WorldWideScience

Sample records for apache ii child-pugh

  1. Prediction of Mortality after Emergent Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement: Use of APACHE II, Child-Pugh and MELD Scores in Asian Patients with Refractory Variceal Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen Sheng; Wu, Reng Hong; Lin, Ching Yih; Chen, Jyh Jou; Sheu, Ming Juen; Koay, Lok Beng; Lee, Chuan [Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Tainan (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to determine if existing methods of grading liver function that have been developed in non-Asian patients with cirrhosis can be used to predict mortality in Asian patients treated for refractory variceal hemorrhage by the use of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. Data for 107 consecutive patients who underwent an emergency TIPS procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were calculated. Survival analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of the various models to predict 30-day, 60-day and 360-day mortality. The ability of stratified APACHE II, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores to predict survival was assessed by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. No patient died during the TIPS procedure, but 82 patients died during the follow-up period. Thirty patients died within 30 days after the TIPS procedure; 37 patients died within 60 days and 53 patients died within 360 days. Univariate analysis indicated that hepatorenal syndrome, use of inotropic agents and mechanical ventilation were associated with elevated 30-day mortality (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that a Child-Pugh score > 11 or an MELD score > 20 predicted increased risk of death at 30, 60 and 360 days (p < 0.05). APACHE II scores could only predict mortality at 360 days (p < 0.05). A Child-Pugh score > 11 or an MELD score > 20 are predictive of mortality in Asian patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage treated with the TIPS procedure. An APACHE II score is not predictive of early mortality in this patient population.

  2. Prediction of Mortality after Emergent Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement: Use of APACHE II, Child-Pugh and MELD Scores in Asian Patients with Refractory Variceal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen Sheng; Wu, Reng Hong; Lin, Ching Yih; Chen, Jyh Jou; Sheu, Ming Juen; Koay, Lok Beng; Lee, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if existing methods of grading liver function that have been developed in non-Asian patients with cirrhosis can be used to predict mortality in Asian patients treated for refractory variceal hemorrhage by the use of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. Data for 107 consecutive patients who underwent an emergency TIPS procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were calculated. Survival analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of the various models to predict 30-day, 60-day and 360-day mortality. The ability of stratified APACHE II, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores to predict survival was assessed by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. No patient died during the TIPS procedure, but 82 patients died during the follow-up period. Thirty patients died within 30 days after the TIPS procedure; 37 patients died within 60 days and 53 patients died within 360 days. Univariate analysis indicated that hepatorenal syndrome, use of inotropic agents and mechanical ventilation were associated with elevated 30-day mortality (p 11 or an MELD score > 20 predicted increased risk of death at 30, 60 and 360 days (p 11 or an MELD score > 20 are predictive of mortality in Asian patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage treated with the TIPS procedure. An APACHE II score is not predictive of early mortality in this patient population

  3. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Child-Pugh B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Terzi, Eleonora; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Trimarchi, Chiara; Granito, Alessandro; Leoni, Simona; Marinelli, Sara; Pini, Patrizia; Bolondi, Luigi

    2013-10-01

    The frequency with which patients in Child-Pugh B having hepatocellular carcinoma are treated following the international guidelines according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages is unknown. To investigate treatment allocation for Child-Pugh B patients in different tumour stages, with particular interest in the intermediate stage. Patients were retrospectively identified from a consecutively collected series. Treatment was carried out primarily according to the guidelines. Of 86 Child-Pugh B patients, 45 were Barcelona early stage, of which the Child-Pugh scores were 46.7% B7, 33.3% B8, 20.0% B9; 27 patients were intermediate stage (B7 59.3%, B8 37.0% and B9 3.7% respectively), 12 were advanced (41.7% B7, 25.0% B8 and 33.3% B9) and 2 were terminal (both B9). In the intermediate stage, transarterial chemoembolization (or ablation) was performed in 68.8% of the Child-Pugh B7 patients, 50% of the B8 patients and 0% of the B9 patients. Median survival of the intermediate patients was 8.0 months (9.0 in B7 vs. 6.0 in -B8/B9, P=0.048). Survival of the intermediate stage patients undergoing chemoembolisation was 22.0 months in Child-Pugh B7 and 6.0 in B8. Approximately half of the intermediate stage patients can undergo locoregional treatment with good survival when in the Child-Pugh B7. The Child-Pugh numeric score impacts survival, suggesting that this tumour stage be refined. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: association with Child-Pugh score in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkar, T.; Zain, L. H.; Siregar, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy (PHG) occurs as a complication of cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The association between the severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy and the hepatic function, as assessed by the Child-Pugh score in patients with liver cirrhosis are poorly defined. We evaluated association between PHG and Child-Pugh score in patients with liver cirrhosis. Adults liver cirrhosis patients admitted at Adam Malik Hospital Medan during January 2016-December 2016, were included in this study. Endoscopic PHG grade, Child-Pugh score were assessed. A total of 49 patients were enrolled. Majority of cases of liver cirrhosis are due to chronic viral hepatitis B infections (65.3 %). Portal hypertensive gastropathy were observed in 46 cases; twenty-five patients (51%) showed severe portal hypertensive gastropathy. The overall prevalence of PHG and the proportion of patients with severe PHG differ about the Child-Pugh classification. PHG was present in 66.7 % of patients from Child-Pugh class A, 96 % of patients with class B, and 95.2 % of those from class C, and severe forms were present in 0 %, 36 %, and 76.2 %, respectively (P< 0.000). In conclusions, the present data suggest that the severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy is related to Child-Pugh score.

  5. [Validity of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales in obstetric patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskikh, I B; Musaeva, T S; Denisova, E A

    2012-01-01

    to estimate efficiency of APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA scales for obstetric patients with heavy sepsis. 186 medical cards retrospective analysis of pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis, 40 women with urosepsis and puerperas with abdominal sepsis--66 was performed. Middle age of women was 26.7 (22.4-34.5). In population of puerperas with abdominal sepsis APACHE II, APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA scales showed to good calibration, however, high resolution was observed only in APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA (AUROC 0.95; 0.93; 0.92 respectively). APACHE III and SOFA scales provided qualitative prognosis in pregnant women with urosepsis; resolution ratio of these scales considerably exceeds APACHE II, SAPS 2 and SAPS 3 (AUROC 0.73; 0.74; 0.79 respectively). APACHE II scale is inapplicable because of a lack of calibration (X2 = 13.1; p < 0.01), and at other scales (APACHE III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3, SOFA) was observed the insufficient resolution (AUROC < 0.9) in pregnant women with pulmonary sepsis. Prognostic possibilities assessment of score scales showed that APACHE III, SAPS 3 and SOFA scales can be used for a lethality prognosis for puerperas with abdominal sepsis, in population of pregnant women with urosepsis--only APACHE III and SOFA, and with pulmonary sepsis--SAPS 3 and APACHE III only in case of additional clinical information.

  6. Child-Pugh classification dependent alterations in serum leptin levels among cirrhotic patients: a case controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyrek Fadile

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As anorexia and hypermetabolism are common in cirrhosis, leptin levels may be increased in this disease. In this study, we investigated the relation between the severity of disease and serum leptin levels in post-hepatitis cirrhosis and the role of body composition, gender and viral aetiology of cirrhosis in this association. Methods Thirty-five cases with post-hepatitis cirrhosis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Body composition including body mass index, body fat percentage and body fat mass were determined. Serum leptin levels were assayed. Results Leptin levels were significantly higher among cirrhotic patients independent of sex compared to controls (p = 0.001. Female patients in both groups have had higher leptin levels than males (in cirrhotics p = 0.029, in controls p = 0.02. Cirrhotic patients in each of A, B and C subgroups according to the Child- Pugh classification revealed significantly different levels compared to controls (p = 0.046, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, respectively. Male cirrhotics in Child-Pugh Class B and C subgroups had significantly higher leptin levels compared to male controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.008. On the other hand, female patients only in Child Pugh class C subgroup have had higher levels of serum leptin compared to controls (p = 0.022. Child-Pugh classification has been found to be the sole discriminator in determination of leptin levels in cirrhotics by linear regression (beta: 0.435 p = 0.015. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase in advanced liver disease independently of gender, body composition in posthepatitic cirrhosis. The increase is more abundant among patients that belong to C subgroup according to the Child- Pugh classification.

  7. Comparison of indocyanine green clearance with Child's-Pugh score and hepatic histology: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandeep; Rogers, Mary A M; Buniak, Borys

    2006-01-01

    Indocyanine green clearance, measured by percentage disappearance rate, detects alterations in liver function and may be used as a non-invasive determinant of hepatic reserve. The aims of this study were to compare liver histology and Child's-Pugh score with percentage disappearance rate and determine which variables correlated with PDR. Child's-Pugh score, liver function tests, liver biopsies and indocyanine green testing (0.5mg/kg) were performed in 102 consecutive patients with cirrhosis of diverse etiologies. Indocyanine green concentration was determined using spectrophotometric analysis (806nm) and plotted logarithmically with Michaelis-Menten kinetics to calculate the percentage disappearance rate. Liver biopsies were graded using the modified Knodell score to obtain a histological activity index. In bivariable analysis, percentage disappearance rate significantly correlated with Child's-Pugh score, albumin, bilirubin, prothrombin time and histological activity index. Albumin, prothrombin time and histological activity index were independent predictors of percentage disappearance rate in the final model (albumin ptime ptime and histological activity index.

  8. Safety of the 2D/3D direct-acting antiviral regimen in HCV-induced Child-Pugh A cirrhosis - A pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poordad, Fred; Nelson, David R; Feld, Jordan J; Fried, Michael W; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Larsen, Lois; Cohen, Daniel E; Cohen, Eric; Mobashery, Niloufar; Tatsch, Fernando; Foster, Graham R

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r±DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r±ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment. The number and percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were reported. In 1,066 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, rates of serious TEAEs and TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-6.8) and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2), respectively. Thirteen patients (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.1) had a TEAE that was consistent with hepatic decompensation. The most frequent TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were ascites (n=8), esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n=4), and hepatic encephalopathy (n=2). This pooled analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis confirms the safety of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this population. These results support the use of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this high-priority population. Lay summary: This pooled safety analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with compensated cirrhosis, receiving treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin, shows that the rate of hepatic decompensation events was similar to previously reported rates in untreated patients. Copyright © 2017 European

  9. Use of APACHE II and SAPS II to predict mortality for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Hoo; Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Dong Kyu; Jang, Kyoung Sool; Kim, Jong Tae; Han, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the applicability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute stroke and compared the results with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We also conducted a comparative study of accuracy for predicting hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality. Between January 2011 and December 2012, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study. APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were compared using a calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the results were compared with the GCS and NIHSS. Overall 498 patients were included in this study. The observed mortality was 26.3%, whereas APACHE II and SAPS II-predicted mortalities were 35.12% and 35.34%, respectively. The mean GCS and NIHSS scores were 9.43 and 21.63, respectively. The calibration curve was close to the line of perfect prediction. The ROC curve showed a slightly better prediction of mortality for APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients. The GCS and NIHSS were inferior in predicting mortality in both patient groups. Although both the APACHE II and SAPS II systems can be used to measure performance in the neurosurgical ICU setting, the accuracy of APACHE II in hemorrhagic stroke patients and SAPS II in ischemic stroke patients was superior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive value of SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems for patient outcome in a medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Godinjak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim is to determine SAPS II and APACHE II scores in medical intensive care unit (MICU patients, to compare them for prediction of patient outcome, and to compare with actual hospital mortality rates for different subgroups of patients. Methods. One hundred and seventy-four patients were included in this analysis over a oneyear period in the MICU, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The following patient data were obtained: demographics, admission diagnosis, SAPS II, APACHE II scores and final outcome. Results. Out of 174 patients, 70 patients (40.2% died. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores in all patients were 48.4±17.0 and 21.6±10.3 respectively, and they were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. SAPS II >50.5 and APACHE II >27.5 can predict the risk of mortality in these patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II vs APACHE II (p=0.501. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the values of SAPS II and APACHE II (r=0.708; p=0.001. Patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock had the highest values of both SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and also the highest hospital mortality rate of 55.1%. Conclusion. Both APACHE II and SAPS II had an excellent ability to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II and APACHE II. A positive correlation was established between them. Sepsis/septic shock patients had the highest predicted and observed hospital mortality rate.

  11. APACHE II as an indicator of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelser de Souza Kock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: strategies for risk stratification in severe pathologies are extremely important. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of the APACHE II score as an indicator of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP in ICU patient sat Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (HNSC Tubarão-SC. Methods: It was conducted a prospective cohort study with 120 patients admitted between March and August 2013, being held APACHE II in the first 24 hours of mechanical ventilation (MV. Patients were followed until the following gout comes: discharge or death. It was also analyzed the cause of ICU admission, age, gender, days of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and outcome. Results: The incidence of VAP was 31.8% (38/120. Two variables showed a relative riskin the development of VAP, APACHE II above average (RR = 1,62; IC 95% 1,03-2,55 and males (RR = 1,56; IC 95 % 1,18-2,08. The duration of mechanical ventilation (days above average18.4± 14.9(p =0.001, ICU stay (days above average 20.4± 15.3(p =0.003 presented the development of VAP. The accuracy of APACHE II in predicting VAP score >23, showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 33%. Inrelation to death, two variables showed relative risk, age above average (RR=2.08; 95% CI =1.34 to 3.23 and ICU stay above average (RR=2.05; CI 95 =1.28 to 3.28%. Conclusion: The APACHE II score above or equal 23 might to indicate the risk of VAP. Keywords: Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated, Intensive Care Units, APACHE. Prognosis

  12. Better prognostic marker in ICU - APACHE II, SOFA or SAP II!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Mahmood, Khalid; Ziaullaha, Syed; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Sharif, Asim

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the comparative efficacy of different scoring system in assessing the prognosis of critically ill patients. This was a retrospective study conducted in medical intensive care unit (MICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) Medical Unit III, Civil Hospital, from April 2012 to August 2012. All patients over age 16 years old who have fulfilled the criteria for MICU admission were included. Predictive mortality of APACHE II, SAP II and SOFA were calculated. Calibration and discrimination were used for validity of each scoring model. A total of 96 patients with equal gender distribution were enrolled. The average APACHE II score in non-survivors (27.97+8.53) was higher than survivors (15.82+8.79) with statistically significant p value (discrimination power than SAP II and SOFA.

  13. The safety and clinical outcomes of chemoembolization in child-pugh class C patients with hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Won; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kang, Beom Sik; Hur, Sae Beom; Lee, Myung Su; Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of chemoembolization in Child-Pugh class C patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). The study comprised 55 patients with HCC who were classified as Child-Pugh class C and who underwent initial chemoembolization between January 2003 and December 2012. Selective chemoembolization was performed in all technically feasible cases to minimize procedure-related complications. All adverse events within 30 days were recorded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The tumor response to chemoembolization was evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Thirty (54.5%) patients were within the Milan criteria, and 25 (45.5%) were beyond. The mortality of study subjects at 30 days was 5.5%. Major complications were observed in five (9.1%) patients who were all beyond the Milan criteria: two hepatic failures, one hepatic encephalopathy, and two CTCAE grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase abnormality. The mean length of hospitalization was 6.3 ± 8.3 days (standard deviation), and 18 (32.7%) patients were discharged on the next day after chemoembolization. The tumor responses of the patients who met the Milan criteria were significantly higher (p = 0.014) than those of the patients who did not. The overall median survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval: 4.4-9.8 months). Even in patients with Child-Pugh class C, chemoembolization can be performed safely with a selective technique in selected cases with a small tumor burden.

  14. The outcome of critical illness in decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavli, M; Strøm, T; Carlsson, M

    2012-01-01

    physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) and simplified organ failure assessment (SOFA) in predicting outcome. We hypothesized that in a Scandinavian cohort of ICU patients, APACHE II, SOFA, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) were superior to predict outcome compared...... with the Child-Pugh score. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in a university-affiliated ICU. Eighty-seven adult patients with decompensated liver alcoholic cirrhosis were admitted from January 2007 to January 2010. RESULTS: The patients were severely ill with median scores...... alcoholic liver disease should be revised....

  15. Superselective transarterial chemoembolization vs hepatic resection for resectable early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class a liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chu, Chi-Hung; Chan, De-Chuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to hepatic resection (HR) for resectable early-stage HCC, the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is controversial. This study is designed to compare the long-term outcome of TACE using superselective technique with hepatic resection for the treating resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Methods: In total, 185 consecutive patients with resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function were included: 73 patients received superselective TACE (group I) and 112 patients underwent HR (group II). We evaluated the therapy-related recurrence and long-term outcome and in both groups. The risk factors of recurrence and mortality were assessed by Cox's model. Results: The mean survival time of group 1 patient was similar to that of group 2 patient (40.8 ± 19.8 vs 46.7 ± 24.6 months respectively, p = 0.91). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after TACE (group I)and HR (group II) were 91%, 66%, and 52% and 93%, 71%, and 57%, respectively (p = 0.239). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates in groups 1 and 2 were 68%, 28%, and 17% and 78%, 55%, and 35%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Serum albumin, tumour size, tumour number and recurrence interval were independent risk factors for mortality. Serum albumin level, tumour size, tumour number, and treatment modality of TACE or HR could predict HCC recurrence. Conclusion: TACE is an efficient and safe treatment for resectable early-stage HCC with overall survival rates similar to that of HR. Thus, TACE is indicated in selected patients with resectable early-stage HCC.

  16. Evaluation of APACHE II system among intensive care patients at a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio Chiavone

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The high-complexity features of intensive care unit services and the clinical situation of patients themselves render correct prognosis fundamentally important not only for patients, their families and physicians, but also for hospital administrators, fund-providers and controllers. Prognostic indices have been developed for estimating hospital mortality rates for hospitalized patients, based on demographic, physiological and clinical data. OBJECTIVE: The APACHE II system was applied within an intensive care unit to evaluate its ability to predict patient outcome; to compare illness severity with outcomes for clinical and surgical patients; and to compare the recorded result with the predicted death rate. DESIGN: Diagnostic test. SETTING: Clinical and surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 521 consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit from July 1998 to June 1999. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: APACHE II score, in-hospital mortality, receiver operating characteristic curve, decision matrices and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 50 ± 19 years and the APACHE II score was 16.7 ± 7.3. There were 166 clinical patients (32%, 173 (33% post-elective surgery patients (33%, and 182 post-emergency surgery patients (35%, thus producing statistically similar proportions. The APACHE II scores for clinical patients (18.5 ± 7.8 were similar to those for non-elective surgery patients (18.6 ± 6.5 and both were greater than for elective surgery patients (13.0 ± 6.3 (p < 0.05. The higher this score was, the higher the mortality rate was (p < 0.05. The predicted death rate was 25.6% and the recorded death rate was 35.5%. Through the use of receiver operating curve analysis, good discrimination was found (area under the curve = 0.80. From the 2 x 2 decision matrix, 72.2% of patients were correctly classified (sensitivity = 35.1%; specificity = 92.6%. Linear

  17. Liver Lobe Based Multi-Echo Gradient Recalled Echo T2*-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Hepatitis B-Related Cirrhosis: Association with the Presence and Child-Pugh Class of Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate whether liver lobe based T2* values measured on gradient recalled echo T2*-weighted imaging are associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.Fifty-six patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and 23 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study and underwent upper abdominal T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. T2* values of the left lateral lobe (LLL, left medial lobe (LML, right lobe (RL and caudate lobe (CL were measured on T2*-weighted imaging. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between liver lobe based T2* values and the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis.The T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL decreased with the progression of cirrhosis from Child-Pugh class A to C (r = -0.231, -0.223, and -0.395, respectively; all P 0.05. To a certain extent, Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction for multigroup comparisons showed that the T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL could distinguish cirrhotic liver from healthy liver (all P 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the T2* value of the RL could best distinguish cirrhosis from healthy liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.713 among T2* values of the liver lobes, and that only the T2* value of the RL could distinguish Child-Pugh class C from A-B, with an AUC of 0.697 (all P < 0.05.The T2* value of the RL can be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.

  18. A Modified APACHE II Score for Predicting Mortality of Variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Modified APACHE II score is effective in predicting outcome of patients with variceal bleeding. Score of L 15 points and long ICU stay are associated with high mortality. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, schistosomiasis udan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 105- ...

  19. The customization of APACHE II for patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rui

    2002-01-01

    General outcome prediction models developed for use with large, multicenter databases of critically ill patients may not correctly estimate mortality if applied to a particular group of patients that was under-represented in the original database. The development of new diagnostic weights has been proposed as a method of adapting the general model – the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II in this case – to a new group of patients. Such customization must be empirically tested, because the original model cannot contain an appropriate set of predictive variables for the particular group. In this issue of Critical Care, Arabi and co-workers present the results of the validation of a modified model of the APACHE II system for patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants. The use of a highly heterogeneous database for which not all important variables were taken into account and of a sample too small to use the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test appropriately makes their conclusions uncertain. PMID:12133174

  20. Accuracy and Predictability of PANC-3 Scoring System over APACHE II in Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnakar, Surag Kajoor; Vishnu, Vikram Hubbanageri; Muniyappa, Shridhar; Prasath, Arun

    2017-02-01

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is one of the common conditions encountered in the emergency room. The course of the disease ranges from mild form to severe acute form. Most of these episodes are mild and spontaneously subsiding within 3 to 5 days. In contrast, Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP) occurring in around 15-20% of all cases, mortality can range between 10 to 85% across various centres and countries. In such a situation we need an indicator which can predict the outcome of an attack, as severe or mild, as early as possible and such an indicator should be sensitive and specific enough to trust upon. PANC-3 scoring is such a scoring system in predicting the outcome of an attack of AP. To assess the accuracy and predictability of PANC-3 scoring system over APACHE II in predicting severity in an attack of AP. This prospective study was conducted on 82 patients admitted with the diagnosis of pancreatitis. Investigations to evaluate PANC-3 and APACHE II were done on all the patients and the PANC-3 and APACHE II score was calculated. PANC-3 score has a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 77.9%, the test had a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 0.59 and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.92. Sensitivity of APACHE II in predicting SAP was 91.3% and specificity was 96.6% with PPV of 0.91, NPV was 0.96. Our study shows that PANC-3 can be used to predict the severity of pancreatitis as efficiently as APACHE II. The interpretation of PANC-3 does not need expertise and can be applied at the time of admission which is an advantage when compared to classical scoring systems.

  1. Valor prognóstico da fibronectina plasmática e da classificação de Child-Pugh na cirrose hepática alcoólica: estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parise Edison Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o valor prognóstico da fibronectina plasmática (FN, comparativamente à classificação numérica de Child-Pugh e os parâmetros bioquímicos que a compõem, no acompanhamento prospectivo de portadores de cirrose alcoólica durante 18 meses. MÉTODOS: Incluídos 50 pacientes com cirrose alcoólica, diagnosticada por biópsia ou critérios clínico-bioquímicos, excluídos aqueles com hepatocarcinoma ou hemorragia digestiva, infecção ou ingestão alcoólica continuada nos últimos 30 dias. A idade média do grupo foi 51,3±12,6 anos, 72% deles do sexo masculino e classificados 17 como Child-Pugh A, 18 como B e 15 como C. Os valores das bilirrubinas foram dosados pelo método automatizado, eletroforese de proteínas em acetato de celulose e o tempo de protrombina pelo método de Quick. A FN plasmática foi dosada por imunodifusão radial, com anticorpos contra FN humana em géis de agarose a 1%. RESULTADOS: Um paciente foi excluído por óbito de causa não natural e 12 foram a óbito por doença hepática. Os melhores preditores de óbito foram a pontuação de Child-Pugh [escore>10, risco relativo (RR de 11,33 e os valores de bilirrubina (>2,5mg/dL, RR=9,47. A concentração de FN foi significantemente maior nos sobreviventes que naqueles que foram a óbito (185±66 mg/L x 131±38mg/L, p 165mg/L foram melhores indicadores de sobrevida que a classificação de Child-Pugh e seus parâmetros bioquímicos isolados.

  2. Dr Pugh: a poisoner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, J D; Morris, G M

    2012-07-01

    On 16 February 1845 the Reverend W. H. Browne, rector of St John's Church in Launceston, Van Diemen's Land, wrote in his journal, "My dear Wife died very suddenly almost immediately after and in consequence of taking a preparation of Hyd. Cyan. Acid prepared & supplied by Dr Pugh". This journal entry raises a number of questions. Was Dr Pugh treating a condition which he thought merited that treatment or was it a ghastly mistake? Was Caroline Browne suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis? Was hydrocyanic acid an accepted treatment at that time? Did Mrs Browne take the wrong dose? Was an incorrect concentration of the drug prepared by Dr Pugh? Did he use the wrong pharmacopoeia in preparing the hydrocyanic acid? Why was there no inquest? Only some of these questions can be answered.

  3. Non-transplant therapies for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh-Turcotte class B cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Alessandro; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Underlying liver cirrhosis is present in most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation is the only treatment strategy to cure both diseases. All other hepatocellular carcinoma treatment strategies have to take into account residual liver function that concurs with the patient's prognosis and might limit their feasibility. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh-Turcotte class B (CPT-B), owing to borderline liver function, any intervention might be offset by liver function deterioration. In this setting, the decision for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment requires a comprehensive assessment of liver function, not restricted to the CPT classification, in addition to a careful evaluation of the prognostic effect of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with cirrhosis. In this Review, we provide an overview of the literature regarding the benefits and harms of non-transplant therapies in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and CPT-B cirrhosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the LOD score compared with APACHE II score in prediction of the hospital outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-01-01

    The Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (LOD) is an organ dysfunction score that can predict hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the LOD score compared with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary referral university hospital in Thailand. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24 month period from July1, 2004 until June 30, 2006. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H statistic. The overall fit of the model was evaluated by the Brier's score. Overall, 1,429 patients were enrolled during the study period. The mortality in the ICU was 20.9% and in the hospital was 27.9%. The median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3 and 18 days, respectively, for all patients. Both models showed excellent discrimination. The AUROC for the LOD and APACHE II were 0.860 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.882] and 0.898 (95% Cl = 0.879-0.917), respectively. The LOD score had perfect calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 10 (p = 0.44). However, the APACHE II had poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 75.69 (p < 0.001). Brier's score showed the overall fit for both models were 0.123 (95%Cl = 0.107-0.141) and 0.114 (0.098-0.132) for the LOD and APACHE II, respectively. Thus, the LOD score was found to be accurate for predicting hospital mortality for general critically ill patients in Thailand.

  5. Validation of APACHE II scoring system at 24 hours after admission as a prognostic tool in urosepsis: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramoorthy VijayGanapathy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urosepsis implies clinically evident severe infection of urinary tract with features of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. We validate the role of a single Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score at 24 hours after admission in predicting mortality in urosepsis. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was done in 178 patients admitted with urosepsis in the Department of Urology, in a tertiary care institute from January 2015 to August 2016. Patients >18 years diagnosed as urosepsis using SIRS criteria with positive urine or blood culture for bacteria were included. At 24 hours after admission to intensive care unit, APACHE II score was calculated using 12 physiological variables, age and chronic health. Results: Mean±standard deviation (SD APACHE II score was 26.03±7.03. It was 24.31±6.48 in survivors and 32.39±5.09 in those expired (p<0.001. Among patients undergoing surgery, mean±SD score was higher (30.74±4.85 than among survivors (24.30±6.54 (p<0.001. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed area under curve (AUC of 0.825 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 56.4% specific to predict mortality. Mean±SD score in those undergoing surgery was 25.22±6.70 and was lesser than those who did not undergo surgery (28.44±7.49 (p=0.007. ROC analysis revealed AUC of 0.760 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 45.6% specific to predict mortality even after surgery. Conclusions: A single APACHE II score assessed at 24 hours after admission was able to predict morbidity, mortality, need for surgical intervention, length of hospitalization, treatment success and outcome in urosepsis patients.

  6. Validation of APACHE II scoring system at 24 hours after admission as a prognostic tool in urosepsis: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VijayGanapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Karthikeyan, VIlvapathy Senguttuvan; Sreenivas, Jayaram; Mallya, Ashwin; Keshavamurthy, Ramaiah

    2017-11-01

    Urosepsis implies clinically evident severe infection of urinary tract with features of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We validate the role of a single Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at 24 hours after admission in predicting mortality in urosepsis. A prospective observational study was done in 178 patients admitted with urosepsis in the Department of Urology, in a tertiary care institute from January 2015 to August 2016. Patients >18 years diagnosed as urosepsis using SIRS criteria with positive urine or blood culture for bacteria were included. At 24 hours after admission to intensive care unit, APACHE II score was calculated using 12 physiological variables, age and chronic health. Mean±standard deviation (SD) APACHE II score was 26.03±7.03. It was 24.31±6.48 in survivors and 32.39±5.09 in those expired (p<0.001). Among patients undergoing surgery, mean±SD score was higher (30.74±4.85) than among survivors (24.30±6.54) (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed area under curve (AUC) of 0.825 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 56.4% specific to predict mortality. Mean±SD score in those undergoing surgery was 25.22±6.70 and was lesser than those who did not undergo surgery (28.44±7.49) (p=0.007). ROC analysis revealed AUC of 0.760 with cutoff 25.5 being 94.7% sensitive and 45.6% specific to predict mortality even after surgery. A single APACHE II score assessed at 24 hours after admission was able to predict morbidity, mortality, need for surgical intervention, length of hospitalization, treatment success and outcome in urosepsis patients.

  7. Apache 2 Pocket Reference For Apache Programmers & Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Even if you know the Apache web server inside and out, you still need an occasional on-the-job reminder -- especially if you're moving to the newer Apache 2.x. Apache 2 Pocket Reference gives you exactly what you need to get the job done without forcing you to plow through a cumbersome, doorstop-sized reference. This Book provides essential information to help you configure and maintain the server quickly, with brief explanations that get directly to the point. It covers Apache 2.x, giving web masters, web administrators, and programmers a quick and easy reference solution. This pocket r

  8. Renal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and its correlation with Child-Pugh score and MELD score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Gurning, M.

    2018-03-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is a serious and common complication in a patient with liver cirrhosis. It provides a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the renal function in liver cirrhosis, also to determine the correlation with the graduation of liver disease assessed by Child-Pugh Score (CPS) and MELD score. This was a cross-sectional study included patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to Adam Malik Hospital Medan in June - August 2016. We divided them into two groups as not having renal dysfunction (serum creatinine SPSS 22.0 was used. Statistical methods used: Chi-square, Fisher exact, one way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test and Pearson coefficient of correlation. The level of significance was p<0.05. 55 patients with presented with renal dysfunction were 16 (29.1 %). There was statistically significant inverse correlation between GFR and CPS (r = -0.308), GFR and MELD score (r = -0.278). There was a statistically significant correlation between creatinine and MELD score (r = 0.359), creatinine and CPS (r = 0.382). The increase of the degree of liver damage is related to the increase of renal dysfunction.

  9. Apache Maven cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bharathan, Raghuram

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer or a manager who has experience with Apache Maven and want to extend your knowledge, then this is the ideal book for you. Apache Maven Cookbook is for those who want to learn how Apache Maven can be used for build automation. It is also meant for those familiar with Apache Maven, but want to understand the finer nuances of Maven and solve specific problems.

  10. D-dimer as marker for microcirculatory failure: correlation with LOD and APACHE II scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstwurm, Matthias W A; Reininger, Armin J; Spannagl, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of plasma d-dimer levels as marker for morbidity and organ dysfunction in severely ill patients is largely unknown. In a prospective study we determined d-dimer plasma levels of 800 unselected patients at admission to our intensive care unit. In 91% of the patients' samples d-dimer levels were elevated, in some patients up to several hundredfold as compared to normal values. The highest mean d-dimer values were present in the patient group with thromboembolic diseases, and particularly in non-survivors of pulmonary embolism. In patients with circulatory impairment (r=0.794) and in patients with infections (r=0.487) a statistically significant correlation was present between d-dimer levels and the APACHE II score (P<0.001). The logistic organ dysfunction score (LOD, P<0.001) correlated with d-dimer levels only in patients with circulatory impairment (r=0.474). On the contrary, patients without circulatory impairment demonstrated no correlation of d-dimer levels to the APACHE II or LOD score. Taking all patients together, no correlations of d-dimer levels with single organ failure or with indicators of infection could be detected. In conclusion, d-dimer plasma levels strongly correlated with the severity of the disease and organ dysfunction in patients with circulatory impairment or infections suggesting that elevated d-dimer levels may reflect the extent of microcirculatory failure. Thus, a therapeutic strategy to improve the microcirculation in such patients may be monitored using d-dimer plasma levels.

  11. ALBI versus Child-Pugh grading systems for liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Seong K; Yim, Sun Y; Suh, Sang J; Jung, Young K; Kim, Ji H; Seo, Yeon S; Yim, Hyung J; Yeon, Jong E; Byun, Kwan S; Um, Soon H

    2018-04-01

    The prognostic performance of the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as an objective method of assessing liver function was investigated. Data from 2099 patients with HCC in Korea were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The discriminative performance of ALBI grade was compared with Child-Pugh (C-P) grade for different stages or treatments. The median follow up duration was 16.2 months (range: 1.0-124.9). The median survival times were 49.7 months for C-P grade A (65.8%), 12.4 months for C-P grade B (25.5%), and 4.2 months for C-P grade C (8.6%) (P < 0.001). The median survival times were 84.2 months for ALBI grade 1 (32.8%), 25.5 months for ALBI grade 2 (53.5%), and 7.7 months for ALBI grade 3 (13.7%) (P < 0.001). In early UICC stages, ALBI grade showed better discriminative performance than C-P grade. In curative treatments, ALBI grade also showed better discriminative performance than C-P grade (Harrell's C: 0.624 (C-P grade) vs 0.667 [ALBI grade]). ALBI grade provided better prognostic performance in survival analysis and better distribution of the grades than C-P grade in HCC, suggesting that ALBI grade could be a good alternative grading system for liver function in patients with HCC. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Uso do escore prognóstico APACHE II e ATN-ISS em insuficiência renal aguda tratada dentro e fora da unidade de terapia intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Natáia Maria da Silva; Pinto,Patrícia dos Santos; Lacet,Thiago Bento de Paiva; Rodrigues,Dominique Fonseca; Bastos,Marcus Gomes; Stella,Sérgio Reinaldo; Cendoroglo Neto,Miguel

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) mantém alta prevalência, morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso do escore prognóstico APACHE II com o ATN-ISS e determinar se o APACHE II pode ser utilizado para pacientes com IRA, fora da UTI. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva, 205 pacientes com IRA. Analisamos dados demográficos, condições pré-existentes, falência de órgãos e características da IRA. Os escores prognósticos foram realizados no dia da avaliação do nefrologista. RESULTADOS: A ...

  13. Outcomes following definitive stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with Child-Pugh B or C hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culleton, Shaelyn; Jiang, Haiyan; Haddad, Carol R.; Kim, John; Brierley, Jim; Brade, Anthony; Ringash, Jolie; Dawson, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes in patients with Child-Pugh B or C (CP B/C) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and materials: A prospective study of SBRT was developed for patients with CP B7 or B8 unresectable HCC, <10 cm. Selected ineligible patients (e.g. CP > B8, >10 cm) treated off-study from 2004 to July 2012 were also reviewed. Patients were excluded if they were treated as a bridge-to-liver-transplant. Results: 29 patients with CP B/C HCC were treated with SBRT (median dose 30 Gy in 6 fractions) from 2004 to December 2012. The majority had CP B7 liver function (69%) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (76%). The median survival was 7.9 months (95% CI: 2.8–15.1). Survival was significantly better in patients with CP = B7 and AFP ⩽ 4491 ng/mL. Of 16 evaluable patients, 63% had a decline in CP score by ⩾2 points at 3 months. Conclusion: SBRT is a treatment option for selected HCC patients with small HCCs and modestly impaired (CP B7) liver function

  14. [Prediction of mortality in patients with acute hepatic failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, L F; Berdnikov, A P; Musaeva, T S; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a study of 243 patients (from 18 to 65 years old) with acute hepatic failure. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the predictive capability of severity scales APACHE III, SOFA, MODS, Child-Pugh and to identify mortality predictors in patients with acute hepatic failure. Results; The best predictive ability in patients with acute hepatic failure and multiple organ failure had APACHE III and SOFA scales. The strongest mortality predictors were: serum creatinine > 132 mmol/L, fibrinogen < 1.4 g/L, Na < 129 mmol/L.

  15. Learning Apache Kafka

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    This book is for readers who want to know more about Apache Kafka at a hands-on level; the key audience is those with software development experience but no prior exposure to Apache Kafka or similar technologies. It is also useful for enterprise application developers and big data enthusiasts who have worked with other publisher-subscriber-based systems and want to explore Apache Kafka as a futuristic solution.

  16. APACHE II SCORING SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CHILDREN WHO UNDERWENT POLYCHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term disease prognosis should be considered for the appropriate treatment policy based on the assessment of disease severity in patients with acute disease. The adequate assessment of disease severity and prognosis allows the indications for transferring patients to the resuscitation and intensive care department to be defined more precisely. Disease severity of patients who underwent polychemotherapy was assessed using APACHE II scoring system.

  17. Rapid measurement of indocyanine green retention by pulse spectrophotometry: a validation study in 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tan To; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Yu, Wan Ching; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-06-01

    The indocyanine green (ICG) retention test is the most popular liver function test for selecting patients for major hepatectomy. Traditionally, it is done using spectrophotometry with serial blood sampling. The newly-developed pulse spectrophotometry is a faster alternative, but its accuracy on Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been well documented. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the LiMON(®), one of the pulse spectrophotometry systems, in measuring preoperative ICG retention in these patients and to devise an easy formula for conversion of the results so that they can be compared with classical literature records where ICG retention was measured by the traditional method. We measured the liver function of 70 Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma from September 2008 to January 2009. ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by traditional spectrophotometry (ICGR15) was compared with ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by the LiMON (ICGR15(L)). The median ICGR15 was 14.7% (5.6%-32%) and the median ICGR15(L) was 10.4% (1.2%-28%). The mean difference between them was -4.3606. There was a strong correlation between ICGR15 and ICGR15(L) (correlation coefficient, 0.844; 95% confidence interval, 0.762-0.899). The following formula was devised: ICGR15=1.16XICGR15(L)+2.73. The LiMON provides a fast and repeatable way to measure ICG retention at 15 minutes, but with constant underestimation of the real value. Therefore, when comparing results obtained by traditional spectrophotometry and the LiMON, adjustment of results from the latter is necessary, and this can be done with a simple mathematical calculation using the above formula.

