Marcela A Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.
Ana Cláudia Nascimento Campos
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a morfometria do trato genital masculino caprino entre a época seca e chuvosa. Foram coletados 46 e 52 genitais de machos caprinos na época seca e chuvosa, respectivamente. Testículos foram identificados em direito ou esquerdo, mensurados quanto ao comprimento, espessura e diâmetro. Os epidídimos foram pesados. Ductos deferentes e o pênis foram mensurados quanto ao comprimento. As vesículas seminais foram identificadas em direita ou esquerda, pesadas individualmente, e mensuradas quanto ao comprimento, largura e espessura. Os parâmetros de peso, largura, espessura e comprimento das diferentes estruturas foram submetidos ao teste t de Student a 5,00% de probabilidade. Os resultados demonstraram que houve diferença significativa entre os parâmetros mensurados no período seco e chuvoso (P<0,05, com exceção da vesícula seminal. Também foi demonstrado que os maiores valores foram encontrados no período seco, com exceção do ducto deferente. Concluiu-se que os parâmetros biométricos de caprinos SRD da região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil são inferiores aos citados na literatura internacional. Estes resultados demonstraram que o processo de adaptação de raças exóticas trazidas pelos colonizadores portugueses ao longo destes 500 anos provocou uma diminuição do porte dos mesmos, tornando-os mais rústicos, porém com características reprodutivas normais, mesmo em épocas de escassez de alimentos.
Catalina Contreras; Nicolás Luna; Enrique Dupré
Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste pri...
Jara Maldonado, Pedro Alcibiades; Sigua Salinas, Johnny Mauricio
La presente tesis desarrolla un prototipo para los niños con discapacidad auditiva, visual y motriz de la Fundación IPCA, con el objetivo de proporcionar el conocimiento más asertivo sobre las principales partes de los órganos reproductores masculino y femenino. Este prototipo cuenta con piezas desarmables en 3D, elaboradas en madera además de un sistema de audio y señalización luminosa de las piezas. This present thesis develops a prototype for the children with visual and hearing impairm...
... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...
Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae
Rafael Cardoso Carvalho
shell. The constitutive elements of the male genital organs were studied, aiming to provide morphological data of the species which could be used in reproductive biology aimed at actions towards its preservation in captivity. The sample was composed of 10 adult males, captured by IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, license nº 002/01, euthanized, following rules from the Ethics Committee of UEMA's Veterinary Medicine School. The choelomic cavity was opened and the organs were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and subsequently dissected. The testis of K. scorpioides had ovoid shape and golden yellow coloration. The cylindrical epididymidis adhered dorsal-wise to the medial surface of the testis, ending in a small deferent duct. The deferent ducts did not form distinct blister and opened inside cloaca. The furrowed penis, located in the base of the cloaca, extending itself until the tail and it was composed by root, body and free part. The morphology data of the reproductive organs of these animals was similar to other turtles such as the sea turtle, suggesting a conservative morphological presentation among turtles.
Gelabert, Marisa; Verdura Anglada, Teresa; Suñé Ysamat, Bertila; Iruretagoyena, M.ª Paz
La función esencial del aparato respiratorio es asegurar los intercambios gaseosos, incorporación de 02 al interior del organismo y expulsión de C02 al exterior; la función respiratoria tiene como misión la nutrición celular y, además, la regulación del pH corporal y de la temperatura. Estas dos últimas funciones no radican en un solo órgano, pero sí son reguladas por la respiración, compartiéndolas con otros sistemas del cuerpo...
Rodríguez, Luis Manuel Hernández
La finalidad de este trabajo es mostrar a partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada con jóvenes los significados del trabajo sexual masculino, entendiendo esta práctica desde la perspectiva feminista como un sistema complejo de actitudes y toma de decisiones. En este sentido, a partir de esta investigación trataremos de arrojar luz sobre una realidad que aparece frecuentemente invisibilizada, estigmatizada y que difiere del trabajo sexual femenino. Nuestro acercamiento lo hemos realiz...
Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.
... legs, buttocks, or genital area Swollen glands Unusual vaginal discharge If you have any symptoms of genital herpes, ... J.M. (2008). Understanding Herpes Simplex Virus: Transmission, Diagnosis, and Considerations in Pregnancy ... ...
A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity
Paulo R.S. Santos
Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to
Juanes Méndez, Juan Antonio
I. Materiales de clase: 1.Sistema Oseo. Las Articulaciones: definición, clasificaciones; 2.Esqueleto Axial; 3.Esqueleto Apendicular; 4. Organización del sistema nervioso periférico. Inervación del Aparato Locomotor; 5. Sistema muscular. II. Bibliografía y atlas Establecer la correlación morfofuncional del aparato locomotor necesaria para la deducción deficitaria derivada de las alteraciones de la dinámica osteoarticular. Esta asignatura se imparte en el primer curso del Grado en Terapia Oc...
María Vargas García
Full Text Available la finalidad de incrementar la información sobre la fisiología reproductiva del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu se realizó una descripción anatómica del aparato urogenital (au de esta especie. Se utilizaron ocho hembras y cinco machos que fueron anestesiados y perfundidos con solución de McKormik. Se realizaron disecciones para extraer el au y se describieron sus componentes. El au del pecarí de collar es característico del mamífero pero presenta similitudes con el au del cerdo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte donde se describe un seno urogenital, las glándulas vestibulares y la musculatura estriada asociada a la vulva. Es también, el primer reporte del au masculino del pecarí de collar, encontrándose algunas características exclusivas de esta especie.
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...
Carabias Huete, Tamara
Se abordan los trastornos psicosomáticos que atañen al aparato locomotor. Se analizan los factores psicológicos que pueden hacer más vulnerables a algunos sujetos frente a otros. Se exponen también algunos estudios a este respecto, describiendo los trastornos concretos para pasar después a cómo explican los diferentes modelos teóricos estos trastornos, proponiendo algunas intervenciones que parecen eficaces
En este capítulo de la guía de EpS, se ofrecen conocimientos sobre la anatomía y fisiología de los aparatos reproductores femenino y sobre los diferentes métodos anticonceptivos que existían hasta el momento, con el objetivo de conocer las ventajas e inconvenientes en la utilización de cada uno de ellos en esta etapa de la vida.
Hollier, Lisa M; Straub, Heather
Genital herpes is an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). The typical clinical features include painful shallow anogenital ulceration. It is among the most common sexually transmitted diseases, with up to 23% of adults in the UK and US having antibodies to HSV-2.
... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... reviewed: February 2016 More on this topic for: ... I Find Out If My Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD View ...
Vázquez, S. M.
Full Text Available The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients' mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients' mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1M solution (pH 2.3, and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts.
En los últimos años se ha desarrollado considerablemente el estudio de los problemas relacionados con la corrosión de aleaciones dentales a efectos de evitar la utilización de materiales con una deficiente resistencia a la corrosión en la boca de los pacientes. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la corrosión de aparatos de ortodoncia fabricados con acero inoxidable con soldadura por punto o por aporte de aleación de plata. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que cuando el acero inoxidable contiene aportes de soldadura de material de base plata, ésta actúa como ánodo disolviéndose preferencialmente a una velocidad considerable. Los aparatos de ortodoncia construidos con acero inoxidable soldado con aporte de material de base plata, corren el riesgo de destrucción debido a un ataque intenso en el cordón de soldadura con el consiguiente despegue de las piezas
Tobío, J. M.
Full Text Available A description is given of ultrasonic equipment developed at the I.E.T.c.c. (Instituto Eduardo Torroja de la Construcción y del Cemento laboratory. This equipment is an addition to the facilities which the Metrology Department of the I.E.T.c.c. possessed, to undertake non destructive tests. The most significant features of this new equipment are: the possibility to work with varying frequencies (20 to 200 kc/sec; the use of both barium titanate and ferrite transducers; heterodyne auditive control of the marking frequency; and optional possibility of observing the incoming impulse both in the form of a damped high frequency wave, and as a low frequency, highly precise differentiated impulse. A revision of the theoretical basis involved in the impulse method has been carried out, and improvements have been also introduced in the more current applications in connection with mass and structural concrete, and even laboratory specimens. The revised method of testing has inherent limitations typical of these non destructive systems. These limitations have already been mentioned in earlier papers.En este trabajo se da la descripción de un nuevo aparato ultrasónico desarrollado en los laboratorios del I.E.T.C.C. (Instituto Eduardo Torroja de la Construcción y del Cemento, que viene a completar los equipos para ensayos no destructivos de que dispone la División de Metrología. Como características más destacadas de este aparato se señalan: la posibilidad de trabajar a frecuencias diferentes (20 a 300 kc/seg, empleando transductores tanto de titanato de bario como de ferrita (Ferroxcube; control auditivo heterodino de la frecuencia de mareaje, y facultad opcional de observar el impulso recibido tanto en forma de onda amortiguada de alta frecuencia como de impulso diferenciado de baja frecuencia y elevada exactitud. También se revisan los fundamentos teóricos del método de impulsos, así como las aplicaciones más usuales del mismo en cuanto se
Pablo Gómez Martinez
Full Text Available
Son muchos los trabajos publicados que explican la resistencia natural del aparato urinario a la infección y las maneras como se defiende. Basta citar unos cuantos para demostrar que ninguno de ellos es plenamente satisfactorio: la naturaleza del epitelio, la evacuación completa del sistema excretor, el factor intrínseco vesical, el lavado hacia el exterior (wash
out de Hinman, los mucoproteídos, la resistencia del paciente, la virulencia del germen infectante, son mecanismos comúnmente citados como factores en contra del proceso infeccioso.
Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que la infección no se produce si el organismo es inmune a agentes microbianos, y que si se desarrolla, es porque este mecanismo humoral está disminuido o ausente o alterado, o porque otros, posiblemente existentes, no han sido capaces de vencer el ataque infeccioso al individuo.
Una vez establecida la infección, los mismos agentes bacterianos obran como antígenos capaces de producir anticuerpos, es decir, de desencadenar el proceso inmunológico que permitirá al paciente salir airoso de la lucha, o modificar la evolución clínica de la
Ya sea natural o adquirida, generala local, la inmunidad es la que en esencia y básicamente, juega un papel de primera magnitud en la defensa del aparato urinario.
Mecanismo inmunológico local. Hasta hace poco tiempo, la inmunología se ocupaba principalmente de la respuesta serológica a la infección, tanto en el hombre como en los animales y trataba de producir su inmunidad administrando una gran variedad de antígenos
cuya respuesta se mide por el título de los anticuerpos producidos en el suero, como prueba de la eficacia del proceso. Nadie puede negar que la vacunación ha sido uno de los grandes triunfos de la humanidad en su lucha contra las epidemias.
Sin embargo, estudios más recientes han demostrado que, aunque puede existir una relaci
... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...
Elena Irene Cuartas
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired organs: testes, and tubular and convoluted vas deferens (VD ending with a terminal ampoule (TA.The (VD is composed of three parts: anterior (AVD, medial (MVD and posterior (PVD. The AVD and MVD are lined by a single layer of cubical cells. The PVD epithelial cells are columnar with elongated nuclei. The terminal ampoule comprises four interconnecting chambers and is externally surrounded by connective tissue. The study of testes and vas deferens at different times along the year suggests that U. uruguayensis has a single and continuous reproductive season from December to March. The TA has not been described in other brachyurans and this structure is novel to Brachyura.
Smith, Nicole K; Butler, Scott; Wagner, Brandon; Collazo, Erika; Caltabiano, Lucia; Herbenick, Debby
The present study explores how genital self-image may be related to considerations of surgically altering one's genitals and documents the wanted genital changes among young adults. Evidence of a nontrivial proportion of respondents (98 of 1,110) had seriously considered elective genital surgery. Regression models indicate that, for both men and women, identifying as heterosexual and reporting lower composite genital self-image scores results in higher odds of considering genital surgery. Additionally for men, feeling unsatisfied with penis size increased the odds. Clinical and educational efforts to normalize and celebrate genital variation may influence considerations for genital modification in young adults.
Blanco Villar, Javier
El proyecto pretende reflexionar acerca del desnudo masculino desarrollado en Internet. La tecnología digital ha facilitado que se haya desarrollado una fotografía donde el propio individuo es capaz de producir una imagen pornográfica que puede compartirla a través de Internet. El resultado ha sido una nueva práctica fotográfica amateur pornográfica dispuesto a la participación de cualquier internauta, en especial, para el masculino, el cual supone el objetivo de este proyecto. El objetivo es...
Anand Kumar B
Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.
... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genital sores - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...
G Angeline Grace
Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.
Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.
Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista
To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the
Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes
Gilliland, F D; Key, C R
The estimated 165,000 cancers of the male genital system that will occur in the United States during 1993 represent one fourth of the expected 600,000 newly diagnosed cancers in American males for the year. Data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. This paper examines histologic data collected by the SEER program from 1973-1987 and focuses on incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival for the dominant histologic types of cancer that occur in the four major topographic divisions of the male genital system: prostate gland, testis, penis, and scrotum. Some less common histologic types within each organ are also discussed. The incidence of male genital cancer has increased rapidly over the period of study. Cancers of the prostate, most of which are adenocarcinomas, represent more than 92% of all male genital cancers. Among adolescents and young men, germ cell cancers of the testis predominate, but decline rapidly in occurrence after 40 years of age. Blacks had higher incidence rates for prostate cancer than whites; however, the situation was reversed for testicular cancer. Survival increased dramatically for testicular cancer. Cancers of the penis and scrotum of any histologic type are uncommon in the United States. The increased incidence of prostate adenocarcinomas and testis germ cell tumors indicates the need for further etiologic studies as a basis for prevention efforts.
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…
Goodman, Michael P
Genital plastic surgery for women has come under scrutiny and has been the topic of discussion in the news media, online, and in medical editorials. In the absence of measurable standards of care, lack of evidence-based outcome norms, and little standardization either in nomenclature or training requirements, concern has been raised by both ethicists and specialty organizations.Some women request alteration of their vulvas and vaginas for reasons of cosmesis, increasing self-esteem, and improving sexual function. Patients must be assured their surgeon is properly trained and should understand that few validated long-term safety or outcome data are presently available in this relatively new field. Women also should be made aware that, although they may wish to cosmetically or physically alter their external genitalia, this does not mean that they are developmentally or structurally "abnormal." It is important that training guidelines for practitioners be established and that long-term outcome, psychosexual, and safety data be published. The genital plastic surgeon must have sufficient training in sexual medicine to withhold these procedures from women with sexual dysfunction, mental impairment, or body dysmorphic disorder. In an atmosphere in which trademarked marketing terms are becoming part of the lexicon, a more descriptive terminology is suggested, incorporating the terms "labiaplasty," "reduction of clitoral hood," "perineoplasty," "hymenoplasty," and "vaginoplasty." The term "female cosmetic genital surgery" is presented as a descriptive umbrella encompassing these genital plastic procedures.
Gato,Jorge; Fontaine,Anne Marie
Pesquisas têm identificado semelhanças entre a heteroparentalidade e a homoparentalidade, tanto no que diz respeito às práticas parentais, como no que se relaciona com o desenvolvimento psicossocial das crianças e jovens. Contudo, comparativamente com o volume de investigação com mães lésbicas, os estudos com famílias homoparentais masculinas são ainda minoritários. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, assim, o de efetuar uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre homoparentalidade no masculino. Em pr...
De la Vega D., Elmo; Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Se ha realizado el estudio de la anatomía macroscópica y microscópica normal, del aparato digestivo de la Alpaca en 11 animales, clínicamente normales. El aspecto microscópico ha revelado variación estructural en los proventrículos de estos animales, con respecto a los demás rumiantes por nosotros conocidos. The present article deals with the anatomical study of the digestive system in 11 Alpacas ("Lama glama pacos"). The author has made the microscopical studies on the digestive system an...
El trabajo que se presenta a continuación tiene por objeto aplicar las enseñanzas adoptadas respecto a la especialidad de Higiene Industrial en el Máster realizado en Prevención de Riesgos Laborales. Por ello, se va a realizar un estudio de las afecciones al aparato respiratorio y por tanto los riesgos por inhalación en un puesto de trabajo, en este caso en el de carpintero. Se ha optado por analizar un taller real, se trata de la Carpintería Andola, situada en el polígono industrial de Bu...
Dr. Carlos A. Asenjo; Dr. Ricardo A. Pinto
El sistema o aparato respiratorio, presenta diferencias significativas con el adulto, derivadas principalmente de su inmadurez anatómica y fisiológica. Esto le confiere gran labilidad funcional, tanto mayor cuanto menor es su edad. Como compensación, presenta abundancia e intensidad de síntomas en la falla respiratoria, que hace que las enfermedades respiratorias no pasen inadvertidas y merezcan especial atención, en forma precoz. Como excepción a la regla, los recién nacidos expresan pobreme...
Stella R. Taquette
Full Text Available Na adolescência costuma ocorrer o primeiro contato sexual genital. Ao pesquisarmos a sexualidade dos adolescentes masculinos atendidos no NESA-UERJ, constatamos que 20,3% dos sexualmente ativos já tinham tido experiências homossexuais. Este artigo visa investigar as características desses rapazes que se relacionaram sexualmente com outros homens. Realizamos um estudo transversal, através de entrevistas com adolescentes atendidos no NESA, escolhidos aleatoriamente. Entrevistamos 105 rapazes, sendo 64 com experiência sexual e dentre eles, 13 (20,3% já tinham se relacionado sexualmente com homens. Entre esses últimos, apenas dois (15,4% se consideravam homossexuais e três (23,1% bissexuais. A maioria teve o primeiro coito com mulheres (69,2% e 46,2% do total dos rapazes (n=13 se prostituíram com homens. Encontramos uma associação significativa (pThe first genital contact occurs during adolescence. While studying the sexuality of male adolescents seen in NESA-UERJ, we found out that within the boys whom had started having sex, 20,3% have had homosexual experience. This article aims to analyze the characteristics of those boys whom have had sex with others men. We performed a cross-sectional study randomly interviewing male adolescents in NESA. We interviewed 105 male adolescents, where 64 of those have had sexual relationships. Within those 64, 13 (20,3% have already had sexual contact with another male. Within those 13 adolescents, only two (15,4% considered themselves as being homosexuals and three (23,1% bisexuals. The great majority (69,2% had their first sexual relationship with females and 46,2% of the all boys (n=13 had sex with males for money. There was a significant association (p<0,05 between homosexuality and prostitution. There was not any significant difference between homosexual relationship and the following variables: number of partners greater than two, condom use and being diagnosed with STD. We concluded that the
López-Munguira, M.; Salom, F.; Muñiz, Mariano
En el presente trabajo se describen las distintas estructuras del aparato reproductor femenino de Ceratitis capitata Wied. El ovario sufre una importante variación en su morfología a lo largo de la vida de la hembra. En los cuatro primeros días varían la forma del germano, el número de folículos por ovariolo y la forma del ovario, que pasa de ser esférica a oval y desaparecen los «tapones pedicelares». A partir del 4.° día se inicia la reducción de las dimensiones y del número de folículos...
Baldi Coll, Antonio; Sacristán-Riquelme, Jordi; García Canton, Jesus
Se describe un sistema que permite medir parámetros de un líquido mientras éste es agitado. La invención consiste en un sistema conjunto de agitador magnético y una unidad lectora que se comunica inalámbricamente con los sensores inalámbricos situados junto a la barra magnética agitadora. De esta forma se consigue agitar y controlar los parámetros del líquido con un único aparato y sin usar cableado eléctrico para acceder al interior del recipiente del líquido a medir. Esto permite una total ...
Nectalí Ariza Ariza
Full Text Available Este artículo trata aspectos del aparato fiscal agenciado por los liberales en el Estado de Santander durante la época federal (1857 – 1886 y de la realidad social que trasluce dicha fiscalidad. En ese tiempo los gravámenes no producían lo suficiente para cubrir los gastos de la administración y los liberales gobernaron con un constante déficit. Al indagar por las causas, entre otras aparecen: pobreza generalizada, inexistencia de cultura fiscal, incertidumbre acerca de los volúmenes de riqueza; además, los mecanismos de recaudo y gasto estaban mediados por un exacerbado clientelismo.
Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero
Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesi...
Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... One type of herpes virus stays in the body by hiding within nerve cells. It can remain "asleep" (dormant) for a long time. ...
Groves, Mary Jo
Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.
Full Text Available Pesquisas têm identificado semelhanças entre a heteroparentalidade e a homoparentalidade, tanto no que diz respeito às práticas parentais, como no que se relaciona com o desenvolvimento psicossocial das crianças e jovens. Contudo, comparativamente com o volume de investigação com mães lésbicas, os estudos com famílias homoparentais masculinas são ainda minoritários. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, assim, o de efetuar uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre homoparentalidade no masculino. Em primeiro lugar, refletimos acerca dos preconceitos particulares contra a parentalidade gay. Em segundo lugar, revimos os principais estudos com famílias homoparentais masculinas, publicados entre 1979 e 2011. Os resultados das referidas pesquisas foram organizados em torno de cinco temáticas: atitudes face à parentalidade, identidade sexual, relação com o contexto, competência parental e qualidade/dinâmica das relações familiares, e desenvolvimento psicossocial das crianças e jovens. Por último, destacámos algumas limitações e implicações para o futuro da investigação revista.
S Lakshmi Pillai
Full Text Available La langosta espinosa Panulirus homarus, distribuida a lo largo de las costas sudeste y sudoeste de la India, es una especie de importancia comercial con gran potencial para la mari-cultura. A pesar de su importancia, las características estructurales y ultraestructurales de las gónadas masculinas de esta especie han sido poco estudiadas. Debido a esto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el aparato reproductor masculino de dicha especie, utilizando técnicas convencionales de microscopía histológica y electrónica. Se procesaron 94 ejemplares de P. homarus de vizhinjam (costa suroeste de la India (70 individuos para histología y 24 para ultraestructura, cuyos caparazones variaron de 37 mm a 92 mm de longitud. El sistema reproductor masculino de esta especie consistió en un par de testículos y un conducto deferente situados en la región céfalo-torácica. Macroscópicamente, el aparato reproductor se observó en langostas con una longitud de caparazón >35mm. En testículos inmaduros, la espermatogonia midió 6.9-13.8μm de diámetro y se encontró presente en los testículos maduros primarios (5.4-5.9μm, espermatocitos secundarios (2.8 a 3 μm y espermátidas (2.2-2.4μm. Cada conducto deferente consistió de porciones proximales y distales. La formación de la masa espermatofórica comienza en los conductos deferentes proximales. En el conducto deferente distal espermatofórico, la masa que contiene los espermatozoides está dispuesta en paquetes hacia la periferia, en una matriz gelatinosa producida por el tiflosol. Ultraestructuralmente, las espermatogonias presentan una lámina, núcleo y mitocondrias, los espermatocitos primarios tienen núcleo, cromatina densa y citoplasma vacuolado, mientras que las espermátidas tienen mitocondrias, retículo endoplasmático y centríolos. En las espermátidas, el retículo endoplásmico y la envoltura nuclear forman el acrosoma. Los brazos radiales con microtúbulos se forman en asociaci
Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J
A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....
Adel Hussein Elduma
CONCLUSION: The practice of female genital mutilation is spread all over the country. Poor women with low level of education are at high risk for this phenomenon. More efforts have to be provided to end this dangerous practice.
Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J
A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....
José de Jesús Casas; Katherine Cerón; Carlos Julio Vidal; Claudia Cecilia Peña; Juan Carlos Osorio
Se presenta una aplicación de la metodología AHP para la selección de un residuo de aparato eléctrico y electrónico que se va a considerar en el diseño de una red de logística inversa para la gestión integral de los residuos sólidos generados por dichos aparatos. Este trabajo es el primer paso en el diseño de la red logística y se ha abordado desde la perspectiva multicriterio debido a la importancia que revisten dichos residuos tanto desde el punto de vista de su impacto ambiental como econó...
Dr. Carlos A. Asenjo
Full Text Available El sistema o aparato respiratorio, presenta diferencias significativas con el adulto, derivadas principalmente de su inmadurez anatómica y fisiológica. Esto le confiere gran labilidad funcional, tanto mayor cuanto menor es su edad. Como compensación, presenta abundancia e intensidad de síntomas en la falla respiratoria, que hace que las enfermedades respiratorias no pasen inadvertidas y merezcan especial atención, en forma precoz. Como excepción a la regla, los recién nacidos expresan pobremente el compromiso respiratorio. Sin embargo, la aparición de signos como apnea y bradicardia en presencia de hipoxemia, hecho inhabitual en el niño mayor, nos indican que la característica anterior no es permanente ni homogénea, otorgándole una condición única no concordante con la fisiología del organismo adulto. El conocimiento sobre las características anatómicas y funcionales de la vía aérea extra e intratorácica, nos va a permitir identificar precozmente las características fisiopatológicas que nos permitan sospechar una enfermedad en todo paciente pediátrico.
Lílian C Giannasi
Full Text Available La elección de un aparato bucal apropiado para lograr los mejores resultados en el tratamiento de la apnea obstructiva del sueño es importante. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un aparato bucal específico, el PMPositioner, para el tratamiento del ronquido y la apnea obstructiva del sueño leve, a través de polisomnografía y la Escala de Epworth del sueño, después de seis meses de uso del mencionado aparato. Se incluyeron en el estudio 17 pacientes divididos en dos grupos: un grupo de roncadores integrado por 7 pacientes y otro grupo de 10 pacientes con apnea obstructiva leve. Los resultados fueron significativos para el segundo grupo, revelando una disminución en el índice de apnea-hipoapnea de 7,4 .plusmn; 5,0 a 3,0 .plusmn; 2,5 (p <0,05, un aumento de la saturación de oxígeno en un rango de 88,0 .plusmn; 6,0 a 90,0 .plusmn; 2,8 (p <0,05, aumento del sueño REM de 16,0.plusmn;4,0 a 19.plusmn;6,0 y una mejora de la somnolencia en la Escala Epworth de 12,5.plusmn;5,4 a 7,4.plusmn;2,4. Asimismo, se constató una disminución en los ronquidos y los síntomas subjetivos de acuerdo a lo informado por los pacientes y sus parejas. Se concluyó que el aparato bucal evaluado, PMPositioner, fue efectivo en el tratamiento de los ronquidos y la apnea obstructiva leve, así como en la reducción de la somnolencia y de otros síntomas
Pato Rivero, Francisco Javier
En este trabajo nos hemos propuesto avanzar en el estudio de las infecciones ocasionadas por nematodos gastrointestinales y broncopulmonares así como determinar la prevalencia de infección por Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis y pestivirus, que son los agentes que se pueden localizar en el aparato respiratorio y gastrointestinal de estos animales. Para ello, se recogieron 218 muestras de corzos abatidos en Galicia. En el análisis de los datos se tuvieron en cuenta vari...
Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.
We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references
Daniel Melecchi Freitas
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Myiasis is caused by larval infestation that usually occurs in exposed wounds. Dermatobia hominis is the most common fly species responsible for this parasitic infection. Genital piercing is an ornamental practice used in certain social circles. At placement, it transverses the skin surface and, as such, may be related to complications. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 31-year-old man with a history of wound infection secondary to genital piercing who was exposed to an environment with flies, leading to myiasis. Mechanical removal and systemic antiparasitic drugs are possible treatments for myiasis. However, prevention that includes wound cleaning and dressing is the best way to avoid this disease. CONCLUSIONS: Genital piercing can lead to potential complications and myiasis may occur when skin lesions are not properly treated.
Catherine M. O’Connell
Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.
Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.
Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R
Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.
Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Masculino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IMEGA. Baseado nas estruturas fatoriais das escalas masculina e feminina do Inventário dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IEGA, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito dos homens. A amostra utilizada foi composta por estudantes universitários do sexo masculino. Para a validade de construto do IMEGA, foram realizadas análises fatoriais (Principal Axis Factoring - PAF, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, para ambas as escalas e análise da consistência interna dos fatores (alfa de Cronbach. Os resultados demonstram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais que se assemelham às estruturas fatoriais do IEGA. Devidamente validado, o IMEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo masculino.
R B Nerli
Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional
Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.
Greilsheimer, H; Groves, J E
Men who intentionally mutilate or remove their own genitals are likely to be psychotic at the time of the act, to have a number of goals and aims relating to conflicts about the male role, and to be vulnerable to sociocultural and psychological forces in a causal network as yet unknown. However, from a review of the cases of 53 male self-mutilators, it appears that a significant number involve individuals not psychotic at the time of the act but rather having character disorders and rageful feelings toward themselves or women, and transsexual males who premeditate their own gender conversion surgery. The psychiatric consultant's role in the management of such an individual in the general hospital setting includes not only care of a patient with a psychotic or impulse disorder but also involves support of the house staff, who are distressed by the fear, guilt, hopelessness, anger, and revulsion that the patient's act of genital self-mutilation causes.
Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.
Nesta dissertação abordamos os estudos pneumáticos, realizados por James Watt (1736-1819) que o conduziram na confecção de um aparato portátil de inalação de gases em colaboração com as terapias médicas do Dr.Thomas Beddoes (1760 - 1808). Este aparato foi utilizado no projeto pneumático do Dr.Thomas Beddoes, de investigação cientifica, o Pneumatic Medical Institution, em Bristol, sobre a potencialidade de utilização dos gases em enfermidades pulmonares. Analisando os estudos e experimentos...
Rogério Machado Rosa
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464444824 Nesse texto buscamos cartografar, a partir de uma interlocução com autores como Deleuze e Guattari e Nietzsche, o processo de variação-deslocamento-multiplicação do corpo masculino docente, a estética das sensibilidades e os agenciamentos corporais que os encontros pedagógicos inspiram. O corpo-docente-masculino, suas variações e (inconformidades, será tomado como plano de inscrição e veículo das forças afectivas e vibratórias que por ele passa e o coloca em movimento de territorialização, desterritorialização e reterritorialização. Problematizaremos, assim, o lugar do encontro pedagógico como possível dispositivo maquínico, apontando para a ideia de que os agenciamentos produzidos a partir daí operam na criação de experimentações corporais que deslocam o corpo masculino dos lugares consagrados pela norma e o aproxima do corpo-masculino-marginal, prenhe de devires e (desorganizado: corpo sem orgãos. Palavras-chave: corpo, docência, masculinidades, criação.
Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc
The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
UUSKÜLA, ANNELI; RAUKAS, ELVE
Manifestations of human genital herpes virus (HSV) infection are not limited to the typical cluster of genital lesions. Here we present 5 case histories suggestive to clinically atypical genital herpes (HSV detected with the polymerase chain reaction) collected in 2001 from a private outpatient clinic specializing in dermatological and venereal diseases. The clinical presentations included mucopurulent cervicitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, recurrent urethritis, and lower hack pain.
Uusküla, Anneli; Raukas, Elve
Manifestations of human genital herpes virus (HSV) infection are not limited to the typical cluster of genital lesions. Here we present 5 case histories suggestive to clinically atypical genital herpes (HSV detected with the polymerase chain reaction) collected in 2001 from a private outpatient clinic specializing in dermatological and venereal diseases. The clinical presentations included mucopurulent cervicitis, haemorrhagic cystitis, recurrent urethritis, and lower back pain.
Gloria M Marín Manso
Full Text Available El prognatismo mandibular es una anomalía que afecta la estética y la siquis del paciente, y necesita en la mayoría de los casos la intervención quirúrgica para su correcto tratamiento. Existen múltiples aparatos funcionales para el tratamiento precoz de esta anomalía, entre los que se encuentran el activador abierto elástico, el Frankel III, las pistas planas de clase III y los bloques gemelos invertidos, entre otros. El objetivo de este trabajo es explicar los componentes y modo de acción del aparato diseñado por el Dr. Buño, al que llamó retropulsor-estimulador (RE 1 ó pequeño gigante, para el tratamiento de esta anomalía, del cual no contamos en nuestro país con ninguna referencia bibliográfica. El aparato es muy sencillo y de fácil construcción, favorece la función y la estética e impide la instauración de anomalías de peor pronóstico y de mayor complejidad en el tratamiento. Si se eliminan desde edades tempranas los trastornos funcionales y las trabas de la oclusión, tales como la oclusión invertida anterior, que obligan a adoptar una posición adelantada de la mandíbula, serán menos los adultos afectados.Mandibular prognatism is an abnormality affecting the aesthetics and psyche of the patient. In most of the cases, the surgical procedure is necessary for its correct treatment. If the functional disorders and the obstacles for occlusion, such as the anterior inverted occlusion that obliges to adopt an advanced position of the mandible, are eliminated at early ages, the affected adults will be less. There are multiple functional apparatuses for the premature treatment of this abnormality, such as the Elastic Open Activator, Frankle III, the class III Flat Tracks and the Inverted Twin Blocks, among others. Dr. Buño designed an apparatus called Retropulsator-Stimulator (R.S. 1 or Little Giant for the treatment of this abnormality. As we don’t have any bibliographic reference of this apparatus in our country
Gonzalo Esguerra G.
, doctor Jaime Jaramillo, eficazmente secundado por los señores Miembros del Consejo Directivo, doctores Cuéllar Durán, Uribe, Acosta y Almánzar. A todos y a cada uno de ellos quiero manifestarles mi más profundo y espontáneo agradecimiento por la honrosa designación que me hicieron.
El hecho de figurar desde hoy en la lista de los profesores de la Facultad de Medicina, cuyos nombres son orgullo de la ciencia médica nacional, me llena de satisfacción y de entusiasmo.
Debiera comenzar, como es de costumbre, por hacer la apología de mi antecesor en esta cátedra; pero como la ciencia de la Radiología es tan reciente que todo su progreso se ha llevado a cabo exclusivamente en el siglo en que vivimos, esto explica el que no haya lugar a lamentar hoy la desaparición de uno de nuestros maestros.
Pero en cambio, me parece justo recordar en esta ocasión a dos colegas muy distinguidos, con quienes me ligan vínculos de amistad y de cariño, por haber sido ellos los iniciadores del radiodiagnóstico en la ciudad de Bogotá; me refiero a los doctores Isaac Rodríguez y Germán Reyes. Con una fe y un entusiasmo que los honra; venciendo numerosas dificultades, y en un momento en que la técnica radiológica no había alcanzado la perfección que hoy tiene, los doctores Reyes y Rodríguez instalaron y pusieron en servicio los primeros aparatos de Rayos X en la ciudad de Bogotá.
Hasta ellos quiero hacer llegar en este día un recuerdo cariñoso de admiración y simpatía. y mal podría olvidar a quien fue mi maestro e iniciador en estos estudios: muchos de ustedes recordarán, en el año 1920, al profesor André J. Richard, profundo clínico, conocedor como el que más de la ciencia de la radiología, insigne maestro y grande organizador, que puso al servicio el Laboratorio de Rayos X del Hospital de San Juan de Dios; y al profesor Martín Weiser, que hasta hace pocos años nos acompañó en esta ciudad; caballero a carta cabal, para quien la ciencia
Full Text Available En este trabajo se examinan las fórmulas de masculino más femenino que aparecen en textos legales medievales, especialmente fueros y documentos notariales, y su relación con los contextos en que aparecen masculinos inclusivos para denominar la totalidad de seres humanos de determinado grupo. Se analizan los factores a los que obedece el empleo de la doble forma y las diferencias en el uso de esta construcción entre unos pares de términos y otros.Ce travail examine les formules associant terme masculin et terme féminin qui apparaissent dans les textes légaux médiévaux, surtout dans les documents des fueros et documents notariaux, et leur rapport avec les contextes où ce sont des masculins inclusifs qui nomment la totalité des personnes d’un certain groupe. Les facteurs auxquels obéit l’emploi de la double forme ainsi que les différences d’usage de cette construction sont analysés.
Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.
Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F
Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.
Cummings, Anne L.
Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…
Abstract. The observation that about 90% of Eritrean women were circumcised in 2002 increased interest to understand the trends, determinants, and consequences of female genital cutting (FGC). The study used data from the 2002 EDHS and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation Survey to consider factors that influence the ...
In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...
As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.
Byard, Roger W
Given the potential significance of mutilation of the external genitalia in medicolegal fatalities, a review of the literature was undertaken to identify subcategories. Such mutilations may have been sustained sometime before death, around the time of death, or after death. The most common type of ante mortem genital mutilations involves cultural practices such as male circumcision. Less common male mutilations such as subincisions are tribally based. Female genital mutilation is found particularly in African, Middle Eastern, or Asian populations. Self-inflicted genital injuries are most common in males and may be related to attempts at suicide, or to self-harming practices. The latter have a strong association with psychiatric illnesses. Postmortem injuries may arise from animal predation or deliberate mutilation of a corpse. The latter may be associated with ante mortem genital injuries in sadistic homicides. The range of possible causes of genital mutilations in forensic cases necessitates extremely careful evaluation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Reinartz E. Mónica
Full Text Available La causa genética del pseudohermafroditismo no está bien dilucidada, sin embargo se han reportado distintos casos de pseudohermafroditas masculinos los cuales en la mayoría de los casos se han tratado de explicar por efectos hormonales sobre las gónadas en formación durante el desarrollo embrionario. Además se ha explorado poco la relación de este fenotipo con la constitución genómica de los organismos que presentan la disfunción sexual. En el presente trabajo se encontró una fuerte relación entre el quimerismo cromosómico XX/XY y el fenotipo pseudohermafrodita masculino exhibido por dos ejemplares de porcinos Landrace X Largewhite similar a lo encontrado en freemartinismo de bovinos.
Vanya Guadalupe Alvarado López
Full Text Available Esta investigación se basa en estudios realizados por Luna-Aroca en España y Denegri en Chile, mediante la aplicación de la escala de consumo de Luna-Aroca (2000, para describir las características de compra impulsiva del homosexual masculino en Barranquilla, Colombia. Los resultados indican que la compra impulsiva en los homosexuales masculinos en Barranquilla (Colombia se centra en la búsqueda de novedad, exclusividad y la relación hedónica entre el producto y la compra. Las áreas del self que más se relacionan con la compra impulsiva son la económica, la física (peso y la belleza.
Full Text Available El homicidio masculino agudizado en Ciudad Juárez en los años 2008 y 2009, con casi cuatro mil asesinatos, constituye la expresión más evidente de la violencia urbana. Dicha violencia ha tomado rostro en hombres, en su mayoría jóvenes y marginados. Los datos muestran un comportamiento del homicidio doloso asimilado a significados relacionados con la masculinidad más tradicional, cuyo costo recae en la vida misma. Se observa a través de los escenarios, los horarios en que ocurren los eventos y las formas de ejecución, que esta práctica delictiva puede ser comprendida como una actividad masculina que explota una subjetividad proclive a la violencia y que reproduce las asimetrías de género y significados asociados a la dicotomía masculino-femenino.
Thamires Citadini de Almeida
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os blogs pró-anorexia, ou blogs pró-ana, produzidos por indivíduos do sexo masculino, para entender o comportamento anoréxico masculino e o espaço que os blogs ocupam na vida desses sujeitos. Nosso objetivo foi explorar elementos relacionados com a cultura de magreza disponível nos blogs, tendo em vista analisar a questão da anorexia em homens, bem como compreender como os mesmos vivenciam essa experiência. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em blogs brasileiros e estrangeiros cujos autores das páginas eram homens. Os resultados sugerem que essa população faz da internet uma rede de apoio, com características de ajuda mútua e de produção de autonomia. Por meio dos blogs, os homens discutem alternativas para ludibriar a família e socializam estratégias entre os pares para atingir o objetivo da manutenção do baixo peso. Percebemos que os profissionais da saúde devem prestar atenção para esta "rede informal" de apoio mútuo, uma vez que os blogs pró-ana têm contribuído para a promoção do comportamento anoréxico no sexo masculino.
Cristiane da Costa Thiago
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como foco a construção do declínio hormonal masculino relacionado ao envelhecimento, como parte de um processo mais geral de medicalização da sexualidade e envelhecimento masculinos. A fim de atingir esse objetivo, foram pesquisados 14 websites de laboratórios farmacêuticos que comercializam drogas para a saúde sexual masculina e sete websites de associações médico-científicas voltadas para a saúde sexual masculina. Utilizamos as imagens encontradas em tais sites como material de análise. A partir do que foi analisado, discutimos a existência de uma parceria entre as associações médico-científicas e a indústria farmacêutica, que tende a apresentar o envelhecimento masculino como um problema médico, promovendo a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH com testosterona como tratamento. Tal terapia é também apresentada como um meio para recuperar a felicidade, a produtividade, a ‘qualidade de vida’ e o bem-estar.
Mandara, M U
To determine the prevalence and distribution of female genital mutilation (FGM) procedures in a Nigerian population. Five hundred consecutive women were evaluated for evidence of FGM. The WHO classification system was utilized. Demographic and sociocultural information was collected. Thirty-four percent of women were found to have some type of FGM. Type I and Type II procedures were the most common. Fifty-five percent of women were unaware they had FGM and 62% with FGM did not know the reason. Twenty-one percent of women said they were going to have FGM on their daughters. FGM is still broadly practiced among ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. Educational efforts need to be directed at eliminating this practice.
Wood, Paul L
Clinicians are faced with increasing requests for female cosmetic genital surgery and prominent amongst these is labiaplasty. The implications of labiaplasty in adolescence are explored with emphasis on what is known about normal genital appearances, pubertal development, anatomy and physiology and the options for surgical intervention including risks and implications. Faced with what is known to date on female cosmetic genital surgery then such interventions should be avoided in adolescence in the absence of defined medical indications until at least the age of 18 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: el presente trabajo pretende evaluar el efecto de los aparatos ortodóncicos fijos linguales en la articulación de los fones, en pacientes que hablen español chileno, y la adaptación a estos efectos dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. MÉTODOS: la muestra consistió en 13 pacientes que acudieron para instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual. Se realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio en condiciones estandarizadas, en 5 momentos diferentes: previo a la instalación de los aparatos fijos (E0, inmediatamente después de realizada esta (E1, a las 24 horas posteriores (E2, a los 7 días (E3 y un mes después de la instalación (E4. Se determinaron los fones afectados en los distintos momentos de examen respecto a la línea base dada por el examen previo, y se analizó su resolución. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios significativos en el punto de articulación de los fones [d], [s] y [r] Los fones [d] y [s] mostraron una resolución favorable dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. El fone vibrante múltiple [r] no mostró una recuperación de la alteración una vez cumplido un mes de uso de los aparatos ortodóncicos. CONCLUSIONES: la instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual produce modificaciones en el punto de articulación de los fones consonánticos, las cuales tienden a mejorar dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos, con excepción del fone vibrante múltiple [r].PURPOSE: this study evaluated the effect of lingual orthodontics appliances on speech performance in native Chilean spanish speakers, and their adaptation to these effects during the first month. METHODS: phone production was recorded in a standardized test, in 13 patients with lingual orthodontic brackets, in 5 different times: before (E0, immediately after (E1, within 24 hours after (E2, within 7 days after (E3 and 1 month after (E4 the placement of fixed orthodontic lingual appliances, for assessment by speech professionals. RESULTS
Full Text Available El énfasis en la práctica científica, procedente originariamente de la sociología de la ciencia y, más recientemente, de la historia y la filosofía de la ciencia, está produciendo una concepción de la ciencia dramáticamente nueva. La práctica científica dibuja dentro de la órbita de la ciencia no sólo teorías y modelos, sino también hechos, instrumentos, aparatos, máquinas y seres humanos. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la perspectiva experimentalista de pensar la física cuántica. Explico tres puntos de vista: el sociológico de Andrew Pickering, el epistemológico de Ian Hacking y el ontológico de Gustavo Bueno; quienes buscan moverse de la representación a la experimentación y la manipulación. Lo que distingue estas concepciones de la tradicional es que no comprenden la ciencia como una construcción en términos conceptuales y lingüísticos sino como una actividad social y material.
Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.
By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.
E. Edouard; O. Olatunbosun; L. Edouard
Female genital mutilation (FGM), sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into ...
Anjos, Renata Holanda Dutra dos; Silva, José Augusto de Souza; Val, Luciane Ferreira do; Rincon, Laura Alarcon; Nichiata, Lucia Yasuko Izumi
O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar comparativamente a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS de homens e mulheres adolescentes, baseada em seus conhecimentos, valores e práticas. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. Os estudantes responderam a um questionário do qual foram selecionadas questões relevantes para análise. Totalizaram 207 adolescentes, sendo 43,5% do sexo masculino e 56,5% do feminino. A maior parte dos adolescentes declara já ter tido sua primeira rel...
MARÍA LAMEIRAS FERNÁNDEZ
El preservativo masculino es el anticonceptivo más utilizado. En los chicos, la variable que influye en el uso del preservativo es la capacidad para comunicar su ausencia de deseo. En el caso de las chicas, las variables que influyen en el uso del preservativo son la utilización de algún método anticonceptivo en la primera relación sexual, uso de la píldora, actitudes frente a la sexualidad y tiempo que llevan con la pareja. Las implicaciones de los resultados son discutidas en el marco de la pandemia de VIH/SIDA.
William Jubiz; Eduardo Antonio Cruz
El hipogonadismo masculino representa una disminución de la función testicular, con una baja producción de testosterona e infertilidad. El hipogonadismo puede deberse a un problema intrínseco de los testículos (primario), a una falla del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis (secundario) o a una respuesta disminuida o ausente de los órganos blanco a los andrógenos (resistencia androgénica). Los síntomas del hipogonadismo incluyen la caída del vello corporal, disminución de la función sexual y cambios en l...
Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Gesteira, Solange Maria dos Anjos; Alves, Sandra Lúcia Belo; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira
Tendo como objeto a vivência de violência na relação conjugal, este estudo descritivo, de abordagem quali-quantitativa, teve como objetivo identificar a violência conjugal no discurso masculino. A população foi composta por 50 homens residentes na comunidade do Calafate, em San Martin, bairro localizado em Salvador/Ba. Para coleta de dados, utilizou-se entrevista com formulário semi-estruturado. A amostra caracterizou-se por homens, na faixa etária entre 20 a 40 anos (74,0%); convivendo conju...
Maki, Mirian Akemi
O presente estudo pretende analisar e refletir sobre o processo de envelhecimento nos homossexuais masculinos. Em vista da preocupação no que diz respeito ao aumento demográfico de idosos, e já percebendo uma busca do governo e da sociedade em relação à qualidade de vida dessa parcela da população, há um movimento social de estudos e programas direcionados para essa faixa etária, constituídos de relatos, discussões e leituras que envolvem a temática. Muitos estudos referem-se a homens e mulhe...
Oshio, Leonardo Toshio
O Extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb) é um dos fitoterápicos mais consumidos no mundo e tem sido utilizado no tratamento da disfunção erétil e como afrodisíaco. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade sistêmica do EGb e o efeito sobre o sistema reprodutor masculino de ratos Wistar. Oitenta animais de três meses de idade foram tratados com água destilada (Grupo Controle) e extrato aquoso de Ginkgo biloba nas seguintes doses: 3,5 (EGb 3,5); 7,0 (EGb 7,0) e 14,0 mg/...
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.
Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.
Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565
Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko
Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.
Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar
Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.
Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...
House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.
Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a insatisfação com a imagem corporal entre jovens atletas do sexo masculino com e sem riscos para transtornos alimentares (TA e entre modalidades esportivas de magreza/classe de peso e coletivo/potência. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 464 jovens atletas do sexo masculino com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, praticantes de 12 modalidades esportivas. Utilizaram-se o Body Shape Questionnaire e o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar insatisfação com a imagem corporal e comportamento alimentar, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas, massa corporal e estatura para estimar percentual de gordura e calcular o índice de massa corporal, respectivamente. Conduziu-se análise univariada de covariância para comparar insatisfação com a imagem corporal entre grupos de modalidades esportivas e com/sem riscos para TA. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não evidenciaram diferenças de insatisfação com a imagem corporal entre os grupos de modalidades esportivas. Por outro lado, os achados indicaram diferenças nos escores do BSQ em função dos grupos com e sem riscos para TA (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o tipo de esporte praticado não acentuou a insatisfação com a imagem corporal, no entanto os atletas com comportamentos alimentares inadequados demonstraram maior depreciação com o peso e a aparência física.
Stella Regina Taquette
Full Text Available Resumo A redução gradativa da incidência de Aids entre homens que fazem sexo com homens não tem acontecido na faixa etária mais jovem que, ao contrário, está aumentando. Objetivamos conhecer as vulnerabilidades de adolescentes do sexo masculino que favoreceram a contaminação pelo HIV. Realizamos estudo qualitativo por meio de entrevistas com homens jovens soropositivos em tratamento, cujo diagnóstico foi feito na adolescência. Gravamos e transcrevemos as entrevistas na íntegra e as analisamos através de leitura intensiva, classificação por temas, e interpretação na perspectiva hermenêutica-dialética em diálogo com a literatura. Entrevistamos 16 homens jovens, cujo diagnóstico ocorreu entre 11 e 19 anos e em todos eles a via de transmissão do HIV foi sexual, sendo 12 homo e 4 heterossexuais. Evidenciou-se como situações de vulnerabilidade a descrença na possibilidade de contaminação, a sujeição sexual, a homofobia e a exploração sexual comercial. Este estudo demonstra a grande importância da formulação de políticas públicas em saúde sexual e reprodutiva que contemple adolescentes e jovens do sexo masculino com a perspectiva de masculinidade em toda sua amplitude e ações para diversidade sexual.
Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y
A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.
The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year.
Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane
Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.
Alejandro Fadragas Fernández
Full Text Available Nos propusimos revisar la literatura más actualizada, para dar a conocer la magnitud de este nocivo hábito, alarmados ante la terrible realidad de saber que el tabaco causa 1 muerte cada 10 s, según un informe publicado recientemente por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El tabaquismo provoca 3 500 000 muertes anuales y ocasiona enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es realizar una actualización de este tema, haciendo mayor énfasis en la repercusión del hábito de fumar en el aparato cardiovascular. Como resultado de esta revisión encontramos que el hábito de fumar constituye un factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, donde las lesiones ateroscleróticas se presentan en un porcentaje elevado de los pacientes que fallecen por esta causa, y es a su vez, factor importante en la aparición de otras enfermedades, como son: la hipertensión arterial, la cardiopatía isquémica y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares.Summary We propose ourselves to review the most updated literature to make known the magnitude of this harmful habit, alarmed by the terrible reality to know that tobbaco causes a death per 10 s, according to a report recently published by the World Health Organization. Smoking produces 3 500 000 deaths a year and brings about cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this bibliographic review is to update this topic, making emphasis on the repercussion of smoking on the cardiovascular system. As a result of this review, we found that smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, where the atherosclerotic lesions are present in an elevated percentage of the patients dying for this cause, and that it is at the same time an important factor in the appearance of other diseases, such as arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases.
Nagasawa,Hiroyuki; Okumura,Noriko; Uchiyama,Atsushi; Wakazono,Akihiro; Ichihashi,Hiroshi
Objetivo: relatar o caso de um neonato masculino 47 XYY com doença cardíaca congênita e baixa estatura. Resultados: este é o primeiro relato de caso de um neonato masculino 47 XYY, pequeno para a idade, com doença cardíaca congênita (retorno venoso pulmonar anômalo total). O neonato nasceu com 32 semanas de gestação e peso de 1.134 g. Uma hemorragia intracraniana e um alto fluxo pulmonar foram descobertos no período neonatal inicial. Havia grande retardo de desenvolvimento neuromotor. A crian...
Giménez San Andrés, Gerard
Estudiar la viabilidad técnica y económica de la recuperación de materias primas secundarias, procedentes de los residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos. Para ello el proyecto se centrara en unos determinados tipos de RAEES y en la recuperación de ciertos materiales empleando unas tecnologías determinadas. Algunos de los factores que se tendrán en cuenta para realizar el análisis técnico y económico son el grado de recuperación, los recursos necesarios para lograrlo y la diferencia de ...
Beltrán Mora, Luis Nelson
En este cuaderno de investigación se podrán encontrar varios planteamientos acerca de la realidad económica de tres sectores productivos (muebles de madera, metalmecánica y aparatos eléctricos), después de la apertura y la recesión económica de los años noventa en Colombia. En esa época, dichos sectores se vieron enfrentados a los conceptos de competencia y competitividad y al mismo tiempo se vieron obligados a conformar cadenas productivas para lograr un exitoso ingreso al mercado internacio...
Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.
Longo, David J.; And Others
Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…
Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E
testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...
Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P
Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.
Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.
The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...
Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…
Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali
Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.
female genital prolapse. In the present case, as the patient is post‑menopausal and with co‑existing partial rectal prolapse, vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. Diagnostic approaches usually include endoscopy, contrast‑enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, and barium enema. Endoscopic biopsies usually fail to diagnose ...
All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...
Department of Community Health and Primary Health Care, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital,. Sagamu. KEY WORDS: Female genital. Cutting ... need to improve female education among this population, intensify anti-FGC campaigns and more ..... it as a health problem and a human rights abuse issue that.
www.sciencedirect.com. Opinion article. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights. A.E. Groeneveld. Department of Urology, Mbabane Clinic, Swaziland. Received 22 November 2012; received in revised form 1st December 2012; accepted 1st December 2012. 'All procedures that involve partial or complete ...
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose
Steele, M S; Bukusi, E; Cohen, C R; Shell-Duncan, B A; Holmes, K K
Attitudes and practices concerning genital hygiene may influence topical microbicide use by men. This study examines knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene, genital hygiene, circumcision and hygiene, and to genital hygiene before and after sex among men in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted 463 interviews of men recruited by respondent driven sampling techniques and 10 focus group discussions with a subsample of 100 volunteers from this group. Men were asked individual quantitative survey and qualitative group discussion questions about general hygiene behaviours, genital hygiene, and the temporal relation of genital hygiene behaviours to sexual encounters. Bathing once daily was associated with education, income, and inside tap water. Genital washing aside from regular bathing and washing before sex ever were negatively associated with bathroom crowding. Genital hygiene before the most recent sexual encounter was uncommon and negatively associated with HIV risk perception, bathroom crowding, and ethnicity. Men believed genital hygiene before sex would arouse suspicions of infidelity or cool sexual ardour. Genital hygiene after sex was associated with education, religion, and having inside tap water. Genital hygiene after the most recent sexual encounter was associated with age, income, and with men having at least one child. Genital hygiene behaviours were associated with resource access factors and group discussions suggest that they are modulated by interactions in sexual partnerships. Topical microbicides may improve hygiene before and after sex.
Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sharma, Jai B; Naha, Moumita; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Arora, Raksha
To assess the role of genital tuberculosis as an etiological factor for ectopic pregnancy. A total of eighteen women of ectopic pregnancy with concomitant female genital tuberculosis and a total of one hundred thirty six patients of ectopic pregnancy over a period of three years were enrolled. Mean age of patients with ectopic pregnancy and concomitant female genital tuberculosis was twenty-six and mean parity was 0.7. Most of these patients were in poor socio-economic group. Diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis was made by presence of granuloma in histopathological examination of endometrial aspirate or tubal specimen, positive acid fast bacilli in microscopy or culture, positive polymerase chain reaction in endometrial tissue and positive findings of genital tuberculosis during laparoscopy or laparotomy. Genital tuberculosis was responsible for 13.2% of all cases of ectopic pregnancy in the present study. Genital tuberculosis appears to be an important cause of ectopic pregnancy in India.
Renata Holanda Dutra dos Anjos
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar comparativamente a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS de homens e mulheres adolescentes, baseada em seus conhecimentos, valores e práticas. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. Os estudantes responderam a um questionário do qual foram selecionadas questões relevantes para análise. Totalizaram 207 adolescentes, sendo 43,5% do sexo masculino e 56,5% do feminino. A maior parte dos adolescentes declara já ter tido sua primeira relação sexual até o momento do estudo. Observaram-se déficits de conhecimento sobre transmissão do HIV e práticas sexuais seguras. Embora haja conhecimento declarado das técnicas de uso do preservativo, isso não reflete em seu uso constante. Observaram-se valores ligados às representações de gênero, mas percebe-se uma evolução quanto à autonomia e poder de negociação das meninas sobre o uso do preservativo.
Rosineide Santana de Brito
Full Text Available O estudo teve o objetivo de verificar o conhecimento de estudantes universitários do sexo masculino sobre o aborto provocado. A amostra foi constituída por 70% da população de cada curso da área biomédica totalizando 71 respondentes. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário elaborado a partir de pesquisas exploratórias e aplicados nos locais de aula, nos meses de agosto e outubro de 1998. Os resultados estão divididos em duas partes: a primeira caracteriza a amostra e a segunda trata das questões relativas ao aborto provocado. A maior parte dos estudantes encontra-se na faixa etária de 17-22 anos, são católicos, solteiros e são dependentes financeiramente. Um percentual representativo sabe o que é aborto provocado, os métodos utilizados e suas conseqüências. São de opinião contrária ao aborto e responsabilizam o casal pela decisão de deixar ou não a gravidez evoluir, em menor percentual além da mulher, outras pessoas como amigos e familiares são apontados também como responsáveis.
Magali Gouveia Engel
Full Text Available O artigo identifica e estuda as sexualidades e afetividades masculinas interditadas e aprisionadas nos hospícios brasileiros, durante as primeiras décadas republicanas. Busca-se problematizar a idéia de que os comportamentos sexuais e afetivos não teriam grande relevância na construção de perfis masculinos considerados 'desviantes' e/ou 'patológicos', por meio da análise de registros psiquiátricos da época. Trata-se, pois, de propor uma reflexão que desloque o eixo da análise para as especificidades de gênero que determinam as diferentes feições assumidas pelos 'distúrbios mentais' atribuídos a certos comportamentos sexuais e afetivos.The article identifies and studies male sexuality and affectivity as forbidden and imprisoned in Brazilian asylums in the first decades of the Republic. By analyzing psychiatric records from that era, it explores the notion that sexual and affective behavior had little to do with the construction of male profiles deemed 'deviant' and/or 'pathological'. This reflection shifts the focus of analysis to the gender specificities that determine the various traits displayed in 'mental disturbances' attributed to certain sexual and affective behavior.
José Jefferson Gomes Eufrásio
Full Text Available Resumo Esta pesquisa aborda a relação entre o corpo e a estética, compreendida como padrão corporal. O objetivo foi analisar o corpo masculino na revista Men's Health. A metodologia usada foi à análise de conteúdo como proposta por Bardin (1979. O corpus de análise foi composto por 12 edições da revista, veiculadas de janeiro a dezembro de 2011. A partir da análise feita, pode-se afirmar que na revista Men's Health a aparência encontra-se ligada a um corpo magro e musculoso. Para a obtenção do modelo propagado pela revista, são necessários investimentos e práticas de consumo. Nota-se ainda que o discurso do bem-estar e da felicidade usa a publicidade para incentivar os leitores a comprar as novidades lançadas pela sociedade de consumo.
LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L
Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.
Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L.
KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: cancer epidemiology;complications;Canada;epidemiology;Evaluation;Female;Genital Diseases,Female;Humans;Incidence;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Risk Factors;Uterine Cervical Neoplasms;virology. Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection du...
Makinde, O N; Elusiyan, J B E; Adeyemi, A B; Taiwo, O T
For more than 25 years, efforts have been geared towards curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to see if all these efforts have made any impact in reducing the prevalence of FGM appreciably in the south-West of Nigeria. To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation and profiling the trends of FGM affected patients. A prospective study based on direct observation of the external genitalia by health-care workers . Five hundred and sixty five females less than 15 years of age. The children emergency and gynaecological wards of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria from 1st of January to December 31s 2007. Forty one point nine percent of the patients examined had female genital mutilation, 93.2% of these had the procedure before attaining the age of one year. Type 2 FGM predominated (58.22%). The procedure was performed predominantly (64.6%) by traditional birth attendants. The decision to have the procedure done was influenced in 78% of cases by mothers and grandmothers. In 35.4% of cases, there were immediate and short term complications. Demands of tradition predominated (59.1%) as the most important reason for the practice of female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM appears to be still highly prevalent and resistant to change probably due to deep rooted socio-cultural factors. Strategies such as public education campaigns highlighting its negative impact on health and disregard for human rights should be evolved.
Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania
"Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ariana Baptista Da Cunha
Full Text Available La Porfiria Intermitente Aguda es una enfermedad metabólica rara ocasionada por una mutación genética que produciendo defectos enzimáticos en la formación del grupo Hemo. Entre todos los tipos de porfiria, es la de mayor incidencia, con una prevalencia global de 5/100.000 habitantes con cúmulos de casos en zonas como Escandinavia, Gran Bretaña, Murcia (España caracterizada por clínica neurológica, gastrointestinal y psiquiátrica. Afecta principalmente a mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino de 38 años con inicio de clínica 14 meses antes dolor abdominal, deposiciones abundantes y asociado cuadriparesia con un mes de evolución. Reporte de serología VIH positivo y valoración neurológica considera diagnóstico de neuropatía periférica asociada a VIH. Por antecedente familiar de porfiria se estudia caso en el Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas y se obtiene diagnóstico definitivo de Porfiria Intermitente Aguda en crisis, tratado con Hermaginato con mejoría significativa de la clínica a los siete días sin signos de crisis porfírica. Por ser de baja incidencia, esta patología no destaca entre los principales diagnósticos diferenciales en casos de disminución de la fuerza muscular y difiere en el abordaje específico. Si no es detectada a tiempo la debilidad muscular progresa a parálisis bulbar y muerte. Palabras Clave: Porfiria Intermitente Aguda; Cuadriparesia; VIH
Eddy Millán Escalona
Full Text Available El sarcoma de Ewing es un tumor óseo maligno de células redondas pequeñas. Es el segundo tumor óseo maligno más frecuente en la infancia, y se puede presentar en cualquier momento durante la niñez y comienzos de la edad adulta. El tumor puede originarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo, generalmente en los huesos largos de las extremidades, la pelvis o el tórax, al igual que en el cráneo o en los huesos planos del tronco. Se trata de un paciente masculino, mestizo, de 38 años de edad, que acude a consulta externa en el hospital de Nickerie, Suriname, por presentar aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del abdomen. Refiere que ha presentado pérdida de peso, decaimiento marcado y anorexia. Estos síntomas se iniciaron 3 meses antes, y se han incrementado paulatina y progresivamente. Tiene también dificultad para deambular y dolor en la pierna derecha.The Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor of round cells. The second malignant bone tumor more frequent in childhood and may to appear in any moment during this life stage and at onset of adulthood. Tumor may to originate in any place of body, generally in limbs long bones, pelvis or thorax as well as in skull or in trunk flat bones. This case is a black male patient aged 38 seen in external consultation in the hospital of Nickerie, Surinam presenting with a volume increase in the right lateral region of abdomen. He refers a weight loss, a marked weakness and anorexia. These symptoms appeared three months before increasing in a gradual and progressively way. He has difficulty to walk and pain in the right leg.
Ariana Baptista Da Cunha
Full Text Available La Porfiria Intermitente Aguda es una enfermedad metabólica rara ocasionada por una mutación genética que produciendo defectos enzimáticos en la for- mación del grupo Hemo. Entre todos los tipos de porfiria, es la de mayor incidencia, con una prevalencia global de 5/100.000 habitantes con cúmulos de ca- sos en zonas como Escandinavia, Gran Bretaña, Murcia (España caracterizada por clínica neurológica, gastrointestinal y psiquiátrica. Afecta principalmente a mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino de 38 años con inicio de clínica 14 meses antes dolor abdominal, deposiciones abundantes y asociado cuadriparesia con un mes de evolución. Reporte de serología VIH positivo y valoración neurológica considera diagnóstico de neu- ropatía periférica asociada a VIH. Por antecedente familiar de porfiria se estudia caso en el Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas y se obtiene diagnóstico definitivo de Porfiria Intermitente Aguda en crisis, tratado con Hermaginato con mejoría significativa de la clínica a los siete días sin signos de crisis porfírica. Por ser de baja incidencia, esta patología no destaca entre los principales diagnósticos diferenciales en casos de disminución de la fuerza mus- cular y difiere en el abordaje específico. Si no es detectada a tiempo la debilidad muscular progresa a parálisis bulbar y muerte. Palabras Clave: Porfiria Intermitente Aguda; Cuadriparesia; VIH.
Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad
Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonanc...
Luis Alfonso Cruz Naïmi
Full Text Available La observación meteorológica sin aparatos puede ser una buena forma de enseñar geografía (en particular la climatología, a la vez que es una actividad donde se potencian una serie de aspectos educativos especialmente interesantes desde el punto de vista de la atención a la diversidad, y en concreto, para los alumnos de los Programas de Diversificación Cunicular. El componente procedimental de esta actividad y la necesaria implicación de los alumnos para su realización hacen que esta propuesta sea válida para ser llevada a cabo con este tipo de alumnos.
Islas Picazo, José Luís
La Displasia del desarrollo de la cadera tiene una incidencia de 1 x 1000 nacidos, lo cual la hace uno de los problemas más comunes del aparato locomotor en los niños. Su comportamiento es dinámico, razón ésta para que su término médico actual sea Displasia de la cadera en desarrollo (DCD) (1-5). El mejor pronóstico lo hace su detección temprana, lo cual motiva a divulgar e instruir ampliamente a nivel primario de atención, acerca de una excelente evaluación clínica y el rec...
Armstrong, Myrna L; Caliendo, Carol; Roberts, Alden E
General and subjective information about those who chose to obtain genital piercings was presented. Particularly, the assumptions made from the literature are refuted by objective and subjective data collected from intimately pierced individuals themselves. Professional nurses must not base practice decisions on assumptions but on the "best evidence with clinical experience, research, (as well as) associated patient values" (Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 2001, p. 10). Thus, providing clinically competent care is driven by the latest knowledge and evidence from research and patient sources. Data found here provide further empirical evidence that may help to improve client outcomes by advancing evidence-based nursing practice in relation to people with genital piercings.
Full Text Available Este trabajo define los modelos de masculinidad relacionados con Andalucía en las películas españolas del franquismo y su continuidad. En contraste con la exaltación de valores viriles dominante en el cine de la época,estos personajes masculinos se definen por su vulnerabilidad y se convierten en símbolo persistente de tradición.
Rebeca Fernández Ysla
Full Text Available La técnica de los bloques gemelos fue desarrollada por el doctor escocés Clark durante los años 1980. Estos aparatos reposicionan la mandíbula y redirigen las fuerzas oclusales. Están construidos en una mordida protrusiva que permite modificar eficazmente el plano inclinado oclusal por medio de planos inclinados de plástico o de acrílico colocados sobre los bloques de mordida oclusales. Son cómodos y deben ser usados todo el tiempo incluyendo el momento de las comidas, con el objetivo de fomentar la función mandibular protrusiva. El tratamiento consta de 2 fases: una activa donde se corrige el resalte y la sobremordida y otra de apoyo o mantenimiento, donde se garantiza la estabilidad de los resultados. Con el uso del aparato convencional s e logran resultados fantásticos en el tratamiento de la clase II división 1 en períodos relativamente cortos de tiempo.The twin block technique was developed by the Scottish Dr. Clark during the 1980s. These appliances reposition the jaw and redirect the occlusal forces. They are constructed in protrusive bite that allow to efficiently modify the occlusal inclined plane by means of plastic or acrylic inclined planes placed on the blocks of occlusal bites. They are comfortable and they should be used all the time, including the meal time in order to foster the protrusive mandibular function. The treatment has 2 stages: an active one, where the overjet and the overbite are corrected, and the support or maintainance stage that guarantee the stability of the results. Fantastic results are attained by using the conventional appliance in the treatment of class II division I malocclusion in relatively short periods of time.
Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael
Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.
Gabriel Henrique Pimenta Isboli
Full Text Available Presentear é um costume muito forte no cotidiano das pessoas, mas apesar de comum, a prática é bastante complexa, pois envolve uma série de escolhas que podem ou não levar ao ato de presentear bem sucedido. O sucesso nesta prática costuma residir no agradar o presenteado. Embora o ato de presentear seja um tema já explorado em algumas pesquisas dentre elas (BELK, 1979; DALAKAS; SHOHAM, 2010; PÉPECE, 2000; SHERRY, 1993 estudos que tratem dos desagrados ligados ao ato de presentear ainda não foram muito explorados. Neste intuito, o presente estudo teve como objetivo principal entender as situações nas quais um presente não é bem recebido pelo público jovem masculino. Para tanto, foram investigados os tipos de presentes que desagradam este público; se existe diferença na percepção de uma mesma categoria de presente quando ofertada por um presenteador de grau de relacionamento diferente e; quais as emoções emanadas dos presentes que desagradam. A coleta de dados ocorreu via formulário respondido on-line. Foi inicialmente identificado que 84% do público investigado não gosta de receber itens de decoração, porém esse desagrado pode sofrer interpretações diferentes conforme o presenteador que oferta o presente. Itens de decoração: quando dado pelos pais, provocam o embaraço no jovem, ao passo que receber o mesmo presente da(o companheira(o, o faz se sentir desprezado. As informações aqui levantadas podem auxiliar o varejo a orientar adequadamente suas ofertas de produtos a serem comercializados em datas específicas tais como dia dos pais e Natal no intuito de satisfazerem seus consumidores evitando que presentes inadequados sejam adquiridos e ofertados podendo prejudicar futuras vendas pela insatisfação gerada.
Coiro-Moraes, Ana Luiza; Pongidor, Marta Cristina Buschinelli
Este trabalho tem como proposta refletir sobre os conceitos do corpo como mídia na contemporaneidade e sobre a maneira pela qual a vaidade se relaciona com o corpo masculino, estimulando o consumo, na busca por uma aparência mais jovem. Discutimos o conceito de identidade e a forma como o masculino é representado na publicidade impressa de produtos cosméticos masculinos. Buscamos entender o consumo desses produtos através da imagem corpórea construída e apresentada na publicidade impressa. Fi...
Ferraioli, Domenico; Lamblin, Gery; Mathevet, Patrice; Hetu, Jessika; Berakdar, Isabelle; Beurrier, Frederic; Chopin, Nicolas
Genital melanoma is a rare pathology. We present the experience of two comprehensive cancer centers in Lyon (France) in the management of genital melanoma in order to identify prognostic factors and optimal treatments. Between April 1992 and Mars 2014, 16 patients with a primary genital melanoma were referred to our department. Nine patients presented a vaginal melanoma, six vulvar melanomas and only one cervical melanoma. The median dimension of the lesion was 33.7 mm (5-100 mm). The AJCC stage ranged from IB to IIIC. 12 cases were the classic dark-blue flat melanoma and the other 4 cases were an atypical amelanotic tumor. Wide local surgery was performed in nine patients. A radical surgery was performed in six patients. In the large cervical melanoma, radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. In all the patients regional lymph node staging was performed. Adjuvant treatment was realized in nine patients. Two patients are alive without recurrence. Only one patient was lost to the first follow-up. The other 13 patients experienced a rapid recurrence. The median disease-free survival and the median overall survival were 11.8 months (2-49 m) and of 30.4 m (11-144 m), respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival could be linked to a clinical presentation (Breslow thickness and morphology of lesion) associated to the early diagnosis. In our small series, the most important prognosis factor remains the tumor thickness. These rare lesions should be treated in experienced centers in order to improve their prognostic.
Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM. This article explores the urological complications experienced by women who have undergone this practice, and the effects this can have on their health and wellbeing.
despite cost implications. Keywords: Genital ... Ojiyi, et al.: Local risk factors in genital HPV infection. 530. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 |. The HPV has been shown to be a determinant of the natural history of ..... identified in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of HPV 18.
This study aimed to assess the infection rate of genital Mycoplasmas (MH and UU) among pregnant females and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to provide a provisional idea about the effectiveness of antibiotics used empirically to treat cases of genital infections in pregnant women. High vaginal swabs of 50 ...
Other common causes were lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), gential herpes and primary syphilis, each acounting for 12.5 percent of the cases. An unusual presentation of oro-genital aphthosis, with hyperkeratosis and paraesthesia of a localized area on the palm, in addition to the usual genital and oral lesions was ...
Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...
The efforts to combat female genital mutilation (FGM) may not avail much if the factors promoting it are not well understood. An observer rated instrument consisting of socio-demographic variables and items concerning female genital mutilation drawn from Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster ...
AJRH Managing Editor
A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer ... Keywords: Perception, practice, female education, female genital cutting, traditional birth attendants. Introduction ... girls and women are genitally mutilated while 2 million are at risk ...
Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...
vaginosis, and genital herpes and obstetric complications including perinatal death.[1,3-10] All types of FGM have been shown to be associated with complications. In this report, we present the case of a 23-year-old. Nigerian girl, with obstructed micturition and genital tract obstruction, as a complication of Type 3 FGM, with ...
Objective: To describe pattern of female genital tract cancers seen at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Design: This is a retrospective review of all cases of female genital tract cancers managed at the Gynaecology department of OOUTH, Sagamu, Nigeria. Setting: OOUTH is a ...
Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...
Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...
Merritt, Diane F
This review will look critically at recent research articles that pertain to children and adolescents who present with genital injuries. Many recently published articles have noted that the history as given by the child or adolescent is the most important factor in determining the etiology of genital injuries as abuse or accidental. The history is more important than any documented or lack of documented findings on physical examination. Distinguishing whether the injury was accidental or caused by abuse is of significance to the family and the injured child or adolescent. Genital examinations of victims of documented abuse are often normal. Examinations of pregnant adolescents may appear normal, the only evidence that intercourse has taken place being pregnancy. Documented accidental genital injuries are described; unfortunately such injuries can easily be confused with sexual abuse. Photographic documentation of injuries by colposcopic photography has allowed a new level of peer review, improving the understanding of what are normal and non-specific findings, many of which were considered to be abnormal in the past. The psychological impact of living in a violent, war-torn culture, or surviving a traumatic genital injury are reviewed. New ideas on the management of genital trauma are also reported. Increasingly, victims of sexual abuse are found to have normal examinations, and the victim's history becomes the most important determining factor. Peer review has led to a better understanding of the wide variations in the normal genital examination. Psychological support for these victims is important in the management of genital injuries.
Nadhan, Kumar S; Larijani, Mary; Abbott, James; Doyle, Alden M; Linfante, Anthony W; Chung, Christina Lee
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common skin cancer diagnosed in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and confers significant mortality. The development of SCC in the genital region is elevated in nonwhite OTRs. Viral induction, specifically human papillomavirus (HPV), is hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of these lesions. To assess the prevalence and types of genital lesions observed in OTRs. This retrospective review included 496 OTRs who underwent full skin examination from November 1, 2011, to April 28, 2017, at an academic referral center. The review was divided into 2 distinct periods before a change in clinical management that took effect on February 1, 2016 (era 1) and after that change (era 2). Patient awareness of genital lesions was assessed. All lesions clinically suggestive of malignant tumors were biopsied and underwent HPV polymerase chain reaction typing. Number and types of genital lesions, proportion of malignant tumors positive for HPV, and patients cognizant of genital lesions. Of the total 496 OTRs, 376 OTRs were evaluated during era 1 (mean [SD] age, 60 years; age range, 32-94 years; 45 [65.2%] male; 164 [43.6%] white) and 120 OTRs were evaluated during era 2 of the study (mean age, 56 years; age range, 22-79 years; 76 [63.3%] male; 30 [25.0%] white). Overall, 111 of the 120 OTRs (92.5%) denied the presence of genital lesions during the history-taking portion of the medical examination. Genital lesions were found in 53 OTRs (44.2%), cutaneous malignant tumors (basal cell carcinoma and SCC in situ) in 6 (5.0%), genital SCC in situ in 3 (4.2%), and condyloma in 29 (24.2%). Eight of the 12 SCC in situ lesions (66.7%) were positive for high-risk HPV. Seven tested positive for HPV-16 and HPV-18, and 1 tested positive for high-risk HPV DNA but could not be further specified. Genital lesions in OTRs are common, but awareness is low. All OTRs should undergo thorough inspection of genital skin as a part of routine
Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.
Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M
A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Normélia Maria Freire Diniz; Regina Lúcia Mendonça Lopes; Solange Maria dos Anjos Gesteira; Sandra Lúcia Belo Alves; Nadirlene Pereira Gomes
Tendo como objeto a vivência de violência na relação conjugal, este estudo descritivo, de abordagem quali-quantitativa, teve como objetivo identificar a violência conjugal no discurso masculino. A população foi composta por 50 homens residentes na comunidade do Calafate, em San Martin, bairro localizado em Salvador/Ba. Para coleta de dados, utilizou-se entrevista com formulário semi-estruturado. A amostra caracterizou-se por homens, na faixa etária entre 20 a 40 anos (74,0%); convivendo conju...
Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Simone; DI Landro, Anna; Naldi, Luigi; Minghetti, Sara; Fierro, Maria T; Verrone, Anna; Caproni, Marzia; Micali, Giuseppe; Gaspari, Valeria; Papini, Manuela; DI Lernia, Vito; Germi, Lerica; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Belloni Fortina, Anna; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Bilenchi, Roberta; Corazza, Monica
Studies specifically conducted to assess gender differences in genital lichen sclerosus (GLS) are not available. This multicenter study aimed to identify possible gender-related differences on GLS clinical features, history and course, through collecting data from a large mixed-sex sample of patients. This was a cross-sectional study on 729 subjects (53.8% females, 46.2% males) affected with GLS, consecutively observed within a network of 15 Italian dermatology units. The following information was specifically collected: clinical features and severity of symptoms related to GLS, extragenital involvement, previous therapies, diagnostic suspicion at referral, type of referring physicians, development of genital squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Females complained of symptoms more frequent and severe than men; pallor and scarring-sclerosis-atrophy were the most frequent features without gender differences; itching- related signs were more frequent in females than in males as well as extragenital involvement; prior to receiving a definitive diagnosis, females received treatment more frequently than males; 40% of patients were referred with a misdiagnosis; the highest rate of correct suspected diagnosis at referral came from dermatologists than from other physicians; duration of the disease was found to predispose to SCC development. Our findings highlighted several gender differences on clinical presentation and symptom profile of GLS. In spite of some characteristic features, misdiagnosis at referrals was frequent.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.
Eziyi Iche Kalu
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.
Sigua Salinas, Johnny Mauricio
El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseño e implementación de un equipo didáctico conformado por Hardware y Software enfocado a la educación sexual en niños con y sin discapacidad. El prototipo cuenta con cinco sistemas electrónicos, y una parte de software que está dividida en dos opciones, la primera con aplicaciones desarrolladas en la computadora a modo de juegos interactivos y la segunda elaborada con información sobre temas de sexualidad. This paper discusses the design and implement...
Full Text Available Introducción: En el proceso de feminización, los transexuales masculinos usan hormonas sexuales femeninas, cuya seguridad en el sexo genéticamente masculino no ha sido definida. Objetivos: Evaluar el grado de conocimiento y prácticas de la administración de hormonas femeninas, la frecuencia de uso, reacciones adversas, fuentes de información y acceso a estos productos por parte de transexuales femeninos. Diseño: Investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa prospectiva comunitaria. Lugar: Lima. Participantes: Transexuales masculinos de 18 años o más. Intervenciones: Cuatro transexuales capacitados identificaron mediante la modalidad ‘bola de nieve’ a transexuales femeninos. Luego, se les realizó una entrevista semi-estructurada validada, el examen clínico respectivo y la toma de una muestra de 10 mL de sangre venosa. Medidas de resultados: El nivel de conocimiento, redes y calidad de información recibida, lugares de adquisición y efectos de las hormonas femeninas. Resultados: Solo el 11,8% de los participantes conseguía las hormonas con receta médica y poseía conocimiento sobre su efecto. Los principales efectos secundarios presentados fueron sensibilidad mamaria y aumento del peso corporal (88,2%, y disminución de la libido y erección (58,8%. La hormona más usada fue una combinación de dihidroxiprogesterona y estradiol vía intramuscular (47,1%. Conclusiones: Es necesario implementar servicios multidisciplinarios que cubran las necesidades de salud, incluyendo la de feminización que tiene esta población, y así evitar o disminuir el riesgo inherente a este proceso.
Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K
Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.
Lema Trillo, Eva Victoria
Esta tesis doctoral tiene por objetivo el análisis de los modelos de género masculino y femenino presentes en el cine comercial de Hollywood desde 1990 hasta entrado el año 2000. Para ello se ha procedido a una labor de investigación que consta de tres partes claramente diferenciadas: una primera que recoge las visiones de estudio y teorías de corrientes fílmicas como la Teoría Fílmica Feminista, o el trabajo empírico de Jackie Stacey y la corriente de estudios culturales anglosajona sobre pr...
Vasconcelos,Vera Lucia de; Lapa,Tiago Maria; Carvalho,Eduardo Freese de
O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e a tendência temporal do sobrepeso/obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo masculino. Métodos: Utilizou-se como fonte de informações o Banco de Dados do Exército Brasileiro. Esses dados foram coletados entre 1980 e 2000 e consta de 4.031.297 adolescentes entre 17 e 19 anos de idade. Foram realizados cinco cortes transversais, e quantificou-se a prevalência do sobrepeso/obesidade. Considerou-se sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal (IM...
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Amaral, Ana Carolina Soares; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
A pesquisa objetivou avaliar as qualidades psicométricas do Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) para adolescentes brasileiros do sexo masculino. A amostra foi composta por 357 jovens, com idade entre 10 e 19 anos. Os resultados evidenciaram que 32,8% variância dos dados foram explicados por um único fator e o instrumento foi capaz de diferenciar seus escores em função do estado nutricional (p0,88), não registrando diferença entre os escores (teste-reteste) (p
Matheus Cardoso da Silva
Full Text Available Resumen: El artículo aborda el proceso de montaje del aparato de represión durante la dictadura militar (1964-1972 al interior de la Universidad de São Paulo, que tenía como objetivos la vigilancia, censura y represión para con los docentes y estudiantes. Para desarrollar esas actividades se dio la supervisión de la vida cotidiana en la universidad, tanto en las actividades académicas como en las personales, resultado de lo cual se dieron diversas detenciones, procesamientos e, incluso, asesinatos. El periodo de tiempo analizado se ha dividido en tres momentos, cada uno de los cuales se describe a detalle a lo largo del artículo: el primero, a partir de 1964, mediante la vigilancia emprendida por la DOPS; el segundo inicia con la promulgación del Acta Institucional Número 5 (AI-5; y, el tercero inicia con la creación del Asesoramiento Especial y Seguridad de la Información (AESI en todas las universidades, a partir de 1972. Durante este último momento se logró la distensión política del régimen militar, caminando hacia el proceso de apertura, aunque aún en nuestros días quedan resabios de las políticas de vigilancia de la época. Palabras clave: dictadura, Universidad de São Paulo, aparato de vigilancia. Abstract: This paper describes the process of mounting the repression apparatus during the military dictatorship (1964-1972 inside the Sao Paolo University having as main objectives monitoring, censorship and repression of teachers and students. To accomplish these objectives, daily life in college, including academic and personal activities, was supervised resulting in several arrests, prosecutions and even murders. The analyzed period of time is divided into three stages. Each of them is described in detail throughout this paper. The first one, starting from 1964, describes the monitoring undertaken by the DOPS*; the second one starts with the enactment of the Institutional Act 5 (IA-5; and the third one starts with
Juliana Mano Hartmann
Full Text Available Buscou-se determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao não conhecimento de preservativo masculino entre adolescentes, em dois municípios do semiárido piauiense, Brasil, em meados de 2008. Entrevistadores treinados aplicaram questionário padronizado a todos adolescentes (13-19 anos, nos domicílios. Investigaram-se características demográficas, socioeconômicas e conhecimento sobre contracepção e doenças de transmissão sexual (DST. O desfecho foi o não conhecimento de preservativo masculino. Na análise multivariada, utilizou-se regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. Dos 2.241 adolescentes, 18,8% disseram não conhecer preservativo. A prevalência de não conhecimento variou de 4% para os com nove anos ou mais de escolaridade a 74% entre os que não conheciam DST. Na análise ajustada, ser do sexo feminino, ter pouca idade, baixa escolaridade, não ter namorada, desconhecer contracepção oral e DST aumentava a probabilidade de não conhecer preservativo em relação às demais categorias. Os dados mostram a urgente necessidade de intervenção entre adolescentes desses municípios.
Full Text Available Incidence of Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB is increasing in young women throughout the world. We report a case of young woman apparently having no sings & symptoms of Tuberculosis. CASE REPORT: 18 years young female patient was referred to us as a case of Primary Amenorrhea. She had Normal secondary sexual characters & normal Breast Development (Tanner staging of Breast - IV. She had negative Progesterone Cha llenge Test (PCT. Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test was negative. Diagnosis of End Organ Problem was done. Diagnosis of Genital Tuberculosis was confirmed by hysterolaparoscopy. She was given AKT for six months. DISCUSSION: Hysterolaparoscopy is impo rtant investigation in a case of Primary Amenorrhea with negative Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge Test. Tuberculosis with its varied presentation can present as primary amenorrhea in young unmarried female.
Gayle, Claudine; Rymer, Janice
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that has no medical benefit and severe health consequences for girls and women. This article discusses the risks to patients who are pregnant and have had FGM. It will describe urinary tract infections caused by FGM, and how this condition increases the risk of preterm labour and delivery. It will also address the difficulty in vaginal examinations that can be caused by FGM and instances when this can delay diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it will explore a number of intrapartum risks caused by FGM and the role of deinfibulation in pregnancy. Finally, it will look at the link between maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and FGM.
Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.
Allag, F; Abboud, P; Mansour, G; Zanardi, M; Quéreux, C
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practiced and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people's culture.
Mañero, Ivan; Labanca, Trinidad
Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation is a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore vulvar appearance. We describe a novel surgical technique for clitorolabial reconstruction using a vaginal graft. We present a series of 32 consecutive women who underwent this procedure at Iván Mañero Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, and were prospectively followed. The total Female Sexual Function Index changed favorably from 16 before surgery to 29 after surgery (PFemale Self-Image Genital Scale changed favorably from 11 to 23 (Pgenital mutilation was associated with improved sexual function and genital aesthetic perception.
Tilley, Donna Scott
Female genital cutting (FGC), commonly called female genital mutilation, affects millions of women but is poorly understood by many health care providers. FGC procedures intentionally alter the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons and include partial or total removal of female genital organs. These procedures, which have no medical value, are usually done between birth and puberty. Health consequences vary in severity but can be devastating. Women who have experienced FGC may be reluctant to seek health care or to disclose their condition to providers. Suggestions for culturally competent care of women who have experienced FGC are outlined, focusing on understanding the cultural beliefs and values of women who have undergone these procedures and providing informed and sensitive care. © 2015 AWHONN.
Surgical Treatment of Complication of Female Genital Mutilation in Pikine Hospital, Senegal. Abdoul A Diouf, Moussa Diallo, Aissatou Mbodj, Omar Gassama, Mamour Guèye, Jean C Moreau, Alassane Diouf ...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.
Dodkhoeva, M.F.; Djonova, B.Yu.; Barieva, L.S.; Djonbekova, P.A.
The results of ultrasound research of the peri menopausal women's genitals revealed that the sizes of the ovaries of women with the climacteric syndrome are smaller that the size of ovaries of the women with the physiologic menopause
Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....
Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N
Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.
Body piercing has gained tremendous popularity since the mid nineties. Genital piercings constitute a peculiar variant of piercing due to its sensitive localization. Health care providers are often very little informed about those piercings. Besides, negative stereotypes are often attributed to the bearers of such piercings. This review focuses not only on the medical aspects of genital piercings but also on the social, cultural and psychological background that surround those piercings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Rebecca G.; Borders, Noelle; Leeman, Lawrence M.; Albers, Leah L.
Changes in sexual function are common in postpartum women. In this comparative, descriptive study, a prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to documentation of genital trauma at birth and assessment of sexual function three months postpartum. The impact of spontaneous genital trauma on postpartum sexual function was the focus of the study. Trauma was categorized into minor trauma (no trauma or 1st degree perineal or other trauma that was not sutured) or major trauma (2nd, 3rd, or ...
ISRAILOV KHIKMATJON TUYGUNOVICH
The clinical manifestations of genital herpes (GH) was characterized as vesicular in 67.3 % cases, in 18.2 % erosive, in 10 % erosiveulcer and in 4.5 % cases as a ulcer lesion of the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals by predisposing a massive discharge of herpes viruses into the environment and which is epidemiologically unfavorable factor due to the spreading of these viruses among the population.
Birge, Özer; Akbaş, Murat; Özbey, Ertuğrul Gazi; Adıyeke, Mehmet
We aimed to describe the presentation of long-term complications of female genital mutilation/cutting and the surgical management of clitoral keloids secondary to female genital mutilation/cutting. Twenty-seven women who underwent surgery because of clitoral keloid between May 2014 and September 2015 in Sudan Nyala Turkish Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective descriptive case series study. The prevalence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 74.1%, respectively (type 1: 1/27, type 2: 6/27, and type 3: 20/27). All patients had long-term health problems (dysuria, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, and chronic pruritus) and sexual dysfunction. Keloids were removed by surgical excision. There were no postoperative complications in any patient. Although clitoral keloid lesions can be seen after any type of female genital mutilation/cutting, they usually develop after type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting. Most of these keloids were noticed after menarche. Keloids can be removed by surgical excision and this procedure can alleviate some long-term morbidities of female genital mutilation/cutting.
Reig Alcaraz, M; Siles González, J; Solano Ruiz, C
Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation. The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors that favour its discontinuation. An integrative review was performed of publications from the period 2006 to 2013 included in the MedLine, PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, CINAHL and CUIDEN databases. We selected 16 studies focusing on diverse contexts that assessed the attitudes of both men and women regarding the perpetuation of this practice. Ten corresponded to studies conducted in countries of residence. Several areas of investigation were explored (factors contributing to the continuation of female genital mutilation, factors contributing to its discontinuation, feelings about the health system). It is possible that the relevant studies may not have been included given the limitations of the literature review and the invisibility of the phenomenon studied. This review demonstrates the strong social pressure to which women are subjected as regards the practice of female genital mutilation. However, many other factors can contribute to eroding beliefs and arguments in favour of this practice, such as the globalization, culture and social environment of countries in the West. Nurses occupy an essential position in detecting and combating these practices. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Catania, Lucrezia; Hindin, Michelle Jane; Say, Lale; Petignat, Patrick; Abdulcadir, Omar
Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Health care providers for women and girls living with female genital mutilation have reported difficulties in recognizing, classifying, and recording female genital mutilation, which can adversely affect treatment of complications and discussions of the prevention of the practice in future generations. According to the World Health Organization, female genital mutilation is classified into four types, subdivided into subtypes. An agreed-upon classification of female genital mutilation is important for clinical practice, management, recording, and reporting, as well as for research on prevalence, trends, and consequences of female genital mutilation. We provide a visual reference and learning tool for health care professionals. The tool can be consulted by caregivers when unsure on the type of female genital mutilation diagnosed and used for training and surveys for monitoring the prevalence of female genital mutilation types and subtypes.
