of medication management skills and the VRAMMA; and (3) in patients with schizophrenia, years of education and a measure of verbal learning and memory were linked to quantitative errors on the VRAMMA, while positive symptoms, specifically delusional symptoms, were inversely linked to distance traveled within the VRAMMA. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide evidence for the utility of VR technology in the assessment of instrumental role functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.; Foo, S. C.

    1991-12-01

    Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to one-third of their occupants to experience cool thermal comfort sensations. These observations in air conditioned buildings were broadly consistent with the ISO, ASHRAE and Singapore indoor climatic standards. Indoor climates of the naturally ventilated apartments during the day and early evening were on average three degrees warmer than the ISO comfort standard prescriptions, but caused much less thermal discomfort than expected. Discrepancies between thermal comfort responses in apartment blocks and office buildings are discussed in terms of contemporary perceptual theory.

  1. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  2. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  3. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  4. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  5. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...... lecture and illustrates global relations to highlight some of the challenges that we see today....

  6. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  7. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...... station close by. The stochastic models of window opening and heating set-point adjustments were implemented in the BEPS tool IDA ICE. Two apartments from the monitoring campaign were simulated using the implemented models and the measured weather data. The results were compared to measurements from...

  8. 18 Farm Road: First "Boutique Apartment" Clubhouse in Hong Kong%农圃道18号会所

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    全港首个时尚精品公寓(Boutique Apartment)农圃道18号,以欧洲极流行的“Boutique Hotel”为设计蓝本,将为众多高品味人士提供既独特又贴身的居住设施。其中的住客会所,摒弃了传统的豪宅风格设计,以简单流丽的线条、别出心裁的物料和创新意念,设计出别树一帜、充满时代气息和个人触感的写意空间。

  9. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  10. Genetic and environmental contributions to population group differences on the Raven's Progressive Matrices estimated from twins reared together and apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Vernon, Philip A; Cvorović, Jelena

    2007-07-22

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that genetic and environmental influences explain population group differences in general mental ability just as they do individual differences within a group. We estimated the heritability and environmentality of scores on the diagrammatic puzzles of the Raven's Coloured and/or Standard Progressive Matrices (CPM/SPM) from two independent twin samples and correlated these estimates with group differences on the same items. In Study 1, 199 pairs of 5- to 7-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins reared together provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 36 puzzles from the CPM. These estimates correlated with the differences between the twins and 94 Serbian Roma (both rs=0.32; Ns=36; psadult MZ and DZ twins reared apart provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 58 puzzles from the SPM. These estimates correlated with the differences among 11 diverse samples including (i) the reared-apart twins, (ii) another sample of Serbian Roma, and (iii) East Asian, White, South Asian, Coloured and Black high school and university students in South Africa. In 55 comparisons, group differences were more pronounced on the more heritable and on the more environmental items (mean rs=0.40 and 0.47, respectively; Ns=58; ps<0.05). After controlling for measurement reliability and variance in item pass rates, the heritabilities still correlated with the group differences, although the environmentalities did not. Puzzles found relatively difficult (or easy) by the twins were those found relatively difficult (or easy) by the others (mean r=0.87). These results suggest that population group differences are part of the normal variation expected within a universal human cognition.

  11. New constraints on the geometry and evolution of the Southern San Andreas Fault and Salton Pull-apart basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, V. J.; Holmes, J. J.; Kell, A. M.; Harding, A. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the recent geologic past, the Salton pull-apart basin, northern Imperial Fault (IF) and Southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF) have been part of an evolving tectonic regime, subject to strain partitioning. This part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary has the potential for generating a large earthquake. Several lines of active-source seismic reflection and refraction data in the Salton Sea were analyzed to better understand the fault interactions and evolution in this region by investigating the SSAF geometry, stratigraphy, and velocity structure. These data, collected in conjunction with the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) include two fault-perpendicular lines: one adjacent to the southern terminus of the SSAF (Line 7), and one just south of the terminus (Line 8). We present results from Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) data along Line 7, and refraction data along Lines 7 and 8. Velocity models along these lines were constructed from the refraction data. Included in the Line 7 model is an interface representing a strong reflector observed in the MCS data, which helps to constrain the raypaths and velocities in the model. Line 7 MCS data image stratigraphic layers thickening to and dipping down to the east towards the SSAF, indicative of a westward-dipping, oblique strike-slip fault. The refraction data along this line are consistent with a westward dipping SSAF and a down the west normal component. We present velocity models for Line 7 and 8, as well as resolution tests supporting the fault's geometry. The results from these two lines and a fault parallel line suggest that the SSAF is dipping to the west and is in transtension. We propose that the SSAF has migrated northward through time, partitioning its strain onto the IF. As the IF migrates northwards it forms the Salton pull-apart basin.

  12. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  13. Building Collections: Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Fantasy and science fiction are two genres that are products of imagination. Both present alternate worlds governed by their own laws and values, but it is the plausibility of events in each world that sets the two apart. In fantasy, events happen by magic or inexplicable means. In science fiction, events could happen based on advanced…

  14. A Legion Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    returning to their campuses. Now that the “don’t ask, don’t tell,” policy which barred homosexuals from openly serving, has 9 been rescinded...service. “The job of putting on the uniform has become an almost tribal one: a growing share of active-duty troops has a sibling or a parent in

  15. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  16. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  17. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  18. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  19. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  20. METHOD FOR DECREASE OF STANDARD HEAT LOSSES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified method for calculation of standard coefficient for heat transfer in a residential building has been developed in the paper. Investigations have been carried out with the purpose to determine influence of building size, level of thermal insulation in external enclosures and share of heat regeneration in ventilation system on total heat losses. The paper considers buildings of a simple geometrical form (“matchbox” with number of floors 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and living area from 100 up to 25600 m2 at the level of thermal resistance of walls 1; 3 and 5 m2 ⋅°C/W and share of heat regeneration in ventilation air stream of 0; 0.5 and 0.66. The investigation results have shown that while increasing building size then there is a sudden transformation of dimensions and structure in external enclosures: share of overlapping area is reduced by 3-fold and share of wall area is increased by 2-fold. Surface area of building external envelope is reduced by 6-fold in comparison with its heated area. An average coefficient of building heat transfer assigned to heated area is decreased by 3-fold. It has been shown that the most efficient methods for further decrease of standard heat losses for residential buildings are the following: heat recovery in the ventilation system: it is deeper if heat protection rate is higher and climate of a building construction zone is colder; enlargement of building size through decrease of their number; limit-exceeding increase in heat protection of small apartment buildings and cottages; cubic form of 2–3-floor buildings for Far North.

  1. Seismic design of RC buildings theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Manohar, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for engineering courses on earthquake resistant design. The book covers important attributes for seismic design such as material properties, damping, ductility, stiffness and strength. The subject coverage commences with simple concepts and proceeds right up to nonlinear analysis and push-over method for checking building adequacy. The book also provides an insight into the design of base isolators highlighting their merits and demerits. Apart from the theoretical approach to design of multi-storey buildings, the book highlights the care required in practical design and construction of various building components. It covers modal analysis in depth including the important missing mass method of analysis and tension shift in shear walls and beams. These have important bearing on reinforcement detailing. Detailed design and construction features are covered for earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete as well as confined and reinforced masonry structures. Th...

  2. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  3. Simulation of thermal behavior of residential buildings using fuzzy active learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheri Shahraein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy modeling technique called Modified Active Learning Method (MALM was introduced and utilized for fuzzy simulation of indoor and inner surface temperatures in residential buildings using meteorological data and its capability for fuzzy simulation was compared with other studies. The case studies for simulations were two residential apartments in the Fakouri and Rezashahr neighborhoods of Mashhad, Iran. The hourly inner surface and indoor temperature data were accumulated during measurements taken in 2010 and 2011 in different rooms of the apartments under heating and natural ventilation conditions. Hourly meteorological data (dry bulb temperature, wind speed and direction and solar radiation were measured by a meteorological station and utilized with zero to three hours lags as input variables for the simulation of inner surface and indoor temperatures. The results of simulations demonstrated the capability of MALM to be used for nonlinear fuzzy simulation of inner surface and indoor temperatures in residential apartments.

  4. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  5. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  6. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  7. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  8. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  9. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  10. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  11. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  12. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  13. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  14. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  15. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  16. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  17. Energy consumption of bioclimatic buildings in Argentina during the period 2001-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - Av. Spinetto 785, Santa Rosa, 6300 (La Pampa) (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [INENCO - Non Conventional Energies Research Institute, National University of Salta, CONICET (Argentina); Canori, M. [National University of La Pampa (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    The energy performance of two bioclimatic buildings located in Santa Rosa city, a temperate semi-arid agricultural region of central Argentina, is analysed. The bioclimatic design included direct solar gain, thermal inertia, natural ventilation, thermal insulation, external shading, building orientation, and dwelling grouping. Each double-story building is aligned on an East-West axis and it has a compact shape with 350 m{sup 2} of useful floor area (58 m{sup 2}/apartment). The solar collection area is around 18% of the apartment's useful area on the ground floor and 14% on the upper floor. This paper describes the energy performance of the buildings during the period 2001-2008. The analysis includes: (a) the energy consumption (natural gas and electricity) during 2001-2007 (natural gas: annually, bimonthly; electricity: monthly); (b) the natural gas consumption and the thermal behaviour during the winters of year 2001 (between July 27 and August 3) and 2008 (between August 8 and 13); (c) the daily natural gas consumption and the thermal behaviour during 2001 and 2008 winters; (d) the comparison between the energy consumption for heating in bioclimatic and conventional buildings. The authors concluded that the results confirm the large potential of solar buildings design to reach significant levels of energy saving. The comparison of solar and conventional buildings in terms of natural gas consumption demonstrates the magnitude of such potential. (author)

  18. 学生公寓指纹开启式智能门锁及其管理系统%Fingerprint Access lntelligent Door Lock and lts Management System of Students' Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范利良; 陈德传

    2015-01-01

    Based on the problems of replacing locks frequently in students' apartment,which results in great waste of money,plus poor security,large amount of maintenance,unable monitoring,a scheme the fingerprint door locks replace the traditional me-chanical locks is proposed in this paper.The composition scheme of functions,structures,working principle,fingerprint identifi-cation method,technology realization of the fingerprint door lock and the intel igent door lock management system is intro-duced.The fingerprint lock scheme of students' apartment proposed by this paper conforms to the goal of smart city and smart campus's building.%针对学生公寓存在的频繁更换门锁造成大量资金浪费,以及安全性差、维护量大、无法监控等问题,提出在学生公寓中以指纹门锁取代现有机械门锁的“换锁”方案,进而介绍了指纹门锁的功能、组成结构与工作原理、指纹识别方法、技术实现以及智能门锁管理系统的组成方案等。提出的学生公寓指纹锁方案,符合智慧城市、智慧校园的建设目标。

  19. 基于Web服务的学生公寓门禁管理系统设计与研究%Design and Research on the Access Control Management System of Student Apartments Based on Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤新昌

    2013-01-01

    随着网络技术的进一步发展,Web服务(Web Services)技术逐渐被应用于各类管理系统中,Web服务本身具有组件模型无关性、平台无关性、编程语言无关性的优良特性,使得Web服务可以用于系统的集成。本文着重介绍一种基于Web服务的学生公寓门禁管理系统,从系统结构、系统设计模式、Web服务关键性技术等方面阐释系统的设计,构建于Web服务基础上的学生公寓门禁管理系统的数据能够被其它应用系统直接调用,用于高校信息系统集成化建设。%With the in-depth development of network technology, web services technology is gradually applied to vari-ous types of management systems. Web services can be used for the integration of the system due to the excellent characteristics of its own component model-independent, platform independent, programming language independence. In this paper, a kind of access control management system is designed for student apartments based on web services;the system design is illustrated with system architecture, system design patterns and web services critical technology. The data of building the students the apartment access control management system based on web services can be directly transferred by other applying system and applied for the other applications with the construction of university information systems integration.