  18. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  19. The APACHE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First, we summarize the four-year long efforts undertaken to build the final setup of the APACHE Project, a photometric transit search for small-size planets orbiting bright, low-mass M dwarfs. Next, we describe the present status of the APACHE survey, officially started in July 2012 at the site of the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley, in the Western Italian Alps. Finally, we briefly discuss the potentially far-reaching consequences of a multi-technique characterization program of the (potentially planet-bearing APACHE targets.

  20. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Li, Yingchuan; Sheng, Xiaohua; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Dongsheng; Jian, Guihua; Li, Yongguang; Feng, Liang; Wang, Niansong

    2018-03-29

    Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR) can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012). Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372), APACHE II score (OR = 1.187), age (OR = 1.028) and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED. A comparison with APACHE II score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travaglino Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P P . MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P  respectively. In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent hospitalization of febrile patients. The rational use of these two molecules could lead to several advantages, such as faster diagnosis, more accurate risk stratification, and optimization of the treatment, with consequent benefit to the patient and

  2. Combination of Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio and the APACHE II Score Better Predicts the Short-Term Outcome in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Both the Acute physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score and mean platelet volume/platelet count Ratio (MPR can independently predict adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. This study was aimed to investigate whether the combination of them could have a better performance in predicting prognosis of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Methods: Two hundred twenty-three patients with AKI who underwent CRRT between January 2009 and December 2014 in a Chinese university hospital were enrolled. They were divided into survivals group and non-survivals group based on the situation at discharge. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was used for MPR and APACHE II score, and to determine the optimal cut-off value of MPR for in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4 years, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 48.4%. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS was the most common cause of AKI. The optimal cut-off value of MPR for mortality was 0.099 with an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.636. The AUC increased to 0.851 with the addition of the APACHE II score. The mortality of patients with of MPR > 0.099 was 56.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group with of ≤ 0.099 (39.6%, P= 0.012. Logistic regression analysis showed that average number of organ failure (OR = 2.372, APACHE II score (OR = 1.187, age (OR = 1.028 and vasopressors administration (OR = 38.130 were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Severity of illness was significantly associated with prognosis of patients with AKI. The combination of MPR and APACHE II score may be helpful in predicting the short-term outcome of AKI.

  3. Predictive values of urine paraquat concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Tao; Li, Lu-Lu; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the predictive values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. A total of 194 patients with acute PQ poisoning, hospitalized between April 2012 and January 2014 at the First Affiliated Hospital of P.R. China Medical University (Shenyang, China), were selected and divided into survival and mortality groups. Logistic regression analysis, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to evaluate the values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and (APACHE) II score for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Initial urine PQ concentration (C0), dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score of patients in the mortality group were significantly higher compared with the survival group (all Ppoison and arterial blood lactate correlated with mortality risk of acute PQ poisoning (all Ppoison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.921, 0.887, 0.808 and 0.648, respectively. The AUC of C0 for predicting early and delayed mortality were 0.890 and 0.764, respectively. The AUC values of urine paraquat concentration the day after poisoning (Csec) and the rebound rate of urine paraquat concentration in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.919 and 0.805, respectively. The 28-day survival rate of patients with C0 ≤32.2 µg/ml (42/71; 59.2%) was significantly higher when compared with patients with C0 >32.2 µg/ml (38/123; 30.9%). These results suggest that the initial urine PQ concentration may be the optimal index for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Additionally, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate, Csec and rebound rate also have referential significance.

  4. Learning Apache Karaf

    CERN Document Server

    Edstrom, Johan; Kesler, Heath

    2013-01-01

    The book is a fast-paced guide full of step-by-step instructions covering all aspects of application development using Apache Karaf.Learning Apache Karaf will benefit all Java developers and system administrators who need to develop for and/or operate Karaf's OSGi-based runtime. Basic knowledge of Java is assumed.

  5. Component-Metabolome Correlations of Gut Microbiota from Child-Turcotte-Pugh of A and B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The gut flora are widely involved in the cometabolism with the host and have evident effects on the metabolic phenotype of host. This study performed a metabolome analysis of the intestinal microbiota specific for liver cirrhosis. The study population included patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP score of A (AP, n=5 and B (BP, n=5, and control subjects (NM, n=3. Metagenomic DNA from fecal microbiota was extracted followed by metagenomic sequenceing through Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA regions. The detection of metabolites from fecal samples was performed using high-performance liquid phase chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-GC/MS-MS. Intestinal microbiota community and metabolite analysis both showed separation of cirrhotic patients from control participants, moreover, the microbiota-metabolite correlations changed in cirrhotic patients. Fecal microbiota from cirrhotic patients, with the reduced diversity, contained a decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes and an increased abundance of Proteobacteria compared with the normal samples. Analysis of metabolome revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota in cirrhotic patients, with specific higher concentrations of amine, unsaturated fatty acid, and SCFAs (short-chain fatty acids, and lower concentrations of sugar alcohol and amino acid, suggesting the initial equilibrium of gut microbiota community and co-metabolism with the host were perturbed by cirrhosis. Our study illustrated the relationship between fecal microbiota composition and metabolom in cirrhotic patients, which may improve the clinical prognosis of cirrhosis.

  6. [Comparative evaluation of survival prognosis using MELD or Child-Pugh scores in patients with liver cirrhosis in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Edgar; Contreras, Jorge; Zapata, Rodrigo; Sanhueza, Matías; Elgueta, Fabián; López, Constanza; Jerez, Sigrid; Jerez, Verónica; Delgado, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Currently, most liver units use the Child-Pugh (CP) or the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores to establish survival prognosis among patients with liver cirrhosis. Which classification is superior, is not well defined. To compare CP and MELD classification scores to predict survival among adult patients with liver cirrhosis in Chile. Follow-up of 137 consecutive adult patients with liver cirrhosis aged 59 ± 12 years (55% women). The diagnosis was reached by clinical, laboratory and image studies at three different centers of Santiago. Patients were staged with CP and MELD classification scores at baseline and followed over a period of 12 months. The predictive capacity of the scores for survival was analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves). The most common etiology was alcohol (37.9%). The actuarial survival rate was 79.6% at 12 months of follow-up. When comparing groups with areas under curve of receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC), there was no statistically significant difference in survival between less severe and advanced disease, assessed with both survival scales. The AUROC for MELD and CP were 0.80 and 0.81, respectively. This clinical study did not find a statistically significant difference between the two classifications for the prediction of 12 months survival in patients with cirrhosis.

  7. Instant Apache Wicket 6

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, João Sávio Ceregatti

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This Starter style guide takes the reader through the basic workflow of Apache Wicket in a practical and friendly style.Instant Apache Wicket 6 is for people who want to learn the basics of Apache Wicket 6 and who already have some experience with Java and object-oriented programming. Basic knowledge of web concepts like HTTP and Ajax will be an added advantage.

  8. The Ability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV Score to Predict Mortality in a Single Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Choi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II model has been widely used in Korea. However, there have been few studies on the APACHE IV model in Korean intensive care units (ICUs. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of APACHE IV and APACHE II in predicting hospital mortality, and to investigate the ability of APACHE IV as a critical care triage criterion. Methods The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Measurements of discrimination and calibration were performed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test respectively. We also calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR. Results The APACHE IV score, the Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI score, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and unplanned ICU admissions were independently associated with hospital mortality. The calibration, discrimination, and SMR of APACHE IV were good (H = 7.67, P = 0.465; C = 3.42, P = 0.905; AUROC = 0.759; SMR = 1.00. However, the explanatory power of an APACHE IV score >93 alone on hospital mortality was low at 44.1%. The explanatory power was increased to 53.8% when the hospital mortality was predicted using a model that considers APACHE IV >93 scores, medical admission, and risk factors for CCI >3 coincidentally. However, the discriminative ability of the prediction model was unsatisfactory (C index <0.70. Conclusions The APACHE IV presented good discrimination, calibration, and SMR for hospital mortality.

  9. Apache Mahout cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Apache Mahout Cookbook uses over 35 recipes packed with illustrations and real-world examples to help beginners as well as advanced programmers get acquainted with the features of Mahout.""Apache Mahout Cookbook"" is great for developers who want to have a fresh and fast introduction to Mahout coding. No previous knowledge of Mahout is required, and even skilled developers or system administrators will benefit from the various recipes presented

  10. The Jicarilla Apaches. A Study in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnerson, Dolores A.

    Focusing on the ultimate fate of the Cuartelejo and/or Paloma Apaches known in archaeological terms as the Dismal River people of the Central Plains, this book is divided into 2 parts. The early Apache (1525-1700) and the Jicarilla Apache (1700-1800) tribes are studied in terms of their: persistent cultural survival, social/political adaptability,…

  11. The Apache OODT Project: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Ramirez, P.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Apache OODT is a science data system framework, borne over the past decade, with 100s of FTEs of investment, tens of sponsoring agencies (NASA, NIH/NCI, DoD, NSF, universities, etc.), and hundreds of projects and science missions that it powers everyday to their success. At its core, Apache OODT carries with it two fundamental classes of software services and components: those that deal with information integration from existing science data repositories and archives, that themselves have already-in-use business processes and models for populating those archives. Information integration allows search, retrieval, and dissemination across these heterogeneous systems, and ultimately rapid, interactive data access, and retrieval. The other suite of services and components within Apache OODT handle population and processing of those data repositories and archives. Workflows, resource management, crawling, remote data retrieval, curation and ingestion, along with science data algorithm integration all are part of these Apache OODT software elements. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the use of Apache OODT to unlock and populate information from science data repositories and archives. We'll cover the basics, along with some advanced use cases and success stories.

  12. Random Decision Forests on Apache Spark

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    About the speaker Tom White has been an Apache Hadoop committer since February 2007, and is a member of the Apache Software Foundation. He works for Cloudera, a company set up to offer Hadoop support and training. Previously he was as an independent Hadoop consultant, work...

  13. Apache Tomcat 7 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, Tanuj

    2012-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial for anyone wanting to learn Apache Tomcat 7 from scratch. There are plenty of illustrations and examples to escalate you from a novice to an expert with minimal strain. If you are a J2EE administrator, migration administrator, technical architect, or a project manager for a web hosting domain, and are interested in Apache Tomcat 7, then this book is for you. If you are someone responsible for installation, configuration, and management of Tomcat 7, then too, this book will be of help to you.

  14. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  15. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  16. Apache Solr essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzarini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    If you are a competent developer with experience of working with technologies similar to Apache Solr and want to develop efficient search applications, then this book is for you. Familiarity with the Java programming language is required.

  17. Apache Mahout essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Withanawasam, Jayani

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer or data scientist, haven't worked with Apache Mahout before, and want to get up to speed on implementing machine learning on big data, then this is the perfect guide for you.

  18. Predictive accuracy of model for end stage liver disease (meld) as a prognostic marker for cirrhosis in comparison with child - pugh score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, U.B.; Alam, M.M.; Saeed, F.

    2015-01-01

    To compare Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Turcott-Pugh (CTG) scoring as predictors of survival in cirrhotic patients. Study Design: Observational prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1st Dec 2008 to 30th April 2009. Material and Methods: The study was carried out at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Study included 55 patients suffering from cirrhosis of both genders being above 12 years of age, admitted in medical wards during the period from 1st December, 2008 to 30th April 2009. Each patient was assigned a MELD and CTP score. On discharge, these patients were followed up at 03 months, 06 months and 1 year duration through telephone. Results: Thirty seven (67.3%) patients were male while 18 (32.7%) were female patients, with age ranging from 27 years to 75 years (mean 53). Fourteen (25.4%) patients were dead at 3-months, 22 patients (40%) were dead at 6-months and 29 (52.7%) patients were dead at 1 year follow up. MELD score proved to be a better indicator of survival than CTP score over a period of 01 year follow-up. Conclusion: MELD score is a better prognostic marker for cirrhotic patients as compared to CTP score. (author)

  19. Quantitative evaluation of hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in liver cirrhosis : correlation with child-pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Hyo Won; Choi, Hye Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Yi, Sun Young

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the differences in signal changes in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, and to determine whether these differences can be used as an indicator of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 25 cases of liver cirrhosis were evaluated and as a control group, 20 subjects were also studied. Using a 1.5T MRI scannet, brain MR images were obtained, and the differences in signal intensity in both the globus pallidus and thalamus and in both white and gray matter were then quantified using the contrast to noise ratio(CNR). On the basis of the Child-Pugh classification, 25patients with liver cirrhosis were divided into three groups, with eight in group A, eight in B, and nine in C. Using clinical criteria, hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed in seven of the 25 patients. There after, CNRs(CNR1 and CNR2) were conpared between the control and cirrhotic groups and between cirrhotic groups with or without hepatic encephalopathy. In the control group, mean values were 3.2±5.9 for CNR1 and 8.4±8.0 for CNR2. In the cirrhotic group, these values were 10.6±9.0 for CNR1 and 9.8±6.4 for CNR2. A statistically significant difference was noted between normal and cirrhotic groups only for CNR1(p<0.05). CNR values in patients with liver cirrhosis were 8.5±11.5 for CNR1 and 11.7±8.7 for CNR2 in the Child A group, 10.4±5.1 for CNR1 and 9.3±3.2 for CNR2 in the B group, and 12.8±9.7 for CNR1 and 8.7±6.5 for CNR2 in the C group. There was no significant difference in mean CNRI values between patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy. Differences in signal intensities in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, cannot be used as an indicator of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis

  20. Quantitative evaluation of hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in liver cirrhosis : correlation with child-pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Hyo Won; Choi, Hye Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Yi, Sun Young [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To investigate the differences in signal changes in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, and to determine whether these differences can be used as an indicator of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 25 cases of liver cirrhosis were evaluated and as a control group, 20 subjects were also studied. Using a 1.5T MRI scannet, brain MR images were obtained, and the differences in signal intensity in both the globus pallidus and thalamus and in both white and gray matter were then quantified using the contrast to noise ratio(CNR). On the basis of the Child-Pugh classification, 25patients with liver cirrhosis were divided into three groups, with eight in group A, eight in B, and nine in C. Using clinical criteria, hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed in seven of the 25 patients. There after, CNRs(CNR1 and CNR2) were conpared between the control and cirrhotic groups and between cirrhotic groups with or without hepatic encephalopathy. In the control group, mean values were 3.2{+-}5.9 for CNR1 and 8.4{+-}8.0 for CNR2. In the cirrhotic group, these values were 10.6{+-}9.0 for CNR1 and 9.8{+-}6.4 for CNR2. A statistically significant difference was noted between normal and cirrhotic groups only for CNR1(p<0.05). CNR values in patients with liver cirrhosis were 8.5{+-}11.5 for CNR1 and 11.7{+-}8.7 for CNR2 in the Child A group, 10.4{+-}5.1 for CNR1 and 9.3{+-}3.2 for CNR2 in the B group, and 12.8{+-}9.7 for CNR1 and 8.7{+-}6.5 for CNR2 in the C group. There was no significant difference in mean CNRI values between patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy. Differences in signal intensities in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, cannot be used as an indicator of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  1. Changes of the liver volume and the Child-Pugh score after high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Young Yih; Kang, Sang Won; Paik, Seung Woon

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the safety of high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with small HCC who were treated with high dose hypofractionated RT between 2006 and 2009. The serial changes of the liver volumetric parameter were analyzed from pre-RT and follow-up (FU) computed tomography (CT) scans. We estimated linear time trends of whole liver volume using a linear mixed model. The serial changes of the Child-Pugh (CP) scores were also analyzed in relation to the volumetric changes. Mean pre-RT volume of entire liver was 1,192.2 mL (range, 502.6 to 1,310.2 mL) and mean clinical target volume was 14.7 mL (range, 1.56 to 70.07 mL). Fourteen (87.5%) patients had 4 FU CT sets and 2 (12.5%) patients had 3 FU CT sets. Mean interval between FU CT acquisition was 2.5 months. After considering age, gender and the irradiated liver volume as a fixed effects, the mixed model analysis confirmed that the change in liver volume is not significant throughout the time course of FU periods. Majority of patients had a CP score change less than 2 except in 1 patient who had CP score change more than 3. The high dose hypofractionated RT for small HCC is relatively safe and feasible in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging versus Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wei; Zhang Xiaoming; Xiao Bo; Zeng Nanlin; Pan Huashan; Feng Zhisong; Xu Xiaoxue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between established magnetic resonance (MR) imaging criteria of disease severity in acute pancreatitis and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and to assess the utility of each prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: In this study there were 94 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), all had abdominal MR imaging. MR findings were categorized into edematous and necrotizing AP and graded according to the MR severity index (MRSI). The APACHE II score was calculated within 24 h of admission, and local complications, death, duration of hospitalization and ICU were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine their correlation. Results: In patients with pancreatitis, no significant correlation can be found between the APACHE II score and the MRSI score (P = 0.196). The MRSI score correlated well with morbidity (P = 0.006) but not with mortality (P = 0.137). The APACHE II score correlated well with mortality (P = 0.002) but not with the morbidity (P = 0.112). The MRSI score was superior to the APACHE II score as a predictor of the length of hospitalization (r = 0.52 vs. r = 0.35). A high MRSI and APACHE II score correlated with the need for being in the intensive care unit (ICU) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: In patients with pancreatitis, MRSI is superior to APACHE II in assessing local complications from pancreatitis but has a limited role in determining systemic complications in which the APACHE II score excels.

  3. Scoring system in cirrhotics due to viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A.R.; Butt, N.; Lal, K.; Munir, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum cholesterol levels with Child-Pugh class in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease due to viral hepatitis. Methodology: Consecutive patients attending outpatient department or admitted in medical unit III were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis. Patients were excluded if alcoholic, diabetic, hypertensive, or with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or kidney diseases and recent use of lipid-regulating drugs. Serum lipid profile was determined after an overnight fast of 12 hours. On the basis of serum total cholesterol, patients were divided into four groups; Group I with serum total cholesterol = 100 mg/dl, Group II with level of 101-150 mg/dl, Group III with level of 151-200 mg/dl and Group IV with serum total cholesterol level of > 200 mg/dl. Hepatic dysfunction was categorized according to Child-Pugh scoring system. Chi-square and Spearman's correlation testing with p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 40.32 +- 13.59 years. Among these 32 were females (28.1%) while 82 were males (71.9%). According to Child-Pugh class; 34 patients (29.8%) presented with Child-Pugh class A, 34 (29.8%) in class B and 46 (40.4%) were in class C. Serum cholesterol (total) and triglycerides had significant association with Child-Pugh class (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.004 respectively) suggesting that as severity of liver dysfunction increases; serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease. Results also revealed that males were significantly more hypocholesterolemic than females (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Hypocholesterolemia is a common finding in decompensated chronic liver disease and has got significant association with Child-Pugh class. It may increase the reliability of Child-Pugh classification in assessment of severity and prognosis in

  4. Apaches push privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.

    1994-01-01

    Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co

  5. Perl and Apache Your visual blueprint for developing dynamic Web content

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Visually explore the range of built-in and third-party libraries of Perl and Apache. Perl and Apache have been providing Common Gateway Interface (CGI) access to Web sites for 20 years and are constantly evolving to support the ever-changing demands of Internet users. With this book, you will heighten your knowledge and see how to usePerl and Apache to develop dynamic Web sites. Beginning with a clear, step-by-step explanation of how to install Perl and Apache on both Windows and Linux servers, you then move on to configuring each to securely provide CGI Services. CGI developer and author Adam

  6. Clinical and CT evaluation of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changxue; Tu Rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of clinical and CT assessment of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with cirrhosis and primary liver cancer treated using TACE were studied prospectively. The hepatic reserve function was evaluated using Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification before and after TACE respectively. The modified Child-Pugh classification was an integration of Child-Pugh classification, morphological evaluation of the cirrhotic liver and measurement of tumor-free liver volume by CT. Agreement rates of the two methods for assessing the hepatic reserve function peri-operatively and the survival time were calculated. Results: The agreement rates of Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification for assessing the postoperative hepatic reserve function were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively in well-compensated cases (P 2 =11.2, 8.7, 13.5, P<0.001) shorter than that of patients in modified Child-Pugh classes A (71 months), B (46 months) and C (7.6 months). Conclusion: Modified Child-Pugh classification is better than Child-Pugh classification for assessing the hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing TACE. (authors)

  7. Mastering Apache Cassandra

    CERN Document Server

    Neeraj, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Apache Cassandra is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. The smooth and easy tutorial approach focuses on showing people how to utilize Cassandra to its full potential.This book is aimed at intermediate Cassandra users. It is best suited for startups where developers have to wear multiple hats: programmer, DevOps, release manager, convincing clients, and handling failures. No prior knowledge of Cassandra is required.

  8. Apache Cordova 3 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Wargo, John M

    2013-01-01

    Written for experienced mobile developers, Apache Cordova 3 Programming is a complete introduction to Apache Cordova 3 and Adobe PhoneGap 3. It describes what makes Cordova important and shows how to install and use the tools, the new Cordova CLI, the native SDKs, and more. If you’re brand new to Cordova, this book will be just what you need to get started. If you’re familiar with an older version of Cordova, this book will show you in detail how to use all of the new stuff that’s in Cordova 3 plus stuff that has been around for a while (like the Cordova core APIs). After walking you through the process of downloading and setting up the framework, mobile expert John M. Wargo shows you how to install and use the command line tools to manage the Cordova application lifecycle and how to set up and use development environments for several of the more popular Cordova supported mobile device platforms. Of special interest to new developers are the chapters on the anatomy of a Cordova application, as well ...

  9. Apache ZooKeeper essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Haloi, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a novice to ZooKeeper or already have some experience, you will be able to master the concepts of ZooKeeper and its usage with ease. This book assumes you to have some prior knowledge of distributed systems and high-level programming knowledge of C, Java, or Python, but no experience with Apache ZooKeeper is required.

  10. The use of perioperative serial blood lactate levels, the APACHE II and the postoperative MELD as predictors of early mortality after liver transplantation O uso da dosagem seriada do lactato sérico no perioperatório, do APACHE II e do MELD pós-operatório como preditores de mortalidade precoce após transplante hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Basile-Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of different parameters in predicting early (one-month mortality of patients submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of forty-four patients (38 males and 10 females, mean age of 52.2 ± 8.9 years admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. Serial lactate blood levels, APACHE II, MELD post-OLT, creatinine, bilirubin and INR parameters were analyzed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curves as evidenced by the area under the curve (AUC. The level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mortality of OLT patients within one month was 17.3%. Differences in blood lactate levels became statistically significant between survivors and nonsurvivors at the end of the surgery (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar qual parâmetro é o mais eficiente na predição de mortalidade precoce (um mês de pacientes submetidos a transplante ortotópico de fígado (OLT. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em cinqüenta e oito pacientes adultos (44 homens e 14 mulheres, com uma idade média de 51,7 ± 10,1 anos admitidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital terciário. Os parâmetros como a dosagem seriada de lactato no sangue, APACHE II, MELD pós-OLT, creatinina, bilirrubina e INR foram analisados por curvas ROC (Receiver-operator characteristic, evidenciado pela área abaixo da curva (AUC. O nível de significância foi definido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade dos pacientes OLT em até um mês foi de 17,3%. As diferenças no nível de lactato no sangue tornaram-se estatisticamente significantes entre sobreviventes e não sobreviventes no final da cirurgia (p < 0,05. A AUC foi de 0,726 (95%CI = 0,593-0,835 para APACHE II (p = 0,02; 0,770 (95%CI = 0,596-0,849 para o lactato sérico (L7-L8 (p = 0,03; 0,814 (95%CI = 0,690-0,904 para MELD post-OLT (p < 0,01; 0,550 (95%CI = 0,414-0,651 de creatinina (p = 0,64; 0,705 (95%CI = 0,571-0,818 de bilirrubina (p = 0,05 e 0

  11. A new Child-Turcotte-Pugh class 0 for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: determinants, prognostic impact and ability to improve the current staging systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available Majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC belonged to Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP class A. We aimed to identify a new class of patients with very well-preserved liver function and analyze its impact on outcome prediction, tumor staging and treatment allocation.A total of 2654 HCC patients were retrospectively analyzed. The prognostic ability was compared by the Akaike information criterion (AIC.The CTP class 0 was defined by fulfilling all criteria of albumin ≧4 g/dL, bilirubin ≦0.8 mg/dL, prothrombin time prolongation <0 seconds, no ascites and encephalopathy. A total of 23% of patients of CTP class A were reclassified as CTP class 0. Patients with CTP class 0 had a higher serum sodium level, lower serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, α-fetoprotein levels, shorter prothrombin time, better general well-being, smaller tumor burden with more solitary nodules, lower rates of vascular invasion, ascites formation, hepatic encephalopathy, more frequently treated with curative interventions and better Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC stages (all p<0.001. In the Cox proportional hazards model, the adjusted hazard ratios for CTP class A, B and C were 1.739, 3.120 and 5.107, respectively, compared to class 0 (all p<0.001. Reassigning patients with CTP class 0, A, B, B and C to stage 0, A, B, C and D, respectively, provided the lowest AIC score among all BCLC-based models.The proposal of CTP class 0 independently predicted better survival in HCC patients. Modification of tumor staging systems according to the modified CTP classification further enhances their prognostic ability.

  12. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, F H

    2016-01-01

    To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method.

  13. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  14. Biology and distribution of Lutzomyia apache as it relates to VSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Lutzomyia apache was incriminated as a vector of vesicular stomatitis viruses(VSV)due to overlapping ranges of the sand fly and outbreaks of VSV. I report on newly discovered populations of L. apache in Wyoming from Albany and ...

  15. Lyman NTCP model analysis of radiation-induced liver disease in hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong; Zhu Yi; Zhao Jiaodong; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify the factors associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) and to describe the probability of RILD using the Lyman normal tissue complication(NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma(PLC) treated with hypofractionated conformal therapy (CRT). Methods: A total of 109 PLC patients treated with hypofractionated CRT were prospectively followed according to the Child-Pugh classification for liver cirrhosis, 93 patients in class A and 16 in class B. The mean dose of radiation to the isocenter was (53.5±5.5) Gy, fractions of (4.8±0.5) Gy, with interfraction interval of 48 hours and irradiation 3 times per week. Maximal likelihood analysis yielded the best estimates of parameters of the Lyman NTCP model for all patients; Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Results: Of all the patients, 17 developed RILD (17/109), 8 in Child-Pugh A (8/93) and 9 in Child-Pugh B (9/16). By multivariate analysis, only the Child-Pugh Grade of liver cirrhosis was the independent factor (P=0.000) associated with the developing of BILD. The best estimates of the NTCP parameters for all 109 patients were n=1.1, m=0.35 and TD 50 (1)=38.5 Gy. The n, m, TD 50 (1) estimated from patients with Child-Pugh A was 1.1, 0.28, 40.5 Gy, respectively, compared with 0.7, 0.43, 23 Gy respectively, for patients with Child-Pugh B. Conclusions: Primary liver cancer patients who possess Child-Pugh B cirrhosis would present a significantly greater susceptibility to RILD after hypofractionated CRT than patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. The predominant risk factor for developing RILD is the severity of hepatic cirrhosis in the liver of PLC patients. (authors)

  16. Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu ZhiYong; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Ji; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Jiandong; Lu Haijie; Yang Yunli; Chen Long; Wang Anyu; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD 5 (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD 5 ) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended

  17. Splenomegaly and its Relation to Esophageal Varices in Patient with liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheid, S.A.; Hafez, E.N.; Al Kady, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis has been associated with portal hypertension as a common complication with subsequent development of esophageal varices (EV).Bleeding due to rupture of esophageal varices (EV) is one of main cause of death in liver cirrhosis, that endoscopy screening is recommended. The aim of work was to determin the of the degree esophageal varices endoscopically in in 60 cirrhotic patients,(32 in Child-Pugh's class A, 16 in Child-Pugh's class B, and 12 in Child-Pugh's class C) who were examined clinically, laboratory , ultrasonography to and comparing them with the determines of the spleen ultrasonography and some biochemical data . Correlation analysis was done to assess this study. Of 60 patients, 20 were admitted to hospital because of acute gastro-intestinal bleeding and 40 without history of gastro-intestinal bleeding. The range age of patients was 30-65 years (average 48.4 ± 8.6 years), 6 (10%) patients with EV grade I, 14(23.4%) patients with grade II and 10 (16.6%) patients with grade III. Twinty patients having esophageal varices of different degrees, had no splenomegaly. A negative correlation was found between spleen diameter and the degree of EV (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with varices increased with the severty of Liver cirrhosis: 6(18.8) of 32 patients in Child-Pugh class A,14 (87.5%) of 16 in Child-Pugh class B, and 10(83.3%) of 12 in Child-Pugh class C had varices.The degree of EV significantly correlated with Child-Puph score. Patients with varices had lower platelet counts comparison to those without varices (237.259 ± 100.305, 298.424 ± 103.09 respectively; p<0.001), and lower serum albumin comparison to those without varices (1.8 ± 0.92, 2.8 ± 0.83 respectively; p<0.001). The platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD) in patients with EV were significantly Rasheid et. al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., 266 Vol. 6, No. 1B (2013) different from patients without EV (945.84±778.59, 686.26± 546.39 respectively; p<0.001).

  18. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, SC, during the Labor Day fireworks... [[Page 51476

  19. Growth and survival of Apache Trout under static and fluctuating temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recsetar, Matthew S.; Bonar, Scott A.; Feuerbacher, Olin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stream temperatures have important implications for arid-region fishes. Little is known about effects of high water temperatures that fluctuate over extended periods on Apache Trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache, a federally threatened species of southwestern USA streams. We compared survival and growth of juvenile Apache Trout held for 30 d in static temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, and 28°C) and fluctuating diel temperatures (±3°C from 16, 19, 22 and 25°C midpoints and ±6°C from 19°C and 22°C midpoints). Lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of the Apache Trout under static temperatures (mean [SD] = 22.8 [0.6]°C) was similar to that of ±3°C diel temperature fluctuations (23.1 [0.1]°C). Mean LT50 for the midpoint of the ±6°C fluctuations could not be calculated because survival in the two treatments (19 ± 6°C and 22 ± 6°C) was not below 50%; however, it probably was also between 22°C and 25°C because the upper limb of a ±6°C fluctuation on a 25°C midpoint is above critical thermal maximum for Apache Trout (28.5–30.4°C). Growth decreased as temperatures approached the LT50. Apache Trout can survive short-term exposure to water temperatures with daily maxima that remain below 25°C and midpoint diel temperatures below 22°C. However, median summer stream temperatures must remain below 19°C for best growth and even lower if daily fluctuations are high (≥12°C).

  20. TIPS para o controle das complicações da hipertensão portal: eficácia, fatores prognósticos associados e variações técnicas TIPS for controlling portal hypertension complications: efficacy, predictors of outcome and technical variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Hugo Kisilevzky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt para tratar as complicações clínicas em pacientes com hipertensão portal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e quatro pacientes, sendo 30 do sexo masculino e 14 do feminino e com idade média de 52 anos foram analisados. A indicação para realização de TIPS foi hemorragia gastrintestinal em 28 e ascite refratária em 16. Houve 7 pacientes Child-Pugh A, 24 Child-Pugh B e 11 Child-Pugh C. RESULTADOS: O TIPS foi realizado com sucesso em todos os pacientes (100%, verificando-se queda do gradiente pressórico porto-sistêmico médio de 49,69% (de 18,98 mmHg para 9,55 mmHg. Comprovou-se melhora clínica em 35 pacientes (79,55%. A mortalidade pós-operatóriaia foi de 13,64%, sendo mais incidente nos pacientes Child-Pugh C (45,45%. Os fatores mais relevantes de mau prognóstico foram o aumento da bilirrubina e do nível de creatinina. A sobrevida média de pacientes Child-Pugh A foi de 11,5 meses, nos Child-Pugh B foi de 10,97 meses e nos Child-Pugh C foi de apenas 5,9 meses. Foram observadas complicações em nove casos (20,44%. CONCLUSÃO: O TIPS é eficiente para reduzir a pressão portal. As complicações e a morbi-mortalidade relacionadas com o procedimento podem ser consideradas aceitáveis. A mortalidade foi influenciada por alguns fatores clínicos, tais como classe Child-Pugh C e elevação dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina e creatinina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for resolving clinical complications in patients with portal hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four caucasian patients, 30 men and 14 women, with a mean age of 52 years have been evaluated. Indication for TIPS has been gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 28 patients, and refractory ascites in 16. There has been 7 Child-Pugh A patients, 24 Child-Pugh B, and 11 Child-Pugh C. RESULTS: TIPS was successfully performed in all the

  1. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Min Jung; Hwang, Jiyoung; Lee, Mi Hee; Lee, Jae Won

    2012-01-01

    Background As gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been widely used for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is clinically relevant to determine the diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Material and Methods A total of 189 patients with 240 HCCs (≤3.0 cm) (Child-Pugh A, 81 patients with 90 HCCs; Child-Pugh B, 65 patients with 85 HCCs; Child-Pugh C, 43 patients with 65 HCCs) underwent DWI and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T. A gadoxetic acid set (dynamic and hepatobiliary phase plus T2-weighted image) and DWI set (DWI plus unenhanced MRIs) for each Child-Pugh class were analyzed independently by two observers for detecting HCCs using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were calculated. Results There was a trend toward decreased diagnostic accuracy for gadoxetic acid and DWI set with respect to the severity of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A [mean 0.974, 0.961], B [mean 0.904, 0.863], C [mean 0.779, 0.760]). For both observers, the sensitivities of both image sets were highest in Child-Pugh class A (mean 95.6%, 93.9%), followed by class B (mean 83.0%, 77.1%), and class C (mean 60.6%, 60.0%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion In HCC detection, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI were highest in Child-Pugh class A, followed by Child-Pugh class B, and Child-Pugh class C, indicating a tendency toward decreased diagnostic capability with the severity of cirrhosis

  3. Impact of chronic liver disease in intensive care unit acquired pneumonia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Marta; Esperatti, Mariano; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Ferrer, Miquel; Bassi, Gianluigi Li; Rinaudo, Mariano; Escorsell, Angels; Fernandez, Javier; Mas, Antoni; Blasi, Francesco; Torres, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of chronic liver disease (CLD) on ICU-acquired pneumonia. This was a prospective, observational study of the characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of 343 consecutive patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia clustered according to the presence of CLD. Sixty-seven (20%) patients had CLD (67% had liver cirrhosis, LC), MELD score 26 ± 9, 20% Child-Pugh class C). They presented higher severity scores than patients without CLD both on admission to the ICU (APACHE II, LC 19 ± 6 vs. other CLD 18 ± 6 vs. no CLD 16 ± 6; p CLD patients. LC patients had higher 28- and 90-day mortality (63 vs. 28%, p CLD patients. Presence of LC was independently associated with decreased 28- and 90-day survival (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.982-17.250; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.915-20.699, p = 0.001, respectively). In critically ill patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia, CLD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, LC is independently associated with 28- and 90-day mortality. The results of this study are important for future trials focused on mortality.

  4. Solar Feasibility Study May 2013 - San Carlos Apache Tribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix

    2013-05-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.

  5. Apache, Santa Fe energy units awarded two Myanmar blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Myanmar's state oil company has awarded production sharing contracts (PSCs) on two blocks to units of Apache Corp. and Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., both of Houston. That comes on the heels of a report by County NatWest Woodmac that notes Myanmar's oil production, currently meeting less than half the country's demand, is set to fall further this year. 150 line km of new seismic data could be acquired and one well drilled. During the initial 2 year exploration period on Block EP-3, Apache will conduct geological studies and conduct at least 200 line km of seismic data

  6. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. V.; Werpy, J.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Land Science Research and Development (LSRD) project has devised a method to fulfill its processing needs for Essential Climate Variable (ECV) production from the Landsat archive using Apache Hadoop. Apache Hadoop is the distributed processing technology at the heart of many large-scale, processing solutions implemented at well-known companies such as Yahoo, Amazon, and Facebook. It is a proven framework and can be used to process petabytes of data on thousands of processors concurrently. It is a natural fit for producing satellite imagery and requires only a few simple modifications to serve the needs of science data processing. This presentation provides an invaluable learning opportunity and should be heard by anyone doing large scale image processing today. The session will cover a description of the problem space, evaluation of alternatives, feature set overview, configuration of Hadoop for satellite image processing, real-world performance results, tuning recommendations and finally challenges and ongoing activities. It will also present how the LSRD project built a 102 core processing cluster with no financial hardware investment and achieved ten times the initial daily throughput requirements with a full time staff of only one engineer. Satellite Imagery Production and Processing Using Apache Hadoop is presented by David V. Hill, Principal Software Architect for USGS LSRD.

  7. Performance of the score systems Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and III at an interdisciplinary intensive care unit, after customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, Rainer; Deutschinoff, Gerd; Pientka, Ludger; Scholten, Theo; Lorenz, Cristoph

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mortality predictions calculated using scoring scales are often not accurate in populations other than those in which the scales were developed because of differences in case-mix. The present study investigates the effect of first-level customization, using a logistic regression technique, on discrimination and calibration of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III scales. Method: Probabilities of hospital death for patients were estimated by applying APACHE II and III and comparing these with observed outcomes. Using the split sample technique, a customized model to predict outcome was developed by logistic regression. The overall goodness-of-fit of the original and the customized models was assessed. Results: Of 3383 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions over 3 years, 2795 patients could be analyzed, and were split randomly into development and validation samples. The discriminative powers of APACHE II and III were unchanged by customization (areas under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve 0.82 and 0.85, respectively). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests showed good calibration for APACHE II, but insufficient calibration for APACHE III. Customization improved calibration for both models, with a good fit for APACHE III as well. However, fit was different for various subgroups. Conclusions: The overall goodness-of-fit of APACHE III mortality prediction was improved significantly by customization, but uniformity of fit in different subgroups was not achieved. Therefore, application of the customized model provides no advantage, because differences in case-mix still limit comparisons of quality of care. PMID:11178223

  8. An External Independent Validation of APACHE IV in a Malaysian Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rowena S Y; Ismail, Noor Azina; Tan, Cheng Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) prognostic models are predominantly used in more developed nations such as the United States, Europe and Australia. These are not that popular in Southeast Asian countries due to costs and technology considerations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV model in a single centre Malaysian ICU. A prospective study was conducted at the single centre ICU in Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA) Malaysia. External validation of APACHE IV involved a cohort of 916 patients who were admitted in 2009. Model performance was assessed through its calibration and discrimination abilities. A first-level customisation using logistic regression approach was also applied to improve model calibration. APACHE IV exhibited good discrimination, with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.78. However, the model's overall fit was observed to be poor, as indicated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (Ĉ = 113, P discrimination was not affected. APACHE IV is not suitable for application in HSA ICU, without further customisation. The model's lack of fit in the Malaysian study is attributed to differences in the baseline characteristics between HSA ICU and APACHE IV datasets. Other possible factors could be due to differences in clinical practice, quality and services of health care systems between Malaysia and the United States.