Marcilio de Medeiros Brito
Full Text Available O turismo é um fenômeno cuja importância vem crescendo no mundo contemporâneo. Devido ao seu caráter transversal e complexo, são múltiplos os desafios para o gerenciamento de suas atividades setoriais. Partindo dessas premissas, este artigo analisa de que forma a estrutura organizacional do turismo, da maneira como está configurada, dificulta a sua gestão no caso do estado de Sergipe. Para tanto, utilizou-se pesquisa documental e entrevistas com técnicos e gerentes das três unidades administrativas que compõem o aparato institucional de gestão do turismo. Os resultados revelaram que a estrutura organizacional prejudica a gestão do turismo na medida em que há sobreposições de função tanto intra quanto interorganizacionais, baixa institucionalização dos processos de planejamento, desenvolvimento e marketing turísticos, pouca articulação entre os órgãos.The importance of tourism increases more and more in today's world. Due to its transversal and complex features, management of tourism activities has many challenges. This article analyzes how the organizational structure of tourism, as it is, makes tourism management difficult in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. For this purpose, the authors researched documentation and interviewed managers and technical personnel in the three administrative units that integrate the institutional apparatus for tourism management. The results revealed that the organizational structure impairs tourism management because, among other problems, there is an intra- and interoganizational overlap of functions, low institutionalization of planning, development and marketing processes, and little articulation among agencies.
Cao, Yujiao; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Fengyong; Li, Senkai; Zhou, Yu
Accurate and comprehensive measurements of the external genitalia in female adults are of great significance in surgery designs and for aesthetic evaluation in genital plastic surgeries. The authors carried out a 319-case study and provided baseline data and morphometric reference for plastic surgery involving the genital deformity caused by trauma or burns and male-to-female transsexual operations. Our study design recruited 319 women referred to the out-patient clinic from August 2010 to August 2013. From each individual we measured 16 parameters and assessed the significance of variations in age, height, weight, BMI, and marital status (as a proxy for parity). We tried to establish a female external genitalia database of the population presenting for cosmetic surgery and define the general proportions of female genitalia in Chinese adults from the data we obtained. A wide range of values was noted in female genital measurements especially in labia minora parameters. Four parameters, including clitoral prepuce length, clitoris to urethra, labial length, and perineal body length had a proportional relationship to some extent. The position of the clitoris and urethral orifice was found to be regular in female adults. Compared with unmarried women, perineal body length decreased (P = 0.048), while the apex to perineum (bilateral) and labial length increased (P = 0.005, 0.006, cosmetic surgery. Although the ranges of genital measurements vary, there is a proportional relationship in female genital appearance, which should be heeded in surgical designs and genital aesthetic evaluation.
Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna
Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected
Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Afolabi, Bosede B; Bello, Oluwasomidoyin O; Adeyanju, Ayodeji S
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal. FGM/C is often performed by a nonmedical practitioner with the aim of fulfilling religious or cultural rites and sometimes for economic benefits with the resultant acute, intermediate and late complications. It is sometimes performed by medical practitioners when it is speciously believed that its medicalization reduces the complications associated with the practice. The sensitivity of FGM/C is amplified when compared to male circumcision and voluntary alterations of the female external genitalia like piercing and tattooing as similar practices. The magnitude of the physical and psychosocial consequences of FGM/C outweighs the presumed benefits of the procedures highlighting the need for improvement of the multiple preventive measures by all the stakeholders and in all the sectors.
Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin
Providing information and education to women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) could be an important influence on their healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare providers also need adequate knowledge and skills to provide good quality care to this population. Recent WHO guidelines on managing health complications from FGM contain best practice statements for health education and information interventions for women and providers. This qualitative evidence synthesis summarizes the values and preferences of girls and women living with FGM, and healthcare providers, together with other evidence on the context and conditions of these interventions. The synthesis highlights that healthcare providers lack skills and training to manage women, and women are concerned about the lack of discussion about FGM with providers. There is a need for more training for providers, and further research to understand how health information interventions may be perceived or experienced by women living with FGM in different contexts. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.
García Vivar, Ruth Alicia
Esta investigación aborda las representaciones de lo masculino expresadas por varones privados de su libertad por agredir sexualmente mujeres mayores de edad. Asimismo, analiza sus explicaciones de la violencia sexual con el fin de entender en qué se sustenta el ejercicio masculino de la misma para mantener y/o restaurar el estatus. Para llevar a cabo el análisis, se empleará la metodología cualitativa mediante técnicas de recolección de datos (entrevista a profundidad, asociac...
Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert
To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .
Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Canfield, Mark A
Although distinct categories of male genital malformations share some common risk factors, few studies have systematically compared epidemiologic features across phenotypes. We evaluated the relationship between several maternal and infant characteristics and five categories of male genital malformations: second- or third-degree hypospadias, hypospadias (regardless of degree), small penis, cryptorchidism, and any male genital malformation. Data for 16,813 cases with isolated male genital malformations and 1,945,841 male live births delivered from 1999 to 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. For each phenotype category, 13 maternal and infant variables were assessed, and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated based on the same multivariable Poisson regression model. A significant negative association was observed between previous live births versus no previous live births and four phenotypes (e.g., adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] for any male genital malformation: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-0.81). The prevalence of 4 of the phenotypes was significantly higher among multiple versus singleton pregnancies (e.g., aPR for any male genital malformation: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.25-1.47). We also observed significant associations between multiple phenotypes and residential region at delivery, delivery year, month of conception, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and birthplace, including significant associations for trends (maternal age, maternal education, and birth year modeled ordinally). Our results allow for comparison of characteristics across phenotypes and suggest that there may be some common risk factors for multiple male genital malformations (e.g., characteristics related to maternal estrogen levels), while other risk factors may be unique to specific defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hans, Jason D; Gillen, Martie; Akande, Katrina
Although partially anecdotal, some evidence suggests that oral-genital contact is increasingly excluded from young people's notions of what behaviors constitute sex. Such a shift may have implications for STD prevention. In 2007, a convenience sample of 477 university students participated in a survey that included the question "Would you say you 'had sex' with someone if the most intimate behavior you engaged in was" each of 11 behaviors. Chi-square tests and independent samples t tests were used to assess gender differences, and chi-square analyses were used to compare the data with similar data collected in 1991. Predictors of beliefs concerning the classification of oral-genital contact were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The majority of respondents indicated that penile-vaginal intercourse and penile-anal intercourse constitute sex (98% and 78%, respectively), but only about 20% believed the same was true of oral-genital contact. The proportion classifying oral-genital contact as sex in 2007 was about half that in 1991. This difference was consistent for both sexes and for both giving and receiving oral-genital stimulation. Responses did not vary by respondents' sexual experience or demographic characteristics. Sociocultural conceptualizations of oral-genital contact have shifted in a way that may leave people who engage in this activity unmindful of its potential health risks. Sex education programs, which generally focus on penile-vaginal contact, could help STD prevention efforts by explaining the risks associated with oral-genital stimulation and the measures that can be taken to minimize those risks.
Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont
Normélia Maria Freire Diniz
Full Text Available Tendo como objeto a vivência de violência na relação conjugal, este estudo descritivo, de abordagem quali-quantitativa, teve como objetivo identificar a violência conjugal no discurso masculino. A população foi composta por 50 homens residentes na comunidade do Calafate, em San Martin, bairro localizado em Salvador/Ba. Para coleta de dados, utilizou-se entrevista com formulário semi-estruturado. A amostra caracterizou-se por homens, na faixa etária entre 20 a 40 anos (74,0%; convivendo conjugalmente (98,0%. Com relação à violência conjugal, o índice encontrado foi de 80%. Quanto às formas de violência, destacam-se a violência emocional e a violência física.Teniendo como objeto la experiencia de violencia en la relación entre cónyuges, este estudio descriptivo, de abordaje cuali-cuantitativo, tuvo como objetivo identificar la violencia entre cónyuges en los discursos masculinos. La población fue compuesta por 50 hombres residentes en la comunidad del Calafate, en San Martin, barrio ubicado en Salvador/Ba. Para colecta de los datos, se utilizó entrevista con formulario semi-estructurado. La muestra se caracterizó por hombres de edad de 20 a 40 años (74,0%, viviendo con la pareja (98,0%0. Con relación a violencia entre cónyuges, el índice encontrado fue de 80,0%. Cuanto a las formas de violencia, se destacan la violencia emocional y la violencia física.Aiming the research of violence experiences in conjugal relation, this descriptive study, of qualitative and quantitative approach, aimed to identify conjugal violence in male discourse. Population was composed of 50 men residing in Calafate community, San Martin, a quarter in Salvador/Ba. In order to collect data, one utilized the interview with semi-structured formulary. Sample was caracterized by men between 20 and 40 years old (74% cohabiting. Concerning to conjugal violence, we found an 80% index. Relating to the forms of violence, we've distinguished emotional and
Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes
Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female
Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira
Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The
Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.
Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan
The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.
Griffins O Manguro
Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.
Santoso, Joseph T; Crigger, Mary; English, Emily; Wan, Jim; Likes, Wendy
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal dysplasia. We will study the prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with genital dysplasia and effect of counseling on smoking cessation. All patients with genital dysplasia were screened for smoking history. One clinician provided smoking cessation counseling using the US Department of Health 5 A's technique: ask patients about their smoking status, advise smokers to quit, assess their readiness to quit, assist with their smoking cessation effort, and arrange for follow-up visits. Patients were informed on how smoking may cause worsening of genital dysplasia and increased risk of progression to cancer. Each patient received 2 counseling sessions, but no pharmacological or psychological interventions. Smoking cessation was evaluated by patient self-report via phone or during clinic visits. From January 2007 to December 2010, 344 patients were referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic for evaluation of genital dysplasia. Patients who were smokers (n=125, 36%) were counseled to cease smoking in 2 counseling sessions, with 100% compliance for attendance. At study analysis (July 2011), 83 patients still smoke and 40 patients quit smoking (smoking cessation rate of 32%). Caucasian patients (P=.0013) and patients with vulvar dyplasia (P=.411) seemed to smoke more than other races and patients with cervical/vaginal dysplasia respectively. Smoking cessation counseling for the genital dysplasia patients who smoked was associated with smoking cessation in 32% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.
Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles
As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.
There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.
Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase II división 1 utilizando un aparato expansor y exodoncias de 4 primeras premolares / Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase II división 2 tipo B utilizando un aparato distalizador / Tratamiento de camuflaje de una maloclusión clase III con exodoncia de un incisivo central inferior / Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase I por biprotrusión y DAD con exodoncias de 4 primeras premolares / Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase I por DAD con extracciones asimétricas
González Torres, Carlos Rodrigo
Describe el tratamiento de cinco casos clínicos de ortodoncia, atendidos en la Clínica Especializada de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres durante el periodo Agosto 2009 - Marzo 2012, tratándose de: 1. Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase II división 1 utilizando un aparato expansor y exodoncias de 4 primeras premolares. 2. Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase II división 2 tipo B utilizando un aparato distalizador. 3. Tratamiento de camuflaje de una...
Fernando Robert Ferrel Ortega
Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo establecer la presencia y grado de relación que existe entre dos factores cognitivos disfuncionales: Creencias Irracionales y Esquemas Maladaptativos Tempranos (EMT, en un grupo de homosexuales masculinos de la ciudad de Santa Marta, Colombia. Se utilizó un tipo de investigación correla- cional en una muestra de 196 homosexuales masculinos, de 25 a 40 años de edad, con una media de 28,2 años, quienes fueron seleccionados mediante el procedimiento de “bola de nieve”, pues se desconocía la población total. Se aplicaron dos Pruebas: el IBT (Irracional Beliefs Test, de Jones, R. G. (1968; el Young Schema Questionnaire Long Form – 2nd edition (YSQ-L2, de Young (1990, validado para población colombiana (Cas- trillón, Cháves, Ferrer, Londoño, Maestre, Marín & Schnitter, 2005; y una entrevista diseñada por los autores a cuatro de ellos. Se tomó como significativas aquellas creencias que prevalecieron sobre el 50% de la población. No se halló presencia significativa de creencias irracionales, y la creencia influencia del pasado fue la que más se aproximó al 50%, con un 44% en el límite superior. Se hallaron dos EMT que prevalecen: entrampamiento (43% e inhibición emocional (35%. Se estableció que la creencia irracional mayoritaria y los dos EMT encontrados no se asocian. Se concluye que personas o hechos del pasado que han sido importantes o determinantes para definir su orientación sexual no lo atan necesariamente a ellas, pueden buscar su felicidad y apoyo en otros grupos, como en la comunidad gay que frecuentan. Estos resultados son similares a los hallados por otros estudios relacionados. Se sugiere seguir investigando con otras variables y pruebas.
Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; Koppe, J. G.; Poll, N. E.; Boer, K.
BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrated that early exposure to phenobarbital decreases reproductive function. This study investigates whether prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants affects human genital tract development. METHODS: Genital anomalies at birth were studied retrospectively in 90
... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cervical colonization by genital mycoplasmas in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM. Method: We studied 225 women between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation with PPROM. Cervical swabs were obtained for genital mycoplasmas and standard vaginal smears of bacterial culture were performed at the time of patients’ admission. In the control group were 225 women with a normal pregnancy. Results: Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 68 % (152/225 and Mycoplasma hominis was detected in 28 % (63/225 of the patients with PPROM between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation and. In the control group Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 17 % (38/225 and Mycoplasma hominis in 15 % (35/225 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an association between cervical colonization with genital mycoplasmas and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.
Hafner, Louise M; McNeilly, Celia
Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is an escalating global public health concern causing considerable morbidity and socioeconomic burden worldwide. Although antibiotics are used to treat symptomatic urogenital infections, chlamydial infection remains asymptomatic in approximately 50% of infected men and 70% of infected women. The major clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infection in women include mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Genital infection with C. trachomatis markedly enhances the risk for reproductive tract sequelae in women, including tubal factor infertility, chronic pain and ectopic pregnancy. Definitive infection control of chlamydial infections will likely be achievable through a safe and efficacious vaccine. This will require identifying protective chlamydial antigens in animal models as well as identifying effective adjuvants and delivery systems that target subunit vaccines to immune inductive sites or secondary lymphoid tissues, and will be safe for use in humans.
Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang; Drue, Henrik Christian; Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe and to assess the size of labia minora in normal women, including the womenʼs perception of their genitals to offer better counseling to the women seeking for labiaplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in the ou......OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe and to assess the size of labia minora in normal women, including the womenʼs perception of their genitals to offer better counseling to the women seeking for labiaplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken...... of labia was 15 mm, and 90% of labia were less than 26.5 mm. Fifty-six percent of the women had visible labia minora. Regarding perception, 86.5% considered their labia as being normal. Within the group of women who perceived their genitals to be abnormal, 73.3% had visible labia minora. Among women...
Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Henriksen, Tine Brink
BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations overall, but studies on genital anomalies in boys are conflicting and possible causal mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have mainly assessed pre-gestational and gestational...... diabetes in combination. Yet considering the vulnerable time windows for the genital anomalies, associations could well differ between types of diabetes and between the two genital anomalies and we therefore aimed to study this further. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of 2,416,248 singleton live......-born boys from Denmark (1978-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012) was carried out using Danish and Swedish register-based data. Using Cox regression models, we estimated hazard ratios for hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal diabetes. We considered type and severity of diabetes, as well as timing...
Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor
To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.
Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.A produtividade das plantas e a capacidade de resistência à seca estão diretamente relacionadas com a eficiência da condutância hidráulica do xilema e a capacidade desse sistema em evitar a interrupção do fluxo de água. No presente trabalho, detalha-se a montagem de um aparato proposto por TYREE et al. (2002, e sua calibração, bem como adaptações com peças de menor custo que tornam o aparelho acessível a qualquer um trabalhando nesta linha de pesquisa. Esse aparato possibilita medir a condutância de partes do sistema radicular ou da parte aérea (ramificações radiculares ou ramos, ou em todo o sistema, no caso de plantas de porte pequeno ou plântulas. O aparato também pode ser usado para medir a redução da condutância pela embolização dos vasos do xilema. Medições de condutância hidráulica feitas em plântulas de eucalipto e outros trabalhos encontrados na literatura confirmaram a aplicabilidade desse aparato em estudos fisiológicos de produtividade relacionada ao estresse hídrico.
Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and
Goldberg, Amy P
After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Willich, E.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Koeln Univ.
The experiences of special X-ray diagnostics of female genitals are described, that were made in 41 children within a period of 12 years. The superiority of the X-ray-technique arises from the impossibility of the manual examination in newborn and infants and the avoidance of diagnostic techniques like laparoscopy or laparotomy. All the examination techniques are described. In intersexualmarked patients the discrimination into six types after Shopfner is preferred. Malformations and tumours are dealt with briefly. The relations between skeleton and female genitals are pointed out at the example of the gonadal dysgenesis. (orig.) [de
Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth
Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling
Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.
Full Text Available Neste artigo entende-se o empreendedorismo como um processo socialmente construído por cognições sociais e práticas quotidianas que moldam e são moldadas pelas relações de gênero. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as representações sociais do empreendedorismo, uma atividade geralmente formulada como masculina. Esperava-se que as representações e estereotipia de gênero influenciassem as concepções de empreendedor e empreendedora. Usou-se a técnica de associação livre de palavras, com posterior análise de núcleo central e periférico de representações. Concluiu-se que existe uma valorização de atributos como liderança, dinamismo e criatividade ou inovação. Estes atributos estão associados à ideologia Schumpeteriana de empreendedorismo. No entanto, no núcleo periférico de representações surgiram nuances mais complexas e críticas. Verificou-se também uma associação entre atributos do empreendedorismo e atributos estereotipadamente masculinos, enquanto emergiu maior heterogeneidade nas representações de mulher empreendedora pela evocação de atributos associados ao estereótipo de feminilidade (simpatia, beleza, elegância, vaidade.
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Bego?a Martinez
Key Clinical Message Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short? and long?term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.
Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna
To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez
Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.
Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.
Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M
An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.
I. Martínez Montero; M.A. García Mutiloa; R. Ezcurra; G. Campo; E. Arpa; R. Obregozo
Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis). El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated...
Jan 15, 2014 ... Abstract. An abattoir survey was undertaken to investigate genital bacterial infections of ewes in tropical arid zone of. Nigeria. Vaginal and uterine samples were collected and cultured using standard bacteriological techniques. The results of the study showed that the isolates were Escherichia coli (32%), ...
Impact of Female Genital Mutilation on Sexual Functioning, Self-Esteem and Marital Instability of Women in Ajegunle. ... Awareness about the adverse consequences of FGM should be intensified and psychological treatment especially post-traumatic stress disorder intervention for circumcised women is recommended.
On multivariate logistic regression analysis, perception of gender role, sex, place of residence, highest education in the household and religion remained to be important predictors of attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had low gender role ...
Fernandes, Kelwin; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt
handcrafted features and deep learning techniques in the automated processing of colposcopic images for genital injury detection. Positive results where achieved by both paradigms in segmentation and classification subtasks, being traditional and deep models the best strategy for each subtask type...
Objective: To determine women's views on aspects of female genital mutilation and the prevalence among the study population. Method: ... Conclusion: There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing support for .... Reduced sexual satisfaction. 21. 50.0.
Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique. ... We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml) with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora ...
Piazza, Mauri J; Urbanetz, Almir A
Hand-food-genital syndrome (HFGS) is a rare genetic condition. This report describes the cases of two patients, aged 33 and 15, presenting related somatic abnormalities. HFGS stems from an autosomal anomaly linked to the HOXA 13 gene. Therapeutic procedures are discussed in order to identify the best treatment approach to the patients, as well as possible conditioning genetic anomalies.
Patients with STDs were clinically assessed and investigated microbiologically, histopathologically and serologically and thereafter reclassified aetiologically. The incidence rate of STDs was 271.3 per 100,000 (.03%) populations per year. Male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The frequency of genital ulcers was 18.9% while that of ...
Result of 168 vaginal specimens from women examined for genital mycoplasmas showed that more of these organisms were isolated from specimens whose Gram stain smears were devoid of Gram positive bacilli (GPB) (43%) as against those whose smears contain GPB (22.1%). This result was found to be statistically ...
Practice of female genital cutting amongst adults in Ilorin Metropolis, north-central Nigeria. S.A. Aderibigbe, B.W. Alatishe-Muhammad, H.A. Ameen, A.G. Salaudeen, M.J. Saka, M.M.B. Uthman, O.A. Bolarinwa, T.M. Akande, H.O. Raji ...
Three cases of genital injuries caused by self-amputation, dog bite and cassava grating machine are presented. Accidental partial amputation of the penis through dog bite and de-gloving by cassava grating machine and unusual and, to our knowledge, have never been reported before. A previous report from this center ...
Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing ... While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity.
Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...
Fouéré, Sébastien; Chaine, Bénédicte; Maylin, Sarah; Minier, Marine; Vallée, Pascale; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Legoff, Jérôme; Janier, Michel
First HSV-1 genital episodes in HSV-2 infected patients however, had never been demonstrated until the 2 cases we observed. This scarcity could reflect the lower impact of HSV-2 on western populations but questions the existence of cross-protection between viral types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gender and Behaviour ... Popularizing the danger of female genital mutilation, partnering with NGOs, media campaign, organizing workshops & seminars, briefing & debriefing and mounting billboards were identified as some of the roles libraries and information can play in eradicating this injustice against women.
Female Genital Mutilation: Perceptions and beliefs in a Nigerian rural community. H.O Bodunrin. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v6i1.23080 · AJOL African Journals Online.
Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle. East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a.
The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. Results: One hundred and sixty six (166) cases of genital malignancies were recorded during the 6‑year review. Majority of the patients were in the fifth and sixth decades ...
showed willingness to circumcise their daughters indicating considerable reduction in uptake of the practice. A larger ... Conclusion: There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing ... Keywords: Female genital mutilation; campaign against: Southeast Nigeria.
Objective: To study the prevalence of genital chlamydia and gonococcal infections in women at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Design: Structured interviews and clinical examination of participants and obtaining vaginal swabs to test for gonorrhoea and chlamydia infections.
Background: For more than 25 years, efforts have been geared towards curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. This study was designed to see if all these efforts have made any impact in reducing the prevalence of FGM appreciably in the south-West of Nigeria. Objective: To ...
Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with many women being victims of this harmful practice and its complications. The practice is rife in Southeast Nigeria and efforts have been made to discourage it. Objective: To determine women's views on ...
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC) constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girlsand women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences,both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the pastfew decades.
Context: Female genital mutilation is a gender based harmful practice that exposes women and the girl child to medical and obstetric complications. Accurate information is necessary for its eradication. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 women aged 15-60 years at the University of Nigeria ...
Sipsma, Heather L; Chen, Peggy G; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O; Karfo, Kapouné; Bradley, Elizabeth H
To conduct a cross-national comparative study of the prevalence and correlates of female genital cutting (FGC) practices and beliefs in western Africa. Data from women who responded to the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2005 and 2007 were used to estimate the frequencies of ever having
Martin, T; Gattaz, W F
From the beginning of the century to this day 57 cases of male genital self-mutilation have been reported in the English literature. In German publications we found 5 case descriptions. Although no precise data are available on the prevalence of male genital self-mutilation, such acts are presumably much more frequent than the small number of published cases would suggest. In the literature several features are regarded as risk factors for self-mutilation, such as e.g. homosexual or transsexual tendencies, repudiation of the male genitals, absence of a competent male for identification during childhood, feeling of guilt for sexual offences, and self-injury in the anamnesis. The most frequent diagnoses are schizophrenia and affective psychosis; alcohol intoxication was diagnosed in about one-fourth of the cases published. In the present paper we summarize data from the literature on epidemiology, psychopathology, psychodynamic and sociocultural factors in male genital automutilation and we describe 2 new cases of self-castration in which several of the risk factors described above were observed. We conclude that although it is difficult to estimate the risk of self-castration in view of the heterogeneity of the respective patient groups, the danger of such deeds should be kept in mind if the above factors are present.
This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years ...
dimensions to the practice of FGM in Nigeria, the role of women in propagating FGM and its child right ... Infant-Female Genital Mutilation (IFGM) in cities and the role of women in perpetuating FGM: a probe on why FGM ..... possession of vagina, clitoris or breast among other remarkable features of the female body, provides ...
Objectives: To determine the carriage rates of potential pathogens in the lower genital tract and factors associated with colonization among women with incomplete abortion. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The Manual Vacuum Aspiration room of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Subjects: Two ...
Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...
Results: One hundred and seventy seven females and 68 males were interviewed. The males had a higher level of education compared with the females (p<0.05). Female genital cutting was a prevalent practice in the community as 80% of all the respondents were aware of the practice and 69.9% of the females reported ...
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) as a procedure can have serious physical and psychological health consequences in girls and women. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of FGM and the socio-demographic factors which influence the practice among women in Lagos State. Methods: This was a ...
Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.
Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)
Study Design: Records of subjects were analysed for their sociodemographic and clinicopathological characteristics, recruiting only those who satisfy the criteria for diagnosing genital tract lymphomas according to Kosari et al1. Retrievable archival paraffin blocks of subjects were also analysed using immunophenotyping.
Background: This study aimed to determine the attitudes of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria, towards female genital cutting. Method: The study was conducted over a period of six months, between November 2010-April 2011, at the antenatal clinic of the ...
The aim of this study is to assess the experience and the knowledge of the health workers practicing in our environment on Female genital cutting (FGC). Two hundred and fifty were interviewed with self-administered structured questionnaire. Their mean age was 35.2±8.3 years. Type I 82(66.6%) was the commonest FGC ...
Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis
The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.
Robyn A. Jackowich, BA
Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.
those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...
HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the ...
AJRH Managing Editor
This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and ...
These included self-reproach, poor self-image, painful menstrual periods and severe bleeding. Men whose partners were genitally mutilated confirmed that their wives faced these challenges. Based on these findings, it is recommended that counselling and education should be given to groups that still enforce this practice.
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome has considerably altered the pattern of female genital cancers.. In developed countries, the introduction of routine screening and treatment for premalignant lesions of the cervix has lead to a dramatic fall in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the past five decades.
Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron Ar; Hankins, Catherine A.; Gray, Ronald H.; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D.
The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention.
Sawatsky, Megan L; Dawson, Samantha J; Lalumière, Martin L
Women's genital responses are sensitive to the presence and intensity of sexual cues, yet some stimulus features (e.g., male vs. female actors, consensual vs. non-consensual interactions) have little influence on the magnitude of response-a phenomenon called low cue-specificity. Genital responses are typically assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, a measure of vaginal vasocongestion, itself a precursor to lubrication. One explanation for low cue-specificity is the preparation hypothesis: Women genitally respond to almost all sexual cues because lubrication functions to protect genital organs from potential injury should vaginal penetration occur. In order to test the preparation hypothesis, both vaginal vasocongestion and introital lubrication were assessed in a sample of 20 women in response to sexually explicit films. While patterns of vasocongestion were consistent with low cue-specificity for gender cues and type of sexual activity, lubrication was specific to women's most preferred sexual stimulus categories. These results are inconsistent with the preparation hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Carcinoma of the colon and anorectum affect a younger age group in Africans, and patients often present late with advanced disease. Method: A retrospective review of 22 females treated for anorectal carcinoma. Results: Fourteen females had genital tract involvement; their mean age was 33.8 years. Thirteen ...
Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F
The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
RESEARCH. Background. Despite global efforts at eradicating female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), the act continues to be performed globally. Objective. To determine the experience of schoolteachers about FGM/C and their possible role in contributing to its eradication. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional survey ...
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude ...
Female Genital mutilation (FGM) is an ancient practice that is common among the Africans. It has found a place in the socio-cultural belief of the people despite several attempts that have been made for its eradication. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with the type IV FGM secondary to the ...
Background: An estimated 130 million reported cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) occur globally, and every year at least 3 million girls and young women are at risk of undergoing this practice. This study was carried out to assess awareness and knowledge of FGM in a sub-urban community, Edo State, to help raise ...
Ismail Khalaf Editor-in Chief
Association (PAUSA) to give special concern to health problems in. Africa, the editorial board of the African .... Female genital cutting/mutilation in Africa deserves special concern: An overview. 121. The governments of all the ... Going with this, Egypt banned FGM in 2007, despite pressure from some Islamic groups .
... this condition have abnormally short thumbs and first (big) toes, small fifth fingers that curve inward ( clinodactyly ), short feet, and fusion or delayed hardening of bones in the wrists and ankles. The other bones in the arms and legs are normal. Abnormalities of the genitals and urinary ...
This paper reports a presentation by Margaret Stanley, Reader in Epithelial Biology, at the University of Cambridge, in which she reviews the evidence to date regarding the immunology of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in genital warts. In this she explains that investigations into the immunology of genital wart infections indicate that the replication cycle of papilloma viruses is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation - a strategy for immune evasion. While the papilloma virus infects primitive basal cells, viral replication and viral assembly are confined to differentiating superficial epithelial cells. Viral replication and release are confined to cells destined for death and are not associated with inflammation. Such findings suggest that the immune system is ignorant or indifferent to the infection. Evidence from regressing genital warts in humans and animal models suggests that HPV is a cell-mediated immune response of the Th1 type offering a strategy for immunotherapy in benign disease. This is supported by evidence from trials with immunomodulatory agents. While strategies to elicit cytotoxic responses are required for malignant HPV associated lesions, the problems of immune evasion associated with these approaches should not be underestimated. Present optimal therapeutic strategies for genital human papilloma viruses infection would therefore appear to require the induction of a virus specific immune response, either by immunomodulatory agents and/or immunisation with the relevant viral antigens.
Jul 14, 2011 ... How can we re-examine the impact of 25 years of concerted action aimed at eliminating female genital mutilation (FGM) – excision – in Francophone West Africa? Why, how, by whom and for whom has the digital revolution been used over the past 10 years to achieve that end? If young people – both male ...