  20. 房地产企业参建保障房的利益驱动和主要风险%The Interest and Main Risk of Real Estate Enterprises for Their Participation Into The Indemnificatory Apartment Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永岳; 谢福泉

    2011-01-01

    我国保障房建设任务非常繁重,在房地产调控趋于严厉、保障房建设力度显著加大的双重背景下,房地产企业参建保障房,尤其是廉租房和公租房,由于目前并没有形成成熟的盈利模式,很难形成强烈的直接利益驱动。但其间接利益却是多元的。房企参建保障房,还存在诸多不确定性,企业难以进行有效把握和控制。研究认为,有实力的开发企业可以适度参与保障房(经济适用房和限价房)建设。在这一过程中,尤其要注意与政府的协调公关以及开发进度和成本控制。%China's indemnificatory apartment construction project is considered as an arduous task.In the background of the real estate regulation performed more severely and the efforts intensified to construct the indemnificatory apartments,there has not been a mature profit model for the real estate enterprises to participate into building the indemnificatory apartments,especially low-rent housing and public rental housing and to form a strong direct interest-oriented drive model.But the indirect benefits for them are multiple.What's more,the real estate enterprises have been confronted with many uncertainties which are hard to handle.The research suggests that some strong real estate developers are encouraged to participate in constructing the indemnificatory apartments(affordable housing and house in limited price) moderately,in the process of which they should pay attention to their coordination with the government and the development progress and cost control.

  1. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  2. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2404/AS/Rev.) was sent on 5 April 2000 to one firm and three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the firm and the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, to enter into force on 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 6 871 850 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-60%, AT-...

  3. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Michael; Rowe, Leslie; Clement, Parker W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe) and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe). Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas. PMID:27217970

  4. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe. Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas.

  5. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  6. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  7. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  8. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  9. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  10. 老年公寓的消防安全现状及防火对策%Fire protection situation and fire prevention measures of senior apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2009-01-01

    根据近年来老年公寓建设发展过程中发生火灾起数及伤亡人数增多的情况,对老年公寓存在的消防安全问题及其原因进行了分析,提出了改善老年公寓消防安全的对策.%The reason of fire protection problems to senior apartment were analyzed and the measures to improve the fire protection situation of senior apartment were put forward based on the increasing number of fire and fatalities during the development of senior apartment recently.

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on the continuous scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: an analysis based on twins reared apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, T J; Hur, Y M

    1998-04-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures. Extraversion-Introversion and Thinking-Feeling yielded heritabilities of about .60, consisting largely of nonadditive genetic variance. Sensing-Intuition and Judgment-Perception yielded heritabilities of about .40, consisting largely of additive genetic variance. Spouse correlations for three of the four scales were near zero and not statistically significant; one spouse correlation (Sensing-Intuition) was modestly positive and statistically significant.

  12. Investigation Of Passive Energy Efficiency Design In Subtropical Region A Case Study of the energy efficiency demonstration apartment in Fuzhou University%夏热冬暖地区被动式节能设计技术探讨——以福州大学建筑节能示范公寓为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建峰

    2012-01-01

    被动式节能设计以其低技术化、低成本性,通过建筑设计在总平面、平面、立、剖面以及细部节点上的设计,合理利用建筑朝向合理布置、自然通风、建筑遮阳、建筑保温隔热等设计方法来达到有效的降低建筑使用能耗的目的。本文通过福州大学建筑节能示范公寓设计与建设工程实例,阐述了采用被动式节能技术降低能耗以提高建筑节能效率。%Passive Building Energy Efficiency Design with its low technicalization,low cost,through architectural design in general layout,plane,facade,section plane and detail design,and rational using many design ways,such as reasonable layout of building orientation,natural ventilation,sun-shading,building thermal insulation and so on to the purpose of effectively reducing energy consumption of building.This article describes the example of energy conservational demonstration apartment in Fuzhou University and many instances in construction works,to explain that passive building energy conservation technology could improve building energy efficiency.

  13. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  14. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  15. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  16. Experiences Acquired by a Building Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durusu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been purposed to share practice of event-scene administration, search and rescue and evacuation of injured and acquired experiences carried out throughout a building collapse. After an explosion at Diyarbakir Kurdoglu housings at 11 December 2006 about 08:20AM, five flats of an apartment that has five floors-ten flats were collapsed. Local military hospital ambulances, city ambulances, and fire-fighting vehicles arrived to event-place 10 minutes later. It has been found out that there were 13 people inside, 6 of which were children. Army rescue team arrived event-place about 01:30PM, then all non-professional persons has been sent away from region. Eight dead including five children, and five injured including one child have been taken out. Two people from close area have been also injured mildly due to the explosion. It has been found out that accident caused by boiler tank exploding. Sixth of total eight injured had only superficial wounds. Other two injured have been followed because of head trauma at first one and hepatic contusion and rib fracture at the other one. No complication observed after follow-up. Building collapses can create disaster potential according to the number of people inside and facilities of nearby region of the place accident taken place. The evaluation of the direction of building collapse during search and rescue operation would enhance possibility to reach more living in shorter time. Building collapses which can be considered as a miniature of big disaster potentials like earthquakes can be appraised as an important practical training and experience source on event-place administration, search and rescue operations and injured evacuation. We believe that share of the analysis and acquired experiences of this kind of studies would contribute interfering big disaster potentials. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 241-244

  17. Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping; Mmereki, Daniel; Yu, Wei; Li, Baizhan

    2016-02-01

    Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 μg/m3 and 0.82 μg/m3 in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 μg/g and 1450 μg/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 μg/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of pull-apart basins: implications for the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Rafael; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, Jian

    1995-01-01

    We model the three-dimensional (3-D) crustal deformation in a deep pull-apart basin as a result of relative plate motion along a transform system and compare the results to the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin. The brittle upper crust is modeled by a boundary element technique as an elastic block, broken by two en echelon semi-infinite vertical faults. The deformation is caused by a horizontal displacement that is imposed everywhere at the bottom of the block except in a stress-free “shear zone” in the vicinity of the fault zone. The bottom displacement represents the regional relative plate motion. Results show that the basin deformation depends critically on the width of the shear zone and on the amount of overlap between basin-bounding faults. As the width of the shear zone increases, the depth of the basin decreases, the rotation around a vertical axis near the fault tips decreases, and the basin shape (the distribution of subsidence normalized by the maximum subsidence) becomes broader. In contrast, two-dimensional plane stress modeling predicts a basin shape that is independent of the width of the shear zone. Our models also predict full-graben profiles within the overlapped region between bounding faults and half-graben shapes elsewhere. Increasing overlap also decreases uplift near the fault tips and rotation of blocks within the basin. We suggest that the observed structure of the Dead Sea Basin can be described by a 3-D model having a large overlap (more than 30 km) that probably increased as the basin evolved as a result of a stable shear motion that was distributed laterally over 20 to 40 km.

  19. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  20. Energy consumption trends of multi-unit residential buildings in the city of Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Clarissa

    The purpose of this research is to determine the average energy intensity of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) in Toronto, and evaluate whether certain building characteristics influence energy intensity. This information is particularly important in the Toronto market. Relative to the city's population, Toronto has an unusually high proportion of MURBs with more than half of residential dwellings in apartment buildings. Additionally, Toronto MURBs are significant consumers of energy and produce an estimated 1.3M tonnes of CO2e each year. The ultimate goal is to assess the most efficient building retrofit measures. Energy consumption data for Toronto MURBs were collected and weather normalized. Correlations between the energy data and the building characteristics were examined. Window characteristics and heating system type were found to have the most significant influence on energy intensity. Establishing energy consumption characteristics of MURBs is the first step towards improving the energy efficiency of Toronto's MURBs stock.

  1. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  2. Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Lisa

    This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what…

  3. The Igbo People of Nigeria as Seen Through "Things Fall Apart" by Chinua Achebe. An Instructional Unit for Tenth Grade English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Odessa B.

    This teaching guide is intended to aid tenth grade English classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. The source material for this unit is "Things Fall Apart," by Chinua Achebe. The guide is a product of an interdisciplinary summer workshop for teachers on development of…

  4. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaee, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease" in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Postmodernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of…

  5. Visualization of Electricity Consumption in Apartment Blocks. Partial report of ELAN Phase III; Visualisering av elanvaendning i flerbostadshus. Delrapport inom ELAN Etapp III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartusch, Cajsa

    2007-12-15

    Residential electricity consumption takes place without further consideration and reflection. Feedback on individual electricity use is in this respect very important. Households' current access to feedback is however very limited, especially in apartment blocks. The aim of the project Visualization of Electricity Consumption in Apartment Blocks is to develop and evaluate design concepts for individual feedback to households living in apartments. The design concepts refer to a portable display, a web based statistics service and graphic presentation of individual electricity consumption on the electricity bill. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the electricity consumption and to increase the awareness among households in apartment blocks. The development comprises the functions and the interface of the display and the web based statistics service as well as a suitable designing of the graphic feedback on electricity bills. The evaluation concerns the tenant's usage and experience of the products and services that the design concepts bear upon. The project is carried through in two separate stages, of which the first refers to the development of the design concepts and the other concerns the evaluation of the same. The present report has reference to the first stage of the project, while the other is accounted for in the final report.

  6. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  7. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  8. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  9. Simulation of thermal behavior of residential buildings using fuzzy active learning method

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Taheri Shahraein; Hamid Taheri Shahraiyni; Melika Sanaeifar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy modeling technique called Modified Active Learning Method (MALM) was introduced and utilized for fuzzy simulation of indoor and inner surface temperatures in residential buildings using meteorological data and its capability for fuzzy simulation was compared with other studies. The case studies for simulations were two residential apartments in the Fakouri and Rezashahr neighborhoods of Mashhad, Iran. The hourly inner surface and indoor temperature data were accumulated...