  9. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  10. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    CERN Document Server

    Abduracmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-23

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuos integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  11. Managing Variant Calling Files the Big Data Way: Using HDFS and Apache Parquet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufea, Aikaterini; Finkers, H.J.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.; Kramer, M.R.; Athanasiadis, I.N.

    2017-01-01

    Big Data has been seen as a remedy for the efficient management of the ever-increasing genomic data. In this paper, we investigate the use of Apache Spark to store and process Variant Calling Files (VCF) on a Hadoop cluster. We demonstrate Tomatula, a software tool for converting VCF files to Apache

  12. Factors Associated With Protein-energy Malnutrition in Chronic Liver Disease: Analysis Using Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Yoh, Kazunori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Kishino, Kyohei; Shimono, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Takata, Ryo; Nishimura, Takashi; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naoto; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Akio; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the incidence of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in patients with chronic liver disease and to identify factors linked to the presence of PEM.A total of 432 patients with chronic liver disease were analyzed in the current analysis. We defined patients with serum albumin level of ≤3.5 g/dL and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) value using indirect calorimetry less than 0.85 as those with PEM. We compared between patients with PEM and those without PEM in baseline characteristics and examined factors linked to the presence of PEM using univariate and multivariate analyses.There are 216 patients with chronic hepatitis, 123 with Child-Pugh A, 80 with Child-Pugh B, and 13 with Child-Pugh C. Six patients (2.8%) had PEM in patients with chronic hepatitis, 17 (13.8%) in patients with Child-Pugh A, 42 (52.5%) in patients with Child-Pugh B, and 10 (76.9%) in patients with Child-Pugh C (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh classification (P < 0.001), age ≥64 years (P = 0.0428), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥40 IU/L (P = 0.0023), and branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) ≤5.2 (P = 0.0328) were independent predictors linked to the presence of PEM. On the basis of numbers of above risk factors (age, AST, and BTR), the proportions of patients with PEM were well stratified especially in patients with early chronic hepatitis or Child-Pugh A (n = 339, P < 0.0001), while the proportions of patients with PEM tended to be well stratified in patients with Child-Pugh B or C (n = 93, P = 0.0673).Age, AST, and BTR can be useful markers for identifying PEM especially in patients with early stage of chronic liver disease.

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factors contents in patients with cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiqiang; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Li Xiaohong; Gao Wenjin; Wang Mingtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the serum contents of IGF-I, IGF-II and liver dysfunction (as classified with Child-Pugh grades). Methods: Liver function test profiles as well as serum IGF-I, IGF-II contents ( with IRMA) were studied in 46 patients with liver cirrhosis and 32 controls. Results: According to the degree of liver dysfunction, these 46 patients with cirrhosis could be classified as: Child Grade A, n=17; Child B, n=20; and Child C, n=9. The serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents in the cirrhotic patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.001). The levels dropped along with the progression of child classification grades. Changes of IGF-II were more sensitive than those of IGF-I. Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents were closely associated with degree of liver dysfunction and might be of prognostic significance. (authors)

  14. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  15. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. and Apache Corporation filed with the... assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  16. Abnormal Gas Diffusing Capacity and Portosystemic Shunt in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Seung; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary dysfunctions including the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portosystemic shunt are important complications of hepatic cirrhosis. To investigate the severity and nature of abnormal gas diffusing capacity and its correlation to portosystemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods Forty-four patients with chronic liver disease (15 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 16 Child-Pugh class A, and 13 Child-Pugh class B) without other diseases history were enrolled in the study. Evaluation of liver function tests, arterial blood gases analysis, ultrasonography, pulmonary function test including lung diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco), forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume 1 seconds(FEV1), total lung capacity(TLC), DLco/AV(alveolar volume) and thallium-201 per rectum scintigraphy were performed. We were analyzed correlations between pulmonary function abnormalities and heart/liver (H/L) ratio in patients with chronic liver diseases. Results In CAH, percentage of patients with DLco and DLco/VA (Child-Pugh class A and B patients. The means of DLco and DLco/VA were significantly (P Child-Pugh class. The mean H/L ratio in Child-Pugh class B increased markedly (P Child-Pugh class A. The frequency of specific pulmonary function abnormality in patients with Child-Pugh class B was significantly (P Child-Pugh class A and CAH. There was a inverse linear correlation between H/L ratio and DLco (r = -0.339, P < 0.05) and DLco/VA (r = -0.480, P < 0.01). Conclusion A total of 62% of patients with advanced liver disease have abnormal pulmonary diffusion capacity with a reduced DLco or DLco/VA and abnormal portosystemic shunt (increased H/L ratio) is common hemodynamic abnormality. Therefore, inverse linear correlation between DLco or DLco/VA and H/L ratio may be an important factor in predicting pulmonary complication and meaningful diagnostic and prognostic parameters in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. PMID:27785203

  17. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  18. Prediction of heart disease using apache spark analysing decision trees and gradient boosting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Saryu; Arivu Selvan, K.; Nadesh, RK

    2017-11-01

    Numerous destructive things influence the working arrangement of human body as hypertension, smoking, obesity, inappropriate medication taking which causes many contrasting diseases as diabetes, thyroid, strokes and coronary diseases. The impermanence and horribleness of the environment situation is also the reason for the coronary disease. The structure of Apache start relies on the evolution which requires gathering of the data. To break down the significance of use programming focused on data structure the Apache stop ought to be utilized and it gives various central focuses as it is fast in light as it uses memory worked in preparing. Apache Spark continues running on dispersed environment and chops down the data in bunches giving a high profitability rate. Utilizing mining procedure as a part of the determination of coronary disease has been exhaustively examined indicating worthy levels of precision. Decision trees, Neural Network, Gradient Boosting Algorithm are the various apache spark proficiencies which help in collecting the information.

  19. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  20. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Hadoop programmer who wants to learn about Flume to be able to move datasets into Hadoop in a timely and replicable manner, then this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge about Apache Flume is necessary, but a basic knowledge of Hadoop and the Hadoop File System (HDFS) is assumed.

  1. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the...

  2. Association between pretreatment retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration and life prognosis in patients with HCC treated by proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Abei, Masato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Numajiri, Haruko; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Child-Pugh score is often used to judge the outcome of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG R15) can also be used to predict prognosis after liver resection. We evaluated the utility of ICG R15 for prediction of outcomes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for HCC. Methods and materials: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 250 patients who received PBT between 2002 and 2007. The patients (178 males and 72 females) had a median age of 71 years (range: 43–88). Child-Pugh categories were A (score 5–6), B (7–9), and C (10–15) in 197, 51, and 2 patients, respectively. ICG scores were 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40 and ⩾40 in 27, 99, 59, 28 and 37 patients, respectively; including 26, 92, 45, 16 and 18 Child-Pugh A patients and 1, 8, 14, 11, and 17 Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Survival times from the start of PBT were compared between Child-Pugh A and B patients, and among each ICG group. Results: The median survival times were 61 months (95% CI: 50–72 months) in all patients, and 64 and 20 months in Child-Pugh A and B patients, respectively (p = 0.001), The 3-year survival rates were 72%, 72%, 75%, 63%, and 26% in patients with ICG scores of 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40, and ⩾40 (p = 0.001); 70%, 75%, 77%, 65%, and 38% in these respective groups in Child-Pugh A patients (p = 0.02); and 100%, 57%, 67%, 36%, and 14% in Child-Pugh B patients (p = 0.173, not significant). Multivariate analysis showed that low ICG R15 and the absence of portal vein tumor thrombus were associated with good survival. Conclusions: Pretreatment ICG R15 is a useful prognostic factor for prediction of outcome of PBT in HCC patients, especially in those with Child-Pugh A liver function

  3. Instant Apache Camel messaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.

  4. Spinal Pain and Occupational Disability: A Cohort Study of British Apache AH Mk1 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    British RW community. 33 References Apache AH Mk1. 2012. Agusta Westland. http://www.agustawestland.com/ product /apache-ah- mk1-0. Ang, B., and...muscles Physical ex and stretching Continued pt and stretching exercises Use pt session included pumpkin bobs to stretch the neck. No effects noticed

  5. Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for common bile duct stones in liver cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-min; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Qiu; Qin, Hua; Wang, Bo; Li, Rong-xiang; Zhang, Min; Hu, Ji-fen; Yang, Min

    2014-08-01

    In order to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograpy (ERCP) in liver cirrhosis patients with common bile duct stones, we retrospectively analyzed data of 46 common bile duct stones patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent ERCP between 2000 and 2008. There were 12 cases of Child-Pugh A, 26 cases of Child-Pugh B, and 8 cases of Child-Pugh C. 100 common bile duct stones patients without liver cirrhosis were randomly selected. All the patients were subjected to ERCP for biliary stones extraction. The rates of bile duct clearance and complications were compared between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. The success rate of selective biliary cannulation was 95.6% in liver cirrhotic patients versus 97% in non-cirrhotic patients (P>0.05). The bile duct clearance rate was 87% in cirrhotic patients versus 96% in non-cirrhotic patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. Two liver cirrhotic patients (4.35%, 2/46) who were scored Child-Pugh C had hematemesis and melena 24 h after ERCP. The hemorrhage rate after ERCP in non-cirrhotic patients was 3%. The hemorrhage rate associated with ERCP in Child-Pugh C patients was significantly higher (25%, 2/8) than that (3%, 3/100) in non-cirrhotic patients (Pbile duct stones. Hemorrhage risk in ERCP is higher in Child-Pugh C patients.

  6. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  7. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 ± 2 degrees C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 ± 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 ± 1.2 MPa. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are 22.6 ± 5.7 GPa and 0.20 ± 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs

  8. Clinical utility of red cell distribution width in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolasević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Stimac, Davor

    2011-09-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as apart of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We retrospectively analyzed 241 patients (176 men and 65 women) with liver cirrhosis and anemia, defined as a hemoglobin value reference range is 11-15%. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis had 204 patients (85%) while non-alcoholic cirrhosis had 37 patients (15%). In group of alcoholic cirrhosis the average RDW was 16.8%. In relation to severity of disease the average RDW for Child-Pugh A was 16.80%, for Child-Pugh B was 16.92%, for Child-Pugh C was 17.10%. In the group of non-alcoholic cirrhosis the average RDW was 16.73% and in relation to severity of disease for Child-Pugh A was 16.25%, for Child-Pugh B 17.01% and for Child-Pugh C was 16.87%. We didn't find statistically significant difference of RDW between alcoholic and non alcoholic cirrhosis (p > 0.05) and we didn't proved any statistically significant increase of RDW in relation to severity of disease in group of alcoholic cirrhosis (p = 0.915) nor in group of patients with non-alcoholic cirrhosis (p = 0.697). Our study showed that RDW had not any clinical value in differentiation of anemia neither in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis nor in severity of liver disease.

  9. Risk factors of radiation-induced liver disease after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shixiong; Zhu Xiaodong; Lu Haijie; Pan Chaoyang; Huang Qifang; Li Fuxiang; Wang Anyu; Liang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) after three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) and the dosimetric threshold of RILD. Methods: Between April 1999 and August 2003, 128 PLC patients who were treated with 3DCRT received a mean dose of 53.6 ± 6.6 Gy with a 4-8 Gy/f, 3f/w, qod regimen. The relation between RILD and the possible clinical factors, such as gender, age, UICC/ AJCC T stage, GTV, HBV status, PTV, TACE, Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, BED calculated by LQ model and fraction size were analyzed. Among 84 patients who had full dose- volume histogram (DVH) data, the relation between RILD and dosimetric parameters were analyzed. Results: Nineteen patients (14.8%) developed RILD. It was found that T stage, GTV, PTV, Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis and the acute hepatic toxicity proposed by common toxicity criteria version 2.0 (CTC2.0) were correlated with RILD (P=0.024, 0.002, 0.001, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that only the Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis was independent factor (P=0.000). The mean liver dose was significantly higher in patients with RILD (P=0.027). In patients with Child-Pugh grade A, V5 (percentage of normal liver volume with radiation dose > 5 Gy), V 10 and V 20 ≤81%, 69% and 42%, mean liver dose ≤28 Gy, RILD was not observed, whereas in patients with Child-Pugh grade B, the possibility of developing RILD was 53.3%(8/15). Conclusions: Comprehensive consideration of T stage, GTV, PTV and Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, especially the Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, when planning 3DCRT for PLC, may lower the incidence of RILD. (authors)

  10. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority. Strategic Plan for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation

  11. [Comparison of the prognostic value of mortality Child Pugh Score and forecasting models of chronic liver disease in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Granados, Vanessa; Salazar-Quiñones, Maria; Cheng-Zárate, Lester; Malpica-Castillo, Alexander; Huerta Mercado, Jorge; Ticse, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of prognosis is an essential part of the evaluation of all patients with liver cirrhosis. Currently continues to develop new models to optimize forecast accuracy mortality score is calculated by the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Compare the prognostic accuracy of hospital mortality and short-term mortality CTP, MELD and other models in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Prospective descriptive study, comparison type of diagnostic test that included 84 patients. The score CTP, MELD and other models were calculated on the first day of hospitalization. The prognostic accuracy of mortality was assessed by the area under the ROC curve (AUROCs) of score CTP, MELD and other models. Hospital mortality and mortality in the short-term monitoring was 20 (23.8%) and 44 (52.4%), respectively. The AUROCs CTP, MELD, MELD Na, MESO, iMELD, RefitMELD and RefitMELD Na to predict hospital mortality was 0.4488, 0.5645, 0.5426, 0.5578, 0.5719, 0.5598 and 0.5754; and to predict short-term mortality was 0.5386, 0.5747, 0.5770, 0.5781, 0.5631, 0.5881 and 0.5693, respectively. By comparing each AUROCs of the CTP score, MELD and other models proved to be no better than the other (p>0.05). This study has not shown the predictive utility of the CTP score, MELD and other models (MELD Na, MESO, iMELD, Refit Refit MELD and MELD Na) to evaluate hospital mortality or short-term mortality in a sample of patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the Hospital Cayetano Heredia.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Apache Hopefulness: Relationships with Hopelessness and with Collective as well as Personal Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Vanessa Lea; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Cothran, D. Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Hopelessness is central to prominent mental health problems within American Indian (AI) communities. Apaches living on a reservation in Arizona responded to diverse expressions of hope along with Hopelessness, Personal Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem scales. An Apache Hopefulness Scale expressed five themes of hope and correlated…

  13. The Time Course of Dynamic Computed Tomographic Appearance of Radiation Injury to the Cirrhotic Liver Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kimura

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic computed tomographic (CT appearance of focal radiation injury to cirrhotic liver tissue around the tumor following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Seventy-seven patients with 92 HCCs were observed for >6 months. Sixty-four and 13 patients belonged to Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively. The median SBRT dose was 48 Gy/4fr. Dynamic CT scans were performed in non-enhanced, arterial, portal, and venous phases. The median follow-up period was 18 months. Dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 types: type 1, hyperdensity in all enhanced phases; type 2, hypodensity in arterial and portal phases; type 3, isodensity in all enhanced phases. Half of the type 2 or 3 appearances significantly changed to type 1, particularly in patients belonging to Child-Pugh class A. After 3-6 months, Child-Pugh class B was a significant factor in type 3 patients. Thus, dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 patterns and significantly changed over time into the enhancement group (type 1 in most patients belonging to Child-Pugh class A. Child-Pugh class B was a significant factor in the non-enhancement group (type 3.

  14. Assessment of Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases using Plasma Adrenomedullin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheid, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is among the important health problems in Egypt which lead to chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.Liver cirrhosis is associated with circulatory disturbances which are attributed to arterial vasodilatation that results from overproduction or reduced degradation of vasodilator substances. Adrenomedullin (AM) is responsible for the arteriolar vasodilatation and hyper dynamic circulation in liver cirrhosis. The aim of work was to the assessment patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis with or without renal impairment by determining the level of AM and comparing them with healthy controls. 44 patients with chronic liver diseases (14 patients with chronic hepatitis and 30 patients with liver cirrhosis, 16 in Child-Pugh's class A, 8 in Child-Pugh's class B, and 6 in Child-Pugh's class C) were examined clinically, laboratory, ultrasonography and endoscopically. Plasma concentration of adrenomedullin was measured in all patients and 15 normal controls.The mean levels of AM were higher in patients with chronic hepatitis and patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls (0.52 ± 0.19 ng/ml , 0.67 ± 0.16 ng/ml and 0.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.001). The mean levels of plasma aldosterone concentration were higher in patients with chronic hepatitis and patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls (256 ± 197 ng/dl 358 ± 264 ng/dl and 179 ± 142 ng/dl, respectively; p<0.001). The mean levels of creatinine clearance were lower in patients with chronic hepatitis and patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls (0.31±0.19 ml/min 0.25±0.21 ml/min and 0.45±0.37 ml/min, respectively; p<0.001). The mean levels of AM were higher in patients with liver cirrhosis with renal impairment than without. Also there was significant difference in AM levels between patients with and without esophageal varices (0.71 ± 0.22 ng/ml and 0.52 ± 0.17 ng/ml respectively, p<0.05). AM levels between patients with and without ascites

  15. The APACHE II measured on patients' discharge from the Intensive Care Unit in the prediction of mortality APACHE II medido en la salida de los pacientes de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva en la previsión de la mortalidad APACHE II medido na saída dos pacientes da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva na previsão da mortalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gonzaga dos Santos Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, measured based on the data from the last 24 hours of hospitalization in ICU, for patients transferred to the wards. METHOD: an observational, prospective and quantitative study using the data from 355 patients admitted to the ICU between January and July 2010, who were transferred to the wards. RESULTS: the discriminatory power of the AII-OUT prognostic index showed a statistically significant area beneath the ROC curve. The mortality observed in the sample was slightly greater than that predicted by the AII-OUT, with a Standardized Mortality Ratio of 1.12. In the calibration curve the linear regression analysis showed the R2 value to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: the AII-OUT could predict mortality after discharge from ICU, with the observed mortality being slightly greater than that predicted, which shows good discrimination and good calibration. This system was shown to be useful for stratifying the patients at greater risk of death after discharge from ICU. This fact deserves special attention from health professionals, particularly nurses, in managing human and technological resources for this group of patients. OBJETIVO: analizar el desempeño del Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, medido con base en los datos de la últims 24 horas de internación en la UTI, en los pacientes con transferencia para las enfermerías. MÉTODO: estudio observacional, prospectivo y cuantitativo con datos de 355 pacientes admitidos en la UTI entre enero y julio de 2010 que fueron transferidos para las enfermerías. RESULTADOS: el poder discriminatorio del índice pronóstico AII-SALIDA demostró un área debajo de la curva ROC estadísticamente significativa. La mortalidad observada en la muestra fue discretamente mayor que la prevista por el AII-SALIDA, con una Razón de Mortalidad Estandarizada de 1,12. En la curva de

  16. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif

    2017-01-07

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  17. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif; Orakzai, Faisal Moeen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Khayyat, Zuhair

    2017-01-01

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  18. Ergonomic and anthropometric issues of the forward Apache crew station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the anthropometric accommodation in the Apache crew systems. These activities are part of a comprehensive project, in a cooperative effort from the Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio, USA) and TNO Human Factors Research Institute (TNO HFRI) in

  19. Uncomfortable Experience: Lessons Lost in the Apache War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the Apache War gripped the focus of American and Mexican citizens throughout Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua , and Sonora for a period greater than...Arizona and portions of New Mexico, and Northern Sonora and Chihuahua .5 Although confusion exists as to their true subdivisions, the Chokonen led by...contributed directly to the Victorio War, the Loco and Geronimo campaigns, and the Nana and Chatto- Chihuahua raids that followed.38 Once again, failure to

  20. Alteration of laboratory findings after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship to severity of the underlying liver disease and the ablation volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsTo investigate sequential changes in laboratory markers after radiofrequency ablation (RFA of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and the relationship of these changes to the severity of the underlying liver disease.MethodsThis retrospective analysis included 65 patients (44 males, 21 females who underwent RFA of HCC. Hematologic and biochemical markers were assessed at the pre-RFA period and 1 day, 2-3 days, and 1-2 weeks after RFA. We classified the subjects into two groups: Child-Pugh A (n=41 and Child-Pugh B (n=24. The ablative margin volume (AMV of each patient was measured. We analyzed the changes in laboratory profiles from the baseline, and investigated whether these laboratory changes were correlated with the AMV and the Child-Pugh classification.ResultsMost of the laboratory values peaked at 2-3 days after RFA. AMV was significantly correlated with changes in WBC count, hemoglobin level, and serum total bilirubin level (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.324-0.453; P<0.05. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT level varied significantly over time (P=0.023.ConclusionsMost of the measured laboratory markers changed from baseline, peaking at 2-3 days. The ALT level was the only parameter for which there was a significant difference after RFA between Child-Pugh A and B patients: it increased significantly more in the Child-Pugh A patients.

  1. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  2. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  3. Influência do grau de insuficiência hepática e do índice de congestão portal na recidiva hemorrágica de cirróticos submetidos a cirurgia de Teixeira-Warren Role of liver function and portal vein congestion index on rebleeding in cirrhotics after distal splenorenal shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gonçalves Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A hipertensão portal com sua principal complicação, a hemorragia digestiva alta varicosa, são importantes causas de morbimortalidade em cirróticos. A cirurgia de Teixeira-Warren é uma derivação portal seletiva, adotada em doentes Child-Pugh A e B para tratamento da hemorragia varicosa por hipertensão portal não responsiva à terapêutica clínico-endoscópica após o quadro agudo. O índice de congestão portal baseia-se em valores obtidos pela ultra-sonografia Doppler abdominal e encontra-se elevado em pacientes com hipertensão portal. OBJETIVO: Verificar se o índice de congestão portal e o grau de insuficiência hepática (Child-Pugh são fatores preditivos de recidiva hemorrágica após a cirurgia de Teixeira-Warren. MÉTODO: Em estudo longitudinal retrospectivo analisaram-se 62 prontuários de cirróticos operados pela técnica de Teixeira-Warren na Santa Casa de São Paulo. Foram submetidos a avaliação quanto ao índice de congestão portal pré-operatório 36 doentes, e 58 quanto à classe Child-Pugh. Os doentes foram divididos em grupos - com recidiva e ausência de recidiva hemorrágica - sendo analisada a diferença estatística quanto aos valores do índice e Child-Pugh pré-operatórios, relacionando-os à recidiva hemorrágica pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: Dos doentes que apresentaram recidiva hemorrágica, 69% eram Child B e possuíam índice de congestão portal médio de 0,09. Já entre aqueles que não ressangraram, 62% eram Child A e o índice de congestão portal médio foi de 0,076. A diferença foi estatisticamente significante para a classe Child-Pugh, porém, o mesmo não ocorreu para o índice de congestão portal. CONCLUSÃO: O índice de congestão portal no pré-operatório não foi fator preditivo de recidiva hemorrágica em cirróticos submetidos a cirurgia de Teixeira-Warren. Doentes classificados como Child-Pugh B possuem maior chance de recidiva hemorrágica pós-derivação esplenorrenal

  4. Kelayakan Raspberry Pi sebagai Web Server: Perbandingan Kinerja Nginx, Apache, dan Lighttpd pada Platform Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Dawood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry Pi is a small-sized computer, but it can function like an ordinary computer. Because it can function like a regular PC then it is also possible to run a web server application on the Raspberry Pi. This paper will report results from testing the feasibility and performance of running a web server on the Raspberry Pi. The test was conducted on the current top three most popular web servers, which are: Apache, Nginx, and Lighttpd. The parameters used to evaluate the feasibility and performance of these web servers were: maximum request and reply time. The results from the test showed that it is feasible to run all three web servers on the Raspberry Pi but Nginx gave the best performance followed by Lighttpd and Apache.Keywords: Raspberry Pi, web server, Apache, Lighttpd, Nginx, web server performance

  5. Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) Apache Young and Perkins (Diptera: Psychodidae) feeds on reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of bacteria, parasites, and viruses. In the western USA a sand fly, Lutzomyia apache Young and Perkins, was initially associated with epizootics of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), because sand flies were trapped at sites of an outbreak. Additional studies indica...

  6. Seguridad en la configuración del servidor web Apache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Gómez Montoya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Apache es el servidor Web con mayor presencia en el mercado mundial. Aunque su configuración es relativamente sencilla, fortalecer sus condiciones de seguridad implica entender y aplicar un conjunto de reglas generales conocidas, aceptadas y disponibles. Por otra parte, a pesar de ser un tema aparentemente resuelto, la seguridad en los servidores HTTP constituye un problema en aumento, y no todas las compañías lo toman en serio. Este artículo identifica y verifica un conjunto de buenas prácticas de seguridad informática aplicadas a la configuración de Apache. Para alcanzar los objetivos, y con el fin de garantizar un proceso adecuado, se eligió una metodología basada en el Círculo de Calidad de Deming, el cual comprende cuatro fases: planear, hacer, verificar y actuar, y su aplicación condujo el desarrollo del proyecto. Este artículo consta de cinco secciones: Introducción, Marco de referencia, Metodología, Resultados y discusión, y Conclusiones.

  7. Estimating the cost of treating patients with liver cirrhosis at the Mexican Social Security Institute Estimación de costos de la atención de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Quiroz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. To estimate the annual cost of treating patients with cirrhosis at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in Spanish. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The annual cost of treating three stages of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B and Child-Pugh C was estimated using micro-costing techniques and medical experts. These results were compared and contrasted with prices reported by IMSS. RESULTS. The annual cost of treatment, in USA dollars, by Child-Pugh stage was: a micro-costing results: $1110.17 stage A, $549.55 stage B and $348.16 stage C; b opinion of medical experts: $1 633.64, $6564.04 and $19660.35, respectively; and c IMSS costs: $4269.00, $16949.63 and $30249.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The cost of treating patients with cirrhosis is considerable, and costs increase as the disease worsens. Cost estimates vary depending on the source of information, and the methodology used. There are discrepancies between the procedures reported in medical records and treatment recommendations by IMSS liver experts.OBJETIVO. Estimar el costo anual de atención de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se estimó el costo de atención de la cirrosis en tres estadios de la enfermedad (Child Pugh A, Child Pugh B y Child Pugh C mediante micro-costeo y consulta a expertos. Los resultados se compararon entre sí, y con los costos reportados por el IMSS. RESULTADOS. El costo anual de atención en dólares por estadio fue: a con microcosteo $1110.17 etapa A, $549.55 etapa B y $348.16 etapa C, respectivamente; b mediante consulta a expertos $1633.64, $6564.04 y $19660.35, respectivamente; y c con costos del IMSS $4269.00, $16949.63 y $30249.25, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES. El tratamiento de cirrosis es costoso y generalmente los costos aumentan al avanzar la enfermedad. Además, los costos varían dependiendo de la fuente de información y la metodología utilizada

  8. The White Mountain Recreational Enterprise: Bio-Political Foundations for White Mountain Apache Natural Resource Control, 1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Tomblin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among American Indian nations, the White Mountain Apache Tribe has been at the forefront of a struggle to control natural resource management within reservation boundaries. In 1952, they developed the first comprehensive tribal natural resource management program, the White Mountain Recreational Enterprise (WMRE, which became a cornerstone for fighting legal battles over the tribe’s right to manage cultural and natural resources on the reservation for the benefit of the tribal community rather than outside interests. This article examines how White Mountain Apaches used the WMRE, while embracing both Euro-American and Apache traditions, as an institutional foundation for resistance and exchange with Euro-American society so as to reassert control over tribal eco-cultural resources in east-central Arizona.

  9. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  10. Beginning PHP, Apache, MySQL web development

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, Michael K; Naramore, Elizabeth; Mailer, Gary; Stolz, Jeremy; Gerner, Jason

    2004-01-01

    An ideal introduction to the entire process of setting up a Web site using PHP (a scripting language), MySQL (a database management system), and Apache (a Web server)* Programmers will be up and running in no time, whether they're using Linux or Windows servers* Shows readers step by step how to create several Web sites that share common themes, enabling readers to use these examples in real-world projects* Invaluable reading for even the experienced programmer whose current site has outgrown the traditional static structure and who is looking for a way to upgrade to a more efficient, user-f

  11. Single and repeated dose pharmacokinetics of dexketoprofen trometamol in patients with impaired liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, J; Artigas, R; Bertolotti, M; Crea, A; Muller, F; Paredes, I; Capriati, A

    2006-06-01

    Dexketoprofen trometamol, a high water-soluble salt of the active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen, is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) used for pain relief. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of dexketoprofen in patients with impaired liver function and normal subjects following single and repeated oral dosing. Subjects with normal liver function (n = 6) and with Child-Pugh A (n = 7) or Child-Pugh B (n = 5) hepatic impairment scores completed this open-label and parallel study. They received 25 mg dexketoprofen (equivalent to 37 mg of its tromethamine salt) as a single (day 1) and a 3-day repeated dose (1 dose every 8 hours for a total of 10 doses). Dexketoprofen concentrations were determined in plasma and urine by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. All subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were recorded. Following the single dose, mean (+/- SEM) Cmax were 3027.7 +/- 429.3 ng/ml (healthy subjects), 2856.3 +/- 340.3 ng/ml (Child-Pugh A) and 1937.2 +/- 328.0 ng/ml (Child-Pugh B). Median tmax were 0.49 h (0.33-0.68) h, 0.50 h (0.33-0.67) h and 0.67 h (0.33-1.50) h. AUC0-x averaged 3778.0 +/- 439.0 ng.h/ml, 4890.4 +/- 539.1 ng.h/ml and 3985.0 +/- 712.0 ng.h/ml. Mean CL/F were 101.1 +/- 11.3 ml/h/kg, 73.3 +/- 9.9 ml/h/kg and 88.8 +/- 15.5 ml/h/kg and V/F averaged 0.192 +/- 0.018 l/kg, 0.162 +/- 0.006 l/kg and 0.214 +/- 0.044 l/kg. Following the repeated administration, similar results were obtained showing no drug accumulation. As related to the administered dose, median excretions of unchanged and conjugated dexketoprofen in urine were 2.1% and 67.1% in healthy subjects, 2.8% and 60.9% in Child-Pugh A subjects and 4.4% and 47.7% in Child-Pugh B volunteers. A trend towards a reduced urinary excretion of conjugated dexketoprofen in hepatic patients, more evident in the Child-Pugh B than in the Child-Pugh A groups, was observed when compared with healthy

  12. Integration of event streaming and microservices with Apache Kafka

    OpenAIRE

    Kljun, Matija

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the microservice architecture has become a standard for big and successful internet companies, like Netflix, Amazon and LinkedIn. The importance of stream processing, aggregation and exchange of data is growing, as it allows companies to compete better and move faster. In this diploma, we have analyzed the interactions between microservices, described the streaming platform and ordinary message queues. We have described the Apache Kafka platform and how...

  13. Transcatheter arterial Chemoembolization for infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: Clinical safety and efficacy and factors influencing patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kichang; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Hee Mang; Kim, Eun Joung; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Ko, Heung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify the prognostic factors associated with patient survival. Fifty two patients who underwent TACE for infiltrative HCC were evaluated between 2007 and 2010. The maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from 7 cm to 22 cm (median 15 cm). Of 46 infiltrative HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis, 32 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis after TACE. The tumor response by European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria was partial in 18%, stable in 47%, and progressive in 35% of the patients. The median survival time was 5.7 months (Kaplan-Meier analysis). The survival rates were 48% at six months, 25% at one year, and 12% at two years. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, Child-Pugh class (p = 0.02), adjuvant radiotherapy (p 0.003) and tumor response after TACE (p = 0.004) were significant factors associated with patient survival. Major complications occurred in nine patients. The major complication rate was significantly higher in patients with Child-Pugh B than in patients with Child-Pugh A (p = 0.049, x 2 test). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can be a safe treatment option in infiltrative HCC patients with Child Pugh class A. Child Pugh class A, radiotherapy for portal vein tumor thrombosis after TACE and tumor response are good prognostic factors for an increased survival after TACE in patients with infiltrative HCCs.

  14. Predictive factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib therapy using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Takashi; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Osaki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate variables before sorafenib therapy on the clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving sorafenib and to further assess and compare the predictive performance of continuous parameters using time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 225 HCC patients were analyzed. We retrospectively examined factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subsequently, we performed time-dependent ROC analysis of continuous parameters which were significant in the multivariate analysis in terms of OS and PFS. Total sum of area under the ROC in all time points (defined as TAAT score) in each case was calculated. Our cohort included 175 male and 50 female patients (median age, 72 years) and included 158 Child-Pugh A and 67 Child-Pugh B patients. The median OS time was 0.68 years, while the median PFS time was 0.24 years. On multivariate analysis, gender, body mass index (BMI), Child-Pugh classification, extrahepatic metastases, tumor burden, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were identified as significant predictors of OS and ECOG-performance status, Child-Pugh classification and extrahepatic metastases were identified as significant predictors of PFS. Among three continuous variables (i.e., BMI, AST and AFP), AFP had the highest TAAT score for the entire cohort. In subgroup analyses, AFP had the highest TAAT score except for Child-Pugh B and female among three continuous variables. In continuous variables, AFP could have higher predictive accuracy for survival in HCC patients undergoing sorafenib therapy.

  15. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashmi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: APACHE II software available on the hospital′s intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method.

  16. Abnormal Gas Diffusing Capacity and Portosystemic Shunt in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Moon-Seung; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary dysfunctions including the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portosystemic shunt are important complications of hepatic cirrhosis. To investigate the severity and nature of abnormal gas diffusing capacity and its correlation to portosystemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods Forty-four patients with chronic liver disease (15 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 16 Child-Pugh class A, and 13 Child-Pugh class B) without other diseases history were enrolled in the ...

  17. Performance of three prognostic models in patients with cancer in need of intensive care in a medical center in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueZhong Xing

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV in patients with cancer admitted to intensive care unit (ICU in a single medical center in China.This is a retrospective observational cohort study including nine hundred and eighty one consecutive patients over a 2-year period.The hospital mortality rate was 4.5%. When all 981 patients were evaluated, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC, 95% Confidential Intervals of the three models in predicting hospital mortality were 0.948 (0.914-0.982, 0.863 (0.804-0.923, and 0.873 (0.813-0.934 for SAPS 3, APACHE II and APACHE IV respectively. The p values of Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics for the models were 0.759, 0.900 and 0.878 for SAPS 3, APACHE II and APACHE IV respectively. However, SAPS 3 and APACHE IV underestimated the in-hospital mortality with standardized mortality ratio (SMR of 1.5 and 1.17 respectively, while APACHE II overestimated the in-hospital mortality with SMR of 0.72. Further analysis showed that discrimination power was better with SAPS 3 than with APACHE II and APACHE IV whether for emergency surgical and medical patients (AUROC of 0.912 vs 0.866 and 0.857 or for scheduled surgical patients (AUROC of 0.945 vs 0.834 and 0.851. Calibration was good for all models (all p > 0.05 whether for scheduled surgical patients or emergency surgical and medical patients. However, in terms of SMR, SAPS 3 was both accurate in predicting the in-hospital mortality for emergency surgical and medical patients and for scheduled surgical patients, while APACHE IV and APACHE II were not.In this cohort, we found that APACHE II, APACHE IV and SAPS 3 models had good discrimination and calibration ability in predicting in-hospital mortality of critically ill patients with cancer in need of intensive care. Of

  18. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  19. CMS Analysis and Data Reduction with Apache Spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Oliver [Fermilab; Canali, Luca [CERN; Cremer, Illia [Magnetic Corp., Waltham; Cremonesi, Matteo [Fermilab; Elmer, Peter [Princeton U.; Fisk, Ian [Flatiron Inst., New York; Girone, Maria [CERN; Jayatilaka, Bo [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Khristenko, Viktor [CERN; Motesnitsalis, Evangelos [CERN; Pivarski, Jim [Princeton U.; Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Surdy, Kacper [CERN; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey [Princeton U.

    2017-10-31

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the world's largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was among the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems for distributed data processing, collectively called "Big Data" technologies have emerged from industry and open source projects to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and tools, promising a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets that could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. Moreover these new tools are typically actively developed by large communities, often profiting of industry resources, and under open source licensing. These factors result in a boost for adoption and maturity of the tools and for the communities supporting them, at the same time helping in reducing the cost of ownership for the end-users. In this talk, we are presenting studies of using Apache Spark for end user data analysis. We are studying the HEP analysis workflow separated into two thrusts: the reduction of centrally produced experiment datasets and the end-analysis up to the publication plot. Studying the first thrust, CMS is working together with CERN openlab and Intel on the CMS Big Data Reduction Facility. The goal is to reduce 1 PB of official CMS data to 1 TB of ntuple output for analysis. We are presenting the progress of this 2-year project with first results of scaling up Spark-based HEP analysis. Studying the second thrust, we are presenting studies on using Apache Spark for a CMS Dark Matter physics search, comparing Spark's feasibility, usability and performance to the ROOT-based analysis.

  20. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    CERN Multimedia

    Couturier, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...

  1. [Related factors to re-bleeding and mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding at Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Pérez, Víctor Felipe; Raymundo Cajo, Roxana Magali; Gutiérrez de Aranguren, Constantino Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To determine related factors to 5 days re-bleeding and 6 week-mortality of an episode of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Observational, descriptive, co relational, retrospective study. In this study were included the cirrhotic patients who entered to Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru, between January 2006 and February 2012 with suspicion of variceal bleeding. Were excluded patients who bled from nonvariceal origin, or that did not have the data in clinical history to calculate the Child Pugh score, the Model for terminal diseases of the liver (MELD), or the endoscopic report detailing the bleeding source and the presence of esophageal and/or gastric varices. We include 63 patients, 35 (55.6%) were men. The median of age was of 64 years. 26 of them (41.3%) were Child Pugh C, where as the median of MELD score was 9. The multivariate analysis found that the Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality (p=0,003), where as the presence of active bleeding during endoscopy (p=0.012) and the value of creatinine (p=0.012) were related to 5 days re-bleeding. The Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Active bleeding during endoscopy and the value of creatinine were related to 5 days re-bleeding.