Elena Vidaillet Calvo
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio antropométrico transversal descriptivo en 179 adolescentes del sexo masculino, en edades comprendidas entre 11,0 y 14,9 años de edad, procedentes de Ciudad de La Habana, según las normas del Programa Biológico Internacional. Se tomó peso, talla, pliegue cutáneo tricipital y subescapular y se determinaron las dimensiones corporales siguientes: peso y talla para la edad, peso para la talla, índice de masa corporal, área grasa del brazo e índice energía/proteína. Se clasificaron por canales percentilares según las Normas Nacionales para individuos de 0 a 19 años del sexo masculino. Se determinó el valor promedio, la desviación estándar, la mediana y el porcentaje de individuos por canal percentilar para cada indicador y se compararon además con los valores del National Center Health Statistics (NCHS y con los valores del Estudio Nacional de Crecimiento y Desarrollo para la Población Cubana, 1982. Los datos se procesaron de forma automatizada y se aplicó la prueba de significación estadística, donde se encontró que la muestra fue típica según las normas de referencias y con los valores del NCHS, y en su mayoría los valores porcentuales se ubicaron entre el 4 y 7 canal percentilar. El mayor tanto por ciento de obesidad correspondió al punto de corte de Amador para el índice energía/proteína ( ³ 1500.A cross-sectional descriptive anthropometric study was conducted on 179 male adolescents aged 11-14,9 years from the City of Havana, according to the standards of the International Biological Program. The study considered weight, height, tricipital and subscapular folds and determined the following body dimensions: weight and height for age, weight for height, body mass index, fatty area of the arm and energy/protein index. They were classified by percentile channels according to the National Standards for 0-19y males. The average value, the standard deviation, the median and the percentage of
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar a experiência do tratamento cirúrgico do transgenitalismo (masculino/feminino realizado no Programa de Transgenitalização do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, - UFRJ. MÉTODOS: A seleção dos pacientes para operação de transgenitalismo obedeceu à avaliação de equipe multidisciplinar, atendendo aos critérios definidos, após dois anos de acompanhamento conjunto: diagnóstico médico de transexualismo; paciente maior de 21 anos; ausência de características físicas inapropriadas para a mudança; apoio de pelo menos um familiar próximo. RESULTADOS: De 1997 a 2004 foram atendidas dezessete, pessoas quinze confirmaram a condição transexual, uma foi afastada por ter trazido exames falsos. Do total de dezesseis transexuais, foram realizadas seis operações. As pacientes operadas situavam-se na faixa de 25 a 40 anos com média de 31 anos. O procedimento cirúrgico foi concluído sem dificuldades técnicas em todas as pacientes . Uma paciente apresentou estenose do neo meato e em outra foi necessário encurtar um pouco mais a uretra. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica operatória não oferece maiores dificuldades em sua execução, mas pode depender das condições locais e da criatividade do cirurgião. A dificuldade maior está em preparar estes pacientes para que não haja frustrações ou expectativas demasiadas.
Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L
Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.
En este trabajo se cuestiona la construcción dicotomizada de lo femenino y lo masculino en el pensamiento y ciencia occidental y la asociación de lo femenino con valores negativos en una jerarquía en cuya cúspide encontramos las positivas cualidades masculinas. Este cuestionamiento se lleva a cabo desde una perspectiva metodológica basada en Edgar Morin.
Giraldo, Paulo César; Polo, Renata Colbachini; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Reis, Virgínia Vieitez; Beghini, Joziani; Bardin, Marcela Grigol
To describe the practices and care with the genital area of female college students. A descriptive analytical study evaluated the habits and traditions of 364 students from the University of Campinas (Unicamp) regarding the use of underwear, body piercings, tattoos, hair removal and sexual practices. A questionnaire with 42 questions assessed the most current practices among female college students. All questions were self answered and the questionnaires, without any identification, were placed in sealed ballot boxes to ensure the confidentiality of information. The responses were tabulated in Microsoft® Excel 2007 to obtain univariate analysis. The mean age of the college students in the study was 21 years (SD ± 2.7), and 84% were white. The volunteers who participated in this study were from the biological science area (50%), the exact science area (29%) or the humanity area (21%). It was observed that 61.8% of the respondents wear cotton panties, but at the same time 75.4% wear tight jeans, and only 18.4% wore no panties when sleeping. Only one participant reported having had genital piercing and none of them reported tattooing. Most female college students do genital waxing, and approximately 1/3 of them do so completely. After hair removal, 2/3 apply an anti-inflammatory and/or moisturizer to the region. Only 62% use condoms and 17.6% use a lubricant during intercourse. Half of them receive oral sex, 17.9% practice anal sex and 26.6% of them report feeling pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge after intercourse was reported in 25.6% of the cases. Young female college students from Brazilian public universities have many inadequate care habits related to their genital area. They do not use genital piercing and tattoos, but report having pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge after sex in a large number of cases.
Edson Moreira Borges
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p209 A paca (Cuniculus paca é uma espécie de roedor da família Cuniculidae, encontrada na América do Sul, desde a Bacia do Rio Orinoco até o Paraguai. Apesar de amplamente estudada quanto aos aspectos morfológico e reprodutivo, ainda não há registros sobre a morfologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino dessa espécie. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar não só a anatomia macro e microscópica dos órgãos genitais externos dessa espécie, mas, também, sua topografia. Foram estudados os órgãos genitais externos de 10 pacas, machos, adultas; 5 espécimes, fixados em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, foram estudados macroscopicamente e de 5 espécimes foram coletados fragmentos do aparelho reprodutor, para análise microscópica. Os testículos apresentavam parênquima estruturado em túbulos seminíferos e o epitélio germinativo repousava sobre sua membrana basal. Esses órgãos estavam localizados na cavidade abdominal, no trajeto inguinal ou no interior do escroto. O pênis, fibroelástico, localizava-se na região púbica, em direção caudal. Sua glande, revestida por epitélio queratinizado, era recoberta pelo prepúcio e, abaixo deste, identificou-se uma estrutura delgada cartilagínea com bordas serreadas. Um par de esporões ósseos abrigava-se em um saco ventral à uretra, cuja mucosa era revestida por epitélio de transição. O ducto epididimário apresentava-se enovelado na cabeça, continha corpo e cauda, sendo a cabeça revestida por epitélio pseudoestratificado estereociliado, e a cauda por epitélio cúbico simples; desta originava-se o ducto deferente, revestido por epitélio estratificado colunar.
Marcos Soares Campos
Full Text Available A retocele é uma projeção sacular anormal da parede retal, de etiologia multifatorial e uma causa muito significativa de sintomas anorretais como plenitude retal, sensação de peso anal durante a defecação, evacuação incompleta e dor retoanal. Muito tem se discutido sobre retoceles em mulheres, mas poucas publicações têm mencionado a presença de retocele em pacientes do sexo masculino e somente um artigo discute os detalhes da retocele em homens com distúrbios de defecação. A retocele posterior em homens, em especial, é uma disfunção incomum e possivelmente apresenta como causas a constipação intestinal, o esforço evacuatório longo e excessivo, a síndrome do descenso perineal, a fraqueza do assoalho pélvico e a contração paradoxal do músculo puborretal. É apresentado o caso de um paciente com história de dor anorretal crônica e defecação obstruída associadas à retocele posterior, doença hemorroidária, prolapso e intussuscepção retal.Rectocele is an abnormal sac-like projection of the rectum wall with multiple etiologies and an important cause of anorectal symptoms like rectoanal weight sensation during evacuation, incomplete evacuation and anorectal pain. Many reports have discussed rectoceles in women, but few have mentioned rectoceles in male patients and only one report has discussed the details of rectoceles in men with defecation disorders. Posterior rectocele in men, in particular, is an unusual disturb and possible causes are intestinal constipation, long and excessive straining, descending perineum syndrome, weakness of the pelvic floor and puborectalis muscle syndrome. We report a case of a male patient with chronic anorectal pain and outlet obstruction associated with posterior rectocele, hemorrhoidal disease, rectal mucous prolapse and intussusception.
Laan, Ellen; Martoredjo, Daphne K; Hesselink, Sara; Snijders, Nóinín; van Lunsen, Rik H W
Many women have doubts about the normality of the physical appearance of their vulvas. This study measured genital self-image in a convenience sample of college-educated women, and assessed whether exposure to pictures of natural vulvas influenced their genital self-image. Forty-three women were either shown pictures of natural vulvas (N = 29) or pictures of neutral objects (N = 14). Genital self-image was measured before and after exposure to the pictures and two weeks later. Sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety were measured to investigate whether these factors influenced genital self-image scores after vulva picture exposure. A majority of the participants felt generally positively about their genitals. Having been exposed to pictures of natural vulvas resulted in an even more positive genital self-image, irrespective of levels of sexual function, sexual distress, self-esteem and trait anxiety. In the women who had seen the vulva pictures, the positive effect on genital self-image was still present after two weeks. The results of this study seem to indicate that even in young women with a relatively positive genital self-image, exposure to pictures of a large variety of natural vulvas positively affects genital self-image. This finding may suggest that exposure to pictures of natural vulvas may also lead to a more positive genital self-image in women who consider labiaplasty.
Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.
In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection
Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert
Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Abstract The genitive singular of the weak masculine nouns appears in three non-standard variations in addition to the standard suffix -(en: one variation is case augmenting (des Bär-en-s, one is stem affixing (des Polizist-s and one lacks a case suffix (des Patient-Ø. Linguists as well as language critics have focussed mainly on the stem affixing genitive while more or less ignoring the two other non-standard variations. This paper presents a corpus-based investigation regarding frequency and contexts of all three variations, also considering the diachronic background and the implications the results might have for predicting the further development of the declension class of the weak masculine nouns.
Kaei Nasu M.D., Ph.D.
Full Text Available Tamoxifen is widely used for endocrine treatment and breast cancer prevention. It acts as both an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue and an estrogen agonist in the female lower genital tract. Tamoxifen causes severe gynecologic side effects, such as endometrial cancer. This review focuses on the effects of prolonged tamoxifen treatment on the human female genital tract and considers its tumorigenicity in the gynecologic organs through clinical data analysis. Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of benign endometrial lesions such as polyps and hyperplasia and a two- to four-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal patients. Moreover, the incidence of functional ovarian cysts is significantly high in premenopausal tamoxifen users. To prevent tamoxifen from having severe side effects in gynecologic organs, frequent gynecological examination should be performed for both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who are treated with this drug.
Kadi, Z; Bouguermouh, A; Djenaoui, T; Allouache, A; Dali, S; Hadji, N
Using a microimmunofluorescence test, the prevalence of antichlamydial immunoglobulin (Ig) G in 720 people in Algiers was studied. 34 (36%) of women with low genital infection, 28 (30%) of 91 patients attending a cancer screening clinic, and 44 (100%) of prostitutes had antichlamydial IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 1:16. Among 180 women seeking a rubeola test, 48 (26.6%) had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:16. 144 infants less than 3 months old were also tested and 16.6% of them had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:160; 20 (20.7%) of 97 men with chronic urethritis had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:16. Antibody titres suggesting active disease in prostitutes, patients attending the cancer screening clinic and women with low genital infection were found in 95%, 11% and 17% respectively.
Kadi, Z; Bouguermouh, A; Ait-Mokhtar, N; Allouache, A; Ziat, A; Orfilla, J
The prevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies was studied among 329 patients divided into 5 groups, 34 (36%) of the women with a low genital infection have antibodies at a titre greater than 16 versus 12 (17%) of the patients attending the women's clinic for routine pelvic examination. 44 (100%) of 44 prostitutes had antibodies greater than 16 meanwhile only 2 (7%) of 30 women attending an obstetric clinic had antibodies greater than 16. Titres suggesting active chlamydial infection were found in prostitutes (95%), women with low genital infection (17%) and patients attending a cancer screening clinic (11%). In other hand, using immunofluorescence test with monoclonal anti Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, 20 (45.5%) of the prostitutes were found antigen positive.
Giuliano, François; Rampin, Olivier; Allard, Julien
Vaginal sexual arousal is a vasocongestive and neuromuscular event controlled by facilitatory parasympathetic and inhibitory sympathetic inputs. Autonomic preganglionic parasympathetic and inhibitory sympathetic fibers to the vagina and clitoris originate in the spinal cord in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus at the sacral level and in the dorsal gray commissure and the intermediolateral cell column at the thoracolumbar level, respectively. Parasympathetic fibers are conveyed by the pelvic nerve, and sympathetic fibers are conveyed by the hypogastric nerve and the paravertebral sympathetic chain. The activity of these spinal nuclei is controlled by descending projections from the brain and sensory afferens (conveyed in the pudendal, hypogastric, pelvic, and vagus nerves) from the genitalia. A key but unresolved issue concerns the neurotransmitters involved in the control of genital sexual arousal. At the peripheral level, acetylcholine plays a minor role in the regulation of vaginal blood flow, however, recent data suggests that it may be involved in the control of vaginal smooth muscle contractions. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide may be responsible for the increase in vaginal blood flow during sexual arousal, whereas noradrenaline is likely inhibitory. Within the central nervous system, serotoninergic projections from the brain to the spinal cord likely inhibit the induction of genital arousal by peripheral informations (spinal reflex). Although some neurotransmitters regulating the display of sexual behavior have been identified (for example, dopamine), their involvement in the control of genital sexual arousal has not been invested. Anatomical and electrophysiological data point to a contribution of the paraventricular nucleus of he hypothalamus and the median preoptic area, respectively, as key elements in the control of genital arousal. The recent development of models allowing the assessment of vaginal sexual arousal in anesthetized female
Full Text Available The cultural practice of female genital mutilation persists, with grave implications for girls’ and women’s health. The cultural reasons behind the practice are complex. It is therefore essential that critique of the practice come from members of the affected communities. This paper presents a thoughtful review of current community views and proposes an alternative cultural narrative using cultural transformation theory to shift community norms.
Cartagena, M. Carmen; Viñolas Saborit, Amador
Con el presente trabajo se inicia el estudio de la anatomía genital, tanto masculina como femenina, de los Tenebrionidae. Se explica la metodología de extracción y preparación microscópica, así como los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento en los géneros estudiados, todos ellos presentes en la Península Ibérica.
Laura J. Moulton
Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.
Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M
The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.
Full Text Available The research goal is to study the immune effects in patients with external genital endometriosis. 126 patients with external genital endometriosis ages 22-44 years have been examined. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+, CD25+, immunoglobulin A, M, G are defined in peripheral blood and peritoneal liquid. Method of cytoflowmetry and radial immunodiffusion by Manchini has been used. Statistical processing of results has been spent by means of a package of the statistical program «Statgraphics», STSC (USA. Reliability of variability has been estimated by means of calculation of nonparametric criterion by Uilkokson — Mann — Uitni. Depression of cellular and increase of humoral immunity (IgG and IgA in peritoneal liquid have been revealed. Degree of expressiveness of immunity has been depended on presence of inflammatory diseases, duration of disease, localization of the pathology center. In peritoneal liquid the total amount of T-lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ lymphocytes has been increased in patients with of external genital endometriosis of lll-IV degree. The immunoregulatory index has been also increased. These results have confirmed the presence of inflammatory process in peritoneal cavity
Full Text Available Abstract To help physicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of female genito-urinary malformations, especially of complex cases, the embryology of the female genital tract, the basis for Müllerian development anomalies, the current classifications for such anomalies and the comparison for inclusion and cataloguing of female genital malformations are briefly reviewed. The use of the embryological system to catalogue female genito-urinary malformations may ultimately be more useful in correlations with clinical presentations and in helping with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic imaging of the different genito-urinary anomalies are exposed, placing particular emphasis on the anomalies within group II of the embryological and clinical classification (distal mesonephric anomalies, all of them associated with unilateral renal agenesis or dysplasia. Similarly, emphasis is placed on cases of cervico-vaginal agenesis, cavitated noncommunicated uterine horns, and cloacal and urogenital sinus anomalies and malformative combinations, all of them complex malformations. Diagnostic imaging for all these anomalies is essential. The best imaging tools and when to evaluate for other anomalies are also analysed in this review. Teaching points • The appropriate cataloguing of female genital malformations is controversial. • An embryological classification system suggests the best diagnosis and appropriate management. • The anomalies most frequently diagnosed incorrectly are the distal mesonephric anomalies (DMAs. • DMAs are associated with unilateral renal agenesis or renal dysplasia with ectopic ureter. • We analyse other complex malformations. Diagnostic imaging for these anomalies is essential.
The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Willame, Alexia; Recordon, Nathalie; Petignat, Patrick
Evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation is lacking. A woman with female genital mutilation experiencing clitoral pain during sex consulted to undergo clitoral reconstruction. The surgery was complicated by a wound infection responsible for severe postoperative pain. Such genital pain made our patient recall the traumatic experience of genital mutilation and experience a relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. She reported anxiety; spontaneous, intrusive recurrent memories of the cutting; hypervigilance; and depressed mood. We successfully treated the infection and posttraumatic stress disorder. At 6 months postsurgery, she reported no clitoral pain and improved sexual function. Genital pain after clitoral reconstruction may cause recall of memories of the genital mutilation. We recommend multidisciplinary comprehensive psychosexual care and adequate analgesia.
Boie, Sidsel; Jeppesen, Ulla; Bor, Isil Pinar
Abstract A growing number of women are bothered by genital prolapse. The treatment of genital prolapse includes pelvic floor exercise in variable extent, but only few data are published. Variations in interventions, follow-up time, outcome etc. complicates a comparison. Because of the very limite...... material it is difficult to conclude if pelvic floor exercises have any effect on genital prolapse. There is need for studies concerning the clinical relevance and a cost-benefit analysis....
Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam
Female genital tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic reson...
Full Text Available The paper presents a review of syntactic-semantic structures with the so-called subject genitive, it describes and in a specific way compares all syntactic-semantic models with this type of genitive and discusses the necessary syntactic-semantic conditions which influence its appearance with the comment on the necessary pragmatic conditions where it is relevant. In comparison with the interpretations existing so far, this category is somewhat extended, and the appearance of genitive in specific models mentioned by other authors, too - is explicitly classified into this category, which has not been the case before. Subject genitive, as an exponent of the grammatical subject in the deep predication (full verbal lexeme [condensed by the deverbal noun] or copulative with the adjective as a semantic core [condensed by the deadjectival noun], or the predication of the reduced relative clause in the function of the restrictive identifier of the basic noun of the type nomina loci and nomina collectiva or as a denotator of the semantic subject, in both cases with the meaning of agent - the direct performer of the activity or an intermediary, but also a pseudo-agent, e.g. the indicator of a characteristic, of existence, objects instrument, of the entity created in the process of the verb activity possessor, causer, indicator of a state or feeling, disponent (temporary possessor - is realized equally in nominal and verbal structures, and in a particular instance also in the occasional variant of the sentence with one type of modal particles (evo, eto, eno, gle in a specific pragmatic situation. In the Standard Serbian Language the subject genitive is the element of the secondary syntactic-semantic structures - generated from the basic deep, prototypical, structures (all models except the model with the personal and the model with the medial predication, or the element of the basic syntactic-semantic structures but so-called converse structures (the model
Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.
Kavala, Mukaddes; Topaloğlu Demir, Filiz; Zindanci, Ilkin; Can, Burce; Turkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru; Cam, Osman Halit; Teksen, Ahmet
The frequency of genital involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has not been clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the frequency of cervical, vaginal, and vulvar involvement in PV and to determine their association with genital symptoms, clinical involvement, and cytological status. The current study's sample included 34 female patients with PV. Gynecologic and ear, nose, and throat examinations and indirect immunofluorescence analyses were performed, and Pap smears were collected. Genital involvement was observed in 44.1% of patients. It was significantly associated with disease severity and clinical involvement. Pharyngeal involvement was observed in 61.8% of patients and was the second-most frequently involved mucosal region. Genital involvement was significantly associated with nasal mucosa involvement. Cervicovaginal Pap smears showed acantholytic cells of PV in 35.3% of patients. The sample size is small. Genital involvement in PV is not rare. Genital mucosa is the most affected mucosal region after oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Furthermore, genital involvement is significantly associated with nasal involvement and genital symptoms. The need for complete gynecologic evaluations of patients with PV, nasal involvement, and genital symptoms is emphasized. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita
The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.
This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.
Nathalia Maria Tomaz Silveira
Full Text Available O câncer de mama masculino é um quadro neoplásico raro, abrange 1% dos casos de câncer de mama no mundo todo, 1% dos tumores malignos em homens e apresenta incidência anual de 1 por 100.000. Reuniram-se informações acerca da atualidade de estudos relacionados ao caráter genético na patologia abordada, cujo objetivo foi analisar aspectos da predisposição e associação, utilizando 15 artigos originais indexados no período entre janeiro de 2011 a fevereiro de 2016, escritos em inglês e espanhol, com delineamento experimental ou observacional, utilizando os descritores câncer de mama masculino, tratamento do câncer, câncer de mama e fator genético do câncer de mama, assim como suas traduções em inglês male breast cancer, cancer treatment, breast cancer e genetic factors. Discutiu-se principalmente a influência genética na ocorrência do câncer de mama masculino, como alterações em genes supressores BRCA, relações com o ponto de checagem CHECK2, histórico familiar e ligações com a síndrome de Klinefelter, entre outros fatores. Aspectos ambientais também são sugeridos por parte da literatura na manifestação clínica da neoplasia, porém com menores ênfases conclusivas. Apesar da literatura sobre o tema ainda necessitar de crescimento e aprofundamento, observaram-se reafirmações científicas sobre a importância da influência genética, sobretudo do BRCA 2, além de confirmações quanto a multifatoriedade da neoplasia.
Navarro, Raúl; Larrañaga, Elisa; Yubero, Santiago
En este estudio se analiza la asociación entre el conflicto de rol de género masculino y las conductas de acoso y victimización escolar. La muestra estuvo formada por 786 chicos estudiantes españoles, de edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 17 años (M=14.5, DT=1.58). Se establecieron tres grupos de experimentación del conflicto de rol de género tanto a nivel global como en cada uno de sus patrones: nivel alto, medio y bajo. Los resultados de los distintos análisis de varianza indicaron que ...
Adriano Beiras; Alex Lodetti; Arthur Grimm Cabral; Maria Juracy Filgueiras Toneli; Pablo Raimundo
As Histórias em Quadrinhos de super-heróis ganham vida na imaginação dos leitores, estabelecendo fortes ligações com seu cotidiano. Um corpo musculoso e viril vem historicamente se tornando o referencial de corporeidade masculina, enquanto corpos que desviam desse modelo são comumente satirizados ou excluídos da mídia. Este ensaio objetiva discutir as formas de representação do corpo masculino nas HQs da DC Comics, especificamente nas histórias de Superman e de Batman, conforme a caracterizaç...
Celso Garcia Junior
Resumo: O presente estudo teve como objetivos compreender as experiências de vida dos genitores masculinos de pacientes adolescentes do sexo feminino em tratamento ambulatorial devido a um Transtorno Alimentar (TA) e entender como esses homens vivenciaram o impacto do TA de suas filhas em suas próprias vidas, desde o início da doença até o desenrolar do tratamento a que elas se submeteram no Grupo Interdisciplinar de Assistência e Estudos em Transtornos Alimentares (GETA) da UNICAMP. Foi util...
Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.
Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar
To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.
Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak
Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of
Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak
Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.
Sweileh, Waleed M
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were "female genital mutilation", "female genital circumcision", "female genital cutting" and "female circumcision". Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal's impact factor. One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 - 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on
Maria Cristina S. Lourenço
Full Text Available We report the isolation of Neisseria meningitidis, characterized as B:NT:P1.7, from a female patient's genital tract in an outpatient clinic for HIV care. The gynecology clinic, as part of the follow up, collects specimens from all patients with HIV infection for routine exams and for early laboratory detection of sexually transmitted diseases . A Gram-negative diplococcus was isolated from the cervix of a heterosexual patient with AIDS. Based on this and other reported cases, urogenital infection with N. meningitidis can no longer be considered uncommon. The rising incidence of N. meningitidis isolated from this and similar sites has significant medical and diagnostic implications.
Vinay Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are the presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem, and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires, depression, and having a history of GSM. The eponym Klingsor Syndrome, which involves the presence of religious delusions, is proposed for GSM. Psychiatric case reports of male GSM in the literature are rare and mostly anecdotal.
Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A
Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the
Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol
In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.
Shahid, Usama; Rane, Ajay
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice where female genital organs are altered for non-medical reasons. The custom is outlawed in Australia and associated with an array of medical consequences. Due to the recent influx of migrants from regions endemic to FGM, the practice is becoming a growing concern locally. This federal government funded study aimed to elicit the poorly understood perceptions that young, Sub-Saharan African, migrant males residing in Townsville, Australia have on FGM. Through piloted questionnaires we found that amongst the 67 participants, 23.9% believed that FGM should be allowed under Australian Law. The independent predictors of supportive attitudes in favour of FGM were having resided in Australia for five or less years (p = .016, 95% CI 0.99-8.09) and coming from a basic educational background (high school or TAFE) (p = .003, 95% CI 1.3-12.4). This study also found that participant perceptions on FGM were amenable to change through educational interventional strategies. Impact statement Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice where female genital organs are altered for non-medical reasons. The role that males play in the continuation of this outlawed practice remains poorly understood. No research has ever been conducted in Australia looking at the perception that young, migrant males have on FGM. Several European-based studies have examined the perceptions of older, poorly educated, migrant male cohorts. Generally, these studies show that the attitudinal support for FGM and intention to practice remains relatively high amongst these cohorts. This study examined the attitudes of a young, Sub-Saharan African, migrant, male cohort residing in Australia. This adds to the literature base by establishing the perceptions and associated socio-demographic variables of this unique and influential subset of the migrant population. This directly facilitates the development of interventional strategies
Foldès, Pierre; Cuzin, Béatrice; Andro, Armelle
Women who have undergone female genital mutilation rarely have access to the reconstructive surgery that is now available. Our objective was to assess the immediate and long-term outcomes of this surgery. Between 1998 and 2009, we included consecutive patients with female genital mutilation aged 18 years or older who had consulted a urologist at Poissy-St Germain Hospital, France. We used the WHO classification to prospectively include patients with type II or type III mutilation. The skin covering the stump was resected to reveal the clitoris. The suspensory ligament was then sectioned to mobilise the stump, the scar tissue was removed from the exposed portion and the glans was brought into a normal position. All patients answered a questionnaire at entry about their characteristics, expectations, and preoperative clitoris pleasure and pain, measured on a 5-point scale. Those patients who returned at 1 year for follow-up were questioned about clitoris pain and functionality. We compared data from the 1-year group with the total group of patients who had surgery. We operated on 2938 women with a mean age of 29·2 (SD 7·77 years; age at excision 6·1, SD 3·5 years). Mali, Senegal, and Ivory Coast were the main countries of origin, but 564 patients had undergone female genital mutilation in France. The 1-year follow-up visit was attended by 866 patients (29%). Expectations before surgery were identity recovery for 2933 patients (99%), improved sex life for 2378 patients (81%), and pain reduction for 847 patients (29%). At 1-year follow-up, 363 women (42%) had a hoodless glans, 239 (28%) had a normal clitoris, 210 (24%) had a visible projection, 51 (6%) had a palpable projection, and three (0·4%) had no change. Most patients reported an improvement, or at least no worsening, in pain (821 of 840 patients) and clitoral pleasure (815 of 834 patients). At 1 year, 430 (51%) of 841 women experienced orgasms. Immediate complications after surgery (haematoma, suture
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Petignat, Patrick
Evidence on sexual function of women living with female genital mutilation (FGM) and on clitoral reconstruction after FGM is limited. Such surgery is performed in case of chronic clitoral pain, clitoral dyspareunia or for female identity reasons. In this article we summarize the anatomical, psychosexual and sociocultural factors that influence sexual function of women with FGM and the available data on clitoral reconstruction. Surgical resection of the fibrous tissue around the clitoris, with eventual excision of painful post-traumatic neuromas, could improve pain and sexual function. In asymptomatic women, multidisciplinary non-surgical management could be equally or more beneficial and less risky than surgery.
John Arturo Cárdenas
Full Text Available Arguments by lgbti advocates and the assertion of the rights of individuals with sexual development differences, point toward a growing debate on the existence of a new paradigm around the traditional binary concept of malefemale genders. In Colombian Law, this discussion extends to the field of the State liability for sex reassignment or modifying genitals surgeries performed in minors, without their informed consent. Once identified the grounds for the State liability, this paper shows the need for additional measures of reparation, beyond the award of economic damages, by means of concerted actions of the executive and legislative branches, intended to prevent discrimination, repetition and to dignify these individuals.
Rouzi, Abdulrahim A
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.
Full Text Available Male genital self-mutilation (GSM is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires; depression and having a history of GSM. We present a case of a suicide wherein the deceased before committing the suicidal act had GSM.
In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In
Handy, Ariel B; Meston, Cindy M
In general, laboratory studies have shown low correlations between subjective (ie, self-report) and physiologic (ie, vaginal pulse amplitude) measurements of sexual arousal in women. One explanation for this presumed low concordance is that women might not be attending to their genital responses and/or might be unable to accurately perceive their genital responses. To examine the extent to which women can perceive their genital arousal sensations, the role that interoceptive awareness plays in this ability, and whether interoceptive awareness influences sexual concordance in women. Twenty-six sexually functional women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic and perceived genital sexual arousal levels were measured continuously. Self-report measurements of sexual function and bodily awareness also were administered. Physiologic sexual arousal was measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph, and perception of genital arousal was measured with an arousometer. Degree of bodily awareness was measured with the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness questionnaire. Women exhibited a significant degree of agreement between physiologic and perceived genital arousal (P physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Interoceptive awareness also was found to facilitate greater concordance between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal (P Women can perceive their genital response, and interoceptive awareness influences this ability and the relation between subjective and physiologic sexual arousal. Increasing bodily awareness could be a plausible route for treatment development. Copyright Â© 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeanne M. Marrazzo
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery.