  10. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  11. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  12. Surface composition of pull-apart bands in Argadnel Regio, Europa: Evidence of localized cryovolcanic resurfacing during basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M.; Shirley, James H.; Dalton, James B.; Kamp, L.

    2017-03-01

    We combine Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data to investigate the composition of pull-apart bands in Europa's Argadnel Regio. Using spectral linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra, we find that bands of intermediate age ("grey" bands) are compositionally distinct from bands that are stratigraphically younger ("dark" bands). The grey bands have higher abundances of larger ice grains and lower abundances of hydrated salts than the dark bands; both of these tendencies are statistically significant at the 1% level. The grey and dark bands have similar abundances of hexahydrite, a material which is relatively stable under irradiation; however, the derived abundances of frozen magnesium sulfate brine and of mirabilite, which are more susceptible to fragmentation by radiation, are significantly higher in the dark bands than in the grey bands. These results are consistent with a physical model in which the differences in composition and in ice grain sizes are linked to space weathering and radiolytic processing levels; the grey bands have presumably undergone higher levels of processing, due to being exposed on Europa's surface for a longer period of time. One prominent wedge-shaped band exhibits an anomalous albedo variation across its northern portion, appearing dark in its top third, and grey in its southernmost two-thirds. We find that the dark part of the band has a modeled composition that is in-family with other dark bands, while the grey portion has a modeled composition that is indistinguishable from other grey bands in the study area. Because these variations cannot easily be attributed to the band's formation mechanism (bands open sequentially along a central axis), we surmise that the northern part has been resurfaced, probably in response to the formation of a large topographic basin that cuts through the band. Faulting accompanying basin formation may provide conduits allowing

  13. 上海公寓大楼火灾之省思%Discussion on Shanghai apartment fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钢

    2011-01-01

    通过分析高层建筑火灾案例,阐述高层建筑消防设施存在的问题,如:疏散时烟气进入疏散楼梯的三个原因;现有规范规定的消防设施无法扑灭立体式燃烧的火灾;现有云梯消防车扑救能力有限.建议规范的制定加强对施工过程的监管,建议加强对疏散时是否可以使用电梯以及住宅建筑是否应加设报警广播系统进行讨论.%The problems of fire protection facilities in high-rise building were elaborated with the examples of high-rise building fire, like the 3 reasons for smoke getting into the emergency staircase, the facilities set as the Codes retfuired can not put out the big tridimensional fire, the capability of aerial ladder fire truck is limited. Enhancing the management to construction precession in Codes and discussing on the usage of elevate in e-vacuation were suggested. Discussion on whether to add the e-mergency broadcasting system was suggested too.

  14. 住宅户型的创新设计研究%The residential apartment innovative design study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普贤

    2014-01-01

    Residential units is one of the determinants of commercial and residential sales, comfort, safety, economy and integrity should be considered in the design of residential units in the building. Pay attention to the artistic treatment of the building, so that the interests of harmony, unity, economic, aesthetic design guidelines. In this paper, it is generally concerned about the residential units, through market research, the use of comparative analysis method, optimized innovative design of the residential units, provide the basis for residential design and real estate development.%住宅户型是商业住宅销售的决定因素之一,在建筑住宅的户型设计中,应综合考虑舒适性、安全性、经济性和整体性。要注意建筑的艺术处理,使之符合和谐、统一、经济、美观的设计指导方针。本文针对人们普遍关注的住宅户型,通过市场调研,运用对比分析的方法,研究了住宅户型的优化创新设计,为住宅设计和地产开发提供依据。

  15. Assessment of indoor environmental quality in existing multi-family buildings in North-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liuliu; Prasauskas, Tadas; Leivo, Virpi; Turunen, Mari; Pekkonen, Maria; Kiviste, Mihkel; Aaltonen, Anu; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen existing multi-family buildings (94 apartments) in Finland and 20 (96 apartments) in Lithuania were investigated prior to their renovation in order to develop and test out a common protocol for the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) assessment, and to assess the potential for improving IEQ along with energy efficiency. Baseline data on buildings, as well as data on temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were collected from each apartment. In addition, questionnaire data regarding housing quality and health were collected from the occupants. The results indicated that most measured IEQ parameters were within recommended limits. However, different baselines in each country were observed especially for parameters related to thermal conditions and ventilation. Different baselines were also observed for the respondents' satisfaction with their residence and indoor air quality, as well as their behavior related to indoor environment. In this paper, we present some evidence for the potential in improving IEQ along with energy efficiency in the current building stock, followed by discussion of possible IEQ indicators and development of the assessment protocol.

  16. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  17. The old apartment space design guide behavior with environment%以环境引导行为的老人公寓交往空间设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宜章; 杨思宇

    2015-01-01

    随着经济的迅速发展,人们越来越注重健康的生活方式,各个国家的平均寿命都有了较大幅度的增加.中国在人口基数大、平均寿命增长的同时,有力地实施了计划生育政策,在控制了人口迅猛增长的同时也形成了特有的"4-2-1"的家庭构成模式.老年化社会在中国已经是一个刻不容缓的现实问题,如何养老,如何在养老的同时帮助老人建立一个健康的交往人际圈,以期望老人在生理机能逐渐退化的年龄段找回失去的个人最大价值从而实现积极的养老态度,这是亟待解决的社会问题.本文试着从国内外养老机构的分析以及老人养老心态的研究出发,通过以老年人本身生理与心理特征的分析介入老人公寓的交往空间研究,并针对环境对于行为的引导作用进行深入的探讨,希望最后能研究出适合老人公寓的、能引导老人在空间中产生积极交往的更加健全的空间环境设计.%With the rapid development of economy, people more and more healthy way of life, each country's average life expectancy has increased significantly. China's large population base, increasing life expectancy, and effectively implement the family planning policy, as well as to control the rapid population growth has formed unique "4-2-1" family composition mode. Aging society in China has been an urgent practical problem, how to provide for the aged, how the pension at the same time help the old man to build a healthy network of contacts, to expect the old man have been degraded in physiology age retrieving lost personal maximum value so as to realize the endowment of positive attitude, this is a social problem to be solved. This article try to analysis endowment institutions at home and abroad and the research of the elderly mentality, through the analysis of physiological and psychological characteristics in the elderly itself in old people apartment space research of contacts, and on the

  18. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  19. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  20. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  1. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  2. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  3. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  4. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  5. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  6. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  7. Research on the subjective evaluation of a built-up environmentCase study of a postgraduates' apartment%基于建成环境主观评价分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊刚; 闫增峰; 保彦晴; 周书兵; 周鑫; 张雅; 刘宗刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a postgraduates' high-rise apartment building in our university as example, uses the subjective evaluation of built environment method, and combines the physical feeling with mental sense. It also analyzed the thermal comfort, indoor air quality and general environmental satisfactions. The conclusion shows the that thermal comfort is better (70. 3%). However, indoor air quality is relatively poor, only 27. 5%, and general environmental satisfaction is medium (61. 5%). Furthermore, the condition of indoor ventilation has a positive correlation with general environmental satisfaction.%以某研究生高层公寓为案例研究对象,采用建成环境主观评价方法,从使用者生理感知与心理感受两方面对冬季公寓室内热舒适性、空气品质、综合环境满意度三方面进行了主观评价分析.结果表明公寓热舒适性良好,为70.3%;但室内空气品质相对较差,仅为27.5%;综合环境满意度中等,为61.5%;另外,进一步研究发现室内通风状况与综合环境满意度存在正比关系.

  8. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  9. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  10. Modelling and Accuracy in a Bim Environment for Planned Conservation: the Apartment of Troia of Giulio Romano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, A.; Scala, B.; Spezzoni, A.

    2017-02-01

    Modeling of Cultural Heritage in a BIM environment, and in general of existing buildings, requires special attention because there are two diametrically opposed possibilities. On the one hand the attempt is to realize a very complex and accurate model, in order to provide the most comprehensive representation of the architecture as possible. The opposite position leads to build a very schematic and symbolic model of as-built architecture. It is not easy to determine which is the right balance between these two attitudes because each architecture requires a personalized approach and not standards. It's, however, necessary to find rules to figure out which items are represented, what is the minimum level of detail to consider adequate and how to deal with alterations from simple and linear geometries. These two facing possibilities deal with different goals and tools. In the field of restoration or planned conservation, that is the most common approach for existing buildings, the attention focuses on the exceptions and particularities of each architecture: the important aspect is to understand and describe exactly each part as a singularity (as it is). In this context it is very difficult to find a standard or a common solution. The first possibility of modelling seems to be very close to this approach, but it clashes with two important aspects. A first problem concerns the modelling software. Usually commercial BIM modelling software doesn't allow to realize very complex and high detailed solutions. They prefer working with predefined families and try to categorize each element in standard solution. The possibility to build new families is expected, but it often requires a lot of time. The second difficulty is the real efficiency of such an accurate model. In fact, it could be very difficult to link external elements to the model or use it in many traditional BIM applications. In this paper, we suggest another possible approach that represents the first result of a

  11. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  12. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  13. Automated energy management systems for small buildings. Final report, Volume 1: technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Energy controls can perform a valuable function in energy conservation or energy-management strategy in buildings. While the more-simple controls can be applied to virtually any building, the more-complex automation systems are currently available only to large buildings where their greater costs may be justified. At the present, however, there is a lack of effective, automatic energy-management control practices and schemes available for application to small buildings. This is due, in large measure, to the absence of cost-effective integrated control equipment in the small-building marketplace. Furthermore, a general philosophy or strategy, for the application of equipment for total energy conservation in small commercial buildings has not yet evolved. Both technical and marketing issues related to the implementation of automation systems in small commercial buildings under 75,000 square feet gross area are explored. The functional requirements for small-building automation systems are identified and determination of system costs and energy savings potential are made. Market analyses identify cost and payback requirements as well as attitudes of potential equipment buyers in the small-building market. Schools, apartments, and offices, which together consume more than half the energy of the small-building market, are used as analysis models. The market and technical analyses are combined to formulate the potential marketplace for a small building AEMS in terms of building size, and building type. An AEMS concept is defined which embodies the necessary functional requirements within a framework of applied strategy to energy conservation in buildings.

  14. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  15. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  16. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Post-modernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of violence in the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, the paranoiac politics of the Cold War and European colonialism have made fiction a medium for history. Chinua Achebe’s novel...