  2. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing severity of liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygili, O. Barutcu; Tarhan, N.C.; Yildirim, T.; Serin, E.; Ozer, B.; Agildere, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of abdominal CT and MRI in determining the severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis compared to Child-Pugh classification. Materials and methods: The study included 23 patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with chronic liver disease secondary to viral hepatitis. Each patient underwent dynamic abdominal CT imaging and MRI within the same week. CT and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The same parameters were used from the CT and the MR images for each patient. The parameters included liver volume index (posterior segment of the right lobe, medial and lateral segments of the left lobe), spleen volume index, ascites, portosystemic collaterals, contour irregularities of the liver and confluent fibrosis within the liver. The findings were compared with the patients' Child-Pugh grades. Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, liver volume index (P = 0.0001), and ascites (P = 0.009) were strongly correlated with Child-Pugh grades. With CT, only ascites was correlated with Child-Pugh grades (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study indicates that liver volume index on MRI, and ascites on CT and MRI are good indicators of clinical severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis. To show the effect of the other parameters, more research is needed with larger patient groups

  3. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing severity of liver cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saygili, O. Barutcu [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: obarutcu@yahoo.com; Tarhan, N.C. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Yildirim, T. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Serin, E. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Ozer, B. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey); Agildere, A.M. [Departments of Radiology and Gastroenterology, Adana Research and Teaching Center, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of abdominal CT and MRI in determining the severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis compared to Child-Pugh classification. Materials and methods: The study included 23 patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with chronic liver disease secondary to viral hepatitis. Each patient underwent dynamic abdominal CT imaging and MRI within the same week. CT and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The same parameters were used from the CT and the MR images for each patient. The parameters included liver volume index (posterior segment of the right lobe, medial and lateral segments of the left lobe), spleen volume index, ascites, portosystemic collaterals, contour irregularities of the liver and confluent fibrosis within the liver. The findings were compared with the patients' Child-Pugh grades. Multiple regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, liver volume index (P = 0.0001), and ascites (P = 0.009) were strongly correlated with Child-Pugh grades. With CT, only ascites was correlated with Child-Pugh grades (P = 0.002). Conclusion: This study indicates that liver volume index on MRI, and ascites on CT and MRI are good indicators of clinical severity of cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis. To show the effect of the other parameters, more research is needed with larger patient groups.

  4. Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: Evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, A.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m.2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3 m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected.3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture.4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies.

  5. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lianjie; Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang

    2017-04-10

    The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS) to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses' aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB.

  6. Efficient Streaming Mass Spatio-Temporal Vehicle Data Access in Urban Sensor Networks Based on Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjie Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient data access of streaming vehicle data is the foundation of analyzing, using and mining vehicle data in smart cities, which is an approach to understand traffic environments. However, the number of vehicles in urban cities has grown rapidly, reaching hundreds of thousands in number. Accessing the mass streaming data of vehicles is hard and takes a long time due to limited computation capability and backward modes. We propose an efficient streaming spatio-temporal data access based on Apache Storm (ESDAS to achieve real-time streaming data access and data cleaning. As a popular streaming data processing tool, Apache Storm can be applied to streaming mass data access and real time data cleaning. By designing the Spout/bolt workflow of topology in ESDAS and by developing the speeding bolt and other bolts, Apache Storm can achieve the prospective aim. In our experiments, Taiyuan BeiDou bus location data is selected as the mass spatio-temporal data source. In the experiments, the data access results with different bolts are shown in map form, and the filtered buses’ aggregation forms are different. In terms of performance evaluation, the consumption time in ESDAS for ten thousand records per second for a speeding bolt is approximately 300 milliseconds, and that for MongoDB is approximately 1300 milliseconds. The efficiency of ESDAS is approximately three times higher than that of MongoDB.

  7. Evaluation of Apache Hadoop for parallel data analysis with ROOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrack, S; Duckeck, G; Ebke, J

    2014-01-01

    The Apache Hadoop software is a Java based framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers, using the Hadoop file system (HDFS) for data storage and backup and MapReduce as a processing platform. Hadoop is primarily designed for processing large textual data sets which can be processed in arbitrary chunks, and must be adapted to the use case of processing binary data files which cannot be split automatically. However, Hadoop offers attractive features in terms of fault tolerance, task supervision and control, multi-user functionality and job management. For this reason, we evaluated Apache Hadoop as an alternative approach to PROOF for ROOT data analysis. Two alternatives in distributing analysis data were discussed: either the data was stored in HDFS and processed with MapReduce, or the data was accessed via a standard Grid storage system (dCache Tier-2) and MapReduce was used only as execution back-end. The focus in the measurements were on the one hand to safely store analysis data on HDFS with reasonable data rates and on the other hand to process data fast and reliably with MapReduce. In the evaluation of the HDFS, read/write data rates from local Hadoop cluster have been measured and compared to standard data rates from the local NFS installation. In the evaluation of MapReduce, realistic ROOT analyses have been used and event rates have been compared to PROOF.

  8. Evaluation of Apache Hadoop for parallel data analysis with ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrack, S.; Duckeck, G.; Ebke, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Apache Hadoop software is a Java based framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers, using the Hadoop file system (HDFS) for data storage and backup and MapReduce as a processing platform. Hadoop is primarily designed for processing large textual data sets which can be processed in arbitrary chunks, and must be adapted to the use case of processing binary data files which cannot be split automatically. However, Hadoop offers attractive features in terms of fault tolerance, task supervision and control, multi-user functionality and job management. For this reason, we evaluated Apache Hadoop as an alternative approach to PROOF for ROOT data analysis. Two alternatives in distributing analysis data were discussed: either the data was stored in HDFS and processed with MapReduce, or the data was accessed via a standard Grid storage system (dCache Tier-2) and MapReduce was used only as execution back-end. The focus in the measurements were on the one hand to safely store analysis data on HDFS with reasonable data rates and on the other hand to process data fast and reliably with MapReduce. In the evaluation of the HDFS, read/write data rates from local Hadoop cluster have been measured and compared to standard data rates from the local NFS installation. In the evaluation of MapReduce, realistic ROOT analyses have been used and event rates have been compared to PROOF.

  9. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Forest Service (FS) will...

  10. Emergency TIPS in a Child-Pugh B patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to treat complications of cirrhosis such as variceal bleeding and refractory ascites, but it also bears the risk of liver failure, overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cardiac decompensation. Variceal bleeding may be controlled using...... translocation. Both these processes mediate an impaired immunological and hemodynamic response, thereby facilitating the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and/or death. Similarly, in patients with refractory ascites, TIPS should be used early in treatment to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI...

  11. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  12. 75 FR 14419 - Camp Tatiyee Land Exchange on the Lakeside Ranger District of the Apache-Sitgreaves National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Ranger, Lakeside Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests, c/o TEC Inc., 514 Via de la Valle... to other papers serving areas affected by this proposal: Tucson Citizen, Sierra Vista Herald, Nogales...

  13. Long-term Results of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Hyo K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term follow-up results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea. Sixty-eight nodular HCCs initially detected in 64 patients, were subjected to US-guided PEI as a first-line treatment. Long-term survival rates, local tumor progression rates, and complications were evaluated, as were the influences of tumor size and Child-Pugh class on these variables. No major complications occurred. The overall survival rates of the 64 patients at three and five years were 71% and 39%, and their cancer-free survival rates were 22% and 15%, respectively. The overall survival rate of patients with a small HCC (≤ 2 cm) was significantly higher (p = 0.014) than that of patients with a medium-sized HCC (≤ 2 cm). The overall survival rate of patients with Child- Pugh class A was significantly higher (p = 0.049) than that of patients with Child- Pugh class B. Of 59 cases with no residual tumor, local tumor progression was observed in ablation zones in 18, and this was not found to be significantly influenced by tumor size or Child-Pugh class. The results of our investigation of the long-term survival rates of PEI in HCC patients in Korea (a hepatitis B virus-endemic area) were consistent with those reported previously in hepatitis C endemic areas. Patients with a smaller tumor or a better liver function exhibited superior survival rates

  14. Evaluation of the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma location and transarterial chemoembolization efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Izumi; Murata, Satoru; Uchiyama, Fumio; Yasui, Daisuke; Ueda, Tatsuo; Sugihara, Fumie; Saito, Hidemasa; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Murakami, Ryusuke; Kawamoto, Chiaki; Uchida, Eiji; Kumita, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-09-21

    To evaluate the relationship between the location of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). We evaluated 115 patients (127 nodules), excluding recurrent nodules, treated with TACE between January 2011 and June 2014. TACE efficacy was evaluated according to mRECIST. The HCC location coefficient was calculated as the distance from the central portal portion to the HCC center (mm)/liver diameter (mm) on multiplanar reconstruction images rendered (MPR) to visualize bifurcation of the right and left branches of the portal vein and HCC center. The HCC location coefficient was compared between complete response (CR) and non-CR groups in Child-Pugh grade A and B patients. The median location coefficient of HCC among all nodules, the right lobe, and the medial segment was significantly higher in the CR group than in the non-CR group in the Child-Pugh grade A patients (0.82 vs 0.62, P location coefficient of the HCC in the lateral segment between in the CR and in the non-CR groups (0.67 vs 0.65, P > 0.05). On the other hand, in the Child-Pugh grade B patients, the HCC median location coefficient in each lobe and segment was not significantly different between in the CR and in the non-CR groups. Improved TACE efficacy may be obtained for HCC in the peripheral zone of the right lobe and the medial segment in Child-Pugh grade A patients.

  15. Negative pressure wound treatment improves Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score in mediastinitis allowing a successful elective pectoralis muscle flap closure: six-year experience of a single protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salica, Andrea; Weltert, Luca; Scaffa, Raffaele; Guerrieri Wolf, Lorenzo; Nardella, Saverio; Bellisario, Alessandro; De Paulis, Ruggero

    2014-11-01

    Optimal management of poststernotomy mediastinitis is controversial. Negative pressure wound treatment improves wound environment and sternal stability with low surgical invasiveness. Our protocol was based on negative pressure followed by delayed surgical closure. The aim of this study was to provide the results at early follow-up and to identify the risk factors for adverse outcome. In 5400 cardiac procedures, 44 consecutive patients with mediastinitis were enrolled in the study. Mediastinitis treatment was based on urgent debridement and negative pressure as the first-line approach. After wound sterilization, chest closure was achieved by elective pectoralis muscle advancement flap. Each patient's hospital data were collected prospectively. Variables included patient demographics and clinical and biological data. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was calculated at the time of diagnosis and 48 hours after debridement. Focus outcome measures were mediastinitis-related death and need for reintervention after pectoralis muscle closure. El Oakley type I and type IIIA mediastinitis were the most frequent types (63.6%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was present in 25 patients (56.8%). Mean APACHE II score was 19.4±4 at the time of diagnosis, and 30 patients (68.2%) required intensive care unit transfer before surgical debridement. APACHE II score improved 48 hours after wound debridement and negative pressure application (mean value, 19.4±4 vs 7.2±2; P=.005) independently of any other variables included in the study. One patient in septic shock at the time of diagnosis died (2.2%). Negative pressure promotes a significant improvement in clinical status according to APACHE II score and allows a successful elective surgical closure. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A.; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic

  17. Analysis of oil-bearing Cretaceous sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgley, Jennie; Wright Dunbar, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    This is the Phase One contract report to the United States Department of Energy, United State Geological Survey and the Jicarilla Apache Indian Tribe on the project entitled''Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico.'' Field work for this project was conducted during July and August 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteen section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlation's and cross-sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project

  18. Phase II trial of SOM230 (pasireotide LAR) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feun, Lynn G; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Li, Ying-Ying; Kwon, Deukwoo; Richman, Stephen P; Hosein, Peter J; Savaraj, Niramol

    2018-01-01

    A phase II trial of pasireotide was performed to assess its efficacy and safety in advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh score ≤7 received pasireotide LAR 60 mg intramuscularly every 28 days. Primary endpoint was disease control rate. Secondary endpoints were time to tumor progression, response rate, treatment-related adverse events, and overall survival. Serum insulin growth factor-1 was measured before and after pasireotide. Twenty patients were treated and evaluable. Eighteen patients (90%) had prior therapy; 16 patients (80%) had multiple therapies. Median age was 65, 75% had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C, and 55% had metastatic disease. The main toxicity was hyperglycemia. Rare adverse effects included reversible grade 4 elevation in alanina transaminase/aspartate transaminase in one patient. The best response was stable disease in 9 patients (45%). Median time to tumor progression for the 20 patients was 3 months, and median survival was 9 months. Pasireotide had limited clinical benefit as second-line or third-line treatment in patients with advanced or metastatic HCC. Low baseline insulin growth factor-1 level may be indicative when SOM230 treatment may be ineffective, and decreasing levels after treatment may be indicative of disease control.

  19. The APACHE survey hardware and software design: Tools for an automatic search of small-size transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattanzi M.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-size ground-based telescopes can effectively be used to look for transiting rocky planets around nearby low-mass M stars using the photometric transit method, as recently demonstrated for example by the MEarth project. Since 2008 at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley (OAVdA, we have been preparing for the long-term photometric survey APACHE, aimed at finding transiting small-size planets around thousands of nearby early and mid-M dwarfs. APACHE (A PAthway toward the Characterization of Habitable Earths is designed to use an array of five dedicated and identical 40-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes and its observations started at the beginning of summer 2012. The main characteristics of the survey final set up and the preliminary results from the first weeks of observations will be discussed.

  20. A Phase-1b study of tivantinib (ARQ 197) in adult patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A; Simonelli, M; Rodriguez-Lope, C; Zucali, P; Camacho, L H; Granito, A; Senzer, N; Rimassa, L; Abbadessa, G; Schwartz, B; Lamar, M; Savage, R E; Bruix, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) receptor is dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and tivantinib (ARQ 197) is an oral, selective, MET inhibitor. Methods: This Phase-1b study assessed tivantinib safety as primary objective in patients with previously treated HCC and Child-Pugh A or B liver cirrhosis. Patients received oral tivantinib 360 mg twice daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results: Among 21 HCC patients, common drug-related adverse events (AEs) were neutropaenia, anaemia, asthenia, leucopaenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and fatigue. No drug-related worsening of liver function or performance status occurred, but one Child-Pugh B patient experienced drug-related bilirubin increase. Four patients had drug-related serious AEs, including one neutropaenia-related death. Haematologic toxicities were more frequent than in previous tivantinib studies but were manageable with prompt therapy. Best response was stable disease (median, 5.3 months) in 9 of 16 evaluable patients (56%). Median time to progression was 3.3 months. Conclusion: Tivantinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile and preliminary antitumour activity in patients with HCC and Child-Pugh A or B cirrhosis. PMID:23287988

  1. Pre-operative evaluation of patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapias M Monica; Idrovo Cubides, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Patients with advanced liver disease have an increased risk of complications, compared to healthy patients when they undergo a surgical procedure. This risk is related to the type of surgery, to the type of anesthetic used, and to the severity of the underlying liver disease. Several risk factors for liver disease should be identified prior to a procedure. Those with advanced disease should undergo specific pre-surgical diagnostic tests. The Child Pugh score, and the MELD score, are very useful to establish the surgical risk in individuals with liver disease. The Child-Pugh score is a very useful tool that correlates closely to morbidity and mortality in patients with liver disease. Mortality rates in these patients undergoing major surgery is 10, 30 and 82% for Child-Pugh scores A, B and C respectively. In order to optimize the patient's condition before surgery, a complete evaluation and management of conditions such as jaundice, coagulopathy, ascites, electrolyte abnormalities, renal insufficiency and encephalopathy must be performed. This approach helps to reduce the complication rate in these individuals

  2. Serum level of IL-6 in liver cirrhosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, I.; Effendi-YS, R.; Dairi, L. B.; Siregar, G. A.; Zain, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cytokines are polypeptides that have a wide spectrum of inflammatory, metabolic, hematopoietic and immunologic regulatory properties. The liver represents an important site of synthesis and clearance organ for several cytokines. This study aimed to evaluate serum IL-6 in liver cirrhosis with the type of underlying disease, child pugh group and various clinical and laboratory parameter. This cross-sectional study was at Adam Malik General Hospital and Pirngadi General Hospital from July - December 2016. We examine 75 patients with liver cirrhosis. The exclusion criteria were hepatoma, sepsis and renal impairment. There were 28 (37.3%), 8 (10.6%) and 39 (52%) for HBV-positive; HCV-positive and HBV- HCV negative liver cirrhosis patients, respectively were 14 (18.7 %), 15 (20 %) and 46 (61.3%) for Child- Pugh A, B and C respectively. There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between HBV positive, HCV positive, and HBV-HCV negative group (7.7/6.1/10.9). There was no significant difference value of IL-6 between child pugh A, B, and C group (4.2/11.0/7.9).

  3. Sideloading - Ingestion of Large Point Clouds Into the Apache Spark Big Data Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.; Alis, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the geospatial domain we have now reached the point where data volumes we handle have clearly grown beyond the capacity of most desktop computers. This is particularly true in the area of point cloud processing. It is therefore naturally lucrative to explore established big data frameworks for big geospatial data. The very first hurdle is the import of geospatial data into big data frameworks, commonly referred to as data ingestion. Geospatial data is typically encoded in specialised binary file formats, which are not naturally supported by the existing big data frameworks. Instead such file formats are supported by software libraries that are restricted to single CPU execution. We present an approach that allows the use of existing point cloud file format libraries on the Apache Spark big data framework. We demonstrate the ingestion of large volumes of point cloud data into a compute cluster. The approach uses a map function to distribute the data ingestion across the nodes of a cluster. We test the capabilities of the proposed method to load billions of points into a commodity hardware compute cluster and we discuss the implications on scalability and performance. The performance is benchmarked against an existing native Apache Spark data import implementation.

  4. Surgical hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis in adolescents: repercussions of the post-treatment schistosomotic burden on the hepatic functional reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni affects the hepatic functional reserve. Clinical treatment with oxamniquine is not 100% effective and there has been found strain of this parasite resistant to this drug. The aims of this investigation were: (1 to examine the presence of residual parasite burden after medical and surgical treatment on adolescents with surgical schistosomiasis mansoni and (2 to assess the effect on the hepatic functional reserve in patients with and without residual infection. Twenty nine children with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varices were treated with oxamniquine. They underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum. After a mean post-operative follow up of five years they underwent rectal biopsy for schistosomotic egg search. They were divided in patients with and without infection. In 20 patients the submucosal egg search was negative, however, in 9 it was positive. The hepatic functional reserve in the patients without infection was as follows: 17 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. In the patients who were still infected 6 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. The chi2 analysis of the hepatic functional reserve showed chi2 = 3.19 - p= 0.07. From the results the following conclusion can be drawn: residual infection or reinfection in the follow up period had not interfered with the distribution of the hepatic functional reserve of the patients in this series. However, there was a trend for a decrease of this parameter in patients with residual infection.

  5. Evaluation of the Apache II and the oncologic history, as indicative predictions of mortality in the unit of intensive care of the INC September 1996 -December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, David O; Gomez, Clara; Martinez, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    They are multiple the indexes of severity that have been carried out to value the predict and the quality of a patient's life, especially when this it enters to the unit of intensive care (UIC); however, the oncologic patient presents particularities in their mobility, that it supposes a different behavior in the results of the Indexes. Presently work is compared the Apache scale and the oncologic history like morbid mortality as predictors in the UCI. 207 patients were included that entered the UCI between September of 1996 and December of 1997. It was a mortality of 29%, the stay of most of this group of patient smaller than 24 hours or bigger than 8 days. To the entrance, 50% of the patients presented superior averages at 15 in the Apache Scale and at the 48 hours, alone 30.4% continued with this value. The patients with hematologic neoplasia presented superior average at 15 in 87%, with a mortality of 63.3% with average between 15 and 24 to the entrance, the risk of dying was 9.8 times but that with inferior average. In the hematologic patient, the risk of dying was 5.7 times but regarding the solid tumors. The system but altered it was the breathing one, with an increase in the risk of dying from 2,8 times for each increment utility in the scale. Contrary to described in the literature, the oncologic diagnoses and the neoplasia statistic they didn't influence in the mortality of the patients

  6. Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behl Susanne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymostimulin is a thymic peptide fraction with immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. In a phase II trial, we investigated safety and efficacy including selection criteria for best response in advanced or metastasised hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods 44 patients (84 % male, median age 69 years not suitable or refractory to conventional therapy received thymostimulin 75 mg subcutaneously five times per week for a median of 8.2 months until progression or complete response. 3/44 patients were secondarily accessible to local ablation or chemoembolisation. Primary endpoint was overall survival, secondary endpoint tumor response or progression-free survival. A multivariate Cox's regression model was used to identify variables affecting survival. Results Median survival was 11.5 months (95% CI 7.9–15.0 with a 1-, 2- and 3-year survival of 50%, 23% and 9%. In the univariate analysis, a low Child-Pugh-score (p = 0.01, a low score in the Okuda- and CLIP-classification (p Conclusion Outcome in our study rather depended on liver function and intrahepatic tumor growth (presence of liver cirrhosis and Okuda stage in addition to response to thymostimulin, while an invasive HCC phenotype had no influence in the multivariate analysis. Thymostimulin could therefore be considered a safe and promising candidate for palliative treatment in a selected target population with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, in particular as component of a multimodal therapy concept. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29319366.

  7. A low muscle mass increases mortality in compensated cirrhotic patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Cristina; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Incicco, Simone; D'Ambrosio, Daria; Venditti, Mario; Riggio, Oliviero; Merli, Manuela

    2018-05-01

    Severe infections and muscle wasting are both associated to poor outcome in cirrhosis. A possible synergic effect of these two entities in cirrhotic patients has not been previously investigated. We aimed at analysing if a low muscle mass may deteriorate the outcome of cirrhotic patients with sepsis. Consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized for sepsis were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified for the severity of liver impairment (Child-Pugh class) and for the presence of "low muscle mass" (mid-arm muscle circumferencelow muscle mass. In patients with and without low muscle mass, severity of liver disease and characteristics of infections were similar. Mortality tended to be higher in patients with low muscle mass (47% vs 26%, P = .06). A multivariate analysis selected low muscle mass (P low muscle mass compared with those without (50% vs 16%; P = .01). The mortality rate and the incidence of complications in malnourished patients classified in Child-Pugh A-B were similar to those Child-Pugh C. Low muscle mass worsen prognosis in cirrhotic patients with severe infections. This is particularly evident in patients with Child A-B cirrhosis in whom the coexistence of low muscle mass and sepsis caused a negative impact on mortality similar to that observable in all Child C patients with sepsis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Increased Resistin Levels in Intra-abdominal Sepsis: Correlation with proinflammatory cytokines & Acute Physiology & Chronic Health Evaluation II scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonguç U. Yilmaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Resistin, a hormone secreted from adipocytes and considered to be a likely cause of insulin resistance, has recently been accepted as a proinflammatory cytokine. This study aimed to determine the correlation between resistin levels in patients with intra-abdominal sepsis and mortality. Methods: Of 45 patients with intraabdominal sepsis, a total of 35 adult patients were included in the study. This study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2012 and included patients who had no history of diabetes mellitus and who were admitted to the general surgery intensive care units of Gazi University and Bülent Ecevit University School of Medicine, Turkey. Evaluations were performed on 12 patients with sepsis, 10 patients with severe sepsis, 13 patients with septic shock and 15 healthy controls. The patients’ plasma resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, procalcitonin, lactate and glucose levels and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were studied daily for the first five days after admission. A correlation analysis of serum resistin levels with cytokine levels and APACHE II scores was performed. Results: Serum resistin levels in patients with sepsis were significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P <0.001. A significant correlation was found between serum resistin levels and APACHE II scores, serum IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, procalcitonin, lactate and glucose levels. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between serum resistin levels and all-cause mortality (P = 0.02. Conclusion: The levels of resistin were significantly positively correlated with the severity of disease and were a possible mediator of a prolonged inflammatory state in patients with intra-abdominal sepsis.

  9. SIDELOADING – INGESTION OF LARGE POINT CLOUDS INTO THE APACHE SPARK BIG DATA ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boehm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the geospatial domain we have now reached the point where data volumes we handle have clearly grown beyond the capacity of most desktop computers. This is particularly true in the area of point cloud processing. It is therefore naturally lucrative to explore established big data frameworks for big geospatial data. The very first hurdle is the import of geospatial data into big data frameworks, commonly referred to as data ingestion. Geospatial data is typically encoded in specialised binary file formats, which are not naturally supported by the existing big data frameworks. Instead such file formats are supported by software libraries that are restricted to single CPU execution. We present an approach that allows the use of existing point cloud file format libraries on the Apache Spark big data framework. We demonstrate the ingestion of large volumes of point cloud data into a compute cluster. The approach uses a map function to distribute the data ingestion across the nodes of a cluster. We test the capabilities of the proposed method to load billions of points into a commodity hardware compute cluster and we discuss the implications on scalability and performance. The performance is benchmarked against an existing native Apache Spark data import implementation.

  10. MR relaxometry in chronic liver diseases: Comparison of T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging for assessing cirrhosis diagnosis and severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassinotto, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.cassinotto@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); INSERM U1053, Université Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Feldis, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.feldis@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Vergniol, Julien, E-mail: julien.vergniol@chu-bordeaux.fr [Centre D’investigation de la Fibrose Hépatique, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Mouries, Amaury, E-mail: amaury.mouries@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Cochet, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.cochet@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The use of MR to classify cirrhosis in different stages is a new interesting field. • We compared liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging. • MR relaxometry using liver T1 mapping is accurate for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. • Liver T1 mapping shows that values increase with the severity of cirrhosis. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is less accurate than T1 mapping while T2 mapping is not reliable. - Abstract: Background: MR relaxometry has been extensively studied in the field of cardiac diseases, but its contribution to liver imaging is unclear. We aimed to compare liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessing the diagnosis and severity of cirrhosis. Methods: We prospectively included 129 patients with normal (n = 40) and cirrhotic livers (n = 89) from May to September 2014. Non-enhanced liver T1 mapping, splenic T2 mapping, and liver and splenic DWI were measured and compared for assessing cirrhosis severity using Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and presence or not of large esophageal varices (EVs) and liver stiffness measurements using Fibroscan{sup ®} as reference. Results: Liver T1 mapping was the only variable demonstrating significant differences between normal patients (500 ± 79 ms), Child-Pugh A patients (574 ± 84 ms) and Child-Pugh B/C patients (690 ± 147 ms; all p-values <0.00001). Liver T1 mapping had a significant correlation with Child-Pugh score (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.46), MEDL score (0.30), and liver stiffness measurement (0.52). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of liver T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cirrhosis (O.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.91), Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (0.87; 95%CI, 0.76–0.93), and large EVs (0.75; 95%CI, 0.63–0.83) were greater than that of spleen T2 mapping, liver and spleen DWI (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Liver T1 mapping is a promising new diagnostic

  11. MR relaxometry in chronic liver diseases: Comparison of T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging for assessing cirrhosis diagnosis and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassinotto, Christophe; Feldis, Matthieu; Vergniol, Julien; Mouries, Amaury; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of MR to classify cirrhosis in different stages is a new interesting field. • We compared liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging. • MR relaxometry using liver T1 mapping is accurate for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. • Liver T1 mapping shows that values increase with the severity of cirrhosis. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is less accurate than T1 mapping while T2 mapping is not reliable. - Abstract: Background: MR relaxometry has been extensively studied in the field of cardiac diseases, but its contribution to liver imaging is unclear. We aimed to compare liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessing the diagnosis and severity of cirrhosis. Methods: We prospectively included 129 patients with normal (n = 40) and cirrhotic livers (n = 89) from May to September 2014. Non-enhanced liver T1 mapping, splenic T2 mapping, and liver and splenic DWI were measured and compared for assessing cirrhosis severity using Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and presence or not of large esophageal varices (EVs) and liver stiffness measurements using Fibroscan ® as reference. Results: Liver T1 mapping was the only variable demonstrating significant differences between normal patients (500 ± 79 ms), Child-Pugh A patients (574 ± 84 ms) and Child-Pugh B/C patients (690 ± 147 ms; all p-values <0.00001). Liver T1 mapping had a significant correlation with Child-Pugh score (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.46), MEDL score (0.30), and liver stiffness measurement (0.52). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of liver T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cirrhosis (O.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.91), Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (0.87; 95%CI, 0.76–0.93), and large EVs (0.75; 95%CI, 0.63–0.83) were greater than that of spleen T2 mapping, liver and spleen DWI (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Liver T1 mapping is a promising new diagnostic tool for

  12. Assessment of performance and utility of mortality prediction models in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Prachee M; Bapat, Sharda N

    2014-01-01

    To assess the performance and utility of two mortality prediction models viz. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Secondary objectives were bench-marking and setting a base line for research. In this observational cohort, data needed for calculation of both scores were prospectively collected for all consecutive admissions to 28-bedded ICU in the year 2011. After excluding readmissions, discharges within 24 h and age <18 years, the records of 1543 patients were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Both models overpredicted mortality in this cohort [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.95 ± 0.06 using APACHE II and SAPS II respectively]. Patterns of predicted mortality had strong association with true mortality (R (2) = 0.98 for APACHE II and R (2) = 0.99 for SAPS II). Both models performed poorly in formal Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit testing (Chi-square = 12.8 (P = 0.03) for APACHE II, Chi-square = 26.6 (P = 0.001) for SAPS II) but showed good discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) and 0.83 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) for APACHE II and SAPS II, respectively). There were wide variations in SMRs calculated for subgroups based on International Classification of Disease, 10(th) edition (standard deviation ± 0.27 for APACHE II and 0.30 for SAPS II). Lack of fit of data to the models and wide variation in SMRs in subgroups put a limitation on utility of these models as tools for assessing quality of care and comparing performances of different units without customization. Considering comparable performance and simplicity of use, efforts should be made to adapt SAPS II.

  13. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  14. Prognostic significance of low skeletal muscle mass compared with protein-energy malnutrition in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Ishii, Akio; Iwata, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Yuho; Ishii, Noriko; Yuri, Yukihisa; Takata, Ryo; Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Nakano, Chikage; Nishimura, Takashi; Yoh, Kazunori; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naoto; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the impact of low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) on survival as compared with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 206 individuals with LC were analyzed. We retrospectively examined the impact of LSMM, as defined by psoas muscle mass at the third lumber on computed tomography, on survival as compared with PEM. In terms of comparison of the effects of LSMM and PEM on survival, we used time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our study cohort included 115 men and 91 women with a median age of 67 years. There were 140 patients with Child-Pugh A, 62 with Child-Pugh B, and 4 with Child-Pugh C. A total of 117 patients (56.8%) had LSMM and 52 patients (25.2%) had PEM. The proportion of PEM in patients with LSMM (31.62%, 37/117) was significantly higher than in patients without LSMM (16.85%, 15/89) (P = 0.0229). In the multivariate analysis for the entire cohort, the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, lower body mass index, presence of LSMM, lower triglyceride value, poorer renal function, and higher des-γ-carboxy prothrombin value were found to be significant adverse predictors linked to overall survival, while presence of PEM tended to be significant. In the time-dependent ROC analysis, all area under the ROCs for survival in LSMM at each time point were higher than those in PEM except for Child-Pugh B patients. In this comparison of LSMM and PEM on clinical outcomes in LC patients, it was shown that LSMM may have stronger prognostic impact than PEM. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  15. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  16. Hepatic ADC value correlates with cirrhotic severity of patients with biliary atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan; Ho, Ming Chih; Wang, Yung Cheng; Peng, Steven Shinn Forng

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: At least 40% of survivors of biliary atresia have progressive cirrhosis even after undergoing Kasai operation. The values of hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient and apparent-diffusion-coefficient-related indices were applied to biliary atresia patients and correlated with cirrhotic severity scores of model for end-stage liver disease or pediatric end-stage liver disease model, Child-Turcotte, and Child-Pugh systems. Materials and methods: Thirty-three biliary atresia patents (mean = 1140, 61–4314 days of age) received magnetic resonance image examinations due to complications of biliary atresia from April 2008 to August 2009. Two non-breath-hold diffusion weighted imaging sequences were performed with motion-probing gradients in three directions with two b values: 0/100 and 0/500 s/mm 2 ; 1000 ms/61.1 ms, time to repeat/time to echo; number of excitation, 1.0; 8 mm section thickness; 40 cm × 40 cm field of view; 128 × 256 matrix in all biliary atresia patients and 18 control subjects. We used the Spearman rank correlation test to analyze the relationship among the scores of model for end-stage liver disease or pediatric end-stage liver disease model, Child-Turcotte and Child-Pugh scores and right hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients, apparent diffusion coefficient using b factor of 500-albumin product and alanine transaminase/apparent diffusion coefficient with b factor of 500 ratio. Results: The right hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient using b factor of 100, apparent diffusion coefficient with b factor of 500 and product of apparent diffusion coefficient with b factor of 500-albumin level were significantly negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.0125) with model for end-stage liver disease or pediatric end-stage liver disease model, Child-Turcotte, and Child-Pugh scores of biliary atresia patients. The ratio of alanine transaminase level/right hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient with b factor of 500 was also significantly (p ≤ 0

  17. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    compensate for age-related decline in fertility. (II-2A) 2. A fertility evaluation should be initiated after 6 months of unprotected intercourse without conception in women 35 to 37 years of age, and earlier in women > 37 years of age. (II-2A) 3. Prospective parents should be informed that semen quality and male fertility deteriorate with advancing age and that the risk of genetic disorders in offspring increases. (II-2A) 4. Women ≥ 35 years of age should be offered screening for fetal aneuploidy and undergo a detailed second trimester ultrasound examination to look for significant fetal birth defects (particularly cardiac defects). (II-1A) 5. Delayed child-bearing is associated with increased obstetrical and perinatal complications. Care providers need to be aware of these complications and adjust obstetrical management protocols to ensure optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. (II-2A) 6. All adults of reproductive age should be aware of the obstetrical and perinatal risks of advanced maternal age so they can make informed decisions about the timing of child-bearing. (II-2A) 7. Strategies to improve informed decision-making by prospective parents should be designed, implemented, and evaluated. These strategies should provide opportunity for adults to understand the potential medical, social, and economic consequences of child-bearing throughout the reproductive years. (III-B) 8. Barriers to healthy reproduction, including workplace policies, should be reviewed to optimize the likelihood of healthy pregnancies. (III-C).

  18. Significance of blood pressure variability in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nishant Raj; Bian, Yu-Yao; Shou, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the characteristics of blood pressure variability (BPV) and sepsis and to investigate changes in blood pressure and its value on the severity of illness in patients with sepsis. Blood parameters, APACHE II score, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were analyzed in 89 patients with sepsis. In patients with APACHE II score>19, the values of systolic blood pressure (SBPV), diasystolic blood pressure (DBPV), non-dipper percentage, cortisol (COR), lactate (LAC), platelet count (PLT) and glucose (GLU) were significantly higher than in those with APACHE II score ≤19 (Pblood cell (WBC), creatinine (Cr), PaO2, C-reactive protein (CRP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that APACHE II scores correlated significantly with SBPV and DBPV (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis of SBPV, DBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was used to predict prognosis in terms of survival and non-survival rates. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) showed that DBPV was a better predictor of survival rate with an AUC value of 0.890. However, AUC of SBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was 0.746, 0.831 and 0.915, respectively. The values of SBPV, DBPV and non-dipper percentage are higher in patients with sepsis. DBPV and SBPV can be used to predict the survival rate of patients with sepsis.

  19. HATT: a phase IV, single-arm, open-label study of sorafenib in Taiwanese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Ming; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Jeng, Long-Bin; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Hu, Chi-Tan; Yang, Sien-Sing; Le Berre, Marie-Aude; Liu, Xuan; Mitchell, David Y; Prins, Klaas; Grevel, Joachim; Peña, Carol A E; Meinhardt, Gerold

    2017-03-01

    Sorafenib significantly improves survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This phase IV study assessed sorafenib efficacy/safety in Taiwanese patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A status. All patients received 400 mg sorafenib BID. Safety, efficacy, sorafenib pharmacokinetics, and Child-Pugh progression were evaluated. A hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) prevention substudy assessed HFSR incidence and grade/severity and time to HFSR in 29 and 34 patients randomized to corticosteroid and noncorticosteroid ointments, respectively, and in 88 nonrandomized patients. The 151 patients included 120 (80%) male patients and 81 (54%) with stage IV disease. Mean sorafenib dose was 626 mg/day, and median treatment duration was 4.2 months. Median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and time to progression (TTP) were 8.6, 2.7, and 3.8 months, respectively. Disease control and response rates (partial responses only) were 48 and 6.6%, respectively. Median TTP from Child-Pugh A to B/C was 88 days. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 89.4% of patients; none were new or unexpected. The most frequent grade ≥3 drug-related, treatment-emergent AEs were HFSR (13.2%), diarrhea (11.9%), and hypertension (6.6%). Corticosteroid ointment tended to reduce the severity and incidence of all HFSR-associated parameters. Pharmacokinetic exposure was unaltered by Child-Pugh progression. The final pharmacokinetic model predicted 13.1 and 33.8% reductions in sorafenib exposure over 6 and 12 months, respectively. There was a trend of longer OS and TTP in Taiwanese patients with advanced HCC compared with patients with advanced HCC in the Asia-Pacific trial. Sorafenib exposure did not correlate with liver function. Reduced pharmacokinetic exposure over time was unrelated to reduced or interrupted dosing.

  20. Radiation-induced liver disease after stereotactic body radiotherapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical and dose-volumetric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinhong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, So Yeon; Cho, Byungchul; Park, Jin-hong; Kim, Su Ssan; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang-wook; Ahn, Seung Do

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical and dose–volumetric parameters that predict the risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) for patients with small, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Between March 2007 and December 2009, 92 patients with HCC treated with SBRT were reviewed for RILD within 3 months of completing treatment. RILD was evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A dose of 10–20 Gy (median, 15 Gy) per fraction was given over 3–4 consecutive days for a total dose of 30–60 Gy (median, 45 Gy). The following clinical and dose–volumetric parameters were examined: age, gender, Child-Pugh class, presence of hepatitis B virus, gross tumor volume, normal liver volume, radiation dose, fraction size, mean dose to the normal liver, and normal liver volumes receiving from < 5 Gy to < 60 Gy (in increments of 5 Gy). Seventeen (18.5%) of the 92 patients developed grade 2 or worse RILD after SBRT (49 patients in grade 1, 11 in grade 2, and 6 in ≥ grade 3). On univariate analysis, Child-Pugh class was identified as a significant clinical parameter, while normal liver volume and normal liver volumes receiving from < 15 Gy to < 60 Gy were the significant dose–volumetric parameters. Upon multivariate analysis, only Child-Pugh class was a significant parameter for predicting grade 2 or worse RILD. The Child-Pugh B cirrhosis was found to have a significantly greater susceptibility to the development of grade 2 or worse RILD after SBRT in patients with small, unresectable HCC. Additional efforts aimed at testing other models to predict the risk of RILD in a large series of HCC patients treated with SBRT are needed

  1. The ART score is not effective to select patients for transarterial chemoembolization retreatment in an Italian series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Eleonora; Terenzi, Laura; Venerandi, Laura; Croci, Luca; Renzulli, Matteo; Mosconi, Cristina; Allegretti, Giulia; Granito, Alessandro; Golfieri, Rita; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The ART score (a point score for the assessment of retreatment with transarterial chemoembolization, TACE) has been recently developed in Austria to differentiate patients who may benefit from multiple sessions of TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. The primary aim of the study was to test the validity of the ART score in an Italian study cohort. The secondary aims were to evaluate overall survival (OS) and clinical determinants of improved survival in patients treated with multiple TACE sessions. The ART score and the clinical outcome of 51 consecutive patients with HCC submitted to multiple TACE sessions from April 2002 to December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Median OS was 26.0 months (95% confidence interval 18.4-33.6) with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 75, 33 and 11%, respectively). Thirty-three patients had an ART score of 0-1.5 and in 18 it was ≥2.5, but in our patient series, the ART score was not found to be a predictor of survival (p = 0.173). At univariate analysis, tumor extent (uni- vs. bilobar: 34.0 vs. 9.0 months; p < 0.001), Child-Pugh score before the second TACE (A vs. B7 vs. B8-9: 26.0 vs. 16.0 vs. 5.0 months; p = 0.005) and Child-Pugh score increase between the first and second TACE (absent vs. + 1 point vs. + ≥2 points: 27.0 vs. 4.0 vs. 5.0 months; p < 0.001) were statistically related with survival. At multivariate analysis, only Child-Pugh score increase remained a significant predictor of worse survival (p = 0.001, hazard rate = 11.6). The ART score was not found to work as an objective tool to guide TACE retreatment in our Italian patient series, only the Child-Pugh score increase was an independent predictor of a shorter survival.