Full Text Available The genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ch. trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum represent, in the countries with developed industry, those diseases which are most often sexually transmissible. Chronic infections provoked by the mentioned causes are considered to be the risk factors for sterility.The aim of this paper is to examine the importance and specific characteristics of the CHLAMYFAST-OIA test in the Chlamydia genital infection diagnosis. This study includes 400 male patients with urethritis symptoms. The CHLAMYFAST-optical immunologic test has been used to determine the presence of the Ch. trachomatis in the genital tract of 360 males (Mycoplasma, International, France. The genital microplasmas, that is M. hominis and U. urealyticum, have been detected with the use of MYCOFAST-test (Mycroplasm International, France. The presence of the genital microplasmas has been studied in 129 patients.Chlamydia genital infection has been determined in 128 males (35,55%. The genital infection caused by M. hominis has been determined in a largely lower number of patients (3; 2,32%, as well as the infection caused by U. urealyticum (in 8 patients; 6,20%. Mixed infections have been detected in 8 patients. In 6 men (4,64% there has been detected a mixed infection caused by genital microplasmas. The mixed infection provoked by Ch. Trachomatis and M. hominis, and the one caused by Ch. trachomatis and U. urealyticum, has been proven only in one patient respectively.
Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine
Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection...
Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael
Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…
Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Neubauer, David
Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one
Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola
genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance...... between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common......Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...
Takei, Hirokazu; Nomura, Osamu; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Inoue, Nobuaki
Genital injuries among children are often associated with consumer products or specific activities. There are few descriptive studies from Asia on pediatric genital injuries seen in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic features of accidental genital injuries among children. A retrospective chart review of children aged 15 years or younger who visited our ED for genital injuries between March 2010 and November 2014 was conducted. Data on age, arrival time at the ED, location of the incident, mechanism of injury, objects, injured organ, consultation with specialists, emergency operation, sedation at the ED, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients were included in this analysis. Girls comprised 71% of the subject pool. The median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 4-9 years). Straddle injuries were the most common form of injury (56%). Male genital injuries occurred mostly outdoors (64%). Common consumer products associated with pediatric genital injuries were furniture (21%), exercise equipment (17%), and bicycles (15%). Thirty-two patients were examined by a surgeon, gynecologist, or urologist. The most commonly injured organs were the penis (55%) in boys and the labia (60%) in girls. Most patients (93%) were treated at the ED and discharged. The characteristics of accidental genital injuries among Japanese children were similar to those of children in other countries. The strategy for preventing genital injuries used in the West might be applicable to the East Asian context.
Full Text Available Objective: To study a case series of genital malignancies coexisting with genital tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A series of three cases with known genital malignancies were found to have coexisting genital tuberculosis on subsequent workup. Results: First case was a 45 years old lady who underwent staging laparotomy for ovarian cancer. On histopathology examination, there was coexisting tuberculosis with papillary serous carcinoma. Second case was 53 years old postmenopausal lady who underwent extrafascial hysterectomy along with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histopathology showed tubercular changes along with endometrial malignancy. Third patient was a 50 years old postmenopausal lady with stage IIA carcinoma of cervix. She underwent radical hysterectomy and histopathology revealed tubercular changes in pelvic lymph nodes. All patients were given antitubercular therapy for 9 months in postoperative period along with adjuvant therapy. Conclusion: Although diagnosed as an incidental finding in the case series, genital tuberculosis may present in patients with malignancies as a result of immunosupression.
Kacerovsky, Marian; Pliskova, Lenka; Bolehovska, Radka; Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Tambor, Vojtech; Jacobsson, Bo
We sought to determine whether there is an association between bacterial load of genital mycoplasmas and histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). A total of 103 women with PPROM between 24-36 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed, and the amounts of target genital mycoplasma DNA in amniotic fluid samples were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bacterial load of the genital mycoplasmas was relatively assessed using the threshold cycle value. The presence of genital mycoplasmas in amniotic fluid was found in 38% (39/103) of the women. The presence of HCA was associated with lower threshold cycle values (median 21.3, interquartile range, 16.5-28.5, vs median 29.4, interquartile range, 27.0-30.5; P = .005). HCA in PPROM is associated with a higher bacterial load of genital mycoplasmas. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C
In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.
Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence
ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic
Meeuwis, K A P; de Hullu, J A; de Jager, M E A; Massuger, L F A G; van de Kerkhof, P C M; van Rossum, M M
Psoriatic lesions may involve nearly all sites of the body. Involvement of the genital skin is frequently classified as part of intertriginous psoriasis without special awareness and treatment for this presentation of the disease. Gaining knowledge about the frequency of the involvement of genital skin in these patients will improve the overall care for patients with psoriasis. We studied the prevalence of genital psoriasis in the Netherlands and epidemiological characteristics of this specific presentation of the disease. Furthermore, we studied the relation between flexural and genital psoriasis. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all 5300 members of the Dutch Psoriasis Society. Sociodemographic patient characteristics and disease-related data (such as localization of psoriatic lesions, involvement of the genitalia, age at onset of genital psoriasis and severity of genital psoriatic lesions) were collected and analysed. A response rate of 37% was achieved. Almost 46% of the responding patients with psoriasis, that is 16.5% of all potential responders (n = 5300), report genital involvement at some time during the course of their disease. The genitalia can become affected at any age. Many patients with current genital involvement (38%) do not have the flexural skin affected. A large part of patients with psoriasis suffer from genital psoriasis, which was not associated with flexural involvement in at least one third of them. More attention to the genital region is required in the current standard treatment of both male and female psoriatic patients at any age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva; De Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; Mauad, Lenira Maria Queiroz; Ferrarese, Sany Rose; Marana, Heitor Ricardo Cosiski; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimarães; De Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur
After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients present genital graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) that can culminate with sexual problems, which are poorly dimensioned. We hope to draw attention to the need to perform genital biopsy to diagnose genital GVHD, and thus to call attention to the need to incorporate careful attention to sexual health in the treatment of these patients. Five allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients complaining of coital pain after HSCT were clinically diagnosed for genital GVHD. Genital biopsies were given for histological analysis, and microphotographs of the corresponding marked field in the slide were taken. Specimens were evaluated by the site pathologist and then sent to a reference pathologist, each blinded to the histological findings. A literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE (1966-2009) for cross-sectional and cohort studies or trials related to genital GVHD. Expert opinions peer reviews and case reports were also considered. HSCT, genital GVHD, genital biopsy. The biopsy showed evidence of dilated apoptotic cells in the basal layer and detachment of the epithelial lining of the mucosa, hyalinization and thickening of collagen fibers, capillary ectasia, and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate of the submucosa. Three patients presented vulval lesion such as leucoplasia and ulcer on the large lip. Histological analyses showed evidence of epithelial hyperplasia and influx of inflammatory cells to the epithelial surface, intercellular edema and spongiosis, apoptotic bodies on the basal layer of the epithelium, spongiosis, and nuclear vacuolization. A common treatment based on corticotherapy resulted in complete remission of coetaneous or mucous genital lesions in all five patients. Genital biopsy is important to differentially diagnose GVHD and secondary symptoms due to hypoestrogenism. Prevention is the most important step in controlling the evolution GVHD in the vagina to prevent vaginal obstruction and
Jiménez-Ruiz, Ismael; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar
To explore men's knowledge of the negative consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) to women's health in countries where this practice is performed. A qualitative methodology was used with an ethnomethodological approach. Both individual and group semi-structured interviews concerning FGM were conducted with 25 men, selected by triple sampling. A study presentation letter was provided to participants, together with an informed consent declaration. Permission was also procured to record the interviews in audio format. Data analysis was performed using the Atlas Ti7 software. Those participants against FGM are aware of the range of complications this practice can cause, being able to identify physical, obstetric, psychological, sexuality and social consequences in women subjected to FGM. However, those men who are in favour display a general ignorance of the problems resulting from this practice. Participants from countries where FGM is performed who are against this practice are more aware of the negative consequences than those who claim to be in favour. The design of awareness-raising programmes and other tools to combat female genital mutilation must highlight the implications for women's and girls' health, and include family-targeted campaigns which involve men in the process of eradicating this practice. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.
Balachandran, Aswini A; Duvalla, Swapna; Sultan, Abdul H; Thakar, Ranee
Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), perineal trauma, genital fistulae, obstructed labour and stillbirth. The prevalence of FGM has increased in the UK over the last decade. There are currently no studies available that have explored the obstetric impact of FGM in the UK. The aim of our study was to investigate the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women with FGM when compared with the general population. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of consecutive pregnant women with FGM over a 5-year period between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Each woman with FGM was matched for age, ethnicity, parity and gestation with subsequent patients without FGM (control cohort) over the same 5-year period. Outcomes assessed were mode of delivery, duration of labour, estimated blood loss, analgaesia, perineal trauma and foetal outcomes. A total of 242 eligible women (121 FGM, 121 control) were identified for the study. There was a significant increase in the use of episiotomy in the FGM group (p = 0.009) and a significant increase in minor PPH in the control group during caesarean sections (p = 0.0001). There were no differences in all other obstetric and neonatal parameters. In our unit, FGM was not associated with an increased incidence of adverse obstetric and foetal morbidity or mortality.
K. I. Plakhova
Full Text Available The article presents data on genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas. The author presents the results of genetic variability studies for M. hominis, gene vaa, U. parvum, gene mba, and M. genitalium, gene mg192, sampled from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. Based on the molecular typing results for 138 samples of genital mycoplasmas, the author revealed a relationship between clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system caused by U. parvum and different U. parvum serovars as well as different genetic variations of M. hominis.Infection with 6 U. parvum serovar results in the development of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by subjective manifestations (р < 0.05. Genetic variant II of М. hominis was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases while variant I was revealed more often in patients infected with М. hominis without any signs of inflammation (р < 0.05. Genetic variants of M. genitalium were determined; no significant differences in terms of their prevalence in the examined patients were revealed.
María Lameiras Fernández
Full Text Available en la actualidad, el preservativo masculino continúa siendo el principal método para prevenir enfermedades de transmisión sexual, incluido el VIviH/SIDAsida. Eel objetivo de este estudio transversal analítico-descriptivo es evaluar la frecuencia de uso de dicho preservativo en las relaciones sexuales coito-vaginales de jóvenes españoles con edades entre 14 y 24 años, e identificar las variables relacionadas con los factores que predisponen, facilitan y refuerzan su utilización. Lla muestra estuvo integrada por 2.171 jóvenes de las comunidades de Ggalicia, Madrid y Aandalucía. 50,4% de los jóvenes encuestados manifestaron haber tenido relaciones coitovaginales en los últimos seis meses. Sse encontró que ser mayor de 18 años y tener más actividad sexual se asocia a menor frecuencia de uso del preservativo. tomó como referencia el modelo Precede; los análisis de regresión logística identificaron como predictores confiables: la intención de conducta de no riesgo y la habilidad autopercibida para usar el preservativo masculino con la pareja habitual (dentro del grupo de factores predisponentes; uso del preservativo masculino la primera vez que mantuvo relaciones coito-vaginales, hablar con la pareja sobre las prácticas sexuales por llevar a cabo, hablar con la pareja sobre los métodos de prevención que se van a utilizar y la baja frecuencia de relaciones con penetración vaginal (dentro del grupo de factores facilitadores; y haber sentido agobio, culpa o arrepentimiento por no tomar precauciones tras alguna práctica coito-vaginal (dentro del grupo de factores reforzantes. Los resultados de este estudio confirman la utilidad del modelo Precede para efectuar el diagnóstico de la conducta sexual.
Ma. Eugenia Chaoul Pereyra
Full Text Available Al convertirse en empleados federales en 1896, los maestros de primaria del Distrito Federal y de los territorios (Nayarit y Baja California ocuparon un papel singular para poner en marcha la política educativa del régimen porfiriano. En el marco de la anhelada centralización educativa, las autoridades promovieron que los docentes se desempeñaran como agentes modernizadores y pudieran difundir los nuevos contenidos pedagógicos. Sin embargo, la estructura burocrática diseñada para tal fin derivó en un aparato que supervisó, controló e inmovilizó a los maestros relegándolos a ocupar un papel receptivo, secundario y dependiente de los favores de la autoridad. Este desempeño fue crucial para entender las características que adquirió la organización magisterial al despuntar la revolución
Aspectos ergonômicos relacionados com o ambiente e equipamentos hospitalares Aspectos ergonómicos relacionados con el ambiente y aparatos hospitalarios Ergonomic aspects of the hospital working environment and equipment
Neusa Maria Costa Alexandre
Full Text Available A ergonomia tem sido difundida como uma das mais importantes estratégias para reduzir os problemas originados por situações de trabalho que causam lesões no sistema músculo-esquelético. O presente trabalho discute determinados aspectos do ambiente como espaço de trabalho, altura da superfície de trabalho, limites de alcance e equipamentos, relacionando-os com as atividades ocupacionais da enfermagem.La ergonomía ha sido difundida como una de las más importantes estratégias para disminuir los problemas originados por situaciones de trabajo que causan lesiones en el sistema musculosquelético. El presente trabajo discute determinados aspectos del ambiente como espacio de trabajo, altura de la superficie de trabajo, limites del alcance y aparatos, relacionándolos con las actividades ocupacionales de enfermería.Ergonomics has been one of the most important strategies for reducing musculoskeletal injuries caused by working conditions. The present report discusses particular aspects of the working environment such as work space, working heights, as well as the limits of reach and of the equipment used, and attempts to relate these to the occupational activities in nursing.
Pablo Ariel Scharagrodsky
Full Text Available El artículo que a continuación se presenta realiza una exhaustiva revisión histórico-social de la educación física escolar argentina y sus implicancias en relación al cuerpo masculino y femenino durante el período 1880-1990. El análisis identifica un conjunto de prácticas corporales que han tendido un papel activo en los procesos de generización: gimnasia y ejercicios militares, scautismo, sistema argentino de educación física, gimnasia metodizada, danzas folklóricas y deportes. Estas y otras prácticas corporales contribuyeron muy fuertemente en el armado de ciertas masculinidades –y feminidades– excluyendo, silenciado u omitiendo otras formas o alternativas posibles de vivir y experimentar la masculinidad y la feminidad.
Scharagrodsky, Pablo Ariel
El artículo que a continuación se presenta realiza una exhaustiva revisión histórico-social de la educación física escolar argentina y sus implicancias en relación al cuerpo masculino y femenino durante el período 1880-1990. El análisis identifica un conjunto de prácticas corporales que han tendido un papel activo en los procesos de generización: gimnasia y ejercicios militares, scautismo, sistema argentino de educación física, gimnasia metodizada, danzas folklóricas y deportes. Estas y otras...
Ferreira, Maíra Costa; Braz, Tatiana Pereira; Machado, Ana Maria Oliveira; Ribeiro, Gabriel; Andrade, Rosana Cristina Pererira de
p. 55-60,jan./mar. INTRODUÇÃO: a incontinência anal (IA) é uma disfunção de origem multifatorial com impacto significativo na qualidade de vida do indivíduo. Dentre as diversas etiologias para IA encontra-se a traumática, provocada pela penetração de objetos no canal anal. A inclusão do ânus na atividade sexual, já vem sendo descrita, principalmente entre homossexuais do sexo masculino. A partir desta premissa, questionou-se nesta pesquisa a possibilidade da penetração do pênis no ânus se ...
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Benson, Royal H; Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D; Jason, Robert A; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Stern, Bernard H; Stanton, Ryan A; Kolb, Susan E; Gonzalez, Federico
Female Genital Plastic Surgery, a relatively new entry in the field of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, has promised sexual enhancement and functional and cosmetic improvement for women. Are the vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures of Labiaplasty, Vaginoplasty/Perineoplasty ("Vaginal Rejuvenation") and Clitoral Hood Reduction effective, and do they deliver on that promise? For what reason do women seek these procedures? What complications are evident, and what effects are noted regarding sexual function for women and their partners? Who should be performing these procedures, what training should they have, and what are the ethical considerations? This study was designed to produce objective, utilizable outcome data regarding FGPS. 1) Reasons for considering surgery from both patient's and physician's perspective; 2) Pre-operative sexual functioning per procedure; 3) Overall patient satisfaction per procedure; 4) Effect of procedure on patient's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 5) Patient's perception of effect on her partner's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 6) Complications. This cross-sectional study, including 258 women and encompassing 341 separate procedures, comes from a group of twelve gynecologists, gynecologic urologists and plastic surgeons from ten centers in eight states nationwide. 104 labiaplasties, 24 clitoral hood reductions, 49 combined labiaplasty/clitoral hood reductions, 47 vaginoplasties and/or perineoplasties, and 34 combined labiaplasty and/or reduction of the clitoral hood plus vaginoplasty/perineoplasty procedures were studied retrospectively, analyzing both patient's and physician's perception of surgical rationale, pre-operative sexual function and several outcome criteria. Combining the three groups, 91.6% of patients were satisfied with the results of their surgery after a 6-42 month follow-up. Significant subjective enhancement in sexual functioning for both women and their sexual partners was noted (p = 0.0078), especially in patients
Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav
Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.
Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna
Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.
Brennan, Patricia L R; Prum, Richard O
Genital coevolution between the sexes is expected to be common because of the direct interaction between male and female genitalia during copulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms of genital coevolution that include natural selection, female mate choice, male-male competition, and how their interactions generate sexual conflict that can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution. Natural selection on genital morphology will result in size coevolution to allow for copulation to be mechanically possible, even as other features of genitalia may reflect the action of other mechanisms of selection. Genital coevolution is explicitly predicted by at least three mechanisms of genital evolution: lock and key to prevent hybridization, female choice, and sexual conflict. Although some good examples exist in support of each of these mechanisms, more data on quantitative female genital variation and studies of functional morphology during copulation are needed to understand more general patterns. A combination of different approaches is required to continue to advance our understanding of genital coevolution. Knowledge of the ecology and behavior of the studied species combined with functional morphology, quantitative morphological tools, experimental manipulation, and experimental evolution have been provided in the best-studied species, all of which are invertebrates. Therefore, attention to vertebrates in any of these areas is badly needed. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Female genital mutilation is one of the harmful traditional practices among women and girls. More than 130 million girls and women live today who have undergone female genital mutilation. In Ethiopia, a high prevalence (74.3% national and 68.5% in Amhara region) has been reported. This study was aimed to identify determinant factors of female genital mutilation practices in East Gojjam Zone, Western Amhara, Ethiopia community based cross sectional study was conducted among 730 women aged 15-49 years and having children female genital mutilation. 718 women and 805 daughters participated in the study. FGM prevalence was 689 (96%) and 403 (49%) among women and daughtersfemale genital mutilation. Daughters' age, parent education level, residence, women circumcision history, culture, health education, frequent health extension workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were risk factors to female genital mutilation practice. Female genital mutilation practices continues to be a major problem to women and daughter <5 years of age in the study area. A number of factors were associated with FGM practices including daughters’ age, parent education level, residence, health education, culture, mothers circumcision history, frequent health extensions workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were determinants to higher FGM practices.
Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette
According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leandro Quadro Corrêa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a associação dos sintomas do envelhecimento masculino com o nível de atividade física no lazer e no deslocamento em homens de 40 anos ou mais da cidade de Pelotas, RS. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional incluindo 421 homens que residissem na zona urbana do município. Para avaliar os sintomas do envelhecimento masculino foi utilizada a escala AMS-The Aging Male's Symptoms Scale e para verificar o nível de atividade física foi utilizado o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ na versão longa. Para ser considerado ativo, era necessário atingir 150 min de atividade física por semana. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sedentarismo nos domínios da atividade física do lazer e do deslocamento foi de 82,9% (IC95% 78,9-86,4. Os sintomas psicológicos e somáticos, além do escore geral do envelhecimento, diferiram significativamente entre os sedentários e os ativos (p < 0,05; p = 0,001; p = 0,02, respectivamente. A gravidade do escore geral também foi mais prevalente entre os sujeitos sedentários (p = 0,01, sendo que 90% destes apresentaram sintomas graves. CONCLUSÃO: A presença dos sintomas psicológicos e somáticos e, consequentemente do escore geral, bem como sua gravidade, foram menores entre aqueles sujeitos que atingiram as recomendações atuais de atividade física no lazer e no deslocamento.
Núbia Maria Uchôa Barbosa
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento do adolescente masculino sobre o Programa Bolsa Família e o seu impacto na família assistida. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado entre julho e setembro de 2014, em uma escola pública no município de Fortaleza, Ceará, BR, com 12 adolescentes beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a entrevista semiestruturada e técnica de grupo focal. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo, emergindo quatro categorias temáticas: Atendimento de pessoas de baixa renda; freqüência escolar como principal estratégia; falta de priorização na promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças; Programa Bolsa Família: impacto nas famílias assistidas. Resultados: Os resultados apontaram que os adolescentes reconhecem os efeitos positivos do programa nas famílias de baixa renda melhorando o poder aquisitivo, além de levar ao aumento da freqüência escolar, diminuindo a evasão, porém em nenhum momento mencionaram que o programa objetiva a promoção da saúde e o apoio de políticas complementares. Conclusão: Verifica-se a necessidade de incrementar a saúde do adolescente masculino vinculado ao Programa Bolsa Família com foco na Promoção da Saúde de forma consolidada numa perspectiva de previsibilidade na agenda multiprofissional da Atenção Primária à Saúde.
Full Text Available La utilización de reguladores de crecimiento o fitorreguladores, es una alternativa para aumentar la floración en la familia Pinaceae. En este estudio se analizaron los efectos de la aplicación de reguladores de crecimiento (fitorreguladores sobre brotes vegetativos y estróbilos masculinos de Pinus pinea L. Los productos seleccionados fueron: giberelina cuatro más siete (GA 4+7 , ácido naftalenacético (NAA y bencilaminopurina (BAP, distribuidos en siete tratamientos, incluido el control. Estos fitorreguladores se emplearon en una plantación de Pinus pinea de 16 años de edad ubicada en Toconey, comuna de Pencahue, región del Maule-Chile. Los tratamientos se aplicaron en cinco fechas, cada dos semanas (fin de agosto a inicio de noviembre. Al final de las aplicaciones se evaluaron las variables: estróbilos masculinos, número de brotes vegetativos y de nuevas brotes, y longitud de brotes apicales . Los principales resultados indicaron que la aplicación de 1.000 mg L -1 de GA 4+7 , fue el tratamiento que indujo la mayor floración masculina, presentando un 99,6 % más de estróbilos con respecto a las ramas testigo y también tuvo un efecto significativo en la longitud de los brotes apicales, aumentando más del doble la longitud respecto al testigo. En el número de brotes vegetativos, la aplicación de 500 mg L -1 BAP mostró diferencias significativas, obteniendo un incremento de 414,3 % con respecto al tratamiento control.
Cuburu, Nicolas; Kweon, Mi-Na; Hervouet, Catherine; Cha, Hye-Ran; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Holmgren, Jan; Stadler, Konrad; Schiller, John T; Anjuère, Fabienne; Czerkinsky, Cecil
We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Sublingual administration of OVA and CT induced Ag-specific IgA and IgG Abs in blood and in cervicovaginal secretions. These responses were associated with large numbers of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) in the genital mucosa. Genital ASC responses were similar in magnitude and isotype distribution after s.l., intranasal, or vaginal immunization and were superior to those seen after intragastric immunization. Genital, but not blood or spleen, IgA ASC responses were inhibited by treatment with anti-CCL28 Abs, suggesting that the chemokine CCL28 plays a major role in the migration of IgA ASC progenitors to the reproductive tract mucosa. Furthermore, s.l. immunization with OVA induced OVA-specific effector CD8(+) cytolytic T cells in the genital mucosa, and these responses required coadministration of the CT adjuvant. Furthermore, s.l. administration of human papillomavirus virus-like particles with or without the CT adjuvant conferred protection against genital challenge with human papillomavirus pseudovirions. Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of s.l. immunization as an efficient vaccination strategy for inducing genital immune responses and should impact on the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases.
Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Holley, R L; Peipert, J; Randall, H; Sweet, R L; Sondheimer, S J; Hendrix, S L; Amortegui, A; Trucco, G; Bass, D C; Kelsey, S F
Among women diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease, we examined the associations between hormonal or barrier methods of contraception and upper genital tract infection or inflammation. Participants were 563 patients from a treatment trial for pelvic inflammatory disease. All had pelvic pain; pelvic organ tenderness; and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Contraceptive use within the prior 4 weeks was compared among women with baseline upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, women with endometritis without upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia, and women with neither upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia nor endometritis. Inconsistent condom use was significantly and independently associated with a 2 to 3 times elevated risk for upper genital tract infection. Upper genital tract gonorrhea or chlamydia was not significantly associated with use of oral contraceptives, use of medroxyprogesterone, condoms used consistently, nor other barrier methods. No hormonal or barrier contraceptive method was related to a reduction in upper genital tract disease among women with clinical pelvic inflammatory diseases.
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan
Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Larsen Helle K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged
O significado atribuído ao papel masculino e feminino por adolescentes de periferia El significado que los adolescentes de la periferia le atribuyen al rol masculino y femenino Meanings attributed to the masculine and feminine roles by socially-excluded adolescents
Maria Aparecida Baggio
Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa-ação cujo objetivo foi compreender os significados atribuídos ao papel masculino e feminino pelos adolescentes/jovens integrantes de um projeto de inclusão social. Participaram 27 sujeitos vinculados aos grupos da Gastronomia, Estética e Nova Descoberta. Os dados derivam da oficina "conhecimento do corpo humano", desenvolvida nos três grupos em momentos distintos, por meio da construção de cartazes, atividades de recorte, colagem, desenho, escrita; utilização de manequim e abordagem dialógica do tema. Os dados foram analisados conforme o método de análise temática de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam duas categorias: "a fortaleza e o poder masculino" e "o papel contraditório do gênero feminino". Conclui-se que as diferenças dos papéis masculino e feminino, relacionadas ao contexto sócio-político-cultural no qual os adolescentes/jovens estão inseridos, tem repercussões importantes na forma que vivem a sua sexualidade, e, acima de tudo, na construção do seu viver saudável e de sua cidadania.Se trata de investigación -acción cuyo objetivo fue comprender los significados que los adolescentes de un grupo de inclusión social le atribuyen al papel masculino y femenino Participaron 27 sujetos vinculados a los grupos da Gastronomía, Estética y Nueva Descubierta. Los datos derivan del taller "conocimiento del cuerpo humano", desarrollado en los 3 grupos, en momentos distintos, a través de la creación de carteles , actividades para hacer collagede recorte , diseño, escritura; utilización de maniquí y abordaje dialógica del tema. Los datos fueron analizados con el método de análisis temático de contenido. Los resultados evidencian dos categorías: "la fortaleza y el poder masculino" y "el papel contradictorio del género femenino". Se concluye que las diferencias de papeles masculino y femenino, relacionadas al contexto socio-político-cultural en el cual los adolescentes/jóvenes están inseridos
Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Chu, Tracy
Though the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) has been framed as a form of gender-based torture, few studies have examined the prevalence and impact of the practice among documented survivors of torture. This article presents a secondary analysis of data from 514 African-born women at an interdisciplinary clinic for survivors of torture. Results indicate few demographic differences between those who experienced FGC and those who had not, though a larger proportion of the FGC group were West African and identified as Muslim. Many with FGC were in the process of applying for asylum, reported sexual and psychological torture, and cited gender as a basis for their persecution. The FGC group evidenced unique correlates related to immigration status and psychological and sexual torture experiences that the non-FGC group did not. Findings indicate that female survivors of torture with FGC represent a distinct group with specific mental health needs.
Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina
and psychological disorders are highlighted, and different somatic and psychological assessment and treatment modalities are discussed. Methods. The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) committee was composed of a chair and five additional experts. No corporate funding or remuneration was received. The authors...... therapeutic interventions. However, this international expert group will recommend guidelines for management of female GSP. Conclusions. GSP disorders are complex. It is recommended that their evaluation and treatment are performed through comprehensive somato-psychological multidisciplinary approach. Fugl......Introduction. Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction...
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Franco-Sansaloni, A; Vizcaíno-Torres, J; Gaona-Morales, J; Estellés-Morant, D; Antonio-Serrano, J
In the last years has been an increase in cases of tu- berculosis, representing a global health problem that is also reflected in an increased of cases in pregnant population. Especially in developed countries has been observed a direct relation with VIH patients,and groups of immigrants from countries where the infection is endemic. Tuberculous disease during pregnancy presents good outcome if it is diagnosed and treated properly. We present the case of a romanian patient with uncon- trolled 23 weeks gestation that enters with the suspicion of chorioam- nionitis and after late septic miscarriage and clinical sepsis criteria, leaks out of the hospital reentering with signs of neurologic involvement and pelviperitonitis as a result of genital tuberculous. Diagnosed with tuber- culous meningitis and disseminated with a grim evolution until death.
Kaufmann, Johanna Katharina; Flechtner, Jessica Baker
Immunotherapeutic vaccines have emerged as a novel treatment modality for genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. The approaches to identify potential vaccine antigens have evolved from classic virus attenuation and characterization of antibody and T cell responses in exposed, but seronegative individuals, to systematic screens for novel T cell antigens. Combined with implementation of novel vaccine concepts revolving around immune evasion and local recruitment of immune effectors, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic vaccine is within reach. Here, we describe the vaccine approaches that currently show promise at clinical and pre-clinical stages and link them to the evolving scientific strategies that led to their identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Shbul', I.; Suprun, L.Ya.
The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident
Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Floridon, C; Nielsen, O
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a role in innate immunity against various pathogens and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SP-D also has anti-inflammatory properties. SP-D was originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP-D...... indicating a systemic role for the protein. This study describes the presence of SP-D in the female genital tract, the placenta and in amniotic fluid using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SP-D was observed in cells lining surface epithelium and secretory glands in the vagina......, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. In the placenta, SP-D was seen in all villous and extravillous trophoblast subpopulations. Endometrial presence of SP-D in non-pregnant women varied according to stage of the menstrual cycle and was up-regulated towards the secretory phase. It is suggested...
Dwyer, J M
This article describes the sexual behaviours of some pregnant women that contribute to vaginal and cervical infections, and describes their lack of awareness about the dangers associated with sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. It presents a subanalysis of data from a principal epidemiological study of the association between preterm delivery and genital hygiene habits and sexual behaviour during pregnancy. One-hundred and nine postpartum women were questioned about high-risk sexual behaviours during their pregnancies, their partner's sexually transmitted disease status and their knowledge about the effect of sexually transmitted infections on their pregnancy. Global concerns about the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of cervical and vaginal infection from sexually transmitted diseases are discussed. The dangers associated with high-risk sexual behaviours during pregnancy, and recommendations for clinicians, are included.