  17. Thinking of party construction in higher vocational colleges into student apartment%高职院校党建工作进学生公寓的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙台维

    2015-01-01

    学生公寓是高职院校党建工作的重要阵地。高职院校学生公寓存在“以管代教”、“政工缺位”、“文化缺失”、“言行失范”等问题,本文通过阐述建立党员工作站来落实高职院校党建工作进公寓,实现党团组织思想引领,培养学生自我管理、自我服务、自我教育能力,推动养成教育与学风建设,使学生公寓党员工作站成为高职院校党建工作的开展的途径。%The student apartment is an important field of the party construction in higher vocational col eges. Higher vocational col ege students apartment"tube for teaching","political work lack",“lack of culture","anomie walk"and other problems, this paper expounds to carry out the party construction in higher vocational col eges to establish party workstation into the apartment, realize the party leading group thought, cultivate students' self-management, self-service, self education, promote to develop education and study style construction, make the student apartment party workstation as the way of party construction work in higher vocational col eges.

  18. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  19. LEVERAGING TREATMENT OF SALT ATTACK AND RISING DAMP IN HERITAGE BUILDINGS IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the common building defects that occur in heritage buildings in Penang, Malaysia, salt attack and rising damp are considered the most challenging, particularly for building conservation. The problem of salt attack is closely associated with rising damp. Moisture from the rising damp makes the building’s existing salts soluble, or ground water that contains salt finds its way through the building wall. This moisture then evaporates on or just below the wall’s surface, leaving salt residue behind. High salt concentrations in masonry walls cause extensive fretting and crumbling of the lower parts of walls. These formations gradually contribute to building dilapidation and reduce the building’s aesthetic value. Sodium chloride and calcium sulphate are commonly found in masonry walls, apart from other forms of salts. The sources of these salts may be natural or manmade. This paper is based on research into the problems of salt attack and rising damp in heritage masonry buildings in Penang, Malaysia. Based on a case study of five buildings in Penang, the research findings showed that these buildings faced several common building defects, including salt attack and rising damp. Treatment guidelines for salt attack and rising damp are proposed within the Malaysian context of architectural heritage and climatic conditions.

  20. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  1. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  2. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  3. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  4. Ambient seismic noise tomography reveals a hidden caldera and its relation to the Tarutung pull-apart basin at the Sumatran Fault Zone, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Trond; Muksin, Umar; Bauer, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the noise recordings of a short-period seismic network to derive a shallow crustal S-wave velocity model at the Sumatra Fault in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. By correlating the noise of 40 seismic stations' recording for 9 months, we could recover Rayleigh waves from vertical component recordings with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Group velocities of the Rayleigh waves could be determined in the period range from 0.71 to 4.4 s. These group velocities were used to invert for 2D group velocity maps at specific periods. Finally, the derived group velocity maps were inverted for a 3D S-wave velocity model. This model shows a region of a strong velocity decrease off the Great Sumatran Fault Zone, at the northeastern margin of the young Tarutung pull-apart basin. This observed low velocity block coincides with a caldera-like morphological feature which is interpreted as the surface expression of a hidden volcanic caldera. Considering the surface manifestations of geothermal activity around this anomaly, we conclude that the caldera is still acting as a heat source. On the other hand, the weak morphological expression at the surface indicates a certain age of the caldera which might be older than the Tarutung pull-apart basin. The findings provide important constraints on general concepts for the formation of pull-apart basins along the Sumatran fault and their relation to volcanism.

  5. FSE - Center for research, training and development. The Siemens Building Technologies office building at Frankfurt, Main; Forschungs-, Schulungs- und Entwicklungszentrum (FSE). Firmengebaeude der Siemens Building Technologies in Frankfurt/Main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2003-07-01

    The new office building of Siemens Building Technologies (SBT) is described. Apart from an impressive architecture, the system also has a state-of-the-art facility management system based on open protocols like Ethernet TCP/IP, BACnet and LONTalk. [German] Als sachlich-technisches Gebaeude mit einem Hang zum Understatement wurde der neue Firmensitz von Siemens Building Technologies (SBT) Deutschland errichtet. Aehnlich wie das Produkt-, System- und Dienstleistungsangebot entspricht das Forschungs-, Schulungs- und Entwicklungszentrum ''FSE'' ganz den Prinzipien Offenheit, Flexibilitaet und Standardisierung. Das in Systembauweise aus Stahlbetonfertigteilen erstellte Gebaeude vermittelt trotz wirtschaftlich orientierter Bescheidenheit ein hohes Mass an Identitaet und sachlicher Repraesentanz. In dem klar strukturierten Baukoerper mit eher klassischer Heizungs- und Lueftungstechnik ist die derzeit wohl modernste gewerkeuebergreifende Gebaeudeautomation installiert, die ganz auf offenen Protokollen wie Ethernet TCP/IP, BACnet und LONTalk aufbaut. (orig.)

  6. View of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Recently opened at CERN is this striking building for physicists, constructed with the help of the Swiss 'Fondation des Immeubles pour les Organisations Internationales', which has over the years added several major edifices to the Geneva landscape

  7. Building Songs 10

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    Male villagers sing a building song This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge county World Oral Literature Project

  8. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  9. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  10. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  11. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  12. Assessment of building sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo; Koukkari, Heli

    2007-01-01

    The concept of sustainable building is usually related to environmental characteristics although the social, economics and cultural indicators of the life-cycle impacts are of substancial importance. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects; emphasizing the qualitative criteria only increases confusion. The R&D and standardization is thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the enviromental methods. Other directions of research are aiming at...

  13. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  14. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  15. Evaluation of Passive Vents in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sean [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, David [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, Marc [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Exhaust ventilation and corresponding outdoor air strategies are being implemented in high-performance new construction multifamily buildings to meet program or code requirements for improved indoor air quality, but a lack of clear design guidance is resulting in poor performance of these systems despite the best intentions of the programs or standards. CARB's 2014 'Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings' consistently demonstrated that commonly used outdoor air strategies are not performing as expected. Of the four strategies evaluated in 2014, the exhaust ventilation system that relied on outdoor air from a pressurized corridor was ruled out as a potential best practice due to its conflict with meeting requirements within most fire codes. Outdoor air that is ducted directly to the apartments was a strategy determined to have the highest likelihood of success, but with higher first costs and operating costs. Outdoor air through space conditioning systems was also determined to have good performance potential, with proper design and execution. The fourth strategy, passive systems, was identified as the least expensive option for providing outdoor air directly to apartments, with respect to both first costs and operating costs. However, little is known about how they actually perform in real-world conditions or how to implement them effectively. Based on the lack of data available on the performance of these low-cost systems and their frequent use in the high-performance building programs that require a provision for outdoor air, this research project sought to further evaluate the performance of passive vents.

  16. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy

  17. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-15

    Exhaust ventilation and corresponding outdoor air strategies are being implemented in high-performance new construction multifamily buildings to meet program or code requirements for improved indoor air quality, but a lack of clear design guidance is resulting in poor performance of these systems despite the best intentions of the programs or standards. CARB's 2014 'Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings' consistently demonstrated that commonly used outdoor air strategies are not performing as expected. Of the four strategies evaluated in 2014, the exhaust ventilation system that relied on outdoor air from a pressurized corridor was ruled out as a potential best practice due to its conflict with meeting requirements within most fire codes. Outdoor air that is ducted directly to the apartments was a strategy determined to have the highest likelihood of success, but with higher first costs and operating costs. Outdoor air through space conditioning systems was also determined to have good performance potential, with proper design and execution. The fourth strategy, passive systems, was identified as the least expensive option for providing outdoor air directly to apartments, with respect to both first costs and operating costs. However, little is known about how they actually perform in real-world conditions or how to implement them effectively. Based on the lack of data available on the performance of these low-cost systems and their frequent use in the high-performance building programs that require a provision for outdoor air, this research project sought to further evaluate the performance of passive vents.

  18. Experimental and numerical modelling of thermal performance of a residential building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate simulation of thermal performance of a residential 4 floors high building placed in the suburb of Belgrade (ground and 3 upper floors with it's total surface area of 1410 m2. It's supplied with liquid petroleum gas storage tank as a fuel reservoir since there is automatic gas boiler in each apartment. Measurements have been carried out in first floor apartment (68 m2 heating area in heating season period. Measured parameters are: inside and outside air temperature and U-value of apartment envelope. Weather data is obtained by using METEONORM, the software package for climatic data calculation based on last 10 years measurements. TRNSYS 16 has been used as the simulation tool. The behavior of the building in terms of heating loads for climate on a daily and monthly basis in heating season is investigated. The calculations show possibility for saving energy by optimization inside temperature during different gas boiler working regimes.

  19. Building GSM network in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, M.; Voznak, M.; Fajkus, M.; Partila, P.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is focused on the building ad-hoc GSM network based on open source software and low-cost hardware. The created Base Transmission Station can be deployed and put into operation in a few minutes in a required area to ensure private communication between connected GSM mobile terminals. The convergence between BTS station and the other networks is possible through IP network. The paper tries to define connection parameters to provide sufficient quality of voice service between the GSM network and IP Multimedia Subsystem. The paper brings practical results of voice call quality measurement between users inside BTS station mobile network and users inside IP Multimedia Subsystem network. The calls are simulated by low-cost embedded solution for speech quality measurement in GSM network. This tool is under development of our laboratory and allows automatic speech quality measurement of any GSM or UMTS mobile network. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method is used to get final comparable results. The communication between BTS station and connected networks has to be secured against the interception from the third party. The influence of the securing method for quality of service is presented in detail. Paper, apart from the quality of service measurement section, describes technical requirements for successful interconnection between BTS and IMS networks. The authentication, authorization and accounting methods in roaming between BTS and IMS system are presented too.

  20. Building of a conceptual profile of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ângelo Coutinho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the building of a conceptual profile of ‘life’. We took as a starting point the hypothesis that the concept of life is polysemous, showing several possible meanings, and, thus, admitting a conceptual profile. We attempted to demarcate the zones that constitute this conceptual profile through a dialogic interplay between theoretical and empirical studies, involving at least three genetic domains: the sociocultural domain, by means of a review about the concept of life and its history; the ontogenetic, through a compilation of studies about students’ alternative conceptions about life; and the microgenetic, by gathering empirical data through questionnaires, answered by Biology majors, and interviews based on problem-situations, with graduate students in the fields of Ecology and Genetics. Taking into account epistemological and ontological aspects, we identified three zones, representing three levels of understanding of the life concept: “internalist”, including conceptions in which life is understood as a set of inherent processes or properties of living beings; “externalist”, amounting to an understanding of life as something external to and apart from living beings, often seen as something that comes from outside or tends to a goal that is beyond the living being; and “relational”, in which life is conceived as a relationship between entities and/or systems, and the definition itself is given in terms of relations.