  2. LIPID PROFILE OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PROGNOSTIC SCORES: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian BASSANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn cirrhosis the production of cholesterol and lipoproteins is altered.ObjectiveEvaluate the lipid profile by measuring total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in patients with cirrhosis caused by alcoholism and/or hepatitis C virus infection and determine its association with Child-Pugh and MELD scores.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of patients treated at the outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010.ResultsIn total, 314 records were reviewed, and 153 (48.7% met the inclusion criteria, of which 82 (53.6% had cirrhosis that was due to hepatitis C virus infection, 50 (32.7% were due to alcoholism, and 21 (13.7% were due to alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection. The total cholesterol levels diminished with a Child-Pugh progression (P20 was associated with lower total cholesterol levels (<100mg/dL; P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (<16 mg/dL; P=0.006, and low-density lipoprotein (<70 mg/dL; P=0.003. Inverse and statistically significant correlations were observed between Child-Pugh and all the lipid fractions analyzed (P<0.001. The increase in MELD was inversely correlated with reduced levels intotal cholesterol (P<0.001, high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.030 and triglyceride (P=0.003.ConclusionA reduction in the lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection and/or alcoholism was significantly associated with the Child-Pugh and MELD prognostic markers. These results suggest that the lipid profile may be used as a tool to assist in evaluating liver disease.

  3. Type II A2 duplication of urethra in an 8-month-old male child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Okur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly, usually found with multiple anatomical variants. In this article was presented a case of urethral duplication in an 8-month-old male child. The malformation was characterized by the presence of continent hypospadic and normal apical urethra. Retrograde urethrogram through both urethral tracts simultaneously revealed the malformation as Effmann Type II A-2. The accessory ventral urethra was excised without complication.

  4. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  5. Nutritional assessment in patients with cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Alves Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Malnutrition in cirrhotic patients with end-stage disease is common, and the degree of nutritional debilitation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of complications and cause a negative impact on prognosis. However, it involves difficulties and controversies regarding the identification of the best nutritional assessment method. OBJECTIVE: To identify a method that provides a safe and effective nutritional diagnosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 129 cirrhotic patients. Anthropometric measurements, subjective global assessment, hand grip strength and bioelectrical impedance. RESULTS: Through phase angle of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method, significant associations with Child-Pugh (P = 0.008, age group and gender were observed. The ROC (receiver operator characteristic curve was generated to determine the best cutoff point of the phase angle of cirrhotic patients, serving as one of the reference parameters for the nutritional assessment with bioimpedance in this study, considering the classification through Child-Pugh score as the reference standard for the clinical conditions of patients with cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment through bioelectrical impedance presented a statistically significant correlation with Child-Pugh score. The identification of phase angle of 5.44º is the new parameter suggested for the classification of the nutritional conditions of cirrhotic patients.

  6. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called “frameworks” The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an architecture brings a greater flexibility in the deployment of LHCbDirac services, allowing for easier deployment maintenance and scaling of services on demand (e..g LHCbDirac relies on 138 services and 116 agents). Higher reliability is also easier, as clustering is part of the toolset, which allows constraints on the location of the services. This paper describes the investigations carried out to package the LHCbDIRAC and DIRAC components into Docker containers and orchestrate them using the previously described set of tools.

  7. Lot 4 AH-64E Apache Attack Helicopter Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    engine is tested to determine its Engine Torque Factor ( ETF ) rating.6 To meet contract specifications, a new engine must have an ETF of 1.0. The...published AH-64E operator’s manual estimates performance based on engines with an ETF of 1.0, and pilots normally plan missions anticipating the 717...pound shortfall in hover performance at KPP conditions. The Apache Program Manager reports that new engines are delivered with an average ETF of

  8. Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pp. 201–215, 2003. 2. K. Crowston, K. Wei, J. Howison, and A. Wiggins, “Free/ libre open-source software devel- opment: What we know and what we do not...Understanding the process of participating in open source communities,” in International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Free/ Libre /Open Source Software ...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software

  9. Constructing Flexible, Configurable, ETL Pipelines for the Analysis of "Big Data" with Apache OODT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A. F.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Verma, R.; Zimdars, P. A.; Park, S.; Estrada, A.; Sumarlidason, A.; Gil, Y.; Ratnakar, V.; Krum, D.; Phan, T.; Meena, A.

    2013-12-01

    A plethora of open source technologies for manipulating, transforming, querying, and visualizing 'big data' have blossomed and matured in the last few years, driven in large part by recognition of the tremendous value that can be derived by leveraging data mining and visualization techniques on large data sets. One facet of many of these tools is that input data must often be prepared into a particular format (e.g.: JSON, CSV), or loaded into a particular storage technology (e.g.: HDFS) before analysis can take place. This process, commonly known as Extract-Transform-Load, or ETL, often involves multiple well-defined steps that must be executed in a particular order, and the approach taken for a particular data set is generally sensitive to the quantity and quality of the input data, as well as the structure and complexity of the desired output. When working with very large, heterogeneous, unstructured or semi-structured data sets, automating the ETL process and monitoring its progress becomes increasingly important. Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) provides a suite of complementary data management components called the Process Control System (PCS) that can be connected together to form flexible ETL pipelines as well as browser-based user interfaces for monitoring and control of ongoing operations. The lightweight, metadata driven middleware layer can be wrapped around custom ETL workflow steps, which themselves can be implemented in any language. Once configured, it facilitates communication between workflow steps and supports execution of ETL pipelines across a distributed cluster of compute resources. As participants in a DARPA-funded effort to develop open source tools for large-scale data analysis, we utilized Apache OODT to rapidly construct custom ETL pipelines for a variety of very large data sets to prepare them for analysis and visualization applications. We feel that OODT, which is free and open source software available through the Apache

  10. 肝癌合并肝硬化患者血小板参数的变化及影响因素

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Shengnan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the changes in platelet parameters and their influential factors in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. MethodsThe clinical data of 602 cirrhotic patients with HCC who were admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University from January 2011 to December 2012, as well as 200 cirrhotic patients hospitalized during the same period, were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0. Normally distributed continuous data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation; comparison between two groups was made by t test, and comparison between multiple groups was made by analysis of variance. Non-normally distributed data were expressed as median and interquartile range (P25-P75; comparison between groups was made by rank sum test. ResultsCompared with the cirrhotic group, the HCC group had significantly higher platelet count (PLT and plateletcrit (PCT (t=5.019, P=0000; t=5.017, P=0.000 and a significantly lower mean platelet volume (MPV/PLT (t=5.877, P=0.000; there were no significant differences in MPV and platelet distribution width between the two groups (t=-0.942, P=0.347; t=-1.040, P=0.298. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.636 for PLT, 0.633 for PCT, and 0.639 for MPV/PLT in the diagnosis of HCC in cirrhotic patients. Decreases in PLT and PCT were closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Patients with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis had significantly higher PLT and PCT than those with Child-Pugh class B and C cirrhosis (P<0.01; patients with a maximum tumor diameter of ≥5 cm had significantly higher PLT and PCT than those with maximum tumor diameters of 2-5 cm and ≤2 cm (P<0.01. Patients with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis had a significantly lower MPV/PLT than those with Child-Pugh class B and C cirrhosis (P<0.01; patients with a maximum tumor diameter of ≥5 cm had a significantly lower MPV/PLT than those

  11. Cloud Computing: A model Construct of Real-Time Monitoring for Big Dataset Analytics Using Apache Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasem, Ameen; Liu, Hongwei; Zuo, Decheng; Algarash, Basheer

    2018-01-01

    The volume of data being collected, analyzed, and stored has exploded in recent years, in particular in relation to the activity on the cloud computing. While large-scale data processing, analysis, storage, and platform model such as cloud computing were previously and currently are increasingly. Today, the major challenge is it address how to monitor and control these massive amounts of data and perform analysis in real-time at scale. The traditional methods and model systems are unable to cope with these quantities of data in real-time. Here we present a new methodology for constructing a model for optimizing the performance of real-time monitoring of big datasets, which includes a machine learning algorithms and Apache Spark Streaming to accomplish fine-grained fault diagnosis and repair of big dataset. As a case study, we use the failure of Virtual Machines (VMs) to start-up. The methodology proposition ensures that the most sensible action is carried out during the procedure of fine-grained monitoring and generates the highest efficacy and cost-saving fault repair through three construction control steps: (I) data collection; (II) analysis engine and (III) decision engine. We found that running this novel methodology can save a considerate amount of time compared to the Hadoop model, without sacrificing the classification accuracy or optimization of performance. The accuracy of the proposed method (92.13%) is an improvement on traditional approaches.

  12. Early onset of organ failure is the best predictor of mortality in acute pancreatitis El fracaso orgánico precoz como mejor factor predictivo de mortalidad en la pancreatitis aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poves Prim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: APACHE II is a multifactorial scoring system for predicting severity in acute pancreatitis (AP. Organ failure (OF has been correlated with mortality in AP. Objectives: to evaluate the usefulness of APACHE II as an early predictor of severity in AP, its correlation with OF, and the relevance of an early establishment of OF during the course of AP. Patients and methods: from January 1999 to November 2001, 447 consecutive cases of AP were studied. APACHE II scores and Atlanta criteria were used for defining severity and OF. Results: twenty-five percent of patients had severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. APACHE II at 24 h after admission showed a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 52, 77, 46, and 84%, respectively, for predicting severity. Mortality for SAP was 20.5%. Seventy percent of patients who developed OF did so within the first 24 hours of admission, and their mortality was 52%. Mortality was statistically significant (p Introducción: el APACHE II se ha utilizado como factor predictivo de gravedad en la pancratitis aguda (PA. La instauración de fracaso orgánico (FO en la PA se correlaciona con una mayor mortalidad. Objetivos: evaluar la utilidad del APACHE II como factor predictivo precoz de gravedad en la PA, su correlación con el FO y la relevancia del establecimiento precoz del FO en la PA. Pacientes y métodos: desde enero de 1999 hasta noviembre de 2001 se estudiaron 447 pacientes ingresados consecutivamente por PA. Se utilizó el sistema APACHE II y los criterios de Atlanta para evaluar la gravedad. Resultados: el 25% de los pacientes presentaron una pancreatitis aguda grave (PAG. El APACHE II a las 24 horas del ingreso mostró una sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo del 52, 77, 46 y 84%, respectivamente, como marcador de gravedad. La mortalidad global de la PAG fue del 20,5%. El 70% de los pacientes que presentaron FO lo hicieron en las primeras 24 horas

  13. Enhancing organization and maintenance of big data with Apache Solr in IBM WebSphere Commerce deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Grigel, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to enhance the organization and maintenance of big data with Apache Solr in IBM WebSphere Commerce deployments. This objective can be split into several subtasks: reorganization of data, fast and optimised exporting and importing, efficient update and cleanup operations. E-Commerce is a fast growing and frequently changing environment. There is a constant flow of data that is rapidly growing larger and larger every day which is becoming an ...

  14. Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, Jennie; Dunbar, Robin Wright

    2001-04-24

    Field work for this project was conducted during July and April 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteenth section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlations and cross sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project.

  15. The Analysis of the Causes of Prolonged Hospitalization after Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Nam Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Jae Kyu

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to analyze the causes of prolonged hospitalization (over 7 days) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma and its related factors. We analyzed the total hospital days after patients with unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma received transarterial chemoembolization, and these patients were treated during the recent 6 month at our hospital. Two hundred twenty three sessions showed a short term hospital stay (less than 7 days) and 57 sessions showed a prolonged hospital stay (more than 7 days), so a total of 280 sessions were analyzed. The hospital stay less than seven days was set for the control group and this was correlated with the patient's age, gender, the level of bilirubin and albumin, the platelet counts, the AST/ALT ratio, the a-FT, the presence of portal vein thrombosis and ascites, several scoring systems (Child-Pugh, CLIP, and OKUDA score) and the need for additional embolization at the time of the procedure. Compared with that of the control group, ascites (p=0.004), portal vein thrombosis (p=0.000), a platelet count below the hundred thousand (p=0.012), a Child-Pugh score more than B (p=0.023), a CLIP score more than 2 (p=0.000) and a OKUDA score more than II (p=0.000) showed significant differences. The evaluation of patients' factors would be useful to predict extended post-procedural hospitalization after hepatic chemoembolisation

  16. Biliary tract enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI correlates with liver function biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Satoshi; Kajita, Kimihiro; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koyasu, Hiromi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Bae, Kyongtae T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements and laboratory and clinical biomarkers of liver function and fibrosis. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty nine consecutive patients with suspected liver disease or liver tumor underwent gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging measurements during the hepatobiliary phase included biliary tract structure-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR). These measurements were compared with Child-Pugh classification, end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Results: The SIRs of cystic duct and common bile duct were significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification (P = 0.012 for cystic duct and P < 0.0001 for common bile duct), MELD score (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0033), and APRI (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0015). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve were: (74%, 88%, 0.86) with the SIR of common bile duct for the detection of patients with Child-Pugh class B or C; (100%, 87%, 0.94) with the SIR of cystic duct for MELD score (>10); (65%, 76%, 0.70) with the SIR of common bile duct for APRI (>1.5). Conclusion: Gadoxetic-acid contrast enhancement of cystic duct and common bile duct could be used as biomarkers to assess liver function.

  17. Biliary tract enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI correlates with liver function biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koyasu, Hiromi; Matsuo, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements and laboratory and clinical biomarkers of liver function and fibrosis. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty nine consecutive patients with suspected liver disease or liver tumor underwent gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging measurements during the hepatobiliary phase included biliary tract structure-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR). These measurements were compared with Child-Pugh classification, end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Results: The SIRs of cystic duct and common bile duct were significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification (P = 0.012 for cystic duct and P < 0.0001 for common bile duct), MELD score (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0033), and APRI (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0015). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve were: (74%, 88%, 0.86) with the SIR of common bile duct for the detection of patients with Child-Pugh class B or C; (100%, 87%, 0.94) with the SIR of cystic duct for MELD score (>10); (65%, 76%, 0.70) with the SIR of common bile duct for APRI (>1.5). Conclusion: Gadoxetic-acid contrast enhancement of cystic duct and common bile duct could be used as biomarkers to assess liver function.

  18. The Value of Circulating Nogo-B for Evaluating Hepatic Functional Reserve in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyao Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine Nogo-B in liver tissues and plasma of patients with liver cirrhosis and associate them with various clinical parameters. Materials and Methods. Nogo-B protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 24 human fibrotic/cirrhotic liver specimens and 10 healthy controls. We determined plasma Nogo-B levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 301 patients with liver cirrhosis and 153 healthy controls, and then analyzed various clinical parameters. Results. Nogo-B was mainly expressed in nonparenchymal cells in the liver and was marked increased in liver with significant fibrosis/cirrhosis compared to controls. Moreover, Metavir F4 showed a higher level of expression than F2. Plasma Nogo-B levels were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls and were the highest in Child-Pugh class C patients. Plasma Nogo-B levels were positively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. However, there was no relationship between plasma Nogo-B levels and etiology of liver diseases, ALT, AST, platelet counts, and the severity of esophagogastric varices. Conclusions. Nogo-B is mainly expressed in hepatic nonparenchymal cells and is present in plasma. Abnormally high plasma levels of Nogo-B are associated with hepatic cirrhosis and Child-Pugh score, but not correlated with the grade of liver inflammation or portal hypertension. Plasma Nogo-B may be a novel surrogate marker to reflect liver function reserve.

  19. Evaluation of nutritional indicators and body composition in patients with advanced liver disease enrolled for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Daniela Salate Biagioni; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Bakonyi Neto, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with advanced liver disease (LD) related to multifactorial causes. Fluid retention can underestimate the nutritional status based on anthropometric measures. We evaluated nutritional indicators and body composition (BC) in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated them with LD severity. Forty three patients with LD enrolled for liver transplantation were evaluated by Anthropometric measures, subjective evaluation (Global Assessment of Nutritional Status - SGA) and biochemical indicators. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance (SFE-BIA) was used to evaluate body composition (BC). It measured resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and the phase angle (PA). LD severity was estimated by Child-Pugh and Meld criteria (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease). Child-Pugh index between patients was 7.11 ± 1.70 and Meld was 12.23 ± 4.22. Arm Circumference, Arm Muscle Circumference and Arm Muscle Area, SGA, hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin showed better correlation with disease severity. Xc and PA showed correlation both with Meld and Child-Pugh score when BC were evaluated. PA was depleted in 55.8% of the patients. Diagnosis of malnutrition varied according to the method. Global assessment of nutritional status showed better correlation with disease severity than with objective methods. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance for body composition analysis in cirrhotic patients must be cautiously used; however, primary vectors seems to be valid and promising in clinical practice.

  20. Update on Astrometric Follow-Up at Apache Point Observatory by Adler Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Kristie A.; Brucker, Melissa; Hammergren, Mark

    2016-10-01

    We began our NEO astrometric follow-up and characterization program in 2014 Q4 using about 500 hours of observing time per year with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our observing is split into 2 hour blocks approximately every other night for astrometry (this poster) and several half-nights per month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et al.) and light curve studies.For astrometry, we use the ARC Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) with an SDSS r filter, in 2 hour observing blocks centered around midnight. ARCTIC has a magnitude limit of V~23 in 60s, and we target 20 NEOs per session. ARCTIC has a FOV 1.57 times larger and a readout time half as long as the previous imager, SPIcam, which we used from 2014 Q4 through 2015 Q3. Targets are selected primarily from the Minor Planet Center's (MPC) NEO Confirmation Page (NEOCP), and NEA Observation Planning Aid; we also refer to JPL's What's Observable page, the Spaceguard Priority List and Faint NEOs List, and requests from other observers. To quickly adapt to changing weather and seeing conditions, we create faint, midrange, and bright target lists. Detected NEOs are measured with Astrometrica and internal software, and the astrometry is reported to the MPC.As of June 19, 2016, we have targeted 2264 NEOs, 1955 with provisional designations, 1582 of which were detected. We began observing NEOCP asteroids on January 30, 2016, and have targeted 309, 207 of which were detected. In addition, we serendipitously observed 281 moving objects, 201 of which were identified as previously known objects.This work is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  1. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  2. An international, multicenter phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, George P.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; Szydlo, Daniel; Mok, Tony S. K.; Marshke, Robert; Holen, Kyle; Picus, Joel; Boyer, Michael; Pitot, Henry C.; Rubin, Joseph; Philip, Philip A.; Nowak, Anna; Wright, John J.; Erlichman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and Rationale Bortezomib (PS-341, VELCADE®) is a selective inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, an integral component of the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. This phase II study evaluated the activity and tolerability of bortezomib in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Methods The primary endpoint was confirmed tumor response rate (RR) with secondary endpoints including duration of response, time to disease progression, survival and toxicity. Treatment consisted of bortezomib, 1.3 mg/m2 IV bolus on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of each 21-day treatment cycle. Eligibility included: no prior systemic chemotherapy, ECOG PS 0-2, Child-Pugh A or B, preserved hematologic, hepatic and neurologic function; prior liver-directed therapy was permitted. Results Thirty-five patients enrolled and received a median of 2 cycles of treatment (range 1–12). Overall, 24 and 4 patients had a maximum severity of grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs), respectively. No treatment related deaths occurred. Only thrombocytopenia (11%) was seen in greater than 10% of patients. One patient achieved a partial response, lasting 13 weeks during treatment and progressed 11.6 months later; two patients received treatment for greater than 6 months. Median time-to-progression was 1.6 months and median survival was 6.0 months. Conclusions This international, multicenter trial evaluated bortezomib as monotherapy in unresectable HCC patients. And, despite the lack of significant activity, this report serves as a baseline clinical experience for the development of future dual biologic approaches including bortezomib. PMID:20839030

  3. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Osman El Hassan N.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations "Convention on the rights of the child": (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity,…

  4. 34 CFR 300.8 - Child with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child with a disability. 300.8 Section 300.8 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH... education, the child is not a child with a disability under this part. (ii) If, consistent with § 300.39(a...

  5. High performance Spark best practices for scaling and optimizing Apache Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2017-01-01

    Apache Spark is amazing when everything clicks. But if you haven’t seen the performance improvements you expected, or still don’t feel confident enough to use Spark in production, this practical book is for you. Authors Holden Karau and Rachel Warren demonstrate performance optimizations to help your Spark queries run faster and handle larger data sizes, while using fewer resources. Ideal for software engineers, data engineers, developers, and system administrators working with large-scale data applications, this book describes techniques that can reduce data infrastructure costs and developer hours. Not only will you gain a more comprehensive understanding of Spark, you’ll also learn how to make it sing. With this book, you’ll explore: How Spark SQL’s new interfaces improve performance over SQL’s RDD data structure The choice between data joins in Core Spark and Spark SQL Techniques for getting the most out of standard RDD transformations How to work around performance issues i...

  6. Extraction of UMLS® Concepts Using Apache cTAKES™ for German Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Automatic information extraction of medical concepts and classification with semantic standards from medical reports is useful for standardization and for clinical research. This paper presents an approach for an UMLS concept extraction with a customized natural language processing pipeline for German clinical notes using Apache cTAKES. The objectives are, to test the natural language processing tool for German language if it is suitable to identify UMLS concepts and map these with SNOMED-CT. The German UMLS database and German OpenNLP models extended the natural language processing pipeline, so the pipeline can normalize to domain ontologies such as SNOMED-CT using the German concepts. For testing, the ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 training dataset translated into German was used. The implemented algorithms are tested with a set of 199 German reports, obtaining a result of average 0.36 F1 measure without German stemming, pre- and post-processing of the reports.

  7. Long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencioni, R.; Pinto, F.; Armillotta, N.; Bassi, A.M.; Moretti, M.; Di Giulio, M.; Marchi, S.; Uliana, M.; Della Capanna, S.; Lencioni, M.; Bartolozzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our work was to evaluate the long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 184 cirrhotic patients with HCC underwent PEI as the only anticancer treatment over an 8-year period. Patients were followed after therapy by means of clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and US and CT studies performed at regular time intervals. Survival rates were determined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall survival was 67% at 3 years, 41% at 5 years, and 19% at 7 years. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates of patients with single HCC≤3 cm (78, 54, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of patients with single HCC of 3.1-5 cm (61, 32, and 16, respectively) or multiple HCCs (51, 21, and 0%, respectively). Survival of Child-Pugh A patients (79% at 3 years, 53% at 5 years, and 32% at 7 years) was significantly longer (p<0.01) than that of Child-Pugh B patients (50% at 3 years, 28% at 5 years, and 8% at 7 years). A selected group of 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and single HCC≤3 cm had a 7-year survival of 42%. Long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with HCC treated with PEI is comparable to that reported in published series of matched patients submitted to surgical resection. (orig.)

  8. Interleukin 6 (IL6) as a predictor outcome in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham Ragab

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... borne infection and the leading indication for a liver transplant. [1]. Treatment ... cular hemolysis with reduction in gall bladder emptying and motility [11 .... The Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification system was used to assess the ...

  9. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Strauss, Gitte I; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is lost in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. The cause of this is unknown. We determined whether autonomic dysfunction was related to impaired cerebral autoregulation in patients with cirrhosis. Fourteen patients with liver cirrhosis and 11 healthy volunteers...... were recruited. Autonomic function was assessed in response to deep breathing, head-up tilt and during 24-h Holter monitoring. Cerebral autoregulation was assessed by determining the change in mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAVm, transcranial Doppler) during an increase in blood pressure induced...... by norepinephrine infusion (NE). The severity of liver disease was assessed using the Child-Pugh scale (class A, mild; class B, moderate; class C, severe liver dysfunction).NE increased blood pressure similarly in the controls (27 (24-32) mmHg) and patients with the most severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C, 31 (26...

  10. The Psychohistory of Child Maltreatment Among Antebellum Slaveholders: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2017-01-01

    In the psychohistory of the antebellum South, the extent of child abuse in slaveholder families is important for understanding how members of the southern elite were reared and the extent to which they were infected with the toxic residue of their elders’ passions and rages. It is argued that the Old South was a developing region, rather than an already developed one. Consequently, the rate of child abuse that is characteristic of contemporary postindustrial societies is not the proper paradigm for conceptualizing the abuse rate in slaveholder families. It is proposed instead that the rate of child abuse in contemporary developing societies is a better fit for estimating abuse in the antebellum South. Societal and familial variables impinging on the abuse of slaveholder children—corporal punishment, alcohol consumption, hyper-masculinity, a traumatogenic culture of violence, wife abuse, maternal ambivalence and neglect, miscegenation and incest are discussed, as is the likelihood of maltreatment by slaves. Using a study of child abuse across 28 nations, tentative rates of abuse are proposed.

  11. APOGEE-2: The Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment in SDSS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeck, Jennifer; Majewski, S.; Hearty, F.; Schiavon, R. P.; Holtzman, J. A.; Johnson, J.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Munoz, R.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Nidever, D. L.; Zasowski, G.; Garcia Perez, A.; Fabbian, D.; Meza Cofre, A.; Cunha, K. M.; Smith, V. V.; Chiappini, C.; Beers, T. C.; Steinmetz, M.; Anders, F.; Bizyaev, D.; Roman, A.; Fleming, S. W.; Crane, J. D.; SDSS-IV/APOGEE-2 Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The second phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), will commence operations in 2014. APOGEE-2 represents a significant expansion over APOGEE-1, not only in the size of the stellar sample, but also in the coverage of the sky through observations in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Observations on the 2.5m Sloan Foundation Telescope of the Apache Point Observatory (APOGEE-2N) will continue immediately after the conclusion of APOGEE-1, to be followed by observations with the 2.5m du Pont Telescope of the Las Campanas Observatory (APOGEE-2S) within three years. Over the six-year lifetime of the project, high resolution (R˜22,500), high signal-to-noise (≥100) spectroscopic data in the H-band wavelength regime (1.51-1.69 μm) will be obtained for several hundred thousand stars, more than tripling the total APOGEE-1 sample. Accurate radial velocities and detailed chemical compositions will be generated for target stars in the main Galactic components (bulge, disk, and halo), open/globular clusters, and satellite dwarf galaxies. The spectroscopic follow-up program of Kepler targets with the APOGEE-2N instrument will be continued and expanded. APOGEE-2 will significantly extend and enhance the APOGEE-1 legacy of scientific contributions to understanding the origin and evolution of the elements, the assembly and formation history of galaxies like the Milky Way, and fundamental stellar astrophysics.

  12. Cuidados pré-operatórios em hepatopatas Pre-operative care for liver disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Colagrossi Paes Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirurgias realizadas em pacientes com reserva funcional hepática reduzida podem apresentar altos índices de morbi-mortalidade. Uma triagem pré-operatória ideal visa detectar a doença hepática pré-existente, sem necessidade de métodos invasivos. A história clínica e o exame físico fornecem pistas importantes. A quantificação da função hepática de rotina não é necessária, a menos que exista alguma alteração na história ou exame físico. A doença hepática causa diversos efeitos na cirurgia e anestesia. A indução anestésica, hemorragias, hipoxemia, hipotensão, drogas vasoativas e até a posição do paciente na mesa cirúrgica podem provocar diminuição na oxigenação e maior risco de disfunção hepática no intra e pós-operatório. A cirurgia de emergência é um grande preditor de mau prognóstico assim como a sepse e as reoperações. Para uma correta preparação pré-operatória, deve-se levar em consideração a natureza da doença hepática, sua gravidade e o tipo de cirurgia a ser realizada. Algumas ações devem ser tomadas no pré-operatório para diminuir as chances de complicações em pacientes portadores de hepatopatias submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos. O combate à coagulopatia, encefalopatia, ascite, disfunção renal e pulmonar, peritonite bacteriana espontânea e varizes de esôfago deve ser precoce e agressivo. Doentes Child-Pugh C e MELD > 15 não devem ser submetidos a cirurgias eletivas. Doentes Child-Pugh B e com MELD de 10 a 15 podem ser submetidos a pequenos procedimentos cirúrgicos em caso de extrema necessidade e com cautela. Finalmente doentes Child-Pugh A e MELD Patients with impaired hepatic functional reserve when submitted to surgeries may have high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pre-existing liver disease should be detected without need for invasive METHODS. Clinical history and physical examination provide important clues. Laboratory liver function is not necessary unless

  13. Historical review of uranium-vanadium in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-03-01

    This report is a brief review of the uranium and/or vanadium mining in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. It was prepared at the request of the Navajo Tribe, the New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department, and the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology. This report deals only with historical production data. The locations of the mines and the production are presented in figures and tables

  14. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Barkhouser, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blank, Basil; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Carrera, Ricardo; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Cunha, Kátia; Epstein, Courtney; Fitzgerald, Greg; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Henderson, Chuck; Holtzman, Jon A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Lam, Charles R.; Lawler, James E.; Maseman, Paul; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nelson, Matthew; Nguyen, Duy Coung; Nidever, David L.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Shetrone, Matthew; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Stolberg, Todd; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Walker, Eric; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Anders, Friedrich; Basu, Sarbani; Beland, Stephane; Blanton, Michael R.; Bovy, Jo; Brownstein, Joel R.; Carlberg, Joleen; Chaplin, William; Chiappini, Cristina; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Feuillet, Diane; Fleming, Scott W.; Galbraith-Frew, Jessica; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. Aníbal; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Gunn, James E.; Hasselquist, Sten; Hayden, Michael R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ivans, Inese; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Parejko, John K.; Robin, A. C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio; Schultheis, Matthias; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Shane, Neville; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Thompson, Benjamin; Troup, Nicholas W.; Weinberg, David H.; Zamora, Olga

    2017-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51-1.70 μm) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design—hardware, field placement, target selection, operations—and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.

  15. Hepatic enhancement on Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging: comparison between cirrhotic and normal livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2004-01-01

    To compare the enhancement features of hepatic parenchyma between cirrhotic and normal liver, using Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging. The 60 patients (35 with cirrhotic and 25 with normal liver) included in our study underwent Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5T system with a phase-array multicoil. In all cases, T1-weighted in-phase and opposed-phase gradient-echo MR imaging was performed before and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of a bolus of Gd-BOPTA. All images were quantitatively analysed by comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal enhancement (SE) of cirrhotic and normal liver before and after contrast enhancement, and in cirrhotic patients, SNR and SE were also compared in terms of the Child-Pugh classification. For qualitative analysis, the hepatic enhancement patterns of cirrhotic and normal liver were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous according to the consensual findings of two radiologists. At contrast-enhanced imaging, both cirrhotic (p<0.001) and normal liver (p<0.001) showed substantially increased SNR relative to unenhanced images, and the SNR of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal livers at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p<0.001) imaging. The SE of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal liver (in-phase:p=0.002; opposed phase:p=0.011). Both Child-Pugh class A (p<0.001) and B (p<0.001) cirrhotic liver showed a substantial increase in SNR at contrast-enhanced imaging relative to unenhanced imaging and the SNR of Child-Pugh class A was significantly higher than that of Child-Pugh class B at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p=0.022) imaging. In addition, the SE of class A was significantly higher than that of class B at in-phase imaging (p=0.004). Cirrhotic liver showed heterogeneous enhancement in 20 of 35 patients (57%), whereas normal liver showed homogeneous enhancement in all patients. At Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging, cirrhotic liver

  16. Hardening en servidor web Linux Apache, PHP y configurar el firewall de aplicaciones modsecurity para mitigar ataques al servidor

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Delgado Quishpe, Byron Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Realizar un hardening al servidor web, se procederá a revisar las directivas en los archivos de configuración del servicio Apache, PHP, y se procederá a realizar instalación y configuración de un firewall de aplicaciones llamado mod_security la cual nos permitirá mitigar ataques a nuestro servidor web. realizando un análisis de vulnerabilidades encontrado en el servidor. Guayaquil Magíster en Seguridad Informática Aplicada

  17. Colonic mucosal changes in Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A Salama

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The prevalence of PHC and haemorrhoids increases with the progression of liver disease and worsening of the Child-Pugh grading in cirrhotic patients. However, haemorrhoids, rectal varices, hyperaemia and colonic angiodysplasia are not affected by the presence of portal hypertensive gastropathy.

  18. The effect of TACE plus PSE on the liver function of hepatic cancer with portal hypertension and hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhenglong; Jin Hongxian; Cheng Yongde; Zhan Yingjiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus partial spleen embolization (PSE) on the liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 85 patients with HCC complicated with portal hypertension and hypersplenism, including group A 45 patients with treatment of TACE plus PSE and group B 40 patients with single TACE were observed. The liver function was evaluated with Child Pugh scores before and after the procedure. Results: There was no difference in the levels of TBIL, ALT, ALB and Child Pugh scores between groups A and B (P>0.05) but remarkable change after therapy was shown at one week later (P<0.05, P<0.01). The liver function tests showed remarkable improvement in the TACE plus PSE group. Conclusion: TACE combined with PSE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with HCC associated with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hypersplenism. (authors)

  19. Aplikasi Search Engine Perpustakaan Petra Berbasis Android dengan Apache SOLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pendidikan merupakan kebutuhan yang penting bagi manusia untuk meningkatkan kemampuan serta taraf hidupnya.Selain melalui pendidikan formal, ilmu juga dapat diperoleh melalui media cetak atau buku.Perpustakaan merupakan salah satu sarana yang penting dalam menunjang hal tersebut.Meskipun sangat bermanfaat, terdapat kesulitan penggunaan layanan perpustakaan, karena terlalu banyaknya koleksi pustaka yang ada (buku, jurnal, majalah, dan sebagainya sehingga sulit untuk menemukan buku yang ingin dicari.Oleh sebab itu, selain harus berkembang dengan penyediaan koleksi pustaka, perpustakaan harus dapat mengikuti perkembangan zaman yang ada sehingga mempermudah penggunaan layanan perpustakaan.Saat iniperpustakaan Universitas Kristen Petra memiliki perpustakaan dengan kurang lebih 230.000 koleksi fisik maupun digital (berdasarkan data 2014.Dimana daftar koleksi fisik dan dokumen digital dapat diakses melalui website perpustakaan.Adanya koleksi pustaka yang sangat banyak ini menyebabkan kesulitan pengguna dalam melakukan proses pencarian. Sehingga guna menambah fitur layanan yang diberikan maka pada penelitian ini dibuatlah sebuah aplikasi layanan search engine perpustakaan menggunakan platform Apache SOLR dan database PostgreSQL. Selain itu, guna lebih meningkatkan kemudahan akses maka aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan platform mobile device berbasis Android.Selain pengujian terhadap aplikasi dilakukan juga pengujian dengan mengedarkan kuesioner terhadap 50 calon pengguna.Dari hasil kuestioner tersebut menunjukkan bahwa fitur-fitur yang dibuat telah sesuai dengan kebutuhan pengguna (78%. Kata kunci: SOLR, Mesin Pencarian, Perpustakaan, PostgreSQL Abstract: Education is an essential requirement for people to improve their standard of living. Other than through formal education, science can also be obtained through the print media or books. Library is one important tool supporting it. Although it is useful, there are difficulties use library

  20. The response of thrombosis in the portal vein or hepatic vein in hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Bong Kyung; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of current study is to evaluate the response of the patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). In addition, survival of patients and potential prognostic factors of the survival was evaluated. Forty-seven patients with PVT or HVT in HCC, referred to our department for radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. For 3D-CRT plans, a gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined as a hypodense filling defect area in the portal vein (PV) or hepatic vein (HV). Survival of patients, and response to radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed. Potential prognostic factors for survival and response to RT were evaluated. The median survival time of 47 patients was 8 months, with 1-year survival rate of 15% and response rate of 40%. Changes in Child-Pugh score, response to RT, Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status (ECOG PS), hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) positivity, and additional post RT treatment were statistically significant prognostic factors for survival in univariate analysis (p = 0.000, p = 0.018, p = 0.000, p = 0.013, and p = 0.047, respectively). Of these factors, changes in Child-Pugh score, and response to RT were significant for patients' prognosis in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.035, respectively). RT could constitute a reasonable treatment option for patients with PVT or HVT in HCC with acceptable toxicity. Changes in Child-Pugh score, and response to RT were statistically significant factors of survival of patients.

  1. C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio is a predictor of hepatitis B virus related decompensated cirrhosis: time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Si; Xie, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Jing; Wu, Jian-Min; Chen, Rui-Chong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Mei; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Wang, Yu-Qun; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Ke-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem and HBV-related-decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DC) usually leads to a poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine the utility of inflammatory biomarkers in predicting mortality of HBV-DC. A total of 329 HBV-DC patients were enrolled. Survival estimates for the entire study population were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic values for model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, Child-Pugh score, and inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) for HBV-DC were compared using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and time-dependent decision curves. The survival time was 23.1±15.8 months. Multivariate analysis identified age, CAR, LMR, and platelet count as prognostic independent risk factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that CAR of at least 1.0 (hazard ratio, 7.19; 95% confidence interval, 4.69-11.03), and LMR less than 1.9 (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.41) were independently associated with mortality of HBV-DC. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic indicated that CAR showed the best performance in predicting mortality of HBV-DC compared with LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score. The results were also confirmed by time-dependent decision curves. CAR and LMR were associated with the prognosis of HBV-DC. CAR was superior to LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score in HBV-DC mortality prediction.