Alba, Marco A; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge; Beça, Sara; Cid, María C
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis, which predominantly affects small-sized blood vessels. Major organ involvement includes the upper/lower respiratory tract and kidneys. In contrast, genitourinary disease is rare in GPA patients, reported in <1% of cases in large cohorts. Manifestations at this level include prostatitis, destructive urethritis, genital ulcers, orchitis and renal masses. Also, high-dose cyclophosphamide, one of the main immunosuppressive drugs used for GPA treatment, is associated with bladder toxicity, i.e., hemorrhagic cystitis and cancer. Here, we review the main urogenital symptoms associated with this ANCA-associated vasculitis. In addition, cyclophosphamide-induced urologic complications are detailed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girls and women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences, both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the past few decades. Medicalisation of the practice has added to its propagation, and this is not valid from ethical and professional standpoints. Further efforts need to be exerted to eliminate the practice and alleviate the sufferings that millions of girls and women worldwide are unnecessarily subjected to. This article reviews the problem and discusses the consequences to health for women and girls, and suggests ways to eradicate the practice.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.
Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin
Deinfibulation can prevent or treat gynecological and obstetric complications in women living with type III female genital mutilation (FGM), and subsequently improve childbirth outcomes. Recently published WHO guidelines recommend use of deinfibulation in both circumstances. However, to really impact practice, evidence-based guidance needs to be matched with evidence-based implementation strategies. This qualitative evidence synthesis provides information on the factors that facilitate or act as barriers to use of deinfibulation, and the context and conditions that are necessary for implementing the procedure, including healthcare providers' knowledge and experience, the service delivery environment, as well as broader health system contexts. This information is of great value for policy makers and others considering this as an option for better clinical care of women living with FGM. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a worldwide human rights and health issue. Contrary to the belief that it is a practice carried out by Muslims only, it is also practiced by Christians and a minority group of Ethiopian Jews. However, FGM is neither mentioned in the Torah, nor in the Gospels, and – like in Islam – bodily mutilation is condemned by both religions. In fact, FGM is a mix of mainly cultural and social factors which may put tremendous pressure on the members of the society in question.
Teixeira, A L; Lisboa, M
Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. Prevalence estimation. Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged females who have undergone or are at risk of undergoing FGM/C. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM. Sociocultural barriers make research and data-collection difficult in a cohort of women who prefer not to discuss or disclose such intimate issues. New guidelines on the management of health consequences in FGM have been published, but evidence is of poor quality.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.
Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M
Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.
Elkins, Gary R; Ramsey, Derek; Yu, Yimin
Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference. At follow-up, there were significant improvements in all measures. Given the currently limited alternatives for treatment, this case study suggests that hypnotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with PGAD.
Full Text Available Learning to have a cancer diagnosis is a concrete threat and a stressful life experience for individuals. Cancer is interpreted as fatal, painful, frightening and scary disease by the patients and makes them realize the presence of death and their own mortality. Facing the reality of death brings an existential questioning of self. This questioning is directly related to the interpretation and biopsychosocial characteristics of the individual and clearly influenced by the patients’ previous experiences and type of cancer involved. The occurrence of a genital organ cancer would lead patient to evaluate the meaning of being human and review his life, his values and his routine habits. This process has significant effect upon the patient’s response and coping mechanisms with cancer. Nurses have a unique position among medical team members for helping such patients to find a meaning in their life by providing necessary support at every stage of the cancer.
Ozan, Erol; Deveci, Erdem; Oral, Meltem; Yazici, Esra; Kirpinar, Ismet
Male genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a rare, but serious phenomenon. Some of the risk factors for this act are: presence of religious delusions, command hallucinations, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt associated with sexual offences. Other risk factors include failures in the male role, problems in the early developmental period, such as experiencing difficulties in male identification and persistence of incestuous desires, depression and having a history of GSM. The eponym Klingsor Syndrome, which involves the presence of religious delusions, is proposed for GSM. Four male GSM cases are presented: Case 1 and Case 2 were diagnosed with schizophrenia, Case 3 with schizophrenia and depressive disorder, not otherwise specified, and Case 4 with bipolar depression with psychotic features. All definite and probable motives and cultural aspects for their GSM are discussed. Atonement is proposed as a new concept in formulating religiously themed psychotic male GSM.
Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Alcón Belchí, Carolina
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is internationally considered an affront to human rights and an act of violence against women and young girls. Furthermore, it hierarchizes and perpetuates inequality and denies women and girls the right to physical and psychosexual integrity. The aim of this study is to detect the weak points and false premises underlying male justification of FGM and to present demythologization as a health education tool. We used a qualitative methodology with an ethonursing focus via semistructured individual and group interviews in 25 men associated with FGM. Our results found that nine myths and their mythologization are presented through the masculine voices of those associated with this tradition. These myths are used as justification by men and women in order to uphold the practice of FGM. Demythologization as a nursing intervention based on reorienting or restructuring models of cultural care allows us to work against the false premises making up the myths which act to protect this tradition.
Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh
Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sala, R; Manara, D
In this article we focus on female genital mutilation. We analyse this problem as one of the most important issues of multiculturalism, which is also coming to the attention of the public in Italy as a consequence of the growing number of immigrants from African countries. The fundamental problem is about the acceptability of this practice: can female genital mutilation be permitted and, if so, on what basis? We will try to cope with this as a genuine conflict between culture-relative values and universal values, such as human rights. Some attention will be drawn to Italian law. Finally, the impact on nurses of requests for genital mutilation will be described.
Full Text Available Background: Consideration of substantial case peculiarities requires constant attention, as in the case system we can observe the processes of active transformation, case forms acquisition of secondary functions. Meanwhile the formal implementation processes for cases are relevant, as modification of formal case expression increases the intercase convergence that is particularly easy to trace throughout the evolution of cases formalization general field and against inflexion narrowing of individual case. Purpose: Establishing the status of non-prepositional Genitive and Accusative in grammatical conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov along with tracing of their load in the inside-sentence structure and clarifying the regularity indices in post-verbal position. Results: Starting analysis of noun governmenability peculiarities from Accusative form as the most common and most powerful in verbal government position, Yuriy Shevel'ov states that such property is regular in the case of his object functions realization under transitive verbs. In object Accusative semantics there was pointed out the resultive, in which Accusative object, repeating the verb root, forms the semantic integrity with it, and constitutes pleonasm in stylistic aspect. In the interpretation of by-verbal directly governed Genitive Yu. Shevel'ov emphasizes that the form of Genitive indicates the action covering only part or subject or in its path to the subject encounters obstacles that becomes a foundation for distinction of partitive Genitive and negative Genitive. To declared two functions Yu. Shevel'ov adds 1 removal Genitive and 2 approaching Genitive that are regular for verbs with corresponding semantics, as well as for verbal lexemes of refusal, subtraction, fear. Discussion: Thorough study of non-prepositional Genitive and Accusative substantial cases in the grammatical conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov showed activation of post-lexeme valence-conventional object Accusative and
Cappon, Sien; L'Ecluse, Charlotte; Clays, Els; Tency, Inge; Leye, Els
health professionals in Belgium are confronted with female genital mutilation (FGM). To date, no survey to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices on FGM was conducted among midwives in the Northern region of Belgium. the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Flemish midwives regarding female genital mutilation (FGM). we used a quantitative design, using KAP study (semi-structured questionnaire). labour wards, maternity wards and maternal intensive care units (MIC) in 56 hospitals in Flemish region of Belgium. 820 midwives, actively working in labour wards, maternity wards and maternal intensive care units (MIC). 820 valid questionnaires (40.9%) were returned. More than 15% of the respondents were recently confronted with FGM. They were mostly faced with the psychological and sexual complications caused by FGM. Few respondents were aware of existing guidelines regarding FGM in their hospitals (3.5%). The results also showed that only 20.2% was aware of the exact content of the law. The majority of midwives condemned the harmful traditional practice: FGM was experienced as a form of violence against women or a violation of human rights. Only 25.9% declared that FGM forms a part of their midwifery program. The vast majority of respondents (92.5%) indicated a need for more information on the subject. this study indicated that midwives in Flanders are confronted with FGM and its complications and highlighted the gaps in the knowledge of Flemish midwives regarding FGM. This may interfere with the provision of adequate care and prevention of FGM for the new-born daughter. there is an important need for appropriate training of (student)midwives concerning FGM as well as for the development and dissemination of clear guidelines in Flemish hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakhal, Rola S; Deans, Rebecca; Creighton, Sarah M; Wood, Dan; Woodhouse, Christopher R J
The aim of this paper is to study the incidence and risk factors for genital prolapse in adult women with bladder exstrophy and to describe the long-term outcome of the Gore-Tex wrap procedure for genital prolapse. A retrospective observational study on adult women with classical bladder exstrophy in a tertiary referral centre for disorders of sex development, including complex urogenital anomalies. Medical notes were reviewed and a confidential postal questionnaire on urinary continence and symptoms of prolapse was carried out. Fifty-two women with bladder exstrophy and a mean age of 39 years (range 23 to 63) were identified, of whom 27 patients (52%) developed pelvic organ prolapse. Twenty-three out of 27 (85%) were treated surgically while only 4 patients were managed expectantly. Risk factors for prolapse included pregnancy in 10 (37%) patients and introitoplasty in 1 patient (4%). Of the 23 women treated surgically, 16 (70%) were treated using a Gore-Tex wrap, while 7 had other surgical procedures including colposuspension and hysterosacrocolpopexy. In the Gore-Tex wrap group, 12 out of 16 patients (75%) had had a successful result after the first repair compared with 2 out of the 7 patients (28%) in the group treated using other procedures. Mean follow-up was 8 years (range 1-15). One patient developed an infection after the procedure and another patient had Gore-Tex erosion. Prolapse is a common gynaecological complaint in adult women with bladder exstrophy and the majority will require treatment. At present the Gore-Tex wrap offers good results with a low rate of serious complications.
Luís Paulo Martins Filho; Jeffrey Frederico Lui; Antonio Carlos Alessi; Júlio Carlos Canola; Gilson Hélio Toniollo; Aline Delfini; Valeska Rodrigues
Foi atendido, no Hospital Veterinário-UNESP Jaboticabal, um cão da raça American Pit Bull Terrier, de sete meses de idade, apresentando comportamento sexual masculino exacerbado, apesar de fenótipo feminino. Ao exame clínico e posteriormente cirúrgico, constatou-se a presença de testículos e clitóris peniano. Alguns exames complementares foram realizados como radiografia pélvica e cariótipo, confirmando um caso de pseudo-hermafrodita masculino 78 XY cromossomos. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Am...
Laan, Ellen; van Driel, Esther M.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.
INTRODUCTION: Most pharmacological treatments that are currently being developed for women with sexual arousal disorder are aimed at remedying a vasculogenic deficit. AIM: This study investigated whether pre- and postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder are less genitally responsive to
Detecção de HPV na mucosa oral e genital pela técnica PCR em mulheres com diagnóstico histopatológico positivo para HPV genital HPV detection in the oral and genital mucosa of women with positive histopathological exam for genital HPV, by means of the PCR
Therezita M. Peixoto Patury Galvão Castro
Full Text Available A infecção do papilomavírus humano (HPV é uma das mais freqüentes doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em todo o mundo. A relação entre o HPV genital e oral permanece incerta, assim como o seu papel na carcinogênese oral. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a presença do DNA do HPV na mucosa oral e genital de mulheres com infecção genital por HPV, pela técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo piloto, prospectivo, com 30 mulheres, idade de 14 a 51 anos, portadoras de infecção genital por HPV confirmada pelo exame de histopatológico. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas a exame e coleta por raspagem da cavidade oral e genital para pesquisa do DNA do HPV pela técnica PCR. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma das amostras da cavidade oral foi positiva para HPV, enquanto no genital, o HPV foi detectado em 17 (57% das 30 pacientes, principalmente o HPV 6b e 16. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram maior porcentagem do HPV genital em relação à cavidade oral, e sugerem que o HPV genital não parece ser fator predisponente para a infecção oral no mesmo paciente.Infection by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is one of the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases all over the world. The relationship between oral and genital HPV remains uncertain, as it is with its role on oral carcinogenesis. The goal of the present investigation was to check for the presence of HPV DNA in the oral and genital mucosas of women with HPV genital infection, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. STUDY METHOD: Cross-sectional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: this is a pilot and prospective study involving 30 women, aged between 14 and 51 years, with HPV genital infection, confirmed by histopathology. All the patients were submitted to the exam and sample collection by swabbing the oral and genital mucosas in order to test for HPV DNA through the PCR technique. RESULTS: none of the oral
Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C
Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.
Agnes Usoro BSN
Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.
term treatment. Poor adherence to medication can lead to serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Genital self- mutilation has been reported in some schizophrenic patients in response to delusions or command auditory hallucination.
Alcón Belchí, Carolina; Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael; Pastor Bravo, María del Mar; Almansa Martínez, Pilar
Create and implement a protocol for identifying and preventing female genital mutilation in a municipality of the Region of Murcia. A bibliographical review and significant databases were consulted for the creation of the algorithm performance. These include Cuiden, Dialnet, Medes, Medline, and other documentary sources of interest. The instrument for data collection was completed by interviewing parents of girls at risk. The multi-disciplinary team was formed; the female genital mutilation risk cases were collected, and were summoned to the nursing consulting room. Two girls had been mutilated, the rest were at risk of female genital mutilation, and in one case the risk was imminent. The algorithm designed guides practitioners in their performance, achieving an effective detection and prevention of genital mutilation of girls. This is a first approach to the development of a regional protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, María M; Toft, Gunnar; Jensen, Morten S
Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce....
Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.
Conclusion: The advantages of safety, convenience, and effectiveness suggest that flexible hysteroscopy under anesthesia is a good substitute for traditional vaginoscopy and may help in the diagnosis of genital complaints in selected prepubertal patients in the pediatric gynecology clinic.
Yasin, Berivan A; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S
Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women's knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15-49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women's genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4-7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR = 3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR = 15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR = 7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR = 1.4) or could only read and write (OR = 1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city is very
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan
BACKGROUND: Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS).OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction.METHODS: Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty...
Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna
Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ≥ 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital tract less frequently than persons with symptomatic infection, but much of the difference is attributable to less frequent genital lesions, as lesions are accompanied by frequent viral shedding. PMID:21486977
Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange
A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....
Female circumcision is a tradition that is widespread and not restricted to predominantly Muslim countries. It is prevalent among all religious groups in many parts of Africa and Western Asia, whether they are Coptic Christians, Ethiopian Jews, or Arab Muslims. Female genital cutting or—more to the point—female genital mutilation (FGM), generally referred to as circumcision, occurs in at least five different forms. Circumcision is essentially a powerful bodily sign of the human—male and femal...
Qureshi, Naseem A
Complete genital self-mutilation (GSM), mostly a non-suicidal behavior, is a rare occurrence among patients with psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. This case report is on a patient who, in the shadow of severe psychotic manifestations with overwhelming socio-cultural contents, completely self-mutilated his external genitals. Emergency surgical and psychiatric management improved his condition over 4 weeks. In the light of this case, the psychodynamic and socio-cultural meanings of GSM are discussed.
Sasabe, Masataka; Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji
Animals with internal fertilization often exhibit marked diversification in genital morphology among closely related species. However, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying genital evolution is still limited. We constructed genetic linkage maps and analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for F(2) hybrids of two closely related species of the carabid beetles Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) maiyasanus, which show matching male and female genital shapes within species, but marked differences in genital morphologies between species. The linkage maps comprised both amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Composite interval mapping to detect QTL for three traits of male copulatory piece (length, width, weight) and two traits for female vaginal appendix (length, width) resulted in the detection of one to five significant QTL for each trait. The QTL explained large proportions of phenotypic variance. Thus, the interspecific difference in the genital morphologies appeared to be determined by relatively small numbers of genes with large genetic effects. QTL of different traits for the same or different sexes co-occurred on five of eight linkage groups with significant QTL; in particular, three QTL for different male and female genital traits occurred almost at the same position. Each of the male genital traits showed uniform signs of additive genetic effects, suggesting that directional selection has led to species-specific morphologies. However, the signs of additive genetic effects in each female genital trait were not uniform, suggesting that coevolution between sexes is not necessarily concerted. This result requires further assessment because the sample size of F(2) females was small. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Kong, Sai; Tsui, Ilene; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan
Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women’s health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover sa...
Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; John, Grace C.; Krohn, Marijane A.; Corey, Lawrence
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery. Methods: This was a retrospective survey. Women who gave birth in Washington state from 1989 to 1991 were identified from the state birth ...
Full Text Available Genital viral load (GVL is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV. The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda.All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL, CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥ 40 copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate.96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15 and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32 after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8.Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART.
Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chia.
Full Text Available This work, besides presenting the characteristics of the so-called genital stage regarding the alterations each one of the components of the drive suffer, examines the idea that the genital stage constitutes the integration —either biological or psychic— of the partial drives. In this sense, it aims to show, based on descriptions done by several thinkers not necessarily psychoanalysts, that the genitality, at least in its male version, turns out to be problematic since it introduces a relation of surprise in the order of the egoic representations of the individual as regards to its own sex organ. By this way, we paradoxically conclude that the genitality is the expression of a partial drive (as opposed to an apparent totality whose source is the penis. // Este trabajo, además de poner de presente las características de la llamada fase genital, en lo tocante a las modificaciones que se suceden en cada uno de los componentes de la pulsión, interroga la idea de que la fase genital constituye la integración acaso biológica, acaso psíquica- de las pulsiones parciales. En este sentido intenta mostrar, tomando como base descripciones hechas por varios pensadores no necesariamente psicoanalistas, que la genitalidad, al menos en su versión masculina, resulta problemática en la medida en que introduce una relación de extrañeza en el orden yoico, del sujeto respecto a su propio órgano sexual. Por esta vía se concluye con la idea paradójica de que la genitalidad es la expresión de una pulsión parcial (en oposición a una aparente totalidad cuya fuente es el pene.
Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S
Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.
Ahmed A. Alsaddique
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The papillary muscles and the chordae tendineae of both mitral leaflets contribute to the preservation of the left ventricular function. Most surgeons, however, routinely excise the anterior mitral leaflet. METHODS: In a group of nine patients, six of them underwent mitral valve replacement alone and three underwent both aortic and mitral valve replacements, all the mitral apparatus was preserved. All of these patients had mechanical valves using CarboMedics cardiac prosthesis (CarboMedics, Inc. Austin, Texas. RESULTS: There was no mortality. Postoperative echocardiographic assessment revealed maintained left ventricular function with no interference with the prosthetic leaflet mobility and no left ventricular outflow tract gradient. CONCLUSION: We believe that in most patients with long-standing mitral valve regurgitation, thinned out papillary muscles and elongated chordae tendineae that are not amenable to repair, valve replacement with the preservation of the entire native valve is possible and should be encouraged. This is especially valuable for those with depressed left ventricular function, who might otherwise suffer from left ventricular dysfunction in the long-term if the entire mitral valve apparatus were to be excised.OBJETIVO: Os músculos papilares e as cordas tendíneas de ambos folhetos mitral contribuem para a preservação da função ventricular esquerda. Muitos cirurgiões, entretanto, rotineiramente extirpar o folheto mitral anterior. MÉTODOS: Em um grupo de nove pacientes, seis deles foram submetidos à substituição da válvula mitral e três foram submetidos a substituições das válvulas mitral e aórtica, todos os aparatos mitrais foram preservados. Todos os pacientes tinham válvulas mecânicas implantadas usando próteses cardíacas CarboMedics (CarboMedics, Inc. Austin, Texas. RESULTADOS: Não houve mortalidade. A avaliação ecocardiográfica pós-operatória revelou a conservação da fun
Yildirim, Ejder Akgun; Hacioglu, Munevver; Essizoglu, Altan; Kucukparlak, Ilker
Persistent genital arousal disorder is not well known or adequately understood by physicians. The disorder is characterized by a persistent and highly unwanted state of genital arousal and orgasm-like feelings. Ghusl is an ablution in Islamic culture, which is an obligatory ritual wherein the body is washed thoroughly after exposure to religious contaminants such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and childbirth. Muslim women suffering from the disorder may bathe frequently because of their religious beliefs. The authors summarize the case histories of 3 patients with persistent genital arousal disorder who were initially misdiagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder. All 3 patients presented with complaints of unwanted, persistent orgasms or orgasm-like arousals, and as a result, they performed ghusl several times a day. At previous interviews, the genital arousal was diagnosed as a sexual and somatic obsession, and repeatedly performing ghusl was considered a cleansing compulsion. Physicians' lack of awareness or knowledge of persistent genital arousal disorder, combined with the unwillingness of patients to discuss sexual problems, can lead to a focus on the repetitive bathing, and thus, a misdiagnosis of the problem as obsessive-compulsive disorder. These cases are presented to highlight the possible pitfalls in the diagnosis of persistent genital arousal disorder cases in Islamic countries where ghusl is common.
Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna
Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.
Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff
The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.
Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth
Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R
Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan
Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850
Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji
Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.
Full Text Available Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (=2 was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged.
Full Text Available Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women’s health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.
Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q T; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A; Cox, Eric
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C. trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C. trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C. trachomatis infection of the genital system.
Full Text Available In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice. We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.
Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.
In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825
Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Rodriguez, Maria I; Petignat, Patrick; Say, Lale
Clitoral reconstruction following female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a new surgical technique reported to be a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore a vulvar appearance similar to uncircumcised women. However, data on safety, care offered, and evaluation of sexual and pain outcomes are still limited. This study aims to present the care offered and clinical outcomes of two women who received multidisciplinary care, including psychosexual treatment, with clitoral reconstruction. We report their long-term outcomes, and the histology of the removed periclitoral fibrosis. We report the cases of two women with FGM/C types II and III who requested clitoral reconstruction for different reasons. One woman hoped to improve her chronic vulvar pain, as well as improve her sexual response. The other woman requested surgery due to a desire to reverse a procedure that was performed without her consent, and a wish to have a genital appearance similar to non infibulated women. They both underwent psychosexual evaluation and therapy and surgery. The histology of the periclitoral fibrosis removed during surgery was analyzed. At 1-year postoperatively, the first woman reported complete disappearance of vulvar pain and improved sexual pleasure, including orgasm. Our second patient also described improved sexuality at 1-year follow-up (increased sexual desire, lubrication, vulvar pleasure, and sensitiveness), which she attributed to a better self body image and confidence. Both women reported feeling satisfied, happy, and more beautiful. We show a positive outcome in pain reduction and improved sexual function, self body image, and gender after psychosexual therapy and clitoral reconstruction. More evidence is needed about clitoral reconstruction to develop guidelines on best practices. Until research is conducted that rigorously evaluates clitoral reconstruction for its impact on pain and sexuality, we advise always
An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J-P
Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of genital herpes recurrences but may not always alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of oxygenated glycerol triesters-based CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir and placebo (vehicle) in resolving functional symptoms and in healing of genital herpes recurrences. A prospective randomized controlled, investigator-blinded trial of CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir (reference treatment) and placebo (vehicle) was designed. The primary endpoint was the cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensations). Secondary endpoints included objective skin changes (erythema, papules, vesicles, oedema, erosion/ulceration, crusts), time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment as reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 61 patients were included. CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) was significantly more efficient than topical aciclovir and vehicle for subjective symptoms and pain relief in genital herpes recurrences; additionally, time to heal was significantly shorter with CS 21 than with vehicle, whereas no significantly difference was observed between patients receiving topical aciclovir and vehicle. The treatments under investigation were well tolerated and the adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Overall, these results support the interest of using of CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) in symptomatic genital herpes recurrences. Accordingly, this product offers a valuable alternative in topical management of recurrent genital herpes. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a influência da maturação biológica na insatisfação corporal (IC de jovens atletas do sexo masculino. Participaram da pesquisa 464 esportistas. A IC foi mensurada pelo Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. A maturidade biológica foi estimada pela maturação somática. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e estimar o percentual de gordura, respectivamente. Foram conduzidos testes estatísticos em "software" especializado para analisar os dados. Os resultados não evidenciaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as pontuações do BSQ segundo classificações de maturação somática. Por outro lado, identificaram-se diferenças de IMC e percentual de gordura entre estágios maturacionais (p < 0,05. Deste modo, concluiu-se que a IC dos jovens atletas não sofreu influência da maturação biológica.
Helvio Frank Oliveira
Full Text Available Resumo: São analisadas e problematizadas as performances discursivas de indivíduos do sexo masculino do curso de Letras relacionadas à licenciatura como opção de curso e à docência como futura profissão. Para isso, um estudo de caso interpretativista de orientação qualitativa foi conduzido com sete acadêmicos de uma universidade pública localizada no interior de Goiás. Compõem o material de análise os discursos produzidos a partir das entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com os participantes, as quais foram posteriormente discutidas sob o viés da linguística aplicada crítica. Os resultados indicam a existência de performances discursivas heteronormativas masculinizadas, hegemônicas, essencialistas e segregacionistas de gênero em relação ao homem que cursa Letras. Determinados estigmas são históricos, ideológicos, sociais, culturais e, portanto, urgentes de problematização, tendo em vista que a escolha do curso não pode ser balizada por uma matriz exclusiva de gênero.
Rafael Prearo Lima
Full Text Available Campanhas de produtos para homens são muitas vezes ilustradas com situações em que mulheres estão envolvidas. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é investigar a constituição do ethos discursivo feminino em uma campanha publicitária destinada ao público masculino. Para isso, selecionamos como corpus a campanha “Misture-os e arrume problemas!”, de Axe (2012. Sob o fundamento teórico-metodológico da Análise do Discurso de linha francesa, este trabalho possui sua ênfase nos estudos de Maingueneau (1997, 2008a, 2008b, 2010, 2013, que relaciona a questão do ethos discursivo com o gênero publicitário no discurso propagandista contemporâneo ao afirmar que esse gênero busca persuadir ao procurar associar produtos a um corpo em movimento. Os resultados da análise indicam que, no corpus selecionado, o ethos discursivo feminino remete a estereótipos socialmente validados de mulheres.
Víctor Hugo Valencia Giraldo
Full Text Available En este escrito se dará cuenta del avance del proyecto de investigación La juventud y el honor: representaciones mediáticas de jóvenes populares en Cali, Colombia, en el cual se ha realizado revisión, sistematización y análisis de registros noticiosos de los cuatro periódicos principales de Cali, Colombia, entre 1985 y 2009. Estos años se han caracterizado por la escalada de la violencia (social, pero también mediática entre jóvenes de distintos sectores populares de la ciudad. El artículo enfatiza en la manera como aparecen registrados los cuerpos masculinos y femeninos en los periódicos sensacionalistas El Caleño y Q’Hubo, e intenta aportar respuestas al problema sobre la relación (expresiva, simbólica, estilística, etc. entre el cuerpo y la ciudad en la configuración de la identidad caleña.
Vera Lúcia de Oliveira Gomes
Full Text Available Neste estudo, com abordagem qualitativa, fundamentado na concepção de habitus do sociólogo Pierre Bourdieu, objetivou-se investigar como se constrói o feminino e o masculino no processo de cuidar crianças em uma creche do Rio Grande/RS. Após aprovação do projeto pelo comitê de ética, colheram-se os dados, nos meses de março e abril de 2006, por meio de observação registrada em diário de campo, fotografias e entrevistas com as cuidadoras. Pela análise de conteúdo, apreendeu-se que elas são afetuosas e solícitas tanto com meninos quanto com meninas. Acreditam que o cuidado de crianças é atribuição instintivamente feminina e que homens, ao quererem desempenhá-la, necessitam de aprendizado. Evidenciou-se, pelas seções observacionais e fotografias que, de forma ora evidente, ora velada, os estereótipos de gênero são inculcados nas crianças e que o processo de cuidar é constantemente por eles permeado.
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
van Heyningen, V.; Bickmore, W.A.; Seawright, A.; Fletcher, J.M.; Maule, J.; Hastie, N.D. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (England)); Fekete, G. (Semmelweis Univ. Medical School, Budapest (Hungary)); Gessler, M.; Bruns, G.A.P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Huerre-Jeanpierre, C.; Junien, C. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris (France)); Williams, B.R.G. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))
Detailed molecular definition of the WAGR region at chromosome 11p13 has been achieved by chromosome breakpoint analysis and long-range restriction mapping. Here the authors describe the molecular detection of a cytogenetically invisible 1-megabase deletion in an individual with aniridia, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias but no Wilms tumor (WT). The region of overlap between this deletion and one associated with WT and similar genital anomalies but no aniridia covers a region of 350-400 kilobases, which is coincident with the extent of homozygous deletion detected in tumor tissue from a sporadic WT. A candidate WT gene located within this region has recently been isolated, suggesting nonpenetrance for tumor expression in the first individual. The inclusion within the overlap region of a gene for WT predisposition and a gene for the best-documented WT-associated genitourinary malformations leads to suggest that both of these anomalies result from a loss-of-function mutation at the same locus. This in turn implies that the WT gene exerts pleiotropic effect on both kidney and genitourinary development, a possibility supported by the observed expression pattern of the WT candidate gene in developing kidney and gonads.
Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340
Nelius, Thomas; Armstrong, Myrna L; Rinard, Katherine; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Angel, Elayne
To provide quantitative and qualitative data that will assist evidence-based decision making for men and women with genital piercings (GP) when they present to urologists in ambulatory clinics or office settings. Currently many persons with GP seek nonmedical advice. A comprehensive 35-year (1975-2010) longitudinal electronic literature search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OVID) was conducted for all relevant articles discussing GP. Authors of general body art literature tended to project many GP complications with potential statements of concern, drawing in overall piercings problems; then the information was further replicated. Few studies regarding GP clinical implications were located and more GP assumptions were noted. Only 17 cases, over 17 years, describe specific complications in the peer-reviewed literature, mainly from international sources (75%), and mostly with "Prince Albert" piercings (65%). Three cross-sectional studies provided further self-reported data. Persons with GP still remain a hidden variable so no baseline figures assess the overall GP picture, but this review did gather more evidence about GP wearers and should stimulate further research, rather than collectively projecting general body piercing information onto those with GP. With an increase in GP, urologists need to know the specific differences, medical implications, significant short- and long-term health risks, and patients concerns to treat and counsel patients in a culturally sensitive manner. Targeted educational strategies should be developed. Considering the amount of body modification, including GP, better legislation for public safety is overdue. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
The uterus is the major female sex organ and is essential for pregnancy. The organ is located in the pelvic cavity. It is usually fist-sized with its volume changing from 75 to 200 cc depending on the menstrual cycle. There are various diseases associated with the uterus, including malignancy, uterine myoma, postpartum hemorrhage, and vascular malformation. The conventional surgical treatment for these diseases is hysterectomy. However, hysterectomy has some risk, and there may be complications associated with the surgery and anesthesia. In addition, hysterectomy results in loss of fertility and loss of female characteristics, both of which may lead to emotional problems. After uterine artery embolization (UAE) was performed for post-partum bleeding in 1979 and for uterine myoma in 1995, interventional treatment of UAE replaced the existing surgical treatment of hysterectomy. UAE is performed widely as a minimally invasive treatment modality that can preserve the uterus, make pregnancy and childbirth possible and resolve emotional problems. The interventional treatment has become increasingly popular to treat various female genital diseases.
Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck
Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.
Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.
Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dugerdil, Adeline; Boulvain, Michel; Yaron, Michal; Margairaz, Christiane; Irion, Olivier; Petignat, Patrick
To investigate missed opportunities for diagnosing female genital mutilation (FGM) at an obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) department in Switzerland. In a retrospective study, we included 129 consecutive women with FGM who attended the FGM outpatient clinic at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Hospitals of Geneva between 2010 and 2012. The medical files of all women who had undergone at least 1 previous gynecologic exam performed by an OB/GYN doctor or a midwife at the study institution were reviewed. The type of FGM reported in the files was considered correct if it corresponded to that reported by the specialized gynecologist at the FGM clinic, according to WHO classification. In 48 (37.2%) cases, FGM was not mentioned in the medical file. In 34 (26.4%) women, the diagnosis was correct. FGM was identified but erroneously classified in 28 (21.7%) cases. There were no factors (women's characteristics or FGM type) associated with missed diagnosis. Opportunities to identify FGM are frequently missed. Measures should be taken to improve FGM diagnosis and care. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohammed, Ghada F; Hassan, Magdy M; Eyada, Moustafa M
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a prevalent, deeply rooted traditional practice in Egypt. Specification of the motives behind the continuation of FGM/C in Egyptian community and evaluation of the sexual function in women with FGM/C. This cross-sectional study, involved 2,106 sexually active female participants with FGM/C. Full history-taking and general examination to evaluate the type of FGM/C were conducted. Sexual function was assessed by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Enumerate and specify the motivational factors and its percent among the participants. The correlation between FGM/C and FSFI domain scores was done with Pearson's correlation. Tradition, cleanliness, and virginity were the most common motives empowering the continuation of FGM/C (100%), followed by men's wish, esthetic factors, marriage, and religion factors (45.2-100%). Type I FGM/C was the most common, followed by type II. There was only negative correlation between the type II FGM/C and sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant difference between type I and non-FGM/C was found. FGM/C remains high. A variety of socio-cultural myths, religious misbelievers, and hygienic and esthetic concerns were behind the FGM/C. Overall, a large proportion of the participants supported the continuation of FGM/C in spite of adverse effect and sexual dysfunction associated with FGM/C. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Siemieniuch, Marta J; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Kozdrowski, Roland
The information about aspergillosis locations in the reproductive organ is scarce. This short paper deals with aspergillosis in the dog genital tract with hyphae present in semen. There are two therapy schemes used in visceral mycoses, non-invasive treatment and surgical intervention. Considering the future reproductive career of the dog, we decided on antifungal drugs administration. Based on the microbiological results, we administered amoxycillin with clavulonate (Synulox 500mg, twice daily) orally. Itraconazole was used as an antimycological agent (Orungal, 100mg, twice daily) every other week. In 8th week of therapy no Aspergillus spp. growth was noted, yet slight Penicillium growth was observed. After 12 weeks of treatment, no fungus growth was present. Neither spores or hyphae were seen in the microscopic examination. Three months after the termination of the therapy, the dog mated with two females. In one case, unifetal pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound examination on day 42 after mating. Due to purulent discharge on day 45 after mating, the owner decided to terminate the pregnancy. In the other case, severe pyometra appeared 12 days after the second mating and the owner decided to put the female to sleep. The pathogen eradication from the ejaculates may be treated as a serious success, yet the lack of litters after mating calls for an explanation and consequences of Aspergillus spp. infection need to be considered.
Leye, Els; Ysebaert, Ilse; Deblonde, Jessika; Claeys, Patricia; Vermeulen, Gert; Jacquemyn, Yves; Temmerman, Marleen
To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to female genital mutilation (FGM) among gynaecologists in Flanders, Belgium. A questionnaire-based survey was sent to 724 Flemish gynaecologists and trainees. Three-hundred-and-thirty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey revealed gaps in the knowledge of FGM and the provision of care by Flemish gynaecologists to women who had been mutilated. It also appeared that FGM was not properly addressed in the basic and specialized medical training in Flanders, that little was known about codes of conduct issued by the hospitals when these were not lacking altogether, and that knowledge about legislation concerning FGM was deficient. There was much confusion whether re-infibulation is authorized, and what its legal status is. Some respondents considered cosmetic vaginal surgery as a form of FGM and many were in favour of the medicalization of FGM. Gynaecologists were most commonly confronted with complaints related to sexual problems caused by FGM. Finally, the study also showed that only about a third of the gynaecologists were discouraging women from having their daughters excised. There is a need for a thorough discussion among all those concerned of the ethical and legal aspects of re-infibulation, medicalization of FGM and cosmetic vaginal surgery.
Edith Angel Müller
Full Text Available La infección por Mycobacterium tuberculosis ha sido siempre una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en los países tropicales. Se ha dicho que en un país tropical de escasos recursos el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis (TBC, cada año, a partir del nacimiento es de 1 a 2.5%, de esta manera se puede suponer que la mayoría de los adultos tienen una enfermedad silente que se podría activar. La prevalencia de la TBC del tracto genital femenino (TGF va paralela a la de la TBC pulmonar y generalmente la diseminación hacia éste, es hematógena a partir de un foco pulmonar. Llama la atención la gran frecuencia con la que se ve la TBC del TGF en los países en vías de desarrollo y aun cuando en nuestro hospital han sido pocos los casos que se han visto de TBC en esta localización, onsideramos es importante tenerla en cuenta en pacientes que estén en estudio por infertilidad e incluso en pacientes que presenten masa pélvicas anexiales.
Smith, Helen; Stein, Karin
Women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) are more likely to experience psychological problems than women without FGM. As well as psychological support, this population may need additional care when seeking surgical interventions to correct complications of FGM. Recent WHO guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for women and girls experiencing anxiety disorders, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. The guidelines also suggest that preoperative counselling for deinfibulation, and psychological support alongside surgical interventions, can help women manage the physiological and psychological changes following surgery. This synthesis summarizes evidence on women's values and preferences, and the context and conditions that may be required to provide psychological and counselling interventions. Understanding women's views, their own ways of coping, as well social and cultural factors that influence women's mental well-being, may help identify the types of interventions this population needs at different times and stages of their lives. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Carlos Cortes Caballero
Full Text Available
Hace algunos años (1 el grupo de patólogos de Bucaramanga resolvió motu proprio revisar la frecuencia de los procesos neoplásicos malignos en Bucaramanga. Posteriormente contando con la colaboración de las citotécnicas de la ciudad (2-3 se convino en observar a través de las citologías la tendencia al cáncer genital en nuestra población.
Hoy después de más de diez años de esas observaciones hemos decidido comparar esos datos con los resultantes de los tres últimos años, en las usuarias del I.S.S. y Pro familia, movidos por el interés de que el cáncer del cervix ocupó la segunda causa de muerte en 1987,en la Seccional de Santander de los Seguros Sociales (-0,40 – (4.
Utilizamos como entonces la evaluación de la citología siendo conscientes de las limitaciones de éste procedimiento de laboratorio...
Tishelman, Amy C; Shumer, Daniel E; Nahata, Leena
To provide suggestions for clinical care of youth with disorders of sex development (DSD) and their families, by drawing on preexisting pediatric psychology literature with a particular focus on child sexual abuse (CSA) genital exams. Relevant peer-reviewed papers published since 1990 in the CSA literature were systematically reviewed, as well as an illustrative sample of general pediatric psychology papers. Empirical research from the CSA literature provided information on prevalence of distress and the impact of provider behavior, the importance of preparation, and proposed interventions. Expert recommendations from CSA literature and general findings gleaned from pediatric psychology also address these issues. Psychological findings in the CSA pediatric population suggest that fears and anxieties are not universal and can be linked to a number of variables. Based on this review, we make a number of recommendations for potential interventions for youth with DSD and their families, emphasizing the need for further clinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Eberhard, W; Rodriguez, R L; Polihronakis, M
The male genitalia of arthropods consistently show negative static allometry (the genitalia of small males of a species are disproportionally large, and those of large males are disproportionally small). We discuss relations between the 'one-size-fits-all' hypothesis to explain this allometry and the regimes of selection that may be acting on genitalia. We focus on the contrasts between directional vs. stabilizing selection, and natural vs. sexual selection. In addition, we point out some common methodological problems in studies of genital allometry. One-size-fits-all types of arguments for negative allometry imply net stabilizing selection, but the effects of stabilizing selection on allometry will be weaker when the correlation between body size and the trait size is weaker. One-size-fits-all arguments can involve natural as well as sexual selection, and negative allometry can also result from directional selection. Several practical problems make direct tests of whether directional or stabilizing selection is acting difficult. One common methodological problem in previous studies has been concentration on absolute rather than relative values of the allometric slopes of genitalia; there are many reasons to doubt the usefulness of comparing absolute slopes with the usual reference value of 1.00. Another problem has been the failure to recognize that size and shape are independent traits of genitalia; rapid divergence in the shape of genitalia is thus not paradoxical with respect to the reduced variation in their sizes that is commonly associated with negative allometric scaling.
Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu
Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.
Mônica Jaques Spinosa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG is a recently described genetic disorder caused by mutation in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX gene (Xp22.13. Patients present with lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, refractory epilepsy of neonatal onset, acquired microcephaly and male genotype with ambiguous genitalia. CASE REPORT: Second child born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents, presented with seizures within the first hour of life that remained refractory to phenobarbital, phenytoin and midazolam. Examination identified microcephaly, axial hypotonia, pyramidal signs and ambiguous genitalia. EEG showed disorganized background activity and seizures starting at the right midtemporal, central and occipital regions. MRI showed diffuse pachygyria, moderate thickening of the cortex, enlarged ventricles, agenesis of the corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. Karyotype showed a 46,XY genotype. Additional findings were hypercalciuria, vesicoureteral reflux, patent ductus arteriosus and chronic diarrhea.INTRODUÇÃO: Lisencefalia com genitália ambígua ligada ao X (XLAG é doença genética recentemente descrita, causada por mutação no gene aristaless-related homeobox (ARX (Xp22.13. Os pacientes apresentam lisencefalia, agenesia de corpo caloso, epilepsia refratária com início no período neonatal, microcefalia adquirida e genótipo masculino com genitália ambígua. RELATO DE CASO: Segundo filho de pais não-consangüíneos, apresentou crises na primeira hora de vida que permaneceram refratárias a fenobarbital, fenitoína e midazolam. Apresentava microcefalia, hipotonia axial, sinais de liberação piramidal e genitália ambígua. EEG demonstrou atividade de base desorganizada, crises convulsivas com início nas regiões temporal-média, central e occipital direitas. RNM demonstrou paquigiria difusa, moderado espessamento do córtex, ventrículos aumentados, agenesia de corpo caloso e septo pel
Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke
Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL,
Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M
Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Thompson, Karen J; Jones, Alaine D; Miller, Sandra A
In female grasshoppers, oviposition is a highly specialized behavior involving a rhythm-generating neural circuit, the oviposition central pattern generator, unusual abdominal appendages, and dedicated muscles. This study of Schistocerca americana (Drury) grasshoppers was undertaken to determine whether the simpler pregenital abdominal segments, which do not contain ovipositor appendages, share common features with the genital segment, suggesting a roadmap for the genesis of oviposition behavior. Our study revealed that although 5 of the standard pregenital body wall muscles were missing in the female genital segment, homologous lateral nerves were, indeed, present and served 4 ovipositor muscles. Retrograde labeling of the corresponding pregenital nerve branches in male and female grasshoppers revealed motor neurons, dorsal unpaired median neurons, and common inhibitor neurons which appear to be structural homologues of those filled from ovipositor muscles. Some pregenital motor neurons displayed pronounced contralateral neurites; in contrast, some ovipositor motor neurons were exclusively ipsilateral. Strong evidence of structural homology was also obtained for pregenital and ovipositor skeletal muscles supplied by the identified neurons and of the pregenital and ovipositor skeletons. For example, transient embryonic segmental appendages were maintained in the female genital segments, giving rise to ovipositor valves, but were lost in pregenital abdominal segments. Significant proportional differences in sternal apodemes and plates were observed, which partially obscure the similarities between the pregenital and genital skeletons. Other changes in reorganization included genital muscles that displayed adult hypertrophy, 1 genital muscle that appeared to represent 2 fused pregenital muscles, and the insertion points of 2 ovipositor muscles that appeared to have been relocated. Together, the comparisons support the idea that the oviposition behavior of genital
Influencia de los aparatos dentales ortodónticos en la producción y percepción del habla: estudio de cinco casos The influence of orthodontic dental apparatus in production and perception of speech: study of five cases
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: observar la capacidad de cinco individuos venezolanos que usan aparatos dentales ortodónticos para articular el habla y verificar la influencia de los aparatos en la percepción del habla por parte de sus interlocutores. MÉTODOS: se utilizó un corpus conformado por dos grabaciones de la lectura de un Test de Pares Mínimos realizadas por cinco hablantes antes y después de iniciar el tratamiento con los aparatos. Dichas grabaciones fueron luego expuestas a veinte oyentes adultos con la finalidad de que identificaran lo oído; sirviéndose de un test ad hoc, basado en el de los Pares Mínimos arriba indicado. Cada uno de los oyentes marcó la opción que creyó haber percibido. RESULTADOS: el análisis de los datos arrojados por los dos conjuntos de tests permitió determinar los sonidos, los rasgos distintivos y los puntos articulatorios afectados por el uso de aparatos en los hablantes. Se demuestra que los sonidos mayormente afectados por los aparatos dentales son /t/, /m/, /p/, /f/, /b/, /m/, /k/ y /tò/; los rasgos y oposiciones distintivas afectadas son [grave]: /b - d/, /f - s/, /m -my/, /m - n/ y /p - t/; [sonoro]: /g - k/, /p - b/ y /t - d/ e [interrupto]:/tò - s/ ; por su parte, los lugares de articulación afectados son bilabial, alveolar, palatal, dental e interdental. CONCLUSIONES: la presencia de los aparatos dentales ortodónticos en la cavidad bucal causa serios problemas en la articulación de los sonidos lingüísticos afectando de esa manera la percepción del habla por parte de los interlocutores. Los problemas de articulación con el paso del tiempo van decreciendo.PURPOSE: to observe the capacity to articulate speech in five Venezuelan individuals who use orthodontic dental apparatus and to verify the influence of the apparatus on the perception of speech from their interlocutors. METHODS: the corpus of study consists of two recordings of the lecture of a Minimal Pairs Test done by five speakers before and
Irradiance of phototherapy equipment in maternity wards in Maceió La irradiación de los aparatos de fototerapia en las maternidades de Maceió Irradiância dos aparelhos de fototerapia nas maternidades de Maceió
Anne Laura Costa Ferreira
Full Text Available The effectiveness of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia treatment depends directly on the amount of energy emitted by light (irradiance. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the irradiance of phototherapy equipment in maternity wards in Maceió, AL, Brazil. All equipment in use in the neonatal units in Maceió was included in the study, totaling 36 devices, except those in maintenance. The measurement of irradiance was carried out with a radiometer. We observed that 72.20% of the equipment presented efficient irradiance and 27.76% were inefficient. The conclusion is that the majority of phototherapy devices are emitting the minimum required irradiance for neonatal jaundice treatment.La eficacia del tratamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal depende directamente de la cantidad de energía emitida por la luz (irradiación. Este es un estudio transversal que objetivó determinar la irradiación de los aparatos de fototerapia en las maternidades de Maceió. Es un muestreo por censo, ya que incluyó todos los aparatos en uso en las unidades neonatales de Maceió, en el total de treinta y seis aparatos (36, excluyéndose aquellos que estaban en manutención. La medición de la irradiación fue realizada con un radiómetro. Se observó que 72,20% de los aparatos presentaron irradiación eficaz y 27,76% de los aparatos fueron ineficaces. Se concluye que la mayoría de los aparatos de fototerapia está emitiendo la irradiación mínima terapéutica para el tratamiento de la ictericia neonatal.A eficácia do tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal está na dependência direta da quantidade de energia emitida pela luz (irradiância. Este é um estudo transversal que objetivou determinar a irradiância dos aparelhos de fototerapia nas maternidades de Maceió. A amostragem foi censitária, pois incluiu todos os aparelhos em uso nas unidades neonatais de Maceió, no total de trinta e seis aparelhos (36, excluindo-se aqueles que estavam em manuten
Prevalência de papiloma vírus (HPV perianal assintomático em pacientes portadores de HPV genital tratados no hospital das clínicas da faculdade de medicina de Botucatu Prevalence of asymptomatic perianal papillomavirus (HPV in patients with genital HPV treated at the teaching hospital of the Botucatu school of medicine
Rogerio Saad Hossne
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A infecção pelo Papilomavírus Humano é uma das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DSTs de maior incidência e prevalência no mundo, sendo atualmente considerada como uma lesão pré-neoplásica. A infecção pelo Papilomavírus humano (HPV somou 23,4% das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST comunicadas ao Ministério de Saúde, sendo atualmente a mais comum em nosso país. Muitos pacientes são portadores assintomáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram encaminhados para a realização de anuscopia e colposcopia da região perianal 20 pacientes já tratados para HPV por lesões em regiões genitais. RESULTADOS: Houve prevalência do sexo masculino (80% em relação ao sexo feminino (20%, do total de pacientes apenas 2 apresentavam lesões a anuscopia (10%, porém mais 3 pacientes apresentaram lesões com a realização da colposcopia, aumentando para 5 (25% o total de pacientes assintomáticos que apresentavam lesões perianais. Do total de pacientes com as lesões 4 eram do sexo masculino e 1 do sexo feminino. CONCLUSÃO: Pudemos observar a presença de lesões perianais em 10% dos pacientes portadores de lesões genitais pela simples inspeção anal, estes valores aumentam para 25% quando se associa a colposcopia anal, demonstrando a importância da realização deste exame em todos os pacientes com fator de risco aumentado para a infecção pelo HPV na região anal.INTRODUCTION: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is one of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD of greatest incidence and prevalence worldwide, and it is presently considered to be a pre-neoplastic lesion. Human Papillomavirus infection has totaled 23.4% of the sexually transmitted diseases reported to the Department of Health, and it is currently the most common in our country. Many patients are asymptomatic carriers. METHODS: Twenty patients who had been previously treated for HPV due to genital lesions were referred for the conduction of anuscopy and colposcopy of
Luiz Felipe G Soares
Full Text Available I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992. All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diagetic spaces. intend to compare the three images and investigate the nature of their impacts, not directly in terms of morality, but in their relation with two theoretical assumptions: (1 the intense way in which, according to Linda Nicholson (1999, so many cultures insist in interpreting bodies and genitalia as still capable of defining gender characters, and (2 the notion of image, not as representation, but as image itself, as “what it is”, or as “the place of every transformation in the universe”, as suggested first by Bergson (2005, and then by Deleuze (1983-5, Rancière (2001 and Agamben (1995. The Deleuzean retard may indicate the way in which genitalia, as image, turn into enigma, in the very passage from nature to culture. The three shots give back to those clear images of genitalia the property they have always had: their character of central pieces in the game of such passage. The contrast between such simple and clear images and all those complex games corresponds to the nature of the impact I want to investigate. film; genitalia; narrative. I propose to analyze three images of genitalia from three different films that do not have sex as their central subject: (1 Lígia’s (Leona Cavalli’s vulva in Claudio Assis’s Amarelo Manga (Brazil, 2002, (2 Stoffer’s (Jens Albinus’s erect penis in Lars von Trier’s The Idiots (Denmark, 1998, and (3 transsexual Dil’s (Jaye Davidson’s penis in Neil Jordan’s The Crying Game (USA, 1992. All three images are explicit and surprising enough to provoke impact, both in diegetic and extra-diagetic spaces. intend to compare the three images and investigate the nature of their impacts, not directly in terms of morality, but in their relation with two theoretical assumptions: (1 the intense way in which, according to Linda Nicholson (1999, so many cultures insist in interpreting bodies and genitalia as still capable of defining gender characters, and (2 the notion of image, not as representation, but as image itself, as “what it is”, or as “the place of every transformation in the universe”, as suggested first by Bergson (2005, and then by Deleuze (1983-5, Rancière (2001 and Agamben (1995. The Deleuzean retard may indicate the way in which genitalia, as image, turn into enigma, in the very passage from nature to culture. The three shots give back to those clear images of genitalia the property they have always had: their character of central pieces in the game of such passage. The contrast between such simple and clear images and all those complex games corresponds to the nature of the impact I want to investigate. film; genitalia; narrative.
Tata, Sunitha; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna
Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 occurs frequently. Anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 reactivation have not been intensively studied. Four HSV-2-seropositive women with symptomatic genital herpes attended a clinic daily during a 30-day period. Daily samples were collected from 7 separate genital sites. Swab samples were assayed for HSV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Anatomic sites of clinical HSV-2 recurrences were recorded. HSV was detected on 44 (37%) of 120 days and from 136 (16%) of 840 swab samples. Lesions were documented on 35 (29%) of 120 days. HSV was detected at >1 anatomic site on 25 (57%) of 44 days with HSV shedding (median, 2 sites; range, 1-7), with HSV detected bilaterally on 20 (80%) of the 25 days. The presence of a lesion was significantly associated with detectable HSV from any genital site (incident rate ratio [IRR], 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-23.50; P= .02) and with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1. 01-1.40; P=.03). The maximum HSV copy number detected was associated with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.44-1.82; Pgenital tract. To prevent HSV-2 reactivation, suppressive HSV-2 therapy must control simultaneous viral reactivations from multiple sacral ganglia.
Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.
Wald; Stern; Skinner; Beutner; Conant; Tyring; Reitano; Davis
Objective: Education of patients with genital herpes about their disease is time consuming. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational computer program, we developed a multimedia interactive presentation to teach patients about genital herpes. Such programs can supplement clinician visits for patients with genital herpes, or those at risk for HSV acquisition.Methods: Patients seeking care for genital herpes, or those at risk for HSV acquisition, were asked to participate in the program during routine clinic visits at 5 physician's offices nationwide. A self-administered 7 item herpes knowledge questionnaire was given before and after participation. An additional questionnaire evaluating the satisfaction with the program was also self-administered at completion.Results: 428 patients were enrolled and completed the pre- and post-knowledge questionnaire and 332 patients completed the satisfaction survey. On the pre-test, 20.1% of patients answered all questions correctly, 65.4% answered correctly 4 to 6 questions, and 14.5% 3 or less. On the post-test, 32.9% of patients answered all questions correctly, 61.5% answered correctly 4 to 6 questions, and 5.6% 3 or less (P poor) to 7 (excellent).Conclusion: Computer-based education programs about genital herpes may provide a useful adjunct to teaching in physician offices and result in knowledge gain about the disease, at least short-term. Such programs may assist in management of chronic sexually transmitted infections.
Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B
Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Langlois, Peter H
Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals has been associated with risk for male genital malformations. However, residential prenatal exposure to atrazine, an endocrine disrupting pesticide, has not been evaluated. We obtained data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for 16,433 cases with isolated male genital malformations and randomly selected, population-based controls delivered during 1999-2008. County-level estimates of atrazine exposure from the United States Geological Survey were linked to all subjects. We evaluated the relationship between estimated maternal residential atrazine exposure and risk for male genital malformations in offspring. Separate unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted for hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and small penis. We observed modest, but consistent, associations between medium-low and/or medium levels of estimated periconceptional maternal residential atrazine exposure and every male genital malformation category evaluated (e.g., adjusted odds ratio for medium compared to low atrazine levels and all male genital malformations: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.3). Previous literature from animal and epidemiological studies supports our findings. Our results provide further evidence of a suspected teratogenic role of atrazine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sauer, Pieter J J; Neubauer, David
Female genital mutilation or female circumcision is frequently performed worldwide. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that worldwide, 100-140 million girls and women currently have to live with the consequences of female genital mutilation. The article argues that the tradition is one of the causes, while another four possible reasons for undergoing such cruel mutilation of young girls exist. Today, there exists a classification of at least four different ways of such mutilation which has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. Long-term consequences like recurrent urinary tract infections, dysmenorrhea, sexual problems, infertility and complications both for the mother and infant at delivery are mentioned. Female genital mutilation is a violation of the fundamental human rights, as well as a savage breach of the integrity and personality. The European Academy of Paediatrics advises its members to initiate appropriate counselling for parents and female adolescents regarding the risk of female genital mutilation and strongly condemns female genital mutilation and councils its members not to perform such procedures.
Fazari, Atif B E; Berg, Rigmor C; Mohammed, Wafaa A; Gailii, Enas B; Elmusharaf, Khalifa
Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia and/or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other nontherapeutic reasons. The study aims to describe the method of and findings from reconstructive surgery for FGM victims. We present a case of a 24-year-old Sudanese female, who had undergone ritual FGM type III as a young girl. She had suffered from a large, vulval mass for the last 6 years and came to the clinic because of apareunia. We performed mass excision and reconstructive surgery of the mutilated genital tissue. The giant mass was successfully removed. Remaining genital tissues were approximated and sutured, with hemostasis assured for the reconstructed organs on each side. Reconstructive surgery for women who suffer sexual consequences from FGM is feasible, with a high degree of client acceptance and satisfaction. It restores some of women's natural genital anatomy, and offers the potential for improved female sexuality. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Wittich, Arthur C
Female genital mutilation (FGM), frequently called female genital cutting or female circumcision, is the intentional disfigurement of the external genitalia in young girls and women for the purpose of reducing libido and ensuring premarital virginity. This traditional, nontherapeutic procedure to suppress libido and prevent sexual intercourse before marriage has been pervasive in Northern Africa, the Middle East, and the Arabian peninsula for over 2,500 years. FGM permanently destroys the genital anatomy while frequently causing multiple and serious complications. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics proposed a classification system of FGM according to the specific genital anatomy removed and the extensiveness of genital disfigurement. Although it has been ruled illegal in most countries, FGM continues to be performed worldwide. With African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States and Europe, western countries are experiencing FGM in regions where these immigrants have concentrated. As deployments of Special Operations Forces (SOF) increase to regions in which FGM is pervasive, and as African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States increases, SOF and Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) medics will necessarily be called upon to evaluate and treat complications resulting from FGM. The purpose of this article is to educate SOF/TEMS medical personnel about the history, geographic regions, classification of procedures, complications, and medical treatment of patients with FGM. 2017.
Walley, C J
This article lays the groundwork for a feminist and anthropological political response to female genital "operations" that transcends the current debate over the phenomenon, which is couched in terms of cultural relativism or of politically-informed outrage. After an introduction, the study considers the politics involved in assigning a name to the procedure and explains the author's reason for choosing female genital "operation" over the more commonly used "circumcision," "mutilation," or "torture." In the next section, clitoridectomy is contextualized through a recounting of the circumstances under which the procedure was performed in the western Kenyan village of Kikhome in 1988. This discussion focuses on the ceremonies surrounding the circumcisions of young men and women, the author's attempts to discover how the young women involved really felt about the tradition, and a review of the anthropological literature on the significance and impact of these practices. The analysis then examines the international controversy surrounding female genital mutilation and provides an overview of the colonial discourse on female genital mutilation in Africa to expose 1) the origins of justifications for colonial dominance in the dominance of non-Western women by non-Western men and 2) the fact that use of cultural arguments that fuse women and tradition can support culturally-defined power relationships. The article concludes with a consideration of who is qualified to speak out against female genital mutilation given the fact that all women and all debates are the products of longstanding, tenacious power relationships.
Anderst, Jim; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung
The goals were to evaluate the association of definitive hymenal findings with the number of reported episodes of penile-genital penetration, pain, bleeding, dysuria, and time since assault for girls presenting for nonacute, sexual assault examinations. Charts of all girls 5 to 17 of age who provided a history of nonacute, penile-genital, penetrative abuse were reviewed. Interviews and examinations occurred over a 4-year period at a children's advocacy center. Characteristics of the histories provided by the subjects were examined for associations with definitive findings of penetrative trauma. Five hundred six patients were included in the study. Of the 56 children with definitive examination results, 52 had no history of consensual penile-vaginal intercourse and all were > or =10 years of age. Analysis was unable to detect an association between the number of reported penile-genital penetrative events and definitive genital findings. Eighty-seven percent of victims who provided a history of >10 penetrative events had no definitive evidence of penetration. A history of bleeding with abuse was more than twice as likely for subjects with definitive findings. Children 10 penetrative events, although none had definitive findings on examination. Most victims who reported repetitive penile-genital contact that involved some degree of perceived penetration had no definitive evidence of penetration on examination of the hymen. Similar results were seen for victims of repetitive assaults involving perceived penetration over long periods of time, as well as victims with a history of consensual sex.
Harding, Tristan; Hayes, Jenny; Simonis, Magdalena; Temple-Smith, Meredith
Labiaplasty, the surgical reduction of the labia minora, has significantly increased in demand in Australia. Although general practice is one gatekeeper for patients requesting labiaplasty, as a referral is necessary to claim Medicare entitlements, there is little information available to assist general practitioners (GPs) in managing these requests for female genital cosmetic surgery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals, including GPs, gynaecologists and plastic surgeons. Participants were recruited through the Victorian Primary Care Practice-based Research Network (VicReN), clinical teaching hospitals and snowball sampling. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analysed using content and thematic analysis. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted. All participants were aware of genital labiaplasty; many had patients who were concerned about genital appearance, for which information had often been sought opportunistically. All participants agreed on the need for resources to inform women of normal genital appearance. This novel study demonstrates a need for clinical resources for GPs managing requests for genital labiaplasty.
Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul
With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.