  1. Specifying a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, F.; McGregor, A. [Ove Arup and Partners, (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The concept of a `green` building is defined as a building that works with, rather than in spite of, the local climate to minimize fossil fuel consumption. It minimizes water consumption and waste. It uses construction materials that have a long life, are non-toxic, and which require minimum energy to produce, deliver to the building site and install. It is sufficiently flexible to permit successive changes without major construction work. With this definition as the background, this paper concentrates on the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption in commercial buildings, and the various means available to achieve it, such as natural ventilation, thermal storage, control of solar gain, maximizing the use of daylight for illumination, and passive and active solar energy collection. Also discussed are some of the reasons why some buildings fail to satisfy owners and occupants. A strategy involving performance-based contracting, elements of value engineering and occupant education to assure energy efficiency and owner/occupants satisfaction is presented. 15 refs.

  2. Calibration and Collaboration: Important Tools to Design high-Performance Affordable Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Snell, John; Helmes, Dan

    2008-03-31

    When new technologies are installed in a building, it is difficult to know how various systems will interact and if the building will perform as well as expected. A widely used technique to verify and quantify the actual energy savings from the energy-efficient features in high-performance buildings is to use the calibrated energy simulation approach. Maverick Gardens Mid-Rise A is a six-story apartment building located in East Boston, Massachusetts. The building was designed and constructed to meet the ENERGY STAR Homes Program rating and the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification. During the design phase, DOE-2.1E energy models for both budget building design and proposed building design were developed by the design team to demonstrate energy savings potential from various energy efficient technologies installed in this high-performance building. When comparing the energy use predicted by the proposed design energy model with utility bills, the design team observed that this building’s actual energy consumption was about one-third of what was estimated from the proposed design model, and therefore requested help from the authors through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Rebuild America Program to calibrate the proposed design energy model. This paper describes the energy simulation calibration approach using short-term metering data and utility bills. Details of the analysis, calibration results and the actual building energy performance are presented. This study also discusses lessons learned during the simulation calibration process and demonstrates the importance of collaboration among design professionals throughout the design, building, and commissioning process, as a way to ensure that high-performing building goals are met.

  3. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  4. Research on Indemnificatory Apartments Based on PPP Financing Mode in China%中国保障性安居工程PPP融资模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恒; 汤永鸿; 单海鹏

    2015-01-01

    Indemnificatory Apartments project is the housing security measures provided by government for the low-income families and housing difficulties families.PPP ( public -private -partnership ) is a new financing model, designed to guide social capital to participate in the development, construction and operation of the public projects.In Indemnificatory Apartments project especially construction of the low-rent housing and public rental housing , PPP can help the government reduce financial burden and management cost .And it can bring us efficient use of the social capital , organic combination between government goals and social capital business goals, high im-provement of the social economic benefit and high service level of the Indemnificatory Apartments construction.%保障性安居工程是中国政府针对城市低收入家庭和住房困难家庭出台的住房保障措施。政府和社会资本合作( Public-Private-Partnership,PPP)是一种新型融资模式,旨在引导和利用社会资本参与政府投资的公共项目的开发、建设和运营。在保障性安居工程尤其是廉租房、公租房建设中引入PPP,可以帮助政府减轻财政负担、降低管理成本,同时可使社会资本获得更高效地利用,达到政府公共目标和社会资本商业目标的有机结合,提高保障性安居工程建设的社会经济效益和服务水平。

  5. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  6. GREEN BUILDING CHALLENGE 2005

    OpenAIRE

    López de Asiaín, Jaime; Alvarez-Ude, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Green Building Challenge 2005 forma part d'un projecte de cooperació entre diferents països (més de 20 en l'actualitat) que té per objectiu el desenvolupament d'una metodologia d'avaluació del comportament ecològic dels edificis i els resultats se presentaran en una conferència internacional a celebrar a Tòquio (Japó) a la finals de l'any 2005: Sustainable Building 2005. Green Building Challenge 2005 forma parte de un proyecto de cooperación entre distintos países (más de 20 en la actualid...

  7. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  8. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  9. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  10. “Not Just an Apartment Building”: Residents’ Quality of Life in a Social Housing Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eileen Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact that two social housing complexes have had on their residents' quality of life. These two complexes, known as Tannery Court Co-operative Ltd., target a specific segment of the affordable housing market: non-elderly singles. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quality of life of residents. The data collection strategy used semi-structured interviews conducted with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 43 interviews were completed at the two building sites. Analysis of interview and questionnaire data identified six areas of improvement in residents' quality of life. These are life in general (an overarching dimension, housing (the focus of the Tannery Court intervention, neighbourhood (including safety and appearance, food, self-confidence (an enabling dimension for future development of projects and goals among the residents, and financial situation (a key dimension because of its multiple impacts on other aspects of life. / L'objectif de cette recherche était d'évaluer l'impact des deux complexes de logements coopératifs Tannery Court sur la qualité de vie des résidants. Ces complexes ciblent un segment particulier du marché du logement social, les célibataires d'âge actif et vivant en deçà du seuil de la pauvreté. Cette étude utilise une méthodologie mixte pour évaluer la situation et la qualité de vie des résidants. La stratégie de cueillette de données s'appuie sur des entrevues semi-dirigées effectuées à l'aide d'un questionnaire. Au total, nous avons complété 43 entrevues. Six aspects de la qualité de vie se sont améliorés de façon significative. Il s'agit de la vie en général (une dimension globale, le logement (l'objectif premier visé par l'équipe de Tannery Court, le quartier de résidence (dimensions importantes de la localisation d'un complexe comme la sécurité et l'apparence la confiance en soi (une dimension clé pour le d

  11. The Apartment Layout Design Characteristics of Commercial Residential Units%商品化住宅中的户型设计的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晓璐

    2013-01-01

    本文根据笔者在商品住宅方面的设计工作实践,针对商品化住宅的户型特点进行了探讨,并总结出了商品化住宅在户型设计方面的特殊性。%In this article, the author bases on the design prac-tice of commodity residential house to discuss the characterist-ics of the commercial residential units and sums up the particu-larity of commercial units in the apartment layout design.

  12. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    . The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated...... to distribute sinistral shearing cross the width of the basin. Extensive thermal sagging throughout the Neogene has led to the accommodation of a very thick sedimentary succession. Moderate rifting resumed during the Early Miocene following older structural fabric. The intensity of rifting increases towards...

  13. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work within the framework of the Annex44 of the International Energy Agency (IEA...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  14. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...

  15. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  16. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  17. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  18. Building UIs with Wijmo

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Written with an example-based approach, Building UIs with Wijmo leads you step by step through the implementation and customization of each library component and its associated resources. Reference tables of each configuration option, method, and event for each component are provided, alongside detailed explanations of how each widget is used.Building UIs with Wijmo is targeted at readers who are familiar with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery, and have a basic understanding of web development. Although knowledge of jQuery UI is not mandatory, it would be a bonus as it is quite similar to Wijm

  19. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  20. Religious building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.

  1. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  2. Indoor air quality in the Swedish housing stock and its dependence on building characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Bekö, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Data from a recent Swedish survey on the status of the housing stock and indoor air quality were placed in the public domain by the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in 2011. The available parameters included the year of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation...... system, temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate (AER), and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) from 157 single-family houses and 148 apartments. The median AER was lower in the single-family houses than in apartments (0.33h-1 vs. 0...... exchange rate was a significant predictor of the concentrations of all three indoor pollutants. While ventilation seemed to be a source of NO2, increased ventilation rate appeared to decrease the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  3. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...

  4. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus...

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  6. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  7. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  8. Building a Better CTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    This article features the new Framework of Essential Skills of the K-12 CTO of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN). This latest, version 2.0 iteration of the skills framework builds upon work the organization did earlier this decade. This time CoSN, a professional association for district technology leaders, reached out to a variety of…

  9. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  10. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy DPW OMD Directorate of Public Works Operations Maintenance Division ECM energy conservation measure EEB Hub Energy... EEB Hub). 5 For this project, FirstFuel worked with 11 DoD installations across the country to identify buildings for remote audit

  11. Building for International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When completed next August, the LG Beijing Tower project is sureto be one of the most high-end buildings in Beijing. With a meticulous attention to detail, planners know the ins and outs of the city's business momentum.The LG Beijing Tower will utilize an integrated networking system to ensure safety,efficiency and comfort.

  12. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  13. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  14. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  15. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  16. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), has joined forces with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to author A Parent’s Guide to Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Your Child Roots ...

  17. Sustainable Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Charney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intended audience for this webliography is librarians, both in the sciences and in other disciplines, and others that are new to the field such as students and members of the general public who are interested in this topic. Sustainable building practitioners may find parts useful as well.

  18. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  19. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  20. Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest

  1. Research into Design of Outdoor Space of Apartments for the Old%老年公寓户外空间设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a worldwide concern. And the number of old people who prefer living alone is substantially growing. The fact that the old have particular demands for living conditions makes it necessary to provide such apartments, the outdoor space design of which is expected to be suitable for them, for instance, special green design, and man-space interactive design that takes old people's varying daily activities into account. The design of old people's apartments that is both physically and mentally helpful to the old is of great importance to social endowment system.%人口老龄化是当前备受关注的世界问题.老年人独居的社会现象日趋普遍.老年人对居住环境有特殊的要求,老年公寓的户外空间的设计要有针对性,即:特别的绿化设计,老人活动能力差异、老人与空间的交互性的构成等.提供合乎老人生理、心理需求的,优良的老年公寓户外空间设计是完善社会养老体系的一个重要环节.

  2. The Cuenca de Oro, a Pull-Apart Basin Hosting Precious Metal Deposits Along the Re- Activated Seri-Tahue Terrane Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, M. N.; Goodell, P. C.

    2007-05-01

    At the intersection of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Sinaloa a boundary between the Seri and Tahue terranes has been hypothesized, and further refined as the Sinforosa Lineament. Near the western termination of the Sinforosa Lineament lies a topographic basin. Part of this study will be to better define this pull-apart basin, informally named the Cuenca de Oro due to its numerous precious metal deposits. The intention of this study is to test that the Seri-Tahue terrane boundary was re-energized during the beginning of extension related to the opening of the Sea of Cortez (~30ma). It is probable that the precious metal occurrences are related to the initiation of extension(alunite at El Sauzal has been dated at ~30ma). Five field excursions totaling sixty days of field work have been completed and a first draft of a regional geologic map has been made. Large shear zones support the hypothesis of a pull-apart basin. A study of the alteration and lineament intersections determine the location of many known precious metal deposits. By creating multiple cross-sections the basin can be modeled in three dimensions and a tectonic history can be interpreted. This study will present a structural analysis of the Cuenca de Oro and develop a tectonic history related temporally with the epithermal mineralization events.