  2. FOOD CONSUMPTION OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS, COMPARISON WITH THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DISEASE STAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Feijó NUNES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Patients with liver disease often present protein-energy malnutrition. The assessment of food intake is very important in the investigation regarding the "health-disease" process. Objective To assess dietary intake of cirrhotic patients through food record during 3 days, correlating it with the nutritional status of the patient and the stage of the disease. Methods Cirrhotic outpatients from the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, RS, Brazil, were assessed. Nutritional assessment was performed by anthropometry; non-dominating handgrip strength; adductor pollicis muscle thickness; phase angle by bioelectrical impedance analysis; and Subjective Global Assessment. For analysis of food consumption we used the food records of 3 days using scales for weighing of all foods. Results We evaluated 25 (68% patients, in which there was a prevalence of cirrhosis by hepatitis C virus. The upper arm circumference, handgrip strength and phase angle by bioelectrical impedance analysis diagnosed 56% of malnourished. Phase angle by bioelectrical impedance analysis and upper arm circumference were associated with Child-Pugh score (P<0.05. The average consumption of calories, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids were within the recommended. However, sodium was above the recommendations, 106±57.2 mEq, and was inversely associated with Child-Pugh score (rs=-0.410; P=0.042. Conclusion Food intake did not have a significant difference between the Child-Pugh scores and nutritional status. In addition, food intake did not vary neither according to the stage of the disease, nor to the nutritional assessment, by the phase angle by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

  3. Intra-abdominal pressure and procalcitonin are valid prognostic markers of acute pancreatitis severity (intra-abdominal pressure and procalcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early assessment of the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis is very important for further treatment procedures. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between intra-abdominal pressure (IAP and procalcitonin as an indicator of severity of acute pancreatitis. Method. The IAP is measured every 12 hours through the urinary catheter placed in the bladder, in 65 patients with acute pancreatitis. Procalcitonin is measured within 24 hours of receipt of the patient, after 48 hours and after 78 hours. These values of procalcitonin and IAP were compared to each other and in relation to the Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II scoring system. Patients with APACHE II score > 8 are defined with moderate and severe acute pancreatitis. Results. The values of IAP (18,1 ± 4,5 mmHg vs 8,9 ± 2,67 mmHg; p = 0,01 , procalcitonin (15,43 + 2,25 ng/ml vs 3,14 + 1,12 ng/ml; p =0,031 and APACHE II scoring system (17,3 ± 6,24 vs 6,5 ± 1,0; p = 0,013 were significantly higher in patients with moderate and severe acute pancreatitis. The increase in the value of IAP was accompanied by an increase in the value of procalcitonin (r = 0,581, p = 0,01. The sensitivity in the prediction of severe acute pancreatitis after 24 hours of receiving the patient is 91,7% for the IAP, 87,8% for procalcitonin and 84,9% for APACHE II scoring system. Conclusion. The increase in the value of the IAP is accompanied by an increase in the values of procalcitonin, also patients with higher values of APACHE II scoring sys­tem have higher values of IAP and procalcitonin. The values of IAP and procalcitonin can be used as markers of acute pancreatitis severity.

  4. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  5. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peso, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings

  6. Knowledge as a Contingency Factor: Achieving Coordination in Interorganizational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    theory; knowledge flow theory; information processing theory; computational modeling; disaster research; interorganizational theory 16. PRICE CODE 17...primarily to the variables of size (see Chandler 1962; 21 Pugh et al. 1963; Blau 1970; Child 1973) and age ( Starbuck 1965; Inkson et al. 1970; Samuel

  7. Factors associated with pulmonary dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with use of intra-aortic balloon pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Gonçalves Fusatto, Helena; Castilho de Figueiredo, Luciana; Ragonete Dos Anjos Agostini, Ana Paula; Sibinelli, Melissa; Dragosavac, Desanka

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify pulmonary dysfunction and factors associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, weaning failure and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). This observational study analyzed respiratory, surgical, clinical and demographic variables and related them to outcomes. We analyzed 39 patients with a mean age of 61.2 years. Pulmonary dysfunction, characterized by mildly impaired gas exchange, was present from the immediate postoperative period to the third postoperative day. Mechanical ventilation time was influenced by the use of IABP and PaO2/FiO2, female gender and smoking. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay was influenced by APACHE II score and use of IABP. Mortality was strongly influenced by APACHE II score, followed by weaning failure. Pulmonary dysfunction was present from the first to the third postoperative day. Mechanical ventilation time was influenced by female gender, smoking, duration of IABP use and PaO2/FiO2 on the first postoperative day. ICU stay was influenced by APACHE II score and duration of IABP. Mortality was influenced by APACHE II score, followed by weaning failure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Pérez, Ana E. García; Hearty, Fred R.; Lam, Charles R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Cunha, Kátia; Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Fitzgerald, Greg; Holtzman, Jon A.

    2017-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution ( R  ∼ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51–1.70 μ m) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design—hardware, field placement, target selection, operations—and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.

  9. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Pérez, Ana E. García; Hearty, Fred R.; Lam, Charles R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Barkhouser, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck [Pulse Ray Machining and Design, 4583 State Route 414, Beaver Dams, NY 14812 (United States); Cunha, Kátia [Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Fitzgerald, Greg [New England Optical Systems, 237 Cedar Hill Street, Marlborough, MA 01752 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2017-09-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three-year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high-resolution ( R  ∼ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100), infrared (1.51–1.70 μ m) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design—hardware, field placement, target selection, operations—and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis, and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity, and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12 and later releases, all of the APOGEE data products are publicly available.

  10. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family income at or below 200 percent of the Federal poverty line for a family of the size involved; (ii... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child. (a...

  11. Laparoscopic treatment of cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients Experiencia en el tratamiento laparoscópico de la colelitiasis del cirrótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Flores Cortés

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopy in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis in patients with Child´s Class A and Class B cirrhosis. Study design: descriptive and retrospective study. Patients: we studied 14 patients (mean age 60 yrs with Child´s Class A and Class B hepatic cirrhosis who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We analyzed the occurrence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: eight patients were women (57.14% and 6 were men (42.85%. Eight of the 14 patients presented with Child's Class B cirrhosis and 6 patients with Class A. Cholecystectomy was programmed for all patients. The average duration of surgery was 77 min. Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (14.28% in the form of liver bed bleeding. Postoperative complications were observed in 3 patients (21.42%, 2 presented with ascites which led to a worsening of Child's Class in one of them, and the third patient presented with angina-like symptoms (acute, sharp pain in the chest irradiating to the back. Mean length of hospital stay was 3 days. No postoperative morbidity or mortality occurred, and there were no conversions. Conclusions: LC (laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis in patients with well-compensated Child's Class A and Class B cirrhosis. Postoperative morbi-mortality is low, bleeding is unimportant, and both duration of surgical procedure and hospital stay are short.Objetivo: evaluar la seguridad y eficacia del uso de la laparoscopia en pacientes cirróticos en estadio A y B de Child-Pugh con colelitiasis sintomática. Diseño del estudio: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Pacientes: catorce pacientes con una edad media de 60 años diagnosticados de cirrosis hepática en estadios A y B que se les practicó colecistectomía laparoscópica. Se estudia la aparición de complicaciones intraoperatorias y postoperatorias tras la

  12. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor's Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Tadeusz; Gloor, Peter; Jemielniak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution.

  13. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  14. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...

  15. Yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Jean Francois H; Salem, Riad; Carr, Brian I; Soulen, Michael C; Thurston, Kenneth G; Goin, Kathleen A; Van Buskirk, Mark; Roberts, Carol A; Goin, James E

    2004-11-01

    Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is extremely difficult to treat. TheraSphere consists of yttrium-90 (a pure beta emitter) microspheres, which are injected into the hepatic arteries. This article reviews the safety and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with yttrium-90 microspheres. Eighty patients were selected from a database of 108 yttrium-90 microsphere-treated patients and were staged by using Child-Pugh, Okuda, and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scoring systems. Patients were treated with local, regional, and whole-liver approaches. Survival from first treatment was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Adverse events and complications of treatment were coded by using the Southwest Oncology Group toxicity scoring system. Patients received liver doses ranging from 47 to 270 Gy. Thirty-two patients (40%) received more than 1 treatment. Survival correlated with pretreatment Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores ( P = .002), as well as with the individual Cancer of the Liver Italian Program components, Child-Pugh class, alpha-fetoprotein levels, and percentage of tumor replacement. Patients classified as Okuda stage I (n = 54) and II (n = 26) had median survival durations and 1-year survival rates of 628 days and 63%, and 384 days and 51%, respectively ( P = .02). One patient died of liver failure judged as possibly related to treatment. Thus, in selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, yttrium-90 microsphere treatment is safe and well tolerated. On the basis of these results, a randomized controlled trial is warranted comparing yttrium-90 microsphere treatment with transarterial chemoembolization by using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program system for prospective stratified randomization.

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production

  17. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fevereiro de 2006. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos - acometidos e não-acometidos de carcinoma hepatocelular - e analisados em relação à sobrevida em 3 meses e em 1 ano. Também foram comparados em relação ao sexo e à idade do doador e do receptor, a causa da cirrose, a classificação de Child-Pugh e o escore do MELD no momento do transplante, o tempo de isquemia morna e isquemia fria, o número de unidades de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas durante o transplante, o tempo de permanência na UTI e o tempo de internação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 146 casos de transplante hepático: 75 foram excluídos devido a dados incompletos no prontuário e 71 foram incluídos no estudo. A sobrevida geral em 3 meses e 1 ano foi de 77,4% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os acometidos por carcinoma hepatocelular (n = 12 apresentaram sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de 100%, significantemente maior que os não-acometidos (n = 59; 72,8% e 69,49%, respectivamente. O índice médio do MELD, da classificação de Child-Pugh e o número médio de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas foram significantemente maiores nos pacientes não-acometidos. Também foi observada maior percentagem de pacientes classificados como Child-Pugh B e C e de pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose por outras causas nos pacientes não acometidos pela neoplasia. Nos doentes com carcinoma hepatocelular foi observada maior percentagem de indivíduos classificados como Child-Pugh

  18. Perform wordcount Map-Reduce Job in Single Node Apache Hadoop cluster and compress data using Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nandan; Bhujbal, Sandeep; Deshmukh, Aaradhana

    2013-01-01

    Applications like Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter have huge data which has to be stored and retrieved as per client access. This huge data storage requires huge database leading to increase in physical storage and becomes complex for analysis required in business growth. This storage capacity can be reduced and distributed processing of huge data can be done using Apache Hadoop which uses Map-reduce algorithm and combines the repeating data so that entire data is stored in reduced format. The paper ...

  19. Various scoring systems for predicting mortality in Intensive Care Unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, gender, body weight, initial diagnosis, clinic of referral, intubation, comorbidities, APACHE II, APACHE IV, Glasgow coma scale, SAPS III scores, length of hospitalization before referral to ICU, length of stay in ICU, mechanical ventilation were recorded. Results: Most of the patients (54.6%) were consulted from ...

  20. Pentoxifylline Plus Prednisolone versus Pentoxifylline Only for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    few days. Oral thrush, impaired glucose tolerance, poor wound healing were some of the significant problems faced by the patients in the PTX plus prednisolone group. Retrospectively, on analyzing different liver function scores at the time of inclusion, higher MDF, MELD, GASH, Child-Pugh. Table 2: Morbidity/complications ...

  1. Liver collagen in cirrhosis correlates with portal hypertension and liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kåre; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    livers. In 20 of the livers, CPA was measured in more than one tissue sample. CPA showed significant correlations with HVPG and with various surrogate markers of hepatic dysfunction including albumin, bilirubin, INR, MELD score and Child-Pugh score. CPA reliably discriminated HVPG ≥10 mmHg, termed...

  2. Definition of ACLF and inclusion criteria for extra-hepatic organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Ning, Qin

    2015-07-01

    A prominent characteristic of ACLF is rapid hepatic disease progression with subsequent extra-hepatic organ failure, manifesting as either hepatic coma or hepatorenal syndrome, which is associated with a high mortality rate in a short time. The APASL definition mainly emphasizes recognizing patients with hepatic failure. These patients may subsequently develop extra-hepatic multisystem organ failure leading to high mortality. It is therefore worthwhile to identify the short interim period between the development of liver failure and the onset of extra-hepatic organ failure, the potential therapeutic 'golden window.' Interventions during this period may prevent the development of complications and eventually change the course of the illness. Organ failure is suggested to be a central component of ACLF and may behave differently from chronic decompensated liver disease. Clear and practical criteria for the inclusion of organ failure are urgently needed so that patients with these life-threatening complications can be treated in a timely and appropriate manner. Recent studies suggested that the scoring systems evaluating organ failure [acute physiology, age and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores] work better than those addressing the severity of liver disease [Child-Pugh and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores] in ACLF. However, a key problem remains that the former scoring systems are reflective of organ failure and not predictive, thus limiting their value as an early indication for intervention.

  3. Prospective Randomized Study of Doxorubicin-Eluting-Bead Embolization in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of the PRECISION V Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, Johannes; Malagari, Katarina; Vogl, Thomas; Pilleul, Frank; Denys, Alban; Watkinson, Anthony; Pitton, Michael; Sergent, Geraldine; Pfammatter, Thomas; Terraz, Sylvain; Benhamou, Yves; Avajon, Yves; Gruenberger, Thomas; Pomoni, Maria; Langenberger, Herbert; Schuchmann, Marcus; Dumortier, Jerome; Mueller, Christian; Chevallier, Patrick; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) offers a survival benefit to patients with intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A widely accepted TACE regimen includes administration of doxorubicin-oil emulsion followed by gelatine sponge-conventional TACE. Recently, a drug-eluting bead (DC Bead) has been developed to enhance tumor drug delivery and reduce systemic availability. This randomized trial compares conventional TACE (cTACE) with TACE with DC Bead for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with HCC. Two hundred twelve patients with Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis and large and/or multinodular, unresectable, N0, M0 HCCs were randomized to receive TACE with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin or cTACE with doxorubicin. Randomization was stratified according to Child-Pugh status (A/B), performance status (ECOG 0/1), bilobar disease (yes/no), and prior curative treatment (yes/no). The primary endpoint was tumor response (EASL) at 6 months following independent, blinded review of MRI studies. The drug-eluting bead group showed higher rates of complete response, objective response, and disease control compared with the cTACE group (27% vs. 22%, 52% vs. 44%, and 63% vs. 52%, respectively). The hypothesis of superiority was not met (one-sided P = 0.11). However, patients with Child-Pugh B, ECOG 1, bilobar disease, and recurrent disease showed a significant increase in objective response (P = 0.038) compared to cTACE. DC Bead was associated with improved tolerability, with a significant reduction in serious liver toxicity (P < 0.001) and a significantly lower rate of doxorubicin-related side effects (P = 0.0001). TACE with DC Bead and doxorubicin is safe and effective in the treatment of HCC and offers a benefit to patients with more advanced disease.

  4. Assessment of adrenal function in liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, there are reports of adrenal dysfunction in whole spectrum of liver disease. Adrenal insufficiency (AI has been shown to correlate with progression of liver disease. Hence this study was conducted to assess adrenal function in subjects with acute liver disease (ALD, chronic liver disease (CLD and post liver transplantation (LT. Material and Methods: This study included 25 healthy controls, 25 patients of ALD, 20 subjects of CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and 30 with Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and 10 subjects with LT. All subjects were assessed clinically, biochemically and for adrenal functions. Results: AI was present in 9 (34.6% patients with ALD, 20 (40% patients with CLD and 4 (40% in subjects with LT. AI was more common in CLD-2 (18 patients - 60% than CLD-1 (2 patients - 10%. All patients with chronic liver disease had significantly lower basal cortisol (8.8±4.8, P=0.01, stimulated cortisol (18.2±6.3, P <0.00001 and incremental cortisol (9.4±4.6, P <0.00001 as compared to controls. There was increase in percentage of subjects with adrenal dysfunction with progression of liver disease as assessed by Child-Pugh staging. AI was predicted by lower levels of serum protein, serum albumin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of serum bilirubin and INR. Adrenal functions showed recovery following liver transplantation. Conclusions: AI forms important part of spectrum of acute and chronic liver disease. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of AI, and these patients should be evaluated for adrenal dysfunction periodically.

  5. Is there a standard for surgical therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma in healthy and cirrhotic liver? A comparison of eight guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Giulia; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Porzsolt, Franz; Kremer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Liver resection (LR) and transplantation are the most reliable treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim was to compare different guidelines regarding indication for resection and transplantation because of HCC with and without underlying cirrhosis. We compared the following guidelines published after 1 January 2010: American (American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)), Spanish (Sociedad Espanola de Oncologia Medica (SEOM)), European (European Association for the study of liver-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC) and European Society for Medical Oncology-European Society of Digestive Oncology (ESMO-ESDO)), Asian (Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL)), Japanese (Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH)), Italian (Associazione Italiana Oncologia Medica (AIOM)) and German (S3) guidelines. All guidelines recommend resection as therapy of choice in healthy liver. Guidelines based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system recommend resection for single HCCguidelines recommend LR for patients with Child-Pugh A/B with HCC without tumour size restriction; APASL guidelines in general exclude patients with Child-Pugh A from transplantation. In patients with Child-Pugh B, transplantation is the second-line therapy, if resection is not possible for patients within Milan criteria. German and Italian guidelines recommend transplantation for all patients within Milan criteria. Whereas resection is the standard therapy of HCC in healthy liver, a standard regarding the indication for LR and transplantation for HCC in cirrhotic liver does not exist, although nearly all guidelines claim to be evidence based. Surprisingly, despite European guidelines, Germany and Italy use their own national guidelines which partially differ from the European. Possible solutions of the problems are discussed.

  6. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra and Taxonomies of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are interesting to scientists and the general public for diverse reasons: their impacts pose a threat to life and property; they present important albeit biased records of the formation and evolution of the Solar System; and their materials may provide in situ resources for future space exploration and habitation.In January 2015 we began a program of NEO astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our 500 hours of annual observing time are split into frequent, short astrometric runs (see poster by K. A. Nault et. al), and half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al for preliminary rotational lightcurve results). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) instrument. As of August 25, 2015, including testing runs during fourth quarter 2014, we have obtained reflectance spectra of 68 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5m to 8km.In addition to investigating the compositions of individual NEOs to inform impact hazard and space resource evaluations, we may examine the distribution of taxonomic types and potential trends with other physical and orbital properties. For example, the Yarkovsky effect, which is dependent on asteroid shape, mass, rotation, and thermal characteristics, is believed to dominate other dynamical effects in driving the delivery of small NEOs from the main asteroid belt. Studies of the taxonomic distribution of a large sample of NEOs of a wide range of sizes will test this hypothesis.We present a preliminary analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained in our survey to date, including taxonomic classifications and potential trends with size.Acknowledgements: Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which

  8. Relationship of hyponatremia with degree of liver injury and prognosis in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ying

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between hyponatremia and degree of liver injury, complications and survival time, and the prognostic value of hyponatremia in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 218 patients who were diagnosed with decompensated liver cirrhosis for the first time in The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from January 2000 to March 2005 were enrolled in this study, and according to the serum sodium concentration, these patients were divided into group Ⅰ with a serum sodium concentration of ≥130 mmol/L (n=51, group Ⅱ with a serum sodium concentration of ≥120 and <130 mmol/L (n=97, group Ⅲ with a serum sodium concentration of <120 mmol/L (n=70. The patients′sex, age, serum sodium concentration, Child-Pugh class, and complications were analyzed, and the survival time was calculated. The one-way analysis of variance was applied for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the least significant difference t-test was applied for comparison between any two patients; the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method was applied for survival analysis, and the Cox regression model was applied for regression analysis. ResultsCompared with groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, group Ⅲ had the highest proportion of patients with Child-Pugh C cirrhosis. With the increasing Child-Pugh score, the serum sodium concentration decreased; the serum sodium concentration showed significant differences across the patients with Child-Pugh A, B, and C cirrhosis (F=17.336, P<0.001, and differed significantly between any two groups of these patients (all P <0.05. Compared with groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, group Ⅲ had the highest incidence rate of complications, and the incidence rates of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome showed significant differences across the three groups (χ2=17.718 and 6.277, both P<0.05. Group Ⅲ had a

  9. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor’s Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution. PMID:27096157

  10. Serum clusterin as a marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ragaa A. Ramadan

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... tic sensitivity (95.5%) and negative predictive value (95.7%) over the single use of AFP. Conclusions: Although ... noma,12 urothelial bladder carcinoma,13 and prostate adeno- ... on top of chronic HCV infection-related cirrhosis (HCC group). ... examination and the Child-Pugh scoring system was used for.

  11. Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; James, Karen; Bromfield, Tom; Temblett, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been reported in survivors of critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of critical illness. Patients attending the intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up clinic completed the UK-Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory and data was collected from their medical records. Predictors investigated included age, gender, Apache II score, ICU length of stay, pre-illness psychopathology; delirium and benzodiazepine administration during ICU stay and delusional memories of the ICU stay following discharge. A total of 198 patients participated, with 54 (27%) patients suffering with post-traumatic stress disorder. On multivariable logistic regression, the significant predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder were younger age, lower Apache II score, pre-illness psychopathology and delirium during the ICU stay. The predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in this study concur with previous research however a lower Apache II score has not been previously reported.

  12. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  13. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  14. Hepatorenal syndrome: a review | Gadour | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatorenal syndrome [HRS]is a reversible functional acute renal failure secondary to intense renal cortical vasoconstriction in a patient with liver disease. It affects around 40% of patients with cirrhosis and ascites1. The exact cause of the syndrome is not well understood. The state of liver dysfunction [Child-Pugh ...

  15. THE DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Beland, Stephane; Bender, Chad; Desphande, Rohit; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Burton, Adam; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Wilson, John C.; Fleming, Scott W.; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, explores the stellar populations of the Milky Way using the Sloan 2.5-m telescope linked to a high resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near-infrared (1.51–1.70 μm) spectrograph with 300 optical fibers. For over 150,000 predominantly red giant branch stars that APOGEE targeted across the Galactic bulge, disks and halo, the collected high signal-to-noise ratio (>100 per half-resolution element) spectra provide accurate (∼0.1 km s −1 ) RVs, stellar atmospheric parameters, and precise (≲0.1 dex) chemical abundances for about 15 chemical species. Here we describe the basic APOGEE data reduction software that reduces multiple 3D raw data cubes into calibrated, well-sampled, combined 1D spectra, as implemented for the SDSS-III/APOGEE data releases (DR10, DR11 and DR12). The processing of the near-IR spectral data of APOGEE presents some challenges for reduction, including automated sky subtraction and telluric correction over a 3°-diameter field and the combination of spectrally dithered spectra. We also discuss areas for future improvement

  16. Detection of attack-targeted scans from the Apache HTTP Server access logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Baş Seyyar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A web application could be visited for different purposes. It is possible for a web site to be visited by a regular user as a normal (natural visit, to be viewed by crawlers, bots, spiders, etc. for indexing purposes, lastly to be exploratory scanned by malicious users prior to an attack. An attack targeted web scan can be viewed as a phase of a potential attack and can lead to more attack detection as compared to traditional detection methods. In this work, we propose a method to detect attack-oriented scans and to distinguish them from other types of visits. In this context, we use access log files of Apache (or ISS web servers and try to determine attack situations through examination of the past data. In addition to web scan detections, we insert a rule set to detect SQL Injection and XSS attacks. Our approach has been applied on sample data sets and results have been analyzed in terms of performance measures to compare our method and other commonly used detection techniques. Furthermore, various tests have been made on log samples from real systems. Lastly, several suggestions about further development have been also discussed.

  17. THE DATA REDUCTION PIPELINE FOR THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; Mészáros, Szabolcs [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beland, Stephane [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Bender, Chad; Desphande, Rohit [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Burton, Adam; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Wilson, John C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Fleming, Scott W. [Computer Sciences Corporation, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nguyen, Duy [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew, E-mail: dnidever@umich.edu [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, explores the stellar populations of the Milky Way using the Sloan 2.5-m telescope linked to a high resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near-infrared (1.51–1.70 μm) spectrograph with 300 optical fibers. For over 150,000 predominantly red giant branch stars that APOGEE targeted across the Galactic bulge, disks and halo, the collected high signal-to-noise ratio (>100 per half-resolution element) spectra provide accurate (∼0.1 km s{sup −1}) RVs, stellar atmospheric parameters, and precise (≲0.1 dex) chemical abundances for about 15 chemical species. Here we describe the basic APOGEE data reduction software that reduces multiple 3D raw data cubes into calibrated, well-sampled, combined 1D spectra, as implemented for the SDSS-III/APOGEE data releases (DR10, DR11 and DR12). The processing of the near-IR spectral data of APOGEE presents some challenges for reduction, including automated sky subtraction and telluric correction over a 3°-diameter field and the combination of spectrally dithered spectra. We also discuss areas for future improvement.

  18. The outcomes and prognostic factors of acute respiratory failure in the patients 90 years old and over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shu-Chen; Wang, Ching-Min; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chao, Chien-Ming

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the outcomes and prognostic factors in nonagenarians (patients 90 years old or older) with acute respiratory failure. Between 2006 and 2016, all nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) were enrolled. Outcomes including in-hospital mortality and ventilator dependency were measured. A total of 173 nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 56 patients died during the hospital stay and the rate of in-hospital mortality was 32.4%. Patients with higher APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II scores (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.91; 95 % CI, 1.55-22.45; p = 0.009, APACHE II scores ≥ 25 vs APACHE II scores < 15), use of vasoactive agent (adjust OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.12-6.37; p = 0.03) and more organ dysfunction (adjusted OR, 11.13; 95% CI, 3.38-36.36, p < 0.001; ≥ 3 organ dysfunction vs ≤ 1 organ dysfunction) were more likely to die. Among the 117 survivors, 25 (21.4%) patients became dependent on MV. Female gender (adjusted OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.16-10.76, p = 0.027) and poor consciousness level (adjusted OR, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.41-17.58, p = 0.013) were associated with MV dependency. In conclusion, the mortality rate of nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure was high, especially for those with higher APACHE II scores or more organ dysfunction. PMID:29467961

  19. The outcomes and prognostic factors of acute respiratory failure in the patients 90 years old and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ling; Chen, Chin-Ming; Kung, Shu-Chen; Wang, Ching-Min; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chao, Chien-Ming

    2018-01-23

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the outcomes and prognostic factors in nonagenarians (patients 90 years old or older) with acute respiratory failure. Between 2006 and 2016, all nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) were enrolled. Outcomes including in-hospital mortality and ventilator dependency were measured. A total of 173 nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 56 patients died during the hospital stay and the rate of in-hospital mortality was 32.4%. Patients with higher APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II scores (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.91; 95 % CI, 1.55-22.45; p = 0.009, APACHE II scores ≥ 25 vs APACHE II scores < 15), use of vasoactive agent (adjust OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.12-6.37; p = 0.03) and more organ dysfunction (adjusted OR, 11.13; 95% CI, 3.38-36.36, p < 0.001; ≥ 3 organ dysfunction vs ≤ 1 organ dysfunction) were more likely to die. Among the 117 survivors, 25 (21.4%) patients became dependent on MV. Female gender (adjusted OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.16-10.76, p = 0.027) and poor consciousness level (adjusted OR, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.41-17.58, p = 0.013) were associated with MV dependency. In conclusion, the mortality rate of nonagenarians with acute respiratory failure was high, especially for those with higher APACHE II scores or more organ dysfunction.

  20. Noninvasive assessment of oesophageal varices presence and size in patients with liver cirrhosis using right liver lobe/serum albumin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease and it is usually accompanied by portal hypertension. The development of oesophageal varices (OV is one of the major complications of portal hypertension. Cirrhotic patients should be screened for the presence of OV when portal hypertension is diagnosed. In order to reduce the increasing burden that endoscopy units have to bear, some studies have attempted to identify parameters for noninvasive prediction of OV presence. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of biochemical and ultrasonography parameters for prediction of OV presence. Methods. This study included 58 cirrhotic patients who underwent a complete biochemical workup, ultrasonography examination and upper digestive endoscopy. Right liver lobe diameter/albumin ratio was calculated and its correlation to the presence and degree of OV, and Child-Pugh score of liver cirrhosis explored. Results. The mean age of the patients included in the study was 53.07±13.09 years; 40 were males and 18 females. In the Child-Pugh class A were 53.4% patients, class B 39.7%, whereas 6.9% were in the class C. In 24.1% of the patients no OV were identified by upper digestive endoscopy, 19% had OV grade I, 34.5% grade II, 20.7% grade III, and 1.7% OV grade IV. The mean value of the right liver lobe diameter/ albumin ratio was 5.43±1.79 (range of 2.76−11.44. Statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01 was confirm by Spearman's test between OV grade and calculated index (ρ = 0.441. Conclusion. The right liver lobe diameter/albumin ratio is a noninvasive parameter which provides an accurate information pertinent to the determination of OV presence and their grading in patients with liver cirrhosis. .

  1. Transarterial chemo embolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A single center experience including 221 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeneldin, A.A.; Salem, S.E.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Tabashy, R.H.; Alieldin, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem in Egypt as well as in many countries. Trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) is a treatment modality applicable to locally advanced HCC beyond surgery or ablative therapies and is associated with survival improvements. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of TACE in our center over the past four years. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that included 221 patients with locally advanced HCC treated with TACE in a single center between the years 2007 and 2010. The median age was 57 years with male predominance. Liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis and Bilharziasis were encountered in 64%, 31% and 8% of patients, respectively. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (67%). Most cases were diagnosed based on radiology (57%) with a TNM stage I or II (73%) and a median AFP value of 150 ng/m L. Results: 221 patients received 440 cycles of TACE with a median of 2 cycles per patient. Cisplatin and doxorubicin (50 mg per cycle, each) were the most commonly used drugs. Impaired liver function was the most common toxicity. Liver cell failure occurred in 17% of patients. An objective tumor response was achieved in 44% of cases. The median overall survival (OS) was 16 months (95% Cl, 13-19 months) and the median progression free survival (PFS) was 6 months (95% Cl, 4.3-7.8 months). Responding patients, Child-Pugh class A and patients receiving standard doses of chemotherapy had a significantly better OS than their counterparts. Only Child-Pugh class A was associated with significantly longer PFS (p < 0.001). Conclusion: TACE produces reasonable responses and fair survival rates in locally advanced HCC but with noticeable toxicities. Proper patients selection and prompt liver support are mandates for improving TACE outcomes.

  2. Avaliação da capacidade física e do estado nutricional em candidatos ao transplante hepático Evaluation of the nutritional status and physical performance in candidates to liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. A. Leitão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional, os indicadores de capacidade física e suas relações com a função hepática, em pacientes candidatos ao transplante de fígado. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 32 pacientes pré-transplante, classificados como Child-Pugh A (25%, B (22% e C (53%. A capacidade física foi avaliada pelos parâmetros: força muscular do quadríceps, dos flexores plantares e dorsais do pé; equilíbrio estático; coordenação; velocidade da marcha; teste de 6 minutos de caminhada e teste "timed get up and go"; índices de Barthel e de Karnofsky. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo escore de Mendenhall e classificado segundo Blackburn. RESULTADOS: Foi detectado déficit de força de quadríceps (32% dos pacientes, do equilíbrio (34,8%, da velocidade da marcha (66,7% e da coordenação (15,6%. O teste de caminhada indicou baixo desempenho físico em 72,5 % dos pacientes (moderado em 40,9% e grave em 31,6%. O índice de Karnofsky revelou que 43,8% dos pacientes necessitava assistência considerável. Foi identificada desnutrição em 62,5% dos pacientes (leve em 28,13%; moderada e grave em 34,37%. O teste do qui quadrado não mostrou associação entre a classificação de Child-Pugh e o estado nutricional, o teste de caminhada e o índice de Karnofsky. A associação entre o teste de caminhada e o índice de Karnofsky foi altamente significante (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical capacity and nutritional status of patients before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT and to correlate these parameters to the severity of liver function. METHODS: Thirty-two patients before OTL were classified as Child-Pugh A (25%, B (22% and C (53%. Physical capacity was analyzed by the quadriceps and ankle strength, balance, coordination, gait velocity, 6 minute walk test, get up and go test, Barthel and Karnofsky indexes. Nutritional status was evaluated by using Mendenhall score and Blackburn classification. RESULTS: Quadriceps weakness was

  3. Treatment outcome of hepatic re-irradiation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Seung Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Oh, Dong Ryul; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Won Kyung; Paik, Seung Woon

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of repeated high dose 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 1998 and 2011, 45 patients received hepatic re-irradiation with high dose 3D-CRT in Samsung Medical Center. After excluding two ineligible patients, 43 patients were retrospectively reviewed. RT was delivered with palliative or salvage intent, and equivalent dose of 2 Gy fractions for alpha/beta = 10 Gy ranged from 31.25 Gy 10 to 93.75 Gy 10 (median, 44 Gy 10 ). Tumor response and toxicity were evaluated based on the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4.0. The median follow-up duration was 11.2 months (range, 4.1 to 58.3 months). An objective tumor response rate was 62.8%. The tumor response rates were 81.0% and 45.5% in patients receiving > or =45 Gy 10 and <45 Gy 10 , respectively (p = 0.016). The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 11.2 months. The OS was significantly affected by the Child-Pugh class as 14.2 months vs. 6.1 months (Child-Pugh A vs. B, p < 0.001), and modified Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) T stage as 15.6 months vs. 8.3 months (T1-3 vs. T4, p = 0.004), respectively. Grade III toxicities were developed in two patients, both of whom received > or =50 Gy 10 . Hepatic re-irradiation may be an effective and tolerable treatment for patients who are not eligible for further local treatment modalities, especially in patients with Child-Pugh A and T1-3

  4. Treatment outcome of hepatic re-irradiation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Seung Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Oh, Dong Ryul; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Won Kyung; Paik, Seung Woon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of repeated high dose 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 1998 and 2011, 45 patients received hepatic re-irradiation with high dose 3D-CRT in Samsung Medical Center. After excluding two ineligible patients, 43 patients were retrospectively reviewed. RT was delivered with palliative or salvage intent, and equivalent dose of 2 Gy fractions for alpha/beta = 10 Gy ranged from 31.25 Gy{sub 10} to 93.75 Gy{sub 10} (median, 44 Gy{sub 10}). Tumor response and toxicity were evaluated based on the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) ver. 4.0. The median follow-up duration was 11.2 months (range, 4.1 to 58.3 months). An objective tumor response rate was 62.8%. The tumor response rates were 81.0% and 45.5% in patients receiving > or =45 Gy{sub 10} and <45 Gy{sub 10}, respectively (p = 0.016). The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 11.2 months. The OS was significantly affected by the Child-Pugh class as 14.2 months vs. 6.1 months (Child-Pugh A vs. B, p < 0.001), and modified Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) T stage as 15.6 months vs. 8.3 months (T1-3 vs. T4, p = 0.004), respectively. Grade III toxicities were developed in two patients, both of whom received > or =50 Gy{sub 10}. Hepatic re-irradiation may be an effective and tolerable treatment for patients who are not eligible for further local treatment modalities, especially in patients with Child-Pugh A and T1-3.

  5. Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir therapy in patients with hepatitis C-related advanced decompensated liver disease (MELD ≥ 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, G W; Thwaites, P A; Roberts, S K; Strasser, S I; Mitchell, J; Morales, B; Mason, S; Gow, P; Wigg, A; Tallis, C; Jeffrey, G; George, J; Thompson, A J; Parker, F C; Angus, P W

    2018-02-01

    Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C has the potential to improve liver function in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. To examine the virological response and effect of viral clearance in patients with decompensated hepatitis C cirrhosis all with MELD scores ≥15 following sofosbuvir/daclatasvir ± ribavirin. We prospectively collected data on patients who commenced sofosbuvir/daclatasvir for 24-weeks under the Australian patient supply program (TOSCAR) and analysed outcomes including sustained viral response at 12 weeks (SVR12), death and transplant. 108 patients (M/F, 79/29; median age 56years; Child-Pugh 10; MELD 16; genotype 1/3, 55/47) received sofosbuvir/daclatasvir and two also received ribavirin. On intention-to-treat, the SVR12 rate was 70% (76/108). Seventy-eight patients completed 24-weeks therapy. SVR12 was achieved in 56 of these patients on per-protocol-analysis (76%). SVR12 was 80% in genotype 1 compared to 69% in genotype 3. Thirty patients failed to complete therapy. In patients achieving SVR12, median MELD and Child-Pugh fell from 16(IQR15-17) to 14(12-17) and 10(9-11) to 8(7-9), respectively (P<.001). In those who died, MELD increased from 16 to 23 at death (P=.036). Patients who required transplantation had a significantly higher baseline MELD (20) compared to those patients completing treatment (16) (P=.0010). The odds ratio for transplant in patients with baseline MELD ≥20 was 13.8(95%CI 2.78-69.04). SVR12 rates with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in advanced liver disease are lower than in compensated disease. Although treatment improves MELD and Child-Pugh in most patients, a significant proportion will die or require transplantation. In those with MELD ≥20, it may be better to delay treatment until post-transplant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Joo

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 ± 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 ± 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 ± 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival

  7. Hyperammonemia Is Associated with Increasing Severity of Both Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyperammonemia resulting from chronic liver disease (CLD can potentially challenge and damage any organ system of the body, particularly the brain. However, there is still some controversy regarding the diagnostic or prognostic values of serum ammonia in patients with over hepatic encephalopathy, especially in the setting of acute-on-chronic or chronic liver failure. Moreover, the association of serum ammonia with worsening Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis has not been studied. Objective. This study was conducted to solve the controversy regarding the association between hyperammonemia and cirrhosis, especially hepatic encephalopathy in chronically failed liver. Material and Methods. In this study, 171 cirrhotic patients had their serum ammonia measured and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-squared test and one-way ANOVA were applied. Results. The study had 110 male and 61 female participants. The mean age of all the participants in years was 42.33±7.60. The mean duration (years of CLD was 10.15±3.53 while the mean Child-Pugh (CP score was 8.84±3.30. Chronic viral hepatitis alone was responsible for 71.3% of the cases. Moreover, 86.5% of participants had hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The frequency of hyperammonemia was 67.3%, more frequent in males (N=81, z-score = 2.4, and P<0.05 than in females (N=34, z-score = 2.4, and P<0.05, and had a statistically significant relationship with increasing CP grade of cirrhosis (χ2(2 = 27.46, P<0.001, Phi = 0.40, and P<0.001. Furthermore, serum ammonia level was higher in patients with hepatic encephalopathy than in those without it; P<0.001. Conclusion. Hyperammonemia is associated with both increasing Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungbook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 {+-} 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 {+-} 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival.

  9. Liver stiffness plus platelet count can be used to exclude high-risk oesophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nik S; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David M; Hong, Thai; Flanagan, Emma; Wong, Avelyn; Luiz, Lauren; Tan, Jonathan Y C; Fulforth, James; Holmes, Jacinta; Ryan, Marno; Bell, Sally J; Desmond, Paul V; Roberts, Stuart K; Lubel, John; Kemp, William; Thompson, Alexander J

    2016-02-01

    Endoscopic screening for high-risk gastro-oesophageal varices (GOV) is recommended for compensated cirrhotic patients with transient elastography identifying increasing numbers of patients with cirrhosis without portal hypertension. Using liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ± platelet count, the aim was to develop a simple clinical rule to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. A retrospective analysis of 71 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis diagnosed by transient elastography (LSM >13.6 kPa) who underwent screening gastroscopy was conducted. A predictive model using LSM ± platelet count was assessed to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV (diameter >5 mm and/or the presence of high-risk stigmata) and validated using a second cohort of 200 patients from two independent centres. High-risk GOV were present in 10 (15%) and 16 (8%) of the training and validation cohorts, respectively, which was associated with LSM and Pl count (P < 0.05). A combined model based on LSM and Pl count was more accurate for excluding the presence of high-risk GOV than either alone (training cohort AUROC: 0.87 [0.77-0.96] vs. 0.78 [0.65-0.92] for LSM and 0.71 [0.52-0.90] for platelets) with the combination of LSM ≤25 kPa and Pl ≥100 having a NPV of 100% in both the training and validation cohorts. A total of 107 (39%) patients meet this criterion. The combination of LSM ≤25 kPa and Pl ≥100 can be used in clinical practice to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  11. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km 2 between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  12. Small-Diameter PTFE Portosystemic Shunts: Portocaval vs Mesocaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shields

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven patients with failed sclerotherapy received a mesocaval interposition shunt with an externally supported, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis of either 10 or 12 mm diameter. Thirty-one patients had Child-Pugh gradeA disease and 26 grade B; all had a liver volume of 1000– 2500 ml. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 6 years 3 months. Three patients (5 per cent died in the postoperative period. There were two postoperative recurrences of variceal haemorrhage and one recurrent bleed in the second year after surgery. The cumulative shunt patency rate was 95 per cent and the incidence of encephalopathy 9 per cent; the latter was successfully managed by protein restriction and/or lactulose therapy. The actuarial survival rate for the whole group at 6 years was 78 per cent, for those with Child-Pugh grade A 88 per cent and for grade B 67 per cent. Small-lumen mesocaval interposition shunting achieves portal decompression, preserves hepatopetal flow, has a low incidence of shunt thrombosis, prevents recurrent variceal bleeding and is not associated with significant postoperative encephalopathy.

  13. Surgical risks and perioperative complications of instrumented lumbar surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yi Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with liver cirrhosis have high surgical risks due to malnutrition, impaired immunity, coagulopathy, and encephalopathy. However, there is no information in English literature about the results of liver cirrhotic patients who underwent instrumented lumbar surgery. The purpose of this study is to report the perioperative complications, clinical outcomes and determine the surgical risk factors in cirrhotic patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent instrumented lumbar surgery between 1997 and 2009. The hepatic functional reserves of the patients were recorded according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system. Besides, fourteen other variables and perioperative complications were also collected. To determine the risks, we divided the patients into two groups according to whether or not perioperative complications developed. Results: Of the 29 patients, 22 (76% belonged to Child class A and 7 (24% belonged to Child class B. Twelve patients developed one or more complications. Patients with Child class B carried a significantly higher incidence of complications than those with Child class A (p = 0.011. In the Child class A group, patients with 6 points had a significantly higher incidence of complications than those with 5 points (p = 0.025. A low level of albumin was significantly associated with higher risk, and a similar trend was also noted for the presence of ascites although statistical difference was not reached. Conclusion: The study concludes that patients with liver cirrhosis who have undergone instrumented lumbar surgery carry a high risk of developing perioperative complications, especially in those with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of 6 or more.

  14. Identification of enhanced cytokine generation following sepsis. Dream of magic bullet for mortality prediction and therapeutic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hamishehkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: sepsis is one of the most widespread and lethal disease in Intensive Care Units (ICU. Based on pathophisyology of sepsis, it seems that routine laboratory tests combined with analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels, help clinicians to have more information about disease progress and its correct management. "nMethods:This was a prospective observational study to determine the predictive role of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 as three main pro-inflammatory cytokines and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA as two scoring systems in mortality of critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Fifty and five patients with criteria of severe sepsis were included in this study. An exclusion criterion was post Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR status. Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were assayed in the first, third and seventh days in blood of patients. Results and major conclusion:Among three measured cytokines, sequential levels of TNF-α and IL-6 showed significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors. IL-6 had a good correlation with outcome and scoring systems during the period of this study. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve indicated that APACHE II (0.858, 0.848, 0.861 and IL-6 (0.797, 0.799, 0.899 had discriminative power in prediction of mortality during sequental measured days. Multiple logestic regression analysis identified that evaluation of APACHE II and TNF-α in the first day and APACHE II and IL-6 in the third and seventh days of severe septic patients are independent outcome predictors. Results of this study suggest that IL-6 and APACHE II are useful cytokine and scoring systems respectively in prediction of mortality and clinical evaluation of severe septic patients.

  15. Corelation among clinical, biochemical and tomographic criteria in order to evaluate the severity in acute pancreatitis Correlación entre criterios clínicos, bioquímicos y tomográficos para evaluar la gravedad de la pancreatitis aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Lujano-Nicolás

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process that may involve peripancreatic tissue and distant organs. According to the Atlanta criteria, in 10 to 20% of the patients the disease is severe. Nowadays there are different clinical and biochemical severity scales such as the Ranson, APACHE-II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation and hematocrit, which have discrepancies when being compared to tomographic scales such as the Balthazar. There exist few studies that correlate these parameters. Objective: to evaluate the severity of the acute pancreatitis according to the Ranson, APACHE-II and serous hematocrit criteria at the moment of admission of the patient and correlate these scales with the local pancreatic complications according to the Balthazar classification. Patients and method: retrospective, observational and analytic study. There were included patients of any gender above the age of 18, with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis of any etiology, who had performed an abdominal tomography 72 hours after the beginning of the clinical condition in order to stage the pancreatic damage. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was established with 2 of the 3 following criteria: a characteristic abdominal pain; b uprising of the amylase and/or lipase more than 3 times above the superior normal limit; and c characteristic finds of acute pancreatitis in the computed tomography. In order to make the correlation, the Pearson or the Spearman tests were used according to the distribution of the variables. Results: there were included 28 patients (21 masculine, 75%. The most frequent etiology was due to alcohol (53.6%, bile (21.4% and hypertriglyceridemia (17.9%. The age average was 38.1 years old. Fifty per cent of the patients had acute severe pancreatitis according to the Atlanta criteria. Of the patients with APACHE-II less than 8 points, 62.5% were classified according to the Balthazar tomographic scale as D or E degree. Ninety

  16. Parental Investment in Children with Chronic Disease: The Effect of Child's and Mother's Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Tifferet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parents do not invest their resources in their children equally. Three factors which elicit differential parental investment are the parent's reproductive value, the child's reproductive value (RV, and the impact of the investment on the child (II. As the child matures, his RV increases while the II may decrease. This raises a question regarding the favored strategy of investment by child age. It was hypothesized that different categories of parental investment generate different age-based strategies. Emotional investment, such as maternal worrying for the child's health, was hypothesized to increase with the child's age, while direct care was hypothesized to decrease with the child's age. Both categories were hypothesized to increase with the mother's age at childbirth. 137 Israeli mothers of children with chronic neurological conditions reported levels of worrying for their child and levels of change in direct care. Maternal worrying about the child's health was positively associated with the child's age at diagnosis and the severity of his illness, and negatively associated with the time from diagnosis. An increase in direct care was positively associated with maternal age at childbirth and illness severity, and negatively associated with the time from diagnosis, and the duration of the marriage. Contrary to the hypothesis, the child's age had no effect on changes in direct care. It appears that in mothers of children with adverse neurological conditions, child and maternal age effect parental investment differently. While the child's age is related to maternal worrying about his health, the mother's age at childbirth is related to changes in direct care.

  17. Comparison of outcomes between SBRT, yttrium-90 radioembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation as bridge to transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mohamed, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: All bridge therapies demonstrated good pathological response and DFS after LT. SBRT and Y90 demonstrated significantly less grade ≥3 acute toxicity. Choice of optimal modality depends on tumor size, pretreatment bilirubin level, Child-Pugh status, and patient preference. Such a decision is best made at a multidisciplinary tumor board as is done at our institution.

  18. The Effect of a Monocular Helmet-Mounted Display on Aircrew Health: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Apache AH Mk 1 Pilots -(Vision and Handedness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    the day, night, and in adverse weather through the use of nose-mounted, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pilotage and targeting sensors that provide a...sensor video and/or symbology to each crewmember via a helmet display unit (HDU). The HDU contains a 1-inch (in.) diameter cathode ray tube (CRT...American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12(4): 365–369. Sale, D. F., and Lund, G. J. 1993. AH-64 Apache program update

  19. Prognostic Factors in Patients Hospitalized with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Agarwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is characterized by a biochemical triad of hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonemia. This condition is life-threatening despite improvements in diabetic care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biochemical prognostic markers of DKA. We assessed correlations in prognostic markers with DKA-associated morbidity and mortality.MethodsTwo hundred and seventy patients that were hospitalized with DKA over a period of 2 years were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. Serial assays of serum electrolytes, glucose, and blood pH were performed, and clinical outcome was noted as either discharged to home or death.ResultsThe analysis indicated that significant predictors included sex, history of type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total leukocyte count, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum magnesium, serum phosphate, serum osmolality, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases, serum albumin, which were further regressed and subjected to multivariate logistic regression (MLR analysis. The MLR analysis indicated that males were 7.93 times more likely to have favorable outcome compared with female patients (odds ratio, 7.93; 95% confidence interval, 3.99 to 13.51, while decreases in mean APACHE II score (14.83 and serum phosphate (4.38 at presentation may lead to 2.86- and 2.71-fold better outcomes, respectively, compared with higher levels (APACHE II score, 25.00; serum phosphate, 6.04.ConclusionSex, baseline biochemical parameters such as APACHE II score, and phosphate level were important predictors of the DKA-associated mortality.

  20. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  1. 脑死亡无偿器官捐献肝脏移植2例报道%Orthotopic Liver Transplantation from Donor after Brian Death (Report of 2 Cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志刚; 李超; 李立; 王胤佳; 董权; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize and explore the feasibility of implementing organ donation after brain death for liver transplantation in the clinic. Methods From December 2011 to January 2012, we completed two cases of unpaid organ donation after brain death. All donors were diagnosed as brain death, and maintained with mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drug therapy to guarantee the perfusion of donor organs. All recipients were male, the preoperative diagnosis was hepatitis B cirrhosis, liver decompensation, Child-Pugh class C, MELD score 29 points, and hepatitis B cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, Child-Pugh class C, MELD score 26 points. Results In these two cases, we successfully procured donor's livers, and livers were successfully transplanted into all recipients, and working well during the follow-up period. Conclusion The implementation of liver transplantation using organs from brain death donors can gradually extended in our country, and is important to ease the shortage of organ pool.%目的 总结并探讨脑死亡无偿器官捐献肝脏移植在我国临床实施的可行性.方法 昆明市第一人民医院于2011年12月至2012年1月期间共完成2例脑死亡无偿器官捐献工作.2例供体确诊为脑死亡,应用机械通气、血管活性药物等治疗维持供体器官灌注.受体1男性,术前诊断乙肝后性肝硬化,肝功能失代偿,child-pugh C级,MELD评分29分;受体2男性,术前诊断乙肝后性肝硬化,原发性肝癌,child-pugh C级,MELD评分26分.结果 2例脑死亡供体均顺利无偿捐献肝脏,2例受体均顺利接受肝脏移植手术并康复出院,目前随访移植肝功能良好.结论 脑死亡无偿器官捐献肝脏移植的临床实施顺利,可以在我国逐渐推广实行,对缓解我国目前器官短缺状况起到相当重要的作用.

  2. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  3. The burden of disaster: part II. applying interventions across the child's social ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H

    2012-01-01

    This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the childs social ecology consisting of the Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning andpractice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem - including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems - affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child's Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child's environment.

  4. [Influence of cryoglobulinemic syndrome and insulin resistance on the progression of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, L O; Bezrodna, O V; Kuliesh, O V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of the frequency of detection of cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CGS) and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with HCV-associated liver cirrhosis (LC) depending on its stage. There were also evaluated clinical and laboratory features of the disease. The study involved 72 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were divided into 3 main groups according to the presence of LC. The I group included 32 patients with chronic hepatitis C without LC. The II group consisted of 19 patients with compensated HCV-associated LC and III group included 21 patients with decompensated LC. It was shown that terminal stages of the LC (class B-C by Child-Pugh) are characterized by more frequent presence of IR and CGS with more severe clinical picture, which may be caused not only by the influence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), but also by the progression of LC.

  5. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  6. Cranial vault remodeling in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Egermann, Marcus; Freudlsperger, Christian; Thiele, Oliver Christian

    2012-09-01

    This is a survey of the long-term result after various surgical treatments in a child with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) and craniosynostosis. We report a 17-year-old patient with MOPD II but some unusual clinical signs including bilateral knee dislocation, a misplaced upper lobe bronchus, and hypoplasia of the anterior corpus callosum. Because of premature fusion of several cranial sutures, the child developed signs of increased intracranial pressure with somnolence and papilledema. Cranial vault remodeling with fronto-orbital advancement was performed twice at the age of 16 and 21 months to open the abnormally closed suture, increase the intracranial volume, and relieve the elevated intracranial pressure. Following this procedure, the child's neurologic situation recovered significantly. Surgical procedure of fronto-orbital advancement and the performed reoperation in our patient were safe with no major complications intraoperatively and postoperatively with good functional and satisfying aesthetic outcomes in the long-term follow-up, expressed by the patient, his parents, and the surgeons.

  7. Attitudes toward child rearing in female clinical nurses working in three shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The balance between child-rearing and work may be one of the most challenging issues facing female clinical nurses, particularly those who work in three shifts. This study aimed to identify attitudes toward child-rearing in this particular cohort, female clinical nurses working three shifts. Q methodology, a research method concerned with individuals' subjective points of view, was used. Thirty-five selected Q statements from 51 participants were divided into a normal distribution using a nine-point bipolar scale, and the collected data were analyzed using the QUANL program. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I: child-rearing is natural work (child-rearing and work are separate); Factor II: child-rearing is hard work (child-rearing and work are in conflict); and Factor III: child-rearing requires help from someone (child-rearing and work are balanced). The subjective viewpoints of the three identified factors can be applied to develop diverse strategies to support child-rearing in female clinical nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. 45 CFR 303.15 - Agreements to use the Federal Parent Locator Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. 303.15 Section 303.15 Public... parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply... responsibilities require access in connection with child custody and parental kidnapping cases; (ii) Store the...

  9. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  10. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  11. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Margarida; Gomes, A. Rui; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. PMID:22606370

  12. Is 'gut feeling' by medical staff better than validated scores in estimation of mortality in a medical intensive care unit? - The prospective FEELING-ON-ICU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Anne; Pfister, Roman; Kuhr, Kathrin; Kochanek, Matthias; Michels, Guido

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the FEELING-ON-ICU study was to compare mortality estimations of critically ill patients based on 'gut feeling' of medical staff and by Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Medical staff estimated patients' mortality risks via questionnaires. APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA were calculated retrospectively from records. Estimations were compared with actual in-hospital mortality using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). 66 critically ill patients (60.6% male, mean age 63±15years (range 30-86)) were evaluated each by a nurse (n=66, male 32.4%) and a physician (n=66, male 67.6%). 15 (22.7%) patients died on the intensive care unit. AUC was largest for estimations by physicians (AUC 0.814 (95% CI 0.705-0.923)), followed by SOFA (AUC 0.749 (95% CI 0.629-0.868)), SAPS II (AUC 0.723 (95% CI 0.597-0.849)), APACHE II (AUC 0.721 (95% CI 0.595-0.847)) and nursing staff (AUC 0.669 (95% CI 0.529-0.810)) (p<0.05 for all results). The concept of physicians' 'gut feeling' was comparable to classical objective scores in mortality estimations of critically ill patients. Concerning practicability physicians' evaluations were advantageous to complex score calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) and porta-systemic shunt in the child-pugh grade a cirrhosis determined by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daiki Habu; Shuhei Nishiguchi; Shinji Nakatani; Etsushi Kawamurab; Hirotaka Ishizub; Chulyoo Lee; Satoko Ohfujia; Wakaba Fukushimaa; Takashi Tanakaa; Kenji Toriib; Joji Kawabeb; Toji Kawamurab; Susumu Shiomib

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: It has been reported that the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to aromatic amino acid (AAA) ratio (Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio) is an important prognostic factor in cirrhosis. The clinical significance of the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BCAA to tyrosine ratio; BTR) resembles that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, In Japan, because determination of BTR simpler and cheaper than that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, BTR is now widely used for assessment of abnormality of amino acid metabolism in cirrhosis. In this study, we examined the difference between early cirrhotic patients with lower BTR and higher BTR in portal circulation using per-rectal portal scintigraphy with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) pertechnetate. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with Child-Pugh grade A cirrhosis and serum albumin level between 3.5 g/dl and 3.9 g/dl were enrolled in this study. Sixteen patients were infected with HBV and 24 with HCV. At entry, we measured the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BTR). BTR was measured by an enzymatic method (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Thirteen patients had BTR 4.0. At the same time, we measured serum albumin, platelets, total bilirubin, prothrombin test, retention of indocyanine green in plasma after 15 minutes (ICGR-15) and NH3. To evaluate the portal circulation, all patients underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy. A 370 MBq portion of 99m Tc-pertechnetate (2 ml) was first given per rectum through a polyethylene tube, followed by 15 ml of air. Then time-activity curves for the heart and liver areas were obtained every 4 sec. At the enol of the 5 min-examinations, the 5-min summed image displayed in color was recorded. To evaluate the extent of porta-systemic shunt by shunt index (SI), we calculated the ratio of counts for the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Results: Shunt index obtained

  14. Microalbuminuria in the intensive care unit: Clinical correlates and association with outcomes in 431 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Peter; Czyz, John; Nightingale, Peter; Manji, Mav

    2006-08-01

    Comparison of urine albumin within 6 hrs of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with demography, clinical classification, outcome, inotrope/vasopressor requirement, clinical assessment of mortality risk, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured on ICU admission (ACR 1) and after 4-6 hrs (ACR 2). A 17-bed general ICU in a university teaching hospital. Unselected medical (206) and surgical (225) patients recruited prospectively. None. Bedside urine ACR was measured by nurses using a Bayer DCA 2000 analyzer and expressed in mg/mmol (reference range Po2/Fio2 ratio 48 hrs after ICU admission and positively correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation and ACR 1 with ICU stay. ACR 2 predicted mortality and ACR 1 inotrope requirement independent of clinical mortality risk assessment and APACHE II and SOFA scores. Urine albumin changes rapidly within the first 6 hrs following ICU admission and predicts ICU mortality and inotrope requirement as well as or better than APACHE II and SOFA scores. Serial urine albumin measurement may provide a means of monitoring the microvascular effects of systemic inflammation.

  15. Child behaviour problems and childhood illness: development of the Eczema Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K

    2017-01-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and

  16. Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases from Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Effect of Radiation Dose Escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of pain response and objective response to palliative radiotherapy (RT) for bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma according to RT dose. From January 2007 to June 2010, palliative RT was conducted for 103 patients (223 sites) with bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment sites were divided into the high RT dose and low RT dose groups by biologically effective dose (BED) of 39 Gy10. Pain responses were evaluated using the numeric rating scale. Pain scores before and after RT were compared and categorized into 'Decreased', 'No change' and 'increased'. Radiological objective responses were categorized into complete response, partial response, stable disease and progression using modified RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) criteria; the factors predicting patients' survival were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 6 months (range, 0 to 46 months), and the radiologic responses existed in 67 RT sites (66.3%) and 44 sites (89.8%) in the high and low RT dose group, respectively. A dose-response relationship was found in relation to RT dose (p=0.02). Pain responses were 75% and 65% in the high and low RT dose groups, respectively. However, no statistical difference in pain response was found between the two groups (p=0.24). There were no differences in the toxicity profiles between the high and low RT dose groups. Median survival from the time of bone metastases diagnosis was 11 months (range, 0 to 46 months). The Child-Pugh classification at the time of palliative RT was the only significant predictive factor for patient survival after RT. Median survival time was 14 months under Child-Pugh A and 2 months under Child-Pugh B and C. The rate of radiologic objective response was higher in the high RT dose group. Palliative RT with a high dose would provide an improvement in patient quality of life through enhanced tumor response, especially in patients with proper liver function.

  17. Chronic Hepatitis C-Related Cirrhosis Hospitalization Cost Analysis in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimitrova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveHCV infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with long-term complications—extensive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study is to perform cost analysis of therapy of patients with chronic HCV-related cirrhosis hospitalized in the University Hospital “Queen Joanna-ISUL” for 3-year period (2012–2014.MethodsIt is a prospective, real life observational study of 297 patients with chronic HCV infection and cirrhosis monitored in the University Hospital “Queen Joanna-ISUL” for 3-year period. Data on demographic, clinical characteristics, and health-care resources utilization (hospitalizations, highly specialized interventions, and pharmacotherapy were collected. Micro-costing approach was applied to evaluate the total direct medical costs. The points of view are that of the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF, hospital and the patients. Collected cost data are from the NHIF and hospitals tariffs, patients, and from the positive dug list for medicines prices. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, Kruskal–Wallis, and Friedman tests were used for statistical processing.Results76% of patients were male. 93% were diagnosed in grade Child-Pugh A and B. 97% reported complications, and almost all developed esophageal varices. During the 3 years observational period, patients did not change the critical clinical values for Child-Pugh status and therefore the group was considered as homogenous. 847 hospitalizations were recorded for 3 years period with average length of stay 17 days. The mortality rate of 6.90% was extremely high. The total direct medical costs for the observed cohort of patients for 3-year period accounted for 1,290,533 BGN (€659,839 with an average cost per patient 4,577 BGN (€2,340. Statistically significant correlation was observed between the total cost per patient from the different payers’ perspective and the Child-Pugh cirrhosis score

  18. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Osman El Hassan M.

    2013-09-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations Convention on the rights of the child: (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity, gender, religion, socioeconomic background etc.; (2) top priority of the best interests of the child; (3) the child's right to a better life and development; and (4) respect of children's views. In a CFC, children are encouraged to take part in the decision making processes that affect their lives. Instead of starting yet another programme for children, the development of a CFC mobilises and connects existing agencies and actors. Giving examples of some cities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, this paper demonstrates that building CFCs has induced the development of mechanisms and structures which have enabled cities to address children's issues in a systematic manner. These mechanisms and structures include: a municipal child-friendly legal framework, local development councils and NGO networks and local municipal development offices. The author argues that in building CFCs, the role of municipal authorities is indispensable in responding to the needs of children and young people within the municipalities' mandates.

  19. Impact of liver cirrhosis on liver enhancement at Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N., E-mail: niklas.verloh@stud.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Haimerl, M.; Rennert, J.; Müller-Wille, R.; Nießen, C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Kirchner, G. [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Scherer, M.N. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Schreyer, A.G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in enhancement effects of liver parenchyma between normal and cirrhotic livers on dynamic, Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 T. Materials and methods: 93 patients with normal (n = 54) and cirrhotic liver (n = 39; Child–Pugh class A, n = 18; B, n = 16; C, n = 5) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with liver specific contrast media at 3 T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before contrast injection, in the arterial phase (AP), in the late arterial phase (LAP), in the portal venous phase (PVP), and in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) after 20 min. The relative enhancement (RE) of the signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was calculated for all phases. Results: Mean RE was significantly different among all evaluated groups in the hepatobiliary phase and with increasing severity of liver cirrhosis, a decreasing, but still significant reduction of RE could be shown. Phase depending changes of RE for each group were observed. In case of non-cirrhotic liver or Child–Pugh Score A cirrhosis mean RE showed a significant increase between AP, LAP, PVP and HBP. For Child–Pugh B + C cirrhosis RE increased until PVP, however, there was no change in case of B cirrhosis (p = 0.501) and significantly reduced in case of C cirrhosis (p = 0.043) during HBP. Conclusion: RE of liver parenchyma is negatively affected by increased severity of liver cirrhosis, therefore diagnostic value of HBP could be limited in case of Child Pugh B + C cirrhosis.

  20. Impact of liver cirrhosis on liver enhancement at Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Rennert, J.; Müller-Wille, R.; Nießen, C.; Kirchner, G.; Scherer, M.N.; Schreyer, A.G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in enhancement effects of liver parenchyma between normal and cirrhotic livers on dynamic, Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 T. Materials and methods: 93 patients with normal (n = 54) and cirrhotic liver (n = 39; Child–Pugh class A, n = 18; B, n = 16; C, n = 5) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with liver specific contrast media at 3 T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before contrast injection, in the arterial phase (AP), in the late arterial phase (LAP), in the portal venous phase (PVP), and in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) after 20 min. The relative enhancement (RE) of the signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was calculated for all phases. Results: Mean RE was significantly different among all evaluated groups in the hepatobiliary phase and with increasing severity of liver cirrhosis, a decreasing, but still significant reduction of RE could be shown. Phase depending changes of RE for each group were observed. In case of non-cirrhotic liver or Child–Pugh Score A cirrhosis mean RE showed a significant increase between AP, LAP, PVP and HBP. For Child–Pugh B + C cirrhosis RE increased until PVP, however, there was no change in case of B cirrhosis (p = 0.501) and significantly reduced in case of C cirrhosis (p = 0.043) during HBP. Conclusion: RE of liver parenchyma is negatively affected by increased severity of liver cirrhosis, therefore diagnostic value of HBP could be limited in case of Child Pugh B + C cirrhosis

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: Risk factors for survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Luciana; Menezes, Marcos; Chagas, Aline L; Tani, Claudia M; Alencar, Regiane SSM; Diniz, Marcio A; Alves, Venâncio AF; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Carrilho, Flair José

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify survival- and recurrence-related factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with early HCC by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (single nodule of ≤ 5 cm, or multi- (up to 3) nodules of ≤ 3 cm each) and who underwent RFA treatment with curative intent between January 2010 and August 2011 at the Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil were enrolled in the study. RFA of the liver tumors (with 1.0 cm ablative margin) was carried out under CT-fluoro scan and ultrasonic image guidance of the percutaneous ablation probes. Procedure-related complications were recorded. At 1-mo post-RFA and 3-mo intervals thereafter, CT and MRI were performed to assess outcomes of complete response (absence of enhancing tissue at the tumor site) or incomplete response (enhancing tissue remaining at the tumor site). Overall survival and disease-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log rank test or simple Cox regression. The effect of risk factors on survival was assessed by the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 38 RFA sessions were performed during the study period on 34 patients (age in years: mean, 63 and range, 49-84). The mean follow-up time was 22 mo (range, 1-33). The study population showed predominance of male sex (76%), less severe liver disease (Child-Pugh A, n = 26; Child-Pugh B, n = 8), and single tumor (65%). The maximum tumor diameters ranged from 10 to 50 mm (median, 26 mm). The initial (immediately post-procedure) rate of RFA-induced complete tumor necrosis was 90%. The probability of achieving complete response was significantly greater in patients with a single nodule (vs patients with multi-nodules, P = 0.04). Two patients experienced major complications, including acute pulmonary edema (resolved with intervention) and intestinal perforation

  2. Children's responses to low parental mood. II: Associations with family perceptions of parenting styles and child distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantaus-Simula, Tytti; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Beardslee, William R

    2002-03-01

    In an earlier article (part 1) the authors identified four patterns of children's responses to parental low mood: Active Empathy, Emotional Overinvolvement, Indifference, and Avoidance. They then hypothesized that these response patterns were related to parenting styles and to discrepancies in family members' perceptions of parenting and child mental distress. A normal population sample of 990 twelve-year-old Finnish children and their mothers (843) and fathers (573) was used. Within-family multivariate analyses conducted in mother-father-child triads (470) were used to examine whether quality of parenting varied according to children's responses and whether parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress were different. Children in the Active Empathy and Indifference groups experienced more positive parenting than those in the other two groups. Discrepancies in family members' perceptions of child distress and mothering and fathering were especially characteristic of the Emotional Overinvolvement group. Typical for the Avoidance group was a within-family agreement on poor parenting and severe child distress. Children's response patterns as regards parental low mood are related to family dynamics. The study suggests that discrepancies in parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress can be meaningful in understanding family interactions and child development and well-being.

  3. Mortality indicators and risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension in severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J G; Liao, Q; Zhao, Y P; Hu, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the risk factors associated with mortality and the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). To identify significant risk factors, we assessed the following variables in 102 patients with SAP: age, gender, etiology, serum amylase level, white blood cell (WBC) count, serum calcium level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, computed tomography severity index (CTSI) score, pancreatic necrosis, surgical interventions, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Statistically significant differences were identified using the Student t test and the χ (2) test. Independent risk factors for survival were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression. The following variables were significantly related to both mortality and IAH: WBC count, serum calcium level, serum amylase level, APACHE-II score, CTSI score, pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis >50%, and MODS. However, it was found that surgical intervention had no significant association with mortality. MODS and pancreatic necrosis >50% were found to be independent risk factors for survival in patients with SAP. Mortality and IAH from SAP were significantly related to WBC count, serum calcium level, serum amylase level, APACHE-II score, CTSI score, pancreatic necrosis, and MODS. However, Surgical intervention did not result in higher mortality. Moreover, MODS and pancreatic necrosis >50% predicted a worse prognosis in SAP patients.

  4. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  5. Aplicación de las redes neuronales artificiales para la estratificación de riesgo de mortalidad hospitalaria Application of artificial neural networks for risk stratification of hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trujillano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar la capacidad de predicción de mortalidad hospitalaria de una red neuronal artificial (RNA con el Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II y la regresión logística (RL, y comparar la asignación de probabilidades entre los distintos modelos. Método: Se recogen de forma prospectiva las variables necesarias para el cálculo del APACHE II. Disponemos de 1.146 pacientes asignándose aleatoriamente (70 y 30% al grupo de Desarrollo (800 y al de Validación (346. Con las mismas variables se genera un modelo de RL y de RNA (perceptrón de 3 capas entrenado por algoritmo de backpropagation con remuestreo bootstrap y con 9 nodos en la capa oculta en el grupo de desarrollo. Se comparan los tres modelos en función de los criterios de discriminación con el área bajo la curva ROC (ABC [IC del 95%] y de calibración con el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow C (HLC. Las diferencias entre las probabilidades se valoran con el test de Bland-Altman. Resultados: En el grupo de validación, el APACHE II con ABC de 0,79 (0,75-0,84 y HLC de 11 (p = 0,329; modelo RL, ABC de 0,81 (0,76-0,85 y HLC de 29 (p = 0,0001, y en RNA, ABC de 0,82 (0,77-0,86 y HLC de 10 (p = 0,404. Los pacientes con mayores diferencias en la asignación de probabilidad entre RL y RN (8% del total son pacientes con problemas neurológicos. Los peores resultados se obtienen en los pacientes traumáticos (ABC inferior a 0,75 en todos los modelos. En los pacientes respiratorios, la RNA alcanza los mejores resultados (ABC = 0,87 [0,78-0,91]. Conclusiones: Una RNA es capaz de estratificar el riesgo de mortalidad hospitalaria utilizando las variables del sistema APACHE II. La RNA consigue mejores resultados frente a RL, sin alcanzar significación, ya que no trabaja con restricciones lineales ni de independencia de variables, con una diferente asignación de probabilidad individual entre los modelos.Objective: To compare the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN to

  6. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  7. Myocardial extracellular volume quantified by magnetic resonance is increased in cirrhosis and related to poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens; Mo, Silje

    2018-01-01

    .04). Furthermore, ECV increased across the Child Pugh A/B/C classes (26.9±4/ 31.5±5/ 34.4±6%, P=0.02). Four-teen patients experienced the composite end-point of death/LT during follow-up and these patients had higher ECV (33.2±4 vs. 30.4±6%, P=0.04). In a univariate Cox regression analysis ECV was associated...

  8. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Dexhesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ‘Hague Protocol’ enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and

  9. Remote sensing analysis of vegetation at the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Arizona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Middleton, Barry R.; Wilson, Natalie R.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of vegetation types is of great importance to the San Carlos Apache Tribe and their management of forestry and fire fuels. Various remote sensing techniques were applied to classify multitemporal Landsat 8 satellite data, vegetation index, and digital elevation model data. A multitiered unsupervised classification generated over 900 classes that were then recoded to one of the 16 generalized vegetation/land cover classes using the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) map as a guide. A supervised classification was also run using field data collected in the SWReGAP project and our field campaign. Field data were gathered and accuracy assessments were generated to compare outputs. Our hypothesis was that a resulting map would update and potentially improve upon the vegetation/land cover class distributions of the older SWReGAP map over the 24,000  km2 study area. The estimated overall accuracies ranged between 43% and 75%, depending on which method and field dataset were used. The findings demonstrate the complexity of vegetation mapping, the importance of recent, high-quality-field data, and the potential for misleading results when insufficient field data are collected.

  10. Hearing, language, motor and social skills in the child development: a screening proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the hearing, language, motor and social skills of children and propose a screening of child development. Methods: 129 preschool children of both sexes, aged between three and six years old, enrolled in educational institutions and 25 teachers of kindergarten from public and private institutions, with no history of hearing disorders, with type A tympanometric curves and the presence of acoustic reflexes participated. For the children, the neuropsychomotor test, Denver II, and the evaluation of sound localization and temporal ordination of three verbal and non-verbal sounds were applied. For the educators responsible for the children, the Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB, was used. Results: most participants with normal SAB presented hearing abilities or standard Denver II; while in the amended SAB group, most participants presented alterations in Denver II or in the auditory abilities tests. It was found, also, that part of the children with standard Denver II were pointed, by the educators, as misbehaving in SAB. Conclusion: the combination of the findings of the Denver II, hearing tests of sound localization and temporal ordination and the SAB Scale is useful in the characterization of child development and, thus, the use of these three instruments for screening in this age group is recommended.

  11. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law for nonzero injection velocities in a planar diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.R.; Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2004-01-01

    The Child-Langmuir law relates the voltage applied across a planar diode to the saturation value J CL of current density that can be transmitted through it in case the injection velocity of electrons is zero. The Child-Langmuir current density J CL is, at the same time: (i) the maximum current density that can be transmitted through a planar diode, (ii) the current density below which the flow is steady and unidirectional in the long time limit, and (iii) the average transmitted current density for any value of injected current density above J CL . Existing generalizations of Child-Langmuir law to nonzero velocities of injection are based on the characteristics (i) and (ii) of J CL . This paper generalizes the law to nonzero velocities of injection based on the characteristic (iii) by deriving an analytical expression for the saturation value of current density. The analytical expression for the saturation current density is found to be well supported by numerical computations. A reason behind preferring the saturation property of the Child-Langmuir current density as the basis for its generalization is the importance of that property in numerical simulations of high current diode devices

  12. 20 CFR 216.67 - “Child in care.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âChild in care.â 216.67 Section 216.67 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR... used to establish eligibility for the tier II component of a female spouse or widow(er) annuity under...

  13. Evaluation of renal resistive index in cirrhotic patients for predicting the hepatirenal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kim, Hyae young; Yi, Sun Young [Ewha WoMans Univ. Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of renal resistive index(RI) in patients with liver cirrhosis as an indicator for predicting hepatorenal syndrome. Renal RIs of thirty cirrhotic patients were analyzed using the gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonograms. As a control group, eight normal subjects were included. Renal RIs were measured at three sites of interlobar or arcuate arteries of both kidneys. The patients were divided into three groups (A, B, or C) according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification and their serum BUN and creatinine levels were compared. We determined whether RIs of normal controls differed from those of cirrhotic patients or whether RIs of cirrhotic patients correlated with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification or BUN and creatinine levels. Mean RIs(0.63 {+-}0.33) of normal subjects were statistically different from those(0.67 {+-} 0.05) of cirrhotic patients(P=0.009). RIs of group A(n=6), B(n=9) and C(n=15) were 0.65 {+-} 0.03, 0.65 {+-} 0.04 and 0.70 {+-} 0.04, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed statistically significant differences between the three groups(F ratio=4.472, P=0.021). RIs did not correlate with BUN or creatinine levels. RI could be used as an index for predicting hepatorenal syndrome before the renal function becomes impaired.

  14. Chronological evaluation of liver enhancement in patients with chronic liver disease at Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3-T MR imaging. Does liver function correlate with enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shinichi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo; Nakaura, Takeshi; Morita, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronological relationship between scan delay and liver enhancement for the hepatobiliary phase on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and evaluate the effects of liver function on liver enhancement. Hepatobiliary-phase images were retrospectively evaluated in 125 patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatobiliary phase images were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after injection. We calculated relative liver enhancement (RLE) at t min after injection by dividing the signal intensity (SI) of the liver at t min by precontrast SI. We compared RLE values at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and evaluated the detectability of focal hepatic lesions. We analyzed the effect of liver function on RLE with the generalized linear model. There was not significant difference in RLE and lesion detectability at 15 and 20 min. RLE in the Child-Pugh C group was significantly lower than in the Child-Pugh A and B groups. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time were significantly correlated with the liver enhancement. A delay time of 15 min for the hepatobiliary phase was thought to be adequate in patients with mild liver dysfunction. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time would be predictive of liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase. (author)

  15. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  16. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20?44 in Finland during the period 1992?2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further...

  17. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): development and validation of a depression screening instrument for children in pediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (N(I) = 200; N(II) = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised pool was evaluated in order to select the best items for the brief instrument ChilD-S. Areas under the curve (AUCs) of the revised item pool and the ChilD-S were compared. A diagnostic interview, the Kinder-DIPS, served as gold standard. For the purpose of screening for depressive disorders in children, the eight-item ChilD-S (AUC = 0.97) performed just as well as the revised 22-item pool (AUC = 0.94). For the ChilD-S the optimal cut-off point of ≥11 yielded a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.89. The ChilD-S shows high potential for depression screening of children in pediatric care.