  3. Emerging Issues in Real Estate Appraisal: Market Premium for Building Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Enrico Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In international and metropolitan real estate markets, it has been detected, for the first time, the growing relevance of green buildings with respect to non-green building. Also, it has been singled out and then quantified through regression analysis a green premium, i.e. a differential in terms of price toward sold real estate units having ecological characteristics along with an energy value (more efficient behavior. The incipient international studies recommend to extend the analysis to unexplored middle-size non-metropolitan (marginal real estate markets. One of this areas has been studied detecting the first sale of an apartment with energy certification belonging to class B in a building with ecological characteristics. The assessment analysis performed through Market Comparison Approach, MCA, made it possible to detect and then appraise the green premium that is in line with the outcomes of the first and pioneer international studies performed in metropolitan areas.

  4. A square meter of contradictions (the problems of house-building in Irkutsk)

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Konstantinov

    2005-01-01

    Why there is a tendency not to build the objects, which are in great demand?Mostly people prefer not very big single- or two-room flats, having decent 50-70 square meters area. But the apartments in newly-erected buildings generally consist of four, five and more rooms and have two levels of 100, 200 and more square meters.Why the construction is so erratic? Why and what for the tight «planting» of cast-in-place wireframe high-rise buildings adjoins vast abandoned lots?Who needs absurd and un...

  5. Perceptions of building professionals on sustainable development: A comparative study between Hong Kong and Shenyang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, S.M.; Zhao, C.M.; Cheng, W.Y. [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2006-07-01

    It is logical to believe that the building professionals (architect, structural engineers, building services engineers, etc.) are the relevant persons that may influence the decision-making process on a real estate development process. Accordingly, the attitudes and perception of building professionals should have a significant influence on sustainable development. This article describes a survey concerning the perceptions of different building professionals, which include architects, construction engineers and building services engineers, on the environment, resource sustainability, and green consumerism in two major cities in China: Hong Kong and Shenyang. It is recognized that energy is central to sustainable development and in 2006/2007, the United Nation Commission on Sustainable Development will focus on energy issue. The discussion in this article will concentrate on the building professionals' perception on energy related issues. Nevertheless, the findings in respect of their awareness of the environment, resources sustainability and other related issues are also summarized. At global level, apart from the need to preserve historical buildings, the professionals in Shenyang feel that 'exhaustion of natural resources' is of major concern and energy preservation is significant. However, the Hong Kong professionals do not consider energy resource sustainability is of urgency. (author)

  6. Hydrotalcite catalysis for the synthesis of new chiral building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Jesus M; Neves, Patricia P; Pombal, Sofia; Rives, Vicente; Trujillano, Raquel; Díez, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of hydrotalcites for the synthesis of two chiral building blocks in a simple way is described as a new and green methodology. The synthesis of these compounds implies a regioselective Baeyer-Villiger reaction in a very selective way with ulterior opening and lactonisation. This methodology should be considered green for the use of hydrogen peroxide as the only oxidant and hydrotalcites as the catalyst, and because no residues are produced apart from water. The procedure is very adequate for using in gram scale, in order to increase the value of the obtained compounds. The conditions are excellent and can be applied for nonstable compounds, as they are very mild. The synthesised compounds are magnific starting materials for the synthesis of biologically active or natural compounds. The use of a cheap, commercial and chiral compound as carvone disposable in both enantiomeric forms adds an extra value to this methodology.

  7. A multi-family residential building, Munich, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhorn, H. [Fraunhofer Inst., fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This multi-family residential building in the inner city area of Munich is characterized by a compact architectural design and a high standard of thermal insulation. Three of the duplex flats, located on the fifth and sixth floors, have solar air systems, two with transparent insulation systems and one with a solar water system. To reduce the heating energy consumption, three of these flats are provided with solar air systems, two with transparent insulation systems and one with a solar- water system. In the first solar air system, the heated air is lead directly into the apartment. In the second, the air flows through a closed door, releasing the heat to the storage wall. The third system is a combination of both. (author)

  8. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building...

  9. Government Buildings, Owned, government buildings, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Buildings, Owned dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'government buildings'....

  10. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... performance of the residential building stock. Overall, the typologies consist of two types of building models—real example models and average designed models. The main purpose of developing the building typologies was to establish a tool able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire...... residential building stock. To make such calculations of scenarios, similar average designed building models were established based on extracted average values from the Danish Energy Performance Certification Scheme database. The two building typologies had the same overall composition, i.e., three main...

  11. Ways of modernization of large-panel residential buildings in Yerevan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Tigran Davidovich

    Full Text Available The present article discusses some problems of renovation and modernization of large-panel residential buildings built in the postwar period in Yerevan. The analysis of the current situation showed that today these buildings have many problems related to their functional and aesthetic aspects of quality and become obsolete. The floor plans don’t satisfy modern functional requirements of inhabitants: similar and repeatable types of buildings became the reason of large arrays of monotonously built up districts with low indicators of quality. Furthermore, there are many low quality extensions and add-ins to the buildings made by inhabitants without control, which destroy the architectural appearance of habitat. Yard places of large-panel residential buildings are occupied by car parks and road travel, buildings are cut off from courtyard areas, which as a consequence don’t meet tsocial and functional requirements of the people. The consideration of the international experience of large-panel old housing renovation in European countries has shown that the main activities include improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings with removing heat loss and using solar panels, contrast changes in architectural appearance with large terraces, loggias, using wide range of colors, add-in attics and enlarging the height and the use of space-planning decisions to increase the living space. Analyzing the current situation of the housing and the international experience of modernization the concept of complex modernization of large-panel buildings was offered, which suggested bringing it to life on three main levels of habitat: apartments, building shapes, residential environment and areas. The main goals of the concept are increasing the comfort of planning decisions as well as the total size of the apartment, improving architectural appearance of the building and introducing areas for public services to housing, increasing energy efficiency and

  12. PV-Optitag 2 - 1. phase: Development of CO{sub 2} neutral buildings; PV-Optitag 2 - 1. etape: Udvikling af CO{sub 2} neutrale boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejsig Pedersen, P.

    2008-04-15

    An integrated PV cell-solar heating roof solution called PV Optitag was developed in close cooperation between architects and engineers to make new CO{sub 2} neutral solutions for urban development projects. A CO{sub 2} neutral rooftop apartment with PV cells in a solar-energy roof exploits an air-based PVT PV-cell solution in combination with a heat pump as well as PV cells integrated into windows. The idea behind the apartment is a zero-energy solution in new buildings or an urban development component, and the apartment has been exhibited in Orestaden, see www.soltag.net. The project gained practical experience in fluid-covered PV cells in combination with heat pumps in housing. (author)

  13. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  14. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    Cultural Heritage sites are in the current practice, defined as everything you find on a site within a delimited selected area. Written sources and guidelines for the preservation of the cultural heritage, written by the public authorities or professionals describe them as places that tell a story...... of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized....... The currently focus on the experience economic potentials of the cultural heritage, raises the expectation of a economic gain of the transformation projects, which can cause decisions made under pressure that cannot be reversed in the future. Industrial sites and buildings, who needs a significant...

  15. Building a Model Astrolabe

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hands-on introduction to the medieval astrolabe, based around a working model which can be constructed from photocopies of the supplied figures. As well as describing how to assemble the model, I also provide a brief explanation of how each of its various parts might be used. The printed version of this paper includes only the parts needed to build a single model prepared for use at latitudes around 52{\\deg}N, but an accompanying electronic file archive includes equivalent images which can be used to build models prepared for use at any other latitude. The vector graphics scripts used to generate the models are also available for download, allowing customised astrolabes to be made.

  16. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  17. Building and using binoscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on both homemade and commercial products, this book provides the reader with simple and straightforward information about the modelling and building of binoscopes. Binoscopes can be thought of as binoculars enlarged to the size of telescopes: essentially, a combination of the two. Constructing a binoscope is easier than most people think, but it still demands attention to detail and proper background knowledge. The author goes on to provide additional information about how to understand the products currently on the market, should the reader choose to purchase a binoscope instead of building one. Lastly, the book also compares binoscopes with telescopes in great detail, outlining the differences the reader can expect to see in the night sky from using both. The celestial views obtained with a binoscope, compared to a single telescope of the same aperture, are a very different experience and well worth the effort.

  18. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  19. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  20. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...... Schools around the world, and continues to be the undisputed basic introduction to the interplay between public space design and social life. This book is now available in its third English language version....

  1. Green building financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of green buildings financing. It is noted that bank lending can be a major source of funds for construction. However, current trends in the economy of Ukraine shows that credit, especially lending to construction, is in poor condition. Accordingly, there is a need to explore the possibility of additional measures that can be applied to bringing financial resources into the construction.The author brings evidence in favor of feasibility of raising funds fo...

  2. Not Just New Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the past decade, China could be dubbed a huge construction site in the eyes of many Westerners. Beginning this year, the infrastructure boom will spread from cities to the countryside. Building a "new socialist countryside" has become a hot topic in the last three months, as it was specified in the country's 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10) for economic and social development.

  3. Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of

  4. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  5. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  6. Building retrofit for cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.

    1979-11-01

    The impact of high fuel prices on retrofit in the urban sector is discussed. Then, the benefits of a strong urban retrofit program are enumerated. Institutional, financial, informational, and attitudinal barriers that stand in the way of widespread implementation of energy conservation retrofit are discussed. Policy tools which can be used to implement a retrofit program consist of tax breaks, financing arrangements, mandatory building efficiency standards, and education programs.

  7. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  8. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  9. Dynamic optimization of building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslesa, Esmir; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Birkved, Morten;

    D develops a methodological basis and purpose-based software for simultaneous calculation of total value and environmental performance of non-residential buildings. So far, a literature study has identified 8 indicator categories that should be considered when addressing environmental performance of building....... The next step of the project combines research and practice through various case studies in which environmental building performance of non-residential buildings will be studied. Case studies will investigate which environmental indicators are used in practice and why, and disclose how building data...... management, energy management, asset management etc. The research focus of this industrial PhD is to study how these different building data sets can be used and combined for improving total value of buildings, with special emphasis on environmental building performance from lifecycle perspective...

  10. Building America Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    'The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deters program participants, and dissuades them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.' This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing, the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities, could easily be six times that and that's only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  11. The Preservation of Adobe Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether built in the 17th or in the 20th centuries, adobe buildings share common problems of maintenance and deterioration. These types of buildings represent today in Romania a traditional house for country people. It also makes recommendations for preserving adobe buildings. By its composition, adobe construction is inclined to deteriorate; however, the buildings can be made durable and renewable when properly maintained.

  12. Upcoming renovations in Building 63

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    La Poste will close its doors in Building 63 on Friday, 28 November. It moves to Building 510 and where it will open on 1 December (see picture).   UNIQA will close its HelpDesk in Building 63 on Wednesday, 26 November and will re-open the next day in Building 510. La Poste and UNIQA are expected to return to their renovated office space between April and May 2015.