  18. Disentangling the effects of parental food restriction on child's risk of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, Valérie; Champel, Camille; Trinchera, Laura; Rigal, Natalie

    2018-04-01

    The links between parental restriction of food intake, child's eating behaviour and child's adiposity are still unclear. Our aim was to validate a model suggesting an underlying mechanism for the impact of parental restriction on child's adiposity through a broad dimension of child's eating temperament entitled the appetite reactivity (including both appetite arousal and appetite persistence). Using an online questionnaire administered at home to children aged between 8 and 11 years (N = 414) with one or both of their parents, we measured: based on child's reports, the perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake, the appetite reactivity and both the desired and the eaten mean food portion sizes; based on parental reports, the mean food portion size given to the child and the child's BMI. Structural equation modelling was used to test a model linking measured variables. A well-fitting structural model (AGFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.08) was identified, showing that: (i) perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake negatively impacts child's appetite arousal and food portion size but positively influences child's appetite persistence; (ii) the two components of appetite reactivity have a positive effect on child's adiposity which is partly mediated by child's actual food portion size. Results suggest an explanation for the controversy surrounding the links between parental food restriction and child's adiposity: through its negative impact on child's appetite arousal and food portion size, parental control may protect against overweight, but because of its positive effect on appetite persistence, it can also be detrimental. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Predicting Ventilator Dependence in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine risk factors associated with ventilator dependence in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Study Design. A retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2008. Methods. This study evaluated 163 adult patients (aged ≥18 years. Eligibility was evaluated according to the criterion for VAP, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score. Oxygenation index, underlying comorbidities, septic shock status, previous tracheostomy status, and factors related to pneumonia were collected for analysis. Results. Of the 163 VAP patients in the study, 90 patients survived, yielding a mortality rate of 44.8%. Among the 90 surviving patients, only 36 (40% had been weaned off ventilators at the time of discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify underlying factors such as congestive cardiac failure (P=0.009, initial high oxygenation index value (P=0.04, increased SOFA scores (P=0.01, and increased APACHE II scores (P=0.02 as independent predictors of ventilator dependence. Results from the Kaplan-Meier method indicate that initial therapy with antibiotics could increase the ventilator weaning rate (log Rank test, P<0.001. Conclusions. Preexisting cardiopulmonary function, high APACHE II and SOFA scores, and high oxygenation index were the strongest predictors of ventilator dependence. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment can improve ventilator weaning rates at the time of discharge.

  20. Regional disparities in child mortality within China 1996-2004: epidemiological profile and health care coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Guo, Sufang; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Yan

    2011-07-01

    China was one of the 68 "countdown" countries prioritized to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4). The aim of this study was to analyze data on child survival and health care coverage of proven cost-effective interventions in China, with a focus on national disparities. National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate child mortality. Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on data from the National Health Services Survey, National Nutrition and Health Survey, and National Immunization Survey. Consultations and qualitative field observations by experts were used to complement the Survey data. Analysis of the data revealed a significant reduction in the overall under-5 (U5) child mortality rate in China from 1996 to 2007, but also great regional disparities, with the risk of child mortality in rural areas II-IV being two- to sixfold higher than that in urban areas. Rural areas II-IV also accounted for approximately 80% of the mortality burden. More than 60% of child mortality occurred during the neonatal period, with 70% of this occurring during the first week of life. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were asphyxia at birth and premature birth; during the post-neonatal period, these were diarrhea and pneumonia, especially in less developed rural areas. Utilization of health care services in terms of both quantity and quality was positively correlated with the region's development level. A large proportion of children were affected by inadequate feeding, and the lack of safe water and essential sanitary facilities are vital indirect factors contributing to the increase in child mortality. The simulation analysis revealed that increasing access to and the quality of the most effective interventions combined with relatively low costs in the context of a comprehensive approach has the potential to reduce U5 deaths by 34%. China is on track to meet MDG 4; however, great disparities in health care do exist within

  1. Lymphomatoid and Mediastinal Granulomatosis in 2-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Vesely

    2014-02-01

    24.07.13 the operation was performed: right thoracotomy, removal of the tumor of the upper lobe of right lung. Immunohistochemical examination results were received: lymphomatoid granulomatosis, grade II. The postoperative period was uneventful. Sutures are removed, the wound healed by primary intention. 10.08.13 the child was discharged home. Further treatment in Minsk (Belarus is planned.

  2. Clinical effects of low-molecular-weight heparin combined with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1787-1792 ... Keywords: Acute pancreatitis, Low-molecular-weight heparin, Multiple organ function syndrome,. APACHE II score ... mediators by lowering the expression of.

  3. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human 'disturbance' and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected

  4. Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers

  5. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Child labour in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Some lessons drawn from a survey on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Song Ntamack

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although child labour is a phenomenon widely studied around the world, there are few papers that tackle the problem in Cameroon. The objective of this paper is to fill the gap by questioning the subject in Yaoundé, the capital city. But child labour phenomenon is analysed here from a questionnaire that has two distinctive features: (i the questionnaire is exclusively devoted to child labour, and (ii all the participants in the survey are exclusively children themselves. No adult (parent, guardian, elder, employer, etc. was consulted and given a chance to answer on behalf of a child. This process is extremely rare in child labour, since in general individuals other than children are requested to testify and answer inslead of children. While some results obtained from a standard Logit model on the determinant of child labour are well known, the others are either not known or insignificant. We suspect that the reason is the data collection.

  7. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and relation to physical findings in girls assessed for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Gisel; Ocampo, Dolores; Rubinstein, Anahí; Risso, Paula

    2015-10-01

    The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients with suspected sexual abuse is uncommon in the field of pediatrics. To establish the prevalence of anogenital findings and their relation to the presence of STIs in girls referred for suspected child sexual abuse. Retrospective study conducted between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013. Physical findings and detection of STIs in girls with suspected child sexual abuse were analyzed. One thousand thirty-four patients were included. Their median age was 7.9 years old. Anogenital findings were classified as class I (normal):38.4%, class II (nonspecific):38.1%, class III (specific):19.9% and class IV (definitive):3.6%. STIs were observed in 42 patients (4.1%). A relation was established between STIs and the classification of physical findings: 10 (class II: 9; class III: 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 17 (class I: 2; class II: 8; class III: 7) Chlamydia trachomatis, 15 (class I: 2; class II: 10; class III: 3) Trichomonas vaginalis. Statistically significant differences for Trichomonas vaginalis (p= 0.01) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p < 0.0001) were observed, with predominance of nonspecific clinical signs. Both nonspecific and specific findings were similarly observed for Chlamydia trachomatis (p= 0.03). Most cases of girls with suspected child sexual abuse had normal or nonspecific anogenital findings. The prevalence of STIs in these girls is low. Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were related to nonspecific findings, while both nonspecific and specific findings were observed for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  8. MELD Score as a Predictor of Early Death in Patients Undergoing Elective Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Aaron; Ferral, Hector; Vasan, Rajiv; Postoak, Darren W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To Evaluate the MELD score as a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients undergoing elective TIPS procedures. Methods. This was a retrospective, IRB-approved study. The medical records of all patients who underwent a TIPS procedure between May 1, 1999 and June 1, 2003 in a single institution were reviewed. Patients who underwent elective TIPS were selected. Elective TIPS was performed in 119 patients with a mean age of 55.1 (± 9.6) years. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS, etiology of cirrhosis, portosystemic gradients before and after TIPS, procedure time, and procedural complications were obtained from the medical records. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS were compared between the survivor group (SG) and the early death (EDG) group. The early death rate was calculated for MELD score subgroups (1-10, 11-17, 18-24, and >24). Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, chi-square test and independent-sample t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Technical success rate was 100%. The early death rate was 10.9% (13/119). The mean MELD scores before TIPS were 19.4 (± 5.9) (EDG) and 14 (± 4.2) (SG) (p = 0.025). The early death rate was highest in the pre-TIPS MELD > 24 subgroup. The Child-Pugh scores were 9.0 (± 1.6) (SG) and 9.8 ± 1.06 (EDG) (p 0.08). The mean portosystemic gradients before TIPS were 20.5 (± 7.7) mmHg (EDG) and 22.7 (± 7.3) (SG) (p > 1) and the mean portosystemic gradients after TIPS were 6.5 (± 3.5) (EDG) and 6.9 (± 2.4) (SG) (p > 1). The mean procedural times were 95.6 (± 8.4) min (EDG) and 89.2 (± 7.5) min (SG) (p > 1). No early death was attributed to a fatal complication during TIPS. Conclusion. The MELD score is useful in identifying patients at a higher risk of early death after an elective TIPS. On the basis of our results, we do not endorse elective TIPS in patients with MELD scores > 24

  9. Measuring hepatic functional reserve using T1 mapping of Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced 3T MR imaging: A preliminary study comparing with 99mTc GSA scintigraphy and signal intensity based parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masataka; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Kie; Morita, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Fumi; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    To determine the utility of liver T1-mapping on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the measurement of liver functional reserve compared with the signal intensity (SI) based parameters, technetium-99m-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) scintigraphy and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance. This retrospective study included 111 patients (Child-Pugh-A 90; -B 21) performed with both Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced liver MR imaging and 99m Tc-GSA (76 patients with ICG). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare diagnostic performances of T1-relaxation-time parameters [pre-(T1pre) and post-contrast (T1hb) Gd-EOB-DTPA], SI based parameters [relative enhancement (RE), liver-to-muscle-ratio (LMR), liver-to-spleen-ratio (LSR)] and 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy blood clearance index (HH15)] for Child-Pugh classification. Pearson's correlation was used for comparisons among T1-relaxation-time parameters, SI-based parameters, HH15 and ICG. A significant difference was obtained for Child-Pugh classification with T1hb, ΔT1, all SI based parameters and HH15. T1hb had the highest AUC followed by RE, LMR, LSR, ΔT1, HH15 and T1pre. The correlation coefficients with HH15 were T1pre 0.22, T1hb 0.53, ΔT1 -0.38 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.44, LMR -0.45, LSR -0.43 of SI-based parameters. T1hb was highest for correlation with HH15. The correlation coefficients with ICG were T1pre 0.29, T1hb 0.64, ΔT1 -0.42 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.50, LMR -0.61, LSR -0.58 of SI-based parameters; 0.64 of HH15. Both T1hb and HH15 were highest for correlation with ICG. T1 relaxation time at post-contrast of Gd-EOB-DTPA (T1hb) was strongly correlated with ICG clearance and moderately correlated HH15 with 99m Tc-GSA. T1hb has the potential to provide robust parameter of liver functional reserve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychomotor Ability in Children Prenatally Exposed to Methylmercury: The 18-Month Follow-Up of Tohoku Study of Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuta, Nozomi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2017-05-01

    Fish contain nutrients essential to the developing fetal brain, but they are contaminated with methylmercury. The Tohoku Study of Child Development, now underway in the Sanriku coastal area of Miyagi prefecture, Japan, follows mother-child pairs to examine the risks and benefits of fish consumption during pregnancy, especially the effects of prenatal exposures to methylmercury, selenium, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on child neurodevelopment. Children aged 18 months were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development second edition (BSID-II) and Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) in 2004-2008. Complete data of cord-blood total mercury (THg), cord-plasma selenium, maternal-plasma DHA, the above test scores, and confounders for 566 mother-child pairs were available. The median cord-blood THg level was 15.7 (range, 2.7-96.1) ng/g. Since the BSID-II and KSPD scores were significantly lower in the 285 boys than in the 281 girls, analyses were conducted separately. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of BSID-II was significantly correlated with cord-blood THg only in the boys, and significance of the association remained unchanged after adjusting for possible confounders; i.e., a 10-fold increase in cord-blood THg was associated with a 8.3-point decrease in the score of the PDI. Other significant correlations of THg were not seen in the boys or girls. Selenium and DHA showed no significant correlations with the BSID-II or KSPD scores in either sex. In conclusion, intrauterine methylmercury exposure may affect psychomotor development, and boys appear to be more vulnerable to the exposure than girls.

  11. Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Asayan, Mariann; LaCheen-Baker, Alianna

    2016-07-01

    State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment. These findings highlight yet another way in which the BICS factors lack specificity in ways that could negatively impact children caught in their parents' conflict. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  13. A Multimedia Child Developmental Screening Checklist: Design and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chen, Li-Ying; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Kevin C

    2016-10-24

    Identifying disability early in life confers long-term benefits for children. The Taipei City Child Development Screening tool, second version (Taipei II) provides checklists for 13 child age groups from 4 months to 6 years. However, the usability of a text-based screening tool largely depends on the literacy level and logical reasoning ability of the caregivers, as well as language barriers caused by increasing numbers of immigrants. The objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a Web-based multimedia version of the current Taipei II developmental screening tool, and (2) investigate the measurement equivalence of this multimedia version to the original paper-based version. To develop the multimedia version of Taipei II, a team of experts created illustrations, translations, and dubbing of the original checklists. The developmental screening test was administered to a total of 390 primary caregivers of children aged between 4 months and 6 years. Psychometric testing revealed excellent agreement between the paper and multimedia versions of Taipei II. Good to excellent reliabilities were demonstrated for all age groups for both the cross-mode similarity (mode intraclass correlation range 0.85-0.96) and the test-retest reliability (r=.93). Regarding the usability, the mean score was 4.80 (SD 0.03), indicating that users were satisfied with their multimedia website experience. The multimedia tool produced essentially equivalent results to the paper-based tool. In addition, it had numerous advantages, such as it can facilitate active participation and promote early screening of target populations. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02359591; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02359591 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6l21mmdNn).

  14. Prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ki Young; Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Christopher C; Jo, Si On; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jo, You Hwan; Suh, Gil Joon; Singer, Adam J

    2011-02-01

    The prognostic role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether NT-proBNP level could predict mortality in hospitalised CAP patients. We performed a structured medical record review of all hospitalised CAP patients from May 2003 to October 2006, and classified patients into the 30-day survival and non-survival group. Data included demographic and clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings including NT-proBNP levels. The APACHE II scores, PSI (pneumonia severity index) and CURB65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure and aged 65 or more) scores were calculated. Comparisons between survivors and non-survivors were made with χ(2), non-parametric tests and logistic regression and ROC analysis were used to compare the ability of NT-proBNP (adjusted for age, heart failure and creatinine), APACHE II, PSI and CURB65 to predict mortality. Of 502 patients, 61 (12.2%) died within 30 days. NT-proBNP levels were measured in 167 patients and were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (median 841.7 (IQR 267.1-3137.3) pg/ml vs 3658.0 (1863.0-7025.0) pg/ml, p=0.019). NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of mortality (adjusted OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.02, p=0.002). The AUC for NT-proBNP was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.613 to 0.812), which was comparable to those of PSI (0.749, p=0.531) and CURB65 (0.698, p=0.693), but inferior to that of APACHE II (0.831, p=0.037). Adding NT-proBNP to APACHE II, PSI and CURB65 did not significantly increase the AUCs, respectively. NT-proBNP level is an independent predictor of mortality in hospitalised CAP patients. The performance of NT-proBNP level is comparable to those of PSI and CURB65 in predicting mortality.

  15. Comparison and relationship of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10 and albumin as mortality predictors in case-mix critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe E, Álvaro; Li, Xiang-Min; Yi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To compare the ability of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10, and albumin to predict mortality, and to assess their relationship in case-mix acute critically ill patients. APACHE II scores and serum thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH), IL-6, IL-10, and albumin were obtained at EICU admission for 79 cases of mix acute critically ill patients without previous history of thyroid disease. Patients were followed for 28 days with patient's death as the primary outcome. All mean values were compared, correlations assessed with Pearson' test, and mortality prediction assessed by multivariate logistic regression and ROC. Non survivors were older, with higher APACHE II score (p=0.000), IL-6 (p<0.05), IL-10 (p=0.000) levels, and lower albumin (p=0.000) levels compared to survivors at 28 days. IL-6 and IL-10 had significant negative correlation with albumin (p=0.001) and FT3 (p ⩽ 0.05) respectively, while low albumin had a direct correlation with FT3 (p<0.05). In the mortality prediction assessment, IL-10, albumin and APACHE II were independent morality predictors and showed to have a good (0.70-0.79) AUC-ROC (p<0.05). Despite that the entire cohort showed low FT3 serum levels (p=0.000), there was not statistical difference between survivors and non-survivors; neither showed any significance as mortality predictor. IL-6 and IL-10 are correlated with Low FT3 and hypoalbuminemia. Thyroid hormones assessed at EICU admission did not have any predictive value in our study. And finally, high levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in conjunction with albumin could improve our ability to evaluate disease's severity and predict mortality in the critically ill patients. When use in combination with APACHE II scores, our model showed improved mortality prediction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Pneumonias e infecção HIV. Algumas particularidades clínicas e factores de prognóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge T. Monteiro

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As pneumonias (PNM constituem uma das principais complicações da infecção HIV. O objectivo deste estudo é comparar 2 grupos de PNM da comunidade internadas na nossa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI entre 1990 e 1994: 19 doentes HIV+ (grupo A e 152 doentes HIV- (grupo B. O APACHE II foi semelhante nos 2 grupos. O grupo A. necessitou mais frequentemente de ventilação mecânica (VM (p<0,007 e teve uma P(A-aO2 mais elevada (p<0,004. A acidose metabólica foi também mais frequente neste grupo. Analisando os parâmetros laboratoriais, o grupo A apresentou menor número de linfocitos (p<0,02, DLH mais elevada (p<0,04 e hipoalbuminemia mais marcada (p<0,03. A mortalidade foi maior no grupo A (52,6% do que no grupo B (29,6% (p<0,04. Analisando isoladamente os doentes do grupo A, não encontrámos diferenças significativas entre falecidos e não falecidos, à excepção da hipoalbuminemia, que se correlacionou com a mortalidade (p<0,02. Em conclusão, as PNM dos doentes HIV+ tiveram urn comportamento mais agressivo do que as PNM da comunidade em geral. Na avaliação prognóstica o APACHE II não diferenciou os 2 grupos de PNM. Alguns factores de prognóstico geralmente aceites na análise de PNM oportunistas em doentes HIV+ parecem perder valor em estadios avançados de SIDA, especialmente em doentes necessitando de cuidados intensivos. ABSTRACT: In HIV infections, Pneumonias (PNM have an outstanding place in pulmonary complications. The aim of this work was to compare two groups of patients admitted with PNM in our ICU during the same period (1990-94: Group A, 19 patients HIV+, and Group B, 152 patients HIV-. APACHE II was identical in the 2 groups (p=ns. Group A required more often mechanical ventilation (p<0,007, had a higher P(A-aO2 (p<0,004 and metabolic acidosis was more frequent (p<0,001. Regarding laboratorial parameters Group A had a lower number of linfocytes (p<0,02, a higher LDH (p<0,04 and a more marked hypoalbuminemia (p

  17. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James I.C.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R.J.; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity. Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders. A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021). Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  18. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I for the prognostic utility in elderly patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in intensive care unit: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Fan, Wei-Ze; Wang, Sheng-Chi; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Zang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Li-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Juan; Shen, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Shao-Qing

    2015-06-01

    Using biomarkers to predict mortality in patient with severe sepsis or septic shock is of importance, as these patients frequently have high mortality and unsatisfied outcome. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) play extremely important roles in prognostic value in the mortality of severe sepsis and septic shock. The present study was retrospectively designed to evaluate the predicting mortality of NT-proBNP and cTnI in elderly patients with severe sepsis or septic shock administered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and also to evaluate whether the predicting ability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score or C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased in combination with the biomarkers. A cohort of 430 patients (aged ≥65 years) with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to our ICU between October 2011 and December 2013 was included in the study. Patient data including clinical, laboratory, and survival and mortality were collected. All patients were examined with NT-proBNP, cTnI, CRP, and APACHE-II score and were categorized as the survived and deceased groups according to the outcome 30 days after ICU treatment. The levels of NT-proBNP and cTnI (P pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cTnI were superior to CRP in predicting mortality. The predicting ability of APACHE-II score was improved only when combined with NT-proBNP and cTnI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  20. Congenital Heart Disease and Impacts on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alievi Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.

  1. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Aplicación de las redes neuronales artificiales para la estratificación de riesgo de mortalidad hospitalaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trujillano J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar la capacidad de predicción de mortalidad hospitalaria de una red neuronal artificial (RNA con el Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II y la regresión logística (RL, y comparar la asignación de probabilidades entre los distintos modelos. Método: Se recogen de forma prospectiva las variables necesarias para el cálculo del APACHE II. Disponemos de 1.146 pacientes asignándose aleatoriamente (70 y 30% al grupo de Desarrollo (800 y al de Validación (346. Con las mismas variables se genera un modelo de RL y de RNA (perceptrón de 3 capas entrenado por algoritmo de backpropagation con remuestreo bootstrap y con 9 nodos en la capa oculta en el grupo de desarrollo. Se comparan los tres modelos en función de los criterios de discriminación con el área bajo la curva ROC (ABC [IC del 95%] y de calibración con el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow C (HLC. Las diferencias entre las probabilidades se valoran con el test de Bland-Altman. Resultados: En el grupo de validación, el APACHE II con ABC de 0,79 (0,75-0,84 y HLC de 11 (p = 0,329; modelo RL, ABC de 0,81 (0,76-0,85 y HLC de 29 (p = 0,0001, y en RNA, ABC de 0,82 (0,77-0,86 y HLC de 10 (p = 0,404. Los pacientes con mayores diferencias en la asignación de probabilidad entre RL y RN (8% del total son pacientes con problemas neurológicos. Los peores resultados se obtienen en los pacientes traumáticos (ABC inferior a 0,75 en todos los modelos. En los pacientes respiratorios, la RNA alcanza los mejores resultados (ABC = 0,87 [0,78-0,91]. Conclusiones: Una RNA es capaz de estratificar el riesgo de mortalidad hospitalaria utilizando las variables del sistema APACHE II. La RNA consigue mejores resultados frente a RL, sin alcanzar significación, ya que no trabaja con restricciones lineales ni de independencia de variables, con una diferente asignación de probabilidad individual entre los modelos.

  3. The effect of a latchkey situation on a child's educational success

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latchkey children, where parents, children, and their educators were interviewed. ... children who look after themselves while their parents are at work and are ... high income parents leave their children at home alone as well; (ii) full time .... teacher is important for the development of the child's self esteem and sense of ...

  4. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Margarida; Gomes, A. Rui; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Ea...

  5. Interleukin-10 Genotype Correlated to Deficiency Syndrome in Hepatitis B Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ya Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome is an important basis for TCM diagnosis and treatment. As Child-Pugh classification as well as compensation and decompensation phase in liver cirrhosis, it is also an underlying clinical classification. In this paper, we investigated the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of Interleukin-10 (IL-10 and TCM syndromes in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBC. Samples were obtained from 343 HBC patients in China. Three SNPs of IL-10 (−592A/C, −819C/T, and −1082A/G were detected with polymerase chain-reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR. The result showed the SNP-819C/T was significantly correlated with Deficiency syndrome (P=0.031, but none of the 3 loci showed correlation either with Child-Pugh classification and phase in HBC patients. The logistic regression analysis showed that the Excess syndrome was associated with dizzy and spider nevus, and the Deficiency syndrome was associated with dry eyes, aversion to cold, IL-10-819C/T loci, and IL-10-1082A/G loci. The odds ratio (OR value at IL-10-819C/T was 4.022. The research results suggested that IL-10-819C/T locus (TC plus CC genotype is probably a risk factor in the occurrence of Deficiency syndrome in HBC patients.

  6. Evaluation of renal resistive index in cirrhotic patients for predicting the hepatirenal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kim, Hyae young; Yi, Sun Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of renal resistive index(RI) in patients with liver cirrhosis as an indicator for predicting hepatorenal syndrome. Renal RIs of thirty cirrhotic patients were analyzed using the gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonograms. As a control group, eight normal subjects were included. Renal RIs were measured at three sites of interlobar or arcuate arteries of both kidneys. The patients were divided into three groups (A, B, or C) according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification and their serum BUN and creatinine levels were compared. We determined whether RIs of normal controls differed from those of cirrhotic patients or whether RIs of cirrhotic patients correlated with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification or BUN and creatinine levels. Mean RIs(0.63 ±0.33) of normal subjects were statistically different from those(0.67 ± 0.05) of cirrhotic patients(P=0.009). RIs of group A(n=6), B(n=9) and C(n=15) were 0.65 ± 0.03, 0.65 ± 0.04 and 0.70 ± 0.04, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed statistically significant differences between the three groups(F ratio=4.472, P=0.021). RIs did not correlate with BUN or creatinine levels. RI could be used as an index for predicting hepatorenal syndrome before the renal function becomes impaired

  7. Effect of Oral Supplementation with Branched-chain Amino Acid (BCAA) during Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Double-Blind Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ik Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Bae, Jung Im; You, Sei Hwan; Rhee, Yumie; Lee, Jong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated whether oral supplementation with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) improves the biochemical and amino acid profiles of liver tumor patients undergoing radiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: a group given oral supplementation with BCAA granules (LIVACT granules; Samil Pharm Co., Korea, each granule containing L-isoleucine 952 mg, L-leucine 1,904 mg, and L-valine 1,144 mg) during radiotherapy, or a placebo group. Physical and biochemical examinations and measurements, including subjective symptoms, Child-Pugh class, body mass index, plasma albumin concentration, and plasma amino acid profiles were monitored. Fifty were enrolled between November 2005 and November 2006. We also analyzed data from 37 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in order to evaluate a more homogenous group. The two groups of patients were comparable in terms of age, gender, Child-Pugh score, and underlying hepatitis virus type. Serum albumin, total protein, liver enzymes, and cholesterol showed a tendency to increase in the BCAA group. In this group, the percentage of cases that reverted to normal serum albumin levels between 3 and 10 weeks after administration of BCAA was significantly higher (41.18%) than in the placebo group (p=0.043). Oral supplementation with a BCAA preparation seems to help HCC patients undergoing radiotherapy by increasing the BCAA concentration.

  8. Comparison of lipid profile between degrees of severity of hepatic cirrhosis in Haji Adam Malik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Tampubolon, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    Lipid metabolism disorders usually occurred in chronic liver disease. A cross- sectional study was conducted in liver cirrhosis (LC) patients who came to Central Hospital Haji Adam Malik, Medan on July-December 2016 to evaluatethe comparison of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride in Child-Pugh class. Inclusions criteria were apatient diagnosed with LC from anamnesis, physic diagnostic, laboratory, and imaging. The patientswere being evaluated with Child-Pugh (CP). P-value was calculated by using univariate and bivariate analysis of variance test (ANOVA). There were 80 subjects which included 45 men (56.3%) and 35 women (43.8%). Mean age was 51.36±12.6 years. There were 40% with HBsAg(+) and 12.5% with Anti-HCV (+). There was 60% patient with CP-C, 21.3% CP-B, and 18.8% CP-A. There were significant differences between LDL and HDL level among LC patient grade in CP-A, B, and C (p<0.05). HDL and LDL level significantly lower in CP-C compared with CP-A. There were significantly differences between LDL and HDL level among LC patient grade in CP-A, B, and C (p<0.05). HDL and LDL level significantly lower in CP-C compared with CP-A. There weren’t any statistically difference between total cholesterol and triglyceride level in LC patients with CP- A, B, and C.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  10. The evaluation of the right inferior phrenic artery diameter in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Kaan; Balci, Yuksel; Tok, Sermin; Ucbilek, Enver; Kara, Engin; Kaya, Omer

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between right inferior phrenic artery diameter and portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. CT examinations of 38 patients with chronic liver disease (patient group) and 40 patients without any liver disease (control group) were evaluated. The right inferior phrenic artery diameter of the patient and control group were measured. CT findings of portal hypertension, which were accepted as ascites, collaterals, splenomegaly and portal vein diameter greater than 13 mm, were determined and scored in the patient group. Patients obtained scores between one and four with respect to portal hypertension findings, and the scores were compared with phrenic artery diameters. Child-Pugh and MELD scores of the patients were also calculated. The mean diameter of the right inferior phrenic artery in the patient group was larger than that in the control group (p phrenic artery diameter of the patients with score 1 was significantly different from those with score 2 (p = 0.028), score 3 (p = 0.001) and score 4 (p = 0.005). We found a linear and moderate relationship between phrenic artery diameter values and Child-Pugh scores (p = 0.012, r = 0.405). Dilatation of the right inferior phrenic artery in cirrhotic patients may be a nonspecific sign of developing portal hypertension.

  11. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  12. Comparative Study of Load Testing Tools: Apache JMeter, HP LoadRunner, Microsoft Visual Studio (TFS, Siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiya Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is the process of verifying and validating the user’s requirements. Testing is ongoing process during whole software development. Software testing is characterized into three main types. That is, in Black box testing, user doesn’t know domestic knowledge, internal logics and design of system. In white box testing, Tester knows the domestic logic of code. In Grey box testing, Tester has little bit knowledge about the internal structure and working of the system. It is commonly used in case of Integration testing.Load testing helps us to analyze the performance of the system under heavy load or under Zero load. This is achieved with the help of a Load Testing Tool. The intention for writing this research is to carry out a comparison of four load testing tools i.e. Apache JMeter, LoadRunner, Microsoft Visual Studio (TFS, Siege based on certain criteria  i.e. test scripts generation , result reports, application support, plug-in supports, and cost . The main focus is to study these load testing tools and identify which tool is better and more efficient . We assume this comparison can help in selecting the most appropriate tool and motivates the use of open source load testing tools.

  13. Maternal and Child Health Handbook use for maternal and child care: a cluster randomized controlled study in rural Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Keiko; Hattori, Tomoko; Toda, Akemi; Mulati, Erna; Hermawan, Lukas; Pritasari, Kirana; Bardosono, Saptawati; Kosen, Soewarta

    2018-01-09

    Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHHB), a home-based booklet for pregnancy, delivery and postnatal/child health, was evaluated on care acquisition and home care in rural Java, a low service-coverage area. We conducted a health centre-based randomized trial, with a 2-year follow-up. Intervention included (i) MCHHB provision at antenatal care visits; (ii) records and guides by health personnel on and with the MCHHB; and (iii) sensitization of care by volunteers using the MCHHB. The follow-up rate was 70.2% (183, intervention area; 271, control area). Respondents in the intervention area received consecutive MCH services including two doses of tetanus toxoid injections and antenatal care four times or more during pregnancy, professional assistance during child delivery and vitamin A supplements administration to their children, after adjustment for confounding variables and cluster effects (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.19-3.47). In the intervention area, home care (continued breastfeeding; introducing complementary feeding; proper feeding order; varied foods feeding; self-feeding training; and care for cough), perceived support by husbands, and lower underweight rates and stunting rates among children were observed. MCHHB use promoted continuous care acquisition and care at home from pregnancy to early child-rearing stages in rural Java. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  14. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  15. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  16. Nutrición enteral total vs. nutrición parenteral total en pacientes con pancreatitis aguda grave Total enteral nutrition vs. total parenteral nutrition in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar la eficacia de la instauración precoz de nutrición enteral total (NET frente a nutrición parenteral total (NPT en pacientes con pancreatitis aguda grave (PAG. Métodos: estudio prospectivo aleatorio. Se incluyeron consecutivamente 22 pacientes con PAG aplicando los criterios APACHE II, valores de PCR y graduación de Balthazar en la TC. El grupo I (n = 11 recibió NPT y el grupo II (n = 12 NET. Se valoró la respuesta inflamatoria (PCR, TNF-alfa, IL-6, las proteínas viscerales (pre-albúmina, albúmina, la tasa de complicaciones (síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, fallo multiorgánico, infecciones, las intervenciones quirúrgicas, la estancia hospitalaria y la mortalidad. Resultados: no hubo diferencias significativas en los primeros 10 días entre los dos grupos en la evolución de los criterios APACHE II, en las concentraciones de PCR, TNF-alfa e IL-6 ni tampoco en los valores de pre-albúmina y albúmina. Siete pacientes del grupo I presentaron complicaciones graves frente a 4 del grupo II. Requirieron intervención quirúrgica 3 pacientes del grupo I. La estancia hospitalaria fue similar en los dos grupos. Dos pacientes del grupo I fallecieron. Conclusiones: se ha observado una tendencia a una mejor evolución de los pacientes con PAG que utilizaron NET frente a los que utilizaron NPT.Objective: to compare the efficacy of early total enteral nutrition (TEN vs. total parenteral nutrition (TPN in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. Methods: a total of 22 consecutive patients with SAP were randomized to receive TPN (group I or TEN (group II. SAP was defined applying APACHE II score, C-reactive protein (CRP measurements and/or Balthazar CT scan score. Acute inflammatory response (CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6, visceral proteins (pre-albumin, albumin, complications (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiorgan failure, infections, surgical interventions, length of hospital stay and mortality were

  17. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  18. Developing child autonomy in pediatric healthcare: towards an ethical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Brand, Helmut; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The changes initiated by the new National Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina underline the pediatric task to empower children's and adolescents' developing autonomy. In this paper, we have framed a model describing autonomy in child healthcare. We carried out a literature review focusing on i) the concept of autonomy referring to the absolute value of the autonomous individual, and ii) the age-driven process of competent decisionmaking development. We summarized our findings developing a conceptual model that includes the child, the pediatrician and the parents. The pediatricianchild relationship is based on different forms of guidance and cooperation, resulting in varying levels of activity and passivity. Parental authority influences the extent of autonomy, based on the level of respect of the child's moral equality. Contextual, existential, conceptual, and socialethical conditions shall be considered when applying the model to facilitate dialogue between pediatricians, children, parents and other actors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. Maternal and Child Health Services in the Context of the Ebola Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal and Child Health Services in the Context of the Ebola Virus Disease: Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Rural Guinea. Alexandre Delamou, Sidikiba Sidibé, Alison Marie El Ayadi, Bienvenu Salim Camara, Thérèse Delvaux, Bettina Utz, Abdoulaye II Toure, Sah D. Sandouno, Alioune ...

  20. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  1. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors among patients receiving prone positioning for the acute respiratory distress syndrome found useful for predicting mortality in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrykamien, Ariel M; Daoud, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    Optimal mechanical ventilation management in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) involves the use of low tidal volumes and limited plateau pressure. Refractory hypoxemia may not respond to this strategy, requiring other interventions. The use of prone positioning in severe ARDS resulted in improvement in 28-day survival. To determine whether mechanical ventilation strategies or other parameters affected survival in patients undergoing prone positioning, a retrospective analysis was conducted of a consecutive series of patients with severe ARDS treated with prone positioning. Demographic and clinical information involving mechanical ventilation strategies, as well as other variables associated with prone positioning, was collected. The rate of in-hospital mortality was obtained, and previously described parameters were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Forty-three patients with severe ARDS were treated with prone positioning, and 27 (63%) died in the intensive care unit. Only three parameters were significant predictors of survival: APACHE II score ( P = 0.03), plateau pressure ( P = 0.02), and driving pressure ( P = 0.04). The ability of each of these parameters to predict mortality was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the curve values for APACHE II, plateau pressure, and driving pressure were 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively. In conclusion, in a group of patients with severe ARDS treated with prone positioning, only APACHE II, plateau pressure, and driving pressure were associated with mortality in the intensive care unit.

  3. Anesthesia for a child with Walker–Warburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Arzu Kose

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Walker–Warburg Syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy manifested by central nervous system, eye malformations and possible multisystem involvement. The diagnosis is established by the presence of four criteria: congenital muscular dystrophy, type II lissencephaly, cerebellar malformation, and retinal malformation. Most of the syndromic children die in the first three years of life because of respiratory failure, pneumonia, seizures, hyperthermia and ventricular fibrillation. Case report: The anesthetic management of a two-months-old male child listed for elective ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation was discussed. Conclusions: A careful anesthetic management is necessary due to the multisystem involvement. We reported anesthetic management of a two-months-old male child with Walker–Warburg Syndrome who was listed for elective ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Keywords: Walker–Warburg Syndrome, Congenital muscular dystrophy, General anesthesia

  4. Anesthetic management in a child with Arnold-Chiari malformation and bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setz, A.C.W.; Boer, H.D. de; Driessen, J.J.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of a child who was scheduled for an emergency ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The patient had a type II Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) and associated hydrocephalus and presented with near complete respiratory obstruction from bilateral abductor vocal cord palsy. Early

  5. Multi-Institutional Phase II Study of High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Therapy in Patients With Localized, Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Theodore S; Wo, Jennifer Y; Yeap, Beow Y; Ben-Josef, Edgar; McDonnell, Erin I; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Clark, Jeffrey W; Goyal, Lipika; Murphy, Janet E; Javle, Milind M; Wolfgang, John A; Drapek, Lorraine C; Arellano, Ronald S; Mamon, Harvey J; Mullen, John T; Yoon, Sam S; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Ferrone, Cristina R; Ryan, David P; DeLaney, Thomas F; Crane, Christopher H; Zhu, Andrew X

    2016-02-10

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose, hypofractionated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). In this single-arm, phase II, multi-institutional study, 92 patients with biopsy-confirmed HCC or ICC, determined to be unresectable by multidisciplinary review, with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (CTP) of A or B, ECOG performance status of 0 to 2, no extrahepatic disease, and no prior radiation received 15 fractions of proton therapy to a maximum total dose of 67.5 Gy equivalent. Sample size was calculated to demonstrate > 80% local control (LC) defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 criteria at 2 years for HCC patients, with the parallel goal of obtaining acceptable precision for estimating outcomes for ICC. Eighty-three patients were evaluable: 44 with HCC, 37 with ICC, and two with mixed HCC/ICC. The CTP score was A for 79.5% of patients and B for 15.7%; 4.8% of patients had no cirrhosis. Prior treatment had been given to 31.8% of HCC patients and 61.5% of ICC patients. The median maximum dimension was 5.0 cm (range, 1.9 to 12.0 cm) for HCC patients and 6.0 cm (range, 2.2 to 10.9 cm) for ICC patients. Multiple tumors were present in 27.3% of HCC patients and in 12.8% of ICC patients. Tumor vascular thrombosis was present in 29.5% of HCC patients and in 28.2% of ICC patients. The median dose delivered to both HCC and ICC patients was 58.0 Gy. With a median follow-up among survivors of 19.5 months, the LC rate at 2 years was 94.8% for HCC and 94.1% for ICC. The overall survival rate at 2 years was 63.2% for HCC and 46.5% ICC. High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy demonstrated high LC rates for HCC and ICC safely, supporting ongoing phase III trials of radiation in HCC and ICC. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  7. Teacher-child relationships as dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with the quality of the teacher-child relationship from first through fifth grade using data from phases I, II and III of the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1364 children from birth through sixth grade. On average, children evidenced moderately high quality relationships with teachers in fifth grade. However, there was extensive variation in fifth grade relationship quality across children. Children who received more support and stimulation at home and whose parents had higher quality interactions with the school had higher quality relationships. Additionally, children in classrooms with more positive environments and better management had higher quality relationships. Lastly, females, European-American children, children with lower levels of behavior problems and children who had higher quality relationships with their teachers in kindergarten also had higher quality relationships with teachers. On average, children evidenced decreases in the quality of their relationships with teachers from first through fifth grade. Interestingly, children whose parents had more contact with their schools, who were in schools where teachers received higher salaries and in classrooms that had more positive emotional climates and that were better managed evidenced slower rates of decline in relationship quality. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Maternal Health Component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II Programme in Beed District, Maharashtra, India 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar Nipte,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Situation analysis of Reproductive and Child Health programme of Government of India in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India indicated lack of achievement of targeted maternal health indicators. Evaluation of the utilization of maternal health services component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II programme in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India was undertaken. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey in the rural area of Beed district using cluster sampling method was conducted. The information about the utilization