  13. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  14. DoD Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DoD Sustainable Buildings Overview  Sustainability Drivers  Green Building Requirements...generation = reduced energy bill = more $ available for “tooth”  More $ available for “tooth” = enhanced operational capability Green Building Requirements...Weather Agency; Offutt AFB, NE LEED Gold Certified Green Building Requirements The Guiding Principles (GP’s)  The 5 GP’s  Employ Integrated Design

  15. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  16. Marginal Productivity Gained Through Prefabrication: Case Studies of Building Projects in Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented benefits of prefabrication system (prefab compared to the traditional building system (TBS. However, the documented benefits have been anecdotal or fragmented with reports of isolated case study projects. Few studies have looked at the objectively quantified benefits from statistical significance point of view and across building types in New Zealand. This study contributes to filling this knowledge gap by analyzing cost and time-savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of prefab in place of the TBS. Records of completion times and final contract values of 66 building projects implemented using prefab in Auckland were collected. The building types included commercial, houses, apartments, educational, and community buildings. The project details included final contract sums, completion dates, gross floor areas, and number of floors. Based on these details, the equivalent completion times and the final cost estimates for similar buildings implemented using the TBS were obtained from the Rawlinsons construction data handbook and feedback from some designers and contractors. Marginal productivity outcome for each building project was computed as the product of the cost and time-savings achieved using the prefab. Results showed that the use of prefab in place of TBS resulted in 34% and 19% average reductions in the completion times and costs, respectively. This also translated to overall 7% average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Univariate ANOVA-based hypothesis test results showed that ‘building type’ had no significant effects on the cost and productivity improvement outcomes, but had significant effect on the time savings analyzed in the case study projects. The greatest productivity gain of 11% was achieved in house projects. These evidence-based results could guide optimized use of prefab for specific building application. The hypothesis-testing outcome

  17. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt, India: Shear zone pathway and a pull-apart structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar

    2004-03-01

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is bounded by shear zones. The combined effect of movement along these shear zones, is a northeasterly elongated sygmoidal cavity with maximum width along the northwesterly trending Reidel shear. Thus the Koraput alkaline complex can be considered to have been emplaced in a pull-apart structure, developed in the granulitic country rocks. Moreover, in view of the fact that the western margin of the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt bears clear evidence of collisional features, rather than that of rifting or break-up, the rift-valley model for the alkaline magmatism in this high-grade belt appears untenable.

  18. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mostafaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Post-modernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of violence in the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, the paranoiac politics of the Cold War and European colonialism have made fiction a medium for history. Chinua Achebe’s novels, indeed, are manifestation of colonialism and its subsequent impact on the literary text and dominant discourse. In exploring these terms, this dissertation endeavors to closely examine Gayatri Spivak’s concept of subaltern in the Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease. Furthermore, the present paper demonstrates Spivak’s voice to differences: that is, class categorization and marginalized subaltern subjects. By the emergence of colonialism, the significance of social class and social discourse became predominant; therefore, colonial discourses instilled into the social, cultural construction and literary text, particularly novel. In this regard, the investigation of the dominate discourses is pursued, and this helps to show how colonialism resulted in discourse inculcation. The resistant perspective against ruling ideology, as the Italian Marxist political activist, Antonio Gramsci calls it cultural hegemony is presented through language, tradition, and customs. Finally, the study focuses on Marxist concept of false consciousness from the viewpoint of Antonio Gramsci to Louis Althusser. Keywords: Colonial discourse, Subaltern, False Consciousness, Social Class, Change and Tradition, Language, Culture

  19. The tectonic framework of a complex pull-apart basin: Seismic reflection observations in the Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Garfunkel, Z.; Ben-Gai, Y.; Reznikov, M.; Rotstein, Y.; Gvirtzman, H.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-channel seismic reflection survey consisting of 20 lines with a total length of 180 km was conducted in the Sea of Galilee. The data provide new insights into the Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of the Kinarot-Beit-Shean pull-apart basin (KBSB) along the Dead Sea transform. Two distinct zones are defined beneath the lake: (1) a graben that underlies most of the lake, bounded by steep north-south longitudinal strike-slip faults and (2) shallow pre-rift units underlying the northwestern wider part of the lake. We suggest that before approximately 4 Ma, the KBSB grew due to northward movement of the Korazim Plateau and by crustal stretching along the rift axis. Since the Pliocene (??? 4 Ma), lateral slip has been transferred from the southern segment of the basin's western marginal fault to normal faults in the Galilee, and to the eastern margin of the Korazim Plateau by the newly formed, Almagor fault, which makes a restraining bend along the transform. N-S lithospheric stretching below the KBSB has diminished and the Korazim Plateau has changed from being a detached block to a compressional saddle. A phase of rapid subsidence, and formation of a half-graben structure in the northern part of the basin approximately 1 Ma ago was coeval with major deformation in areas adjacent to the KBSB, indicating major reorganization of the plate boundary in the region. Currently, most transform motions are probably taken up along a single fault on the eastern side of the KBSB, implying that the main trough under the Sea of Galilee is in a late stage of growth as a pull-apart. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Building Construction Elements, Building Envelope and Method for Constructing a Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope.......High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope....

  1. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. US green building conference - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanney, A.H.; Whitter, K.M.; Traugott, A.E.; Simon, L.N. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    This report constitutes the proceedings of the Green Building Conference held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 16-17, 1994. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Green Building Council (USGBC). Over 450 individuals attended the conference representing building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, environmental groups, utilities, contractors, builders, architects, engineers, and the local, state, and the federal governments. The conference provided an opportunity to acquire practical, useful information on green buildings, resources, and guidelines. Eighteen papers were presented at the conference. Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Love Will Tear Us Apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramming, Pia; Johnsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Call centres are organised around the control and surveillance of employee performance, which naturally suggests the relevance of transactional leadership. In our case study, however, we find that leaders in a call centre pursue transformational leadership to the point where employees relate...... to their leaders, each others and their jobs in terms of love. To be able to encourage emotions of love in call centre workers can be seen as very successful transformational leadership, while challenging our basic assumptions about love as an authentic, higher order feeling. We use Plato's classic work on love...... to provoke and develop our common sense understanding of love and conclude that to see love as artificiality provides new possibilities in a transformational leadership practice....

  4. Prefab Apartment Blocks in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    1997-01-01

    Skaarup & Jespersen, Architects and Planners, has designed and built 625 housing units for Housing Development Board in Singapore after an international competition.Experiences from the Danish precast systems have been used.......Skaarup & Jespersen, Architects and Planners, has designed and built 625 housing units for Housing Development Board in Singapore after an international competition.Experiences from the Danish precast systems have been used....

  5. Apartes desde la inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial no debe centrarse sólo en la creación de software o hardware que permita realizar procesos algorítmicos o heurísticos en el computador, de tal forma que produzcan soluciones óptimas y eficientes al resolver un problema complejo, ya sea de manejo de información o de toma de decisiones, o crear máquinas que tengan buena apariencia del ser humano; se debe, sobre todo, analizar la parte neurológica y sicológica que presenta el individuo al solucionar problemas. Además, es importante conocer la capacidad intelectual de la persona, de ahí la variedad de carreras profesionales que existen; no puede quedar por fuera de los sistemas inteligentes la concepción del amor o admiración.

  6. Phenomenology and hermeneutics - poles apart?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kurt Dauer; Feilberg, Casper

    is marked by a similar dichotomy, whereas hermeneutical phenomenologists argue for the necessity of preunderstanding and theorethical perspectives (van Manen), Husserlian phenomenologists insist on the importance of the epoché together with reduction. The existential phenomenology of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty...

  7. Low energy block of apartments

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Cílem práce bylo vypracování projektové dokumentace pro stavbu: Nízkoenergetický bytový dům. Dokumentace byla zpracována ve stupni pro realizaci stavby. Jedná se o čtyřpodlažní bytový dům s plochou nevětranou střechou a částečně podzemní hromadnou garáží. Stavba je navržena se zvýšenými nároky na tepelné vlastnosti objektu. Projekt dále řeší studii vytápění. Její energetická náročnost byla ověřena pomocí podrobného výpočtu dle ČSN 73 0540 a zpracovaného průkazu energetické náročnosti budovy. ...

  8. ECONOMY "SMART BUILDINGS" HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Djurić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of ensuring national security and the security of energy supply and energy sources, such as liquid fuels and gas, as well as energy independence from energy imports and energy, the focus of our strategy to shift towards renewable energy sources. In fact, whether a state of more or less energy-independent, to a large extent can be determined by the percentage participation renewable energy in meeting the total energy requirements. So, the consumption of renewable energy source (solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydropower and small watercourses, biomass and biogas is put in relation with the amount of power and energy which are imported from foreign countries (liquid fuels and gas. Based on data published by the European statistics agency, in developed European countries is the fact that renewable energy sources accounted for 10-12% of the total energy balance of individual countries. Here, the situation is very worrying, given that renewable energy resources still account for only 1% in the energy balance, which is negligible and intolerable little. On the other hand, environmental awareness that is constantly improving and developing required to behave and act in accordance with the capabilities and resources of nature and the natural environment. As the largest building and construction consume energy and also the biggest polluters of the environment, point to the request to change the method of construction and thus to change the way of life on the planet. Poor and inadequate access to the building and construction industry certainly is recognized as the most important factor in global warming. The progress of civilization, especially in terms of technical and technological innovation brings the design and construction of facilities that will be compatible with the environment. For designers and investors is to develop, design and build "green".

  9. Building a leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  10. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  11. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge...... and technologies from other regions in a ramified set ofinteracting networks. The key personnel within the regions firms are deliberatelyallowed to engage in the formations of these non-disclosure network activities so thatprofessional knowledge communities has been established across regional boundariesand...

  12. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... knowledge governance mechanisms can move the organization towards desired knowledge-based goals. A multiple-case study comprising 23 cases advances our understanding of the elements that trigger, enable, hamper, and drive shifting, leveraging and adapting. Finally, the paper offers a tentative framework...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  13. Building Brands Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ind, Nicholas; Iglesias, Oriol; Schultz, Majken

    2013-01-01

    Co-creation is a rapidly emerging area of research. However, there is a lack of understanding as to how organizations use co-creation to build relationships and generate value. How does participation emerge and what outcomes does it deliver? To generate insight into the co-creation process, we...... created an online brand community. Our findings show that people participate in a community because it offers them the chance to find fulfillment, to express their creativity, and to socialize. The findings have significant implications for marketing, branding, and research professionals because...... the research shows that managers have to see participants as integral to the brand....

  14. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  15. Sustainable Development and Green Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Sinha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global sustainability goals have led to the development of the green building movement. The Green Building Program, stemming from the movement, has had unprecedented success as it provides a quantifiable metric to people’s efforts towards sustainable development. Sustainable development and green buildings are often used interchangeably. Although, sustainable development and green buildings are related, they are not the same. This paper provides an overview of how green building relates to sustainable development practices. Sustainability also governs decisions concerning building materials. A comprehensive explanation of what constitutes a green building material is discussed and how renewable material like wood fare in the deciding criteria. There are many green building rating systems in place. United States Green Building Council administered Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED is the global market leader in the rating systems. LEED is a commendable and grand effort in moving towards sustainable development by converting the built environment green. However, it does have certain pitfalls and challenges. Some of these challenges are with respect to policies on material selection and performance monitoring. The materials used in a project are considered at a common starting point and no consideration is given to the life cycle performance of the material. Statements concerning sustainability require validation, and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA is a tool that can provide such validity. This paper presents how beneficial it can be, when included, in the bigger scheme of green building rating systems and introduces an integrated design concept for green buildings.

  16. Thermal testing of building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, O.; Kirzhanov, D.; Avramenko, V.; Budadin, O.

    2006-04-01

    Averaged heat transfer resistance of the building envelope is the primary parameter that determines the energy saving characteristics of the building. At the phase of the building design it is usually taken into account that building must preserve heat effectively. It is mostly important in northern countries where cold seasons last for more than a half of year. Usually infrared methods are used to find mechanical defects of the building envelope. In this article an alternative way to describe the building envelope using infrared camera is presented. The method includes the determination of local heat engineering characteristics of the envelope using contact measurements and the determination of averaged heat transfer resistance of the buildings envelope using its infrared image.

  17. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    of the building, so that windows are only towards the north and south, in order to reduce the solar heat gains. In order to reduce the loss of cooling through the building envelope, the walls and the roofs are heavily insulated, and the windows have double low energy glazing. The building will be lit primarily...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during......The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...

  18. Art Depoo : äri- ja eluhoone Jahu tn. 12 / Vana-Kalamaja tn. 34, Tallinn = Art Depoo : apartment building on Jahu St. 12 / Vana-Kalamaja St. 34, Tallinn / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    "Norma" vanasse tootmishoonesse on rajatud kunstigalerii ja 51 korteriga elamu. Projekteerija: On Arhitektid OÜ. Autor Harry Klaar. Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I, II ja III korruse plaan, 5 välis- ja 4 sisevaadet

  19. Kes tahab elada raudtee ääres? : kortermajad Õie tn. 2 Nõmmel = WhoWants to Live Next to the Railway? : apartment buildings Õie St. 2 in Nõmme / Piret Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Piret, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kolm viie korteriga kolmekorruselist korterelamut. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Pluss. Autor Indrek Allmann. Konstruktsioonid: E-Inseneribüroo. Detailplaneering: Koot & Koot. Projekt: 2003, valmis: 2005. Ill.: katusekorruse ja tüüpkorruse plaan, 5 värv. välisvaadet

  20. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  1. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  3. Masonry building envelope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  4. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  5. Radon concentration variations between and within buildings of a research institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antignani, S., E-mail: sara.antignani@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Bochicchio, F.; Ampollini, M.; Venoso, G.; Bruni, B.; Innamorati, S.; Malaguti, L.; Stefano, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentration in indoor air has been measured in many countries in a large number of buildings - mainly in houses but also in apartments and workplaces - mostly as a result of the application of radon policies and regulation requirements. However, few systematic analyses are available on radon concentration variations within buildings and between close buildings, especially as regards workplaces; such variations can have a significant impact on indoor radon exposure evaluation, and ultimately on the assessment of the dose from radon received by workers. Therefore, a project was started in 2006 aimed to study the spatial variation of radon concentration among and within about 40 buildings of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), a research institute of public health located in Rome over a small area of less than 1 km{sup 2}. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six-month periods, in more than 700 rooms of the surveyed buildings. The paper describes the project in detail and preliminary results regarding 558 rooms in 29 buildings. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between buildings, between floors, and between rooms on the same floor. The CV between buildings resulted quite high (88%), a lower CV (42%) was found for variation between floors, whereas room-to-room CV on the same floor ranged from 25% at first floor level to 48% at basement level. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as the reference level, were calculated for each building in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels. Although no clear trend was observed, the average basement/ground floor ratio of radon concentrations resulted about 2.0, whereas the average sixth floor/ground floor ratio of radon concentrations was 0.5. Some discussion on the potential impact of the results of this study on policies and radon regulations are also included

  6. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco;

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno...

  7. Green Practice of Indemnificatory Apartments in Towns of Shanghai——The Residential District Design of Jiangqiao Town%上海城镇保障性住宅的绿色实践——江桥镇住宅小区设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玫; 史洁; 戴茹

    2011-01-01

    为了推进住房体制改革和整体水平的建设,本文所述保障性示范居住区项目的实践试将绿色建筑技术纳入到了小区规划、建筑单体及围护结构设计中,围绕上海市“四高”建设标准,对新型绿色保障性居住区的设计策略和方法进行了探讨.%In this paper, in order to advance the housing system reform and improve the overall level of construction, a demonstration indemnificatory apartments project was taken as a research object, and green construction technologies were integrated into the planning process and design of single building and building envelope. Besides,according to Shanghai "four high" construction standard, design strategies and methods of a green indemnificatory residential district were discussed.

  8. Analisa Life Cycle Cost pada Green Building Diamond Building Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trixy Firsani; Christiono Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Mengingat kenyataan bahwa seluruh emisi CO2 yang ada di dunia lebih dari sepertiganya dihasilkan oleh bangunan[1], maka dibutuhkan suatu antispasi untuk mengeliminir akan fakta tersebut, yaitu melalui penerapan suatu konsep bangunan ramah lingkungan atau biasa disebut dengan konsep green building. Salah satu bangunan yang mengadopsi konsep green building tersebut adalah Diamond Building Malaysia. Bangunan ini menghabiskan biaya yang relatif tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan biaya pada pembangun...

  9. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  10. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  11. Parameters of Upgrading Existing Building into a Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rupali Kapure

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Before turning to specific programs for upgrading buildings, it’s important to understand the market dynamics of greening existing buildings. From a macroeconomic perspective, energy efficiency upgrades represent the most cost-effective way to meet growing energy demands. From a microeconomic perspective, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient and certified green buildings merit higher market values, greater rents, and higher occupancies. From a corporate sustainability viewpoint, greening existing buildings is a direct way to reduce a company’s carbon footprint. As a result, corporate real estate managers in the United States have begun to decide in favour of greening both owned and leased buildings, seeing many economic benefits from this switch. Green buildings offer many marketing benefits for building owners and tenants, including opportunities for creating new green “brands” and also “future-proofing” their real estate against both future energy price increases and also value erosion as the trend toward green buildings continues to grow. Marketing benefits will vary by geographic location, building and tenant type, and other factors, but they are present in all privately owned real estate.

  12. Active tectonics of the western tethyan himalaya above the underthrusting indian plate: The upper sutlej river basin as a pull-apart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James; Barazangi, Muawia

    1985-03-01

    Fault-bounded blocks and structural elements were mapped in the eastern Ladakh-Spiti and upper Sutlej River Basin located within the Tethyan Himalaya and to the southwest of the Karakorum fault zone mainly using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band 5, band 7 (near-infrared) images with detailed analysis of smaller areas by interactive digital processing of false color images, and Returned Beam Vidicon (RBV) imagery in conjunction with available topographical, geological and seismological data. For the first time the Leo Pargil Horst and other nearby fault-bounded blocks located at the northwestern end of the upper Setlej River Basin were clearly revealed on the LANDSAT color composites. Shallow crustal seismicity is systematically related to the NNE-trending and N-trending normal faults of the Leo Pargil and nearby regions. Some of the aftershocks of the Kinnaur earthquake of January 19,1975 ( Ms = 6.8), appear to be associated with movement along the NNE-trending westbound fault of the Leo Pargil Horst and the nearby Kaurik-Chango fault. The main shock, however, is teleseismically located at about 30 km to the northwest of the Kaurik-Chango fault. Fault plane solutions of the main shock and two aftershocks indicate a large component of normal faulting. In map view, the upper Sutlej River Basin has an approximately rhomboidal shape and is located to the southwest of the Karakorum fault system. We suggest that this basin is a pull-apart between the NW-SE oriented, right-lateral, strike-slip Karakorum fault system and the high-angle faults near the southern boundary of the Tethyan Himalaya. The Leo Pargil Horst is the northwestern bounding fault block of this pull-apart. The active tectonic features in this part of the Tethyan Himalaya appear to reflect right-shear within the crust, and this is probably a consequence of oblique underthrusting of the Indian continental plate beneath the western Himalaya and southwestern Tibet during the Neogene and Quaternary

  13. LIFESTYLE FACTORS AS MAIN CAUSATIVE FACTORS APART FROM ALLERGEN SENSITISATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSISTENT NATURE OF ASTHMA FROM AN INTERMITTENT ONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushotam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We all know asthma as a chronic inflammatory condition of allergic aetiology, so we tried to know factors responsible for development of persistent asthma in atopic patients who previously were intermittently symptomatic. METHOD We took 25 patients of persistent asthma as of recent origin (Criteria: need of regular preventive inhalational medications on regular basis since last 1–5 years and analysed their lifestyle of previous 5 years on 6 below mentioned points: 1. Change to sedentary lifestyle. 2. Weight gain. 3. Any form of mental stress. 4. Change in dietary factors. We took patients coming to our secondary referral hospital for continuous need of preventive inhalers, we took patients from middle age, i.e. from 30 to 35 years of age only of both sexes. RESULTS Out of 25 patient’s results for various factors were as follows: 1. Sedentary lifestyle: - Out of 25 patients, 20 developed need for regular medication use after their routine changed in such a way that most part of their job needed sedentary lifestyle and most of them do not pursue any regular exercise pattern. 2. Most of them gain weight in excess, after which they needed preventers on regular basis. 3. Interestingly many of them started using preventers on regular basis after a severe emotional stress of medium duration, as determined by use of hypnotics or antidepressant medication. In our study, we found that depression was a major risk factor for development of persistent symptoms in already intermittently symptomatic patients. 4. Interestingly majority of patients started needing preventers after they switched their diet from home-based low fat diet to hotel-based high fat diet, from regular frequent small meals to irregular large meals. CONCLUSION In conclusion we found that apart from allergic sensitisation, lifestyle factors are key causative factors in transformation from intermittent-to-persistent symptomatology in allergic-asthmatic patients, establishing

  14. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rashkin, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huelman, Pat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  15. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  16. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  17. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    apartment, and develop the Energy Saving Alignment Strategy to be considered in public housing assignment policy. This strategy and the inter-building level energy management strategies developed in my preceding research possess large-scale cost-effectiveness and may engender long-lasting influence compared with existing energy saving approaches. Building from the holistic framework of coupled human-environment systems, the findings of this research will advance knowledge of energy efficiency in the built environment and lead to the development of novel strategies to conserve energy in residential buildings.

  18. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  19. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  20. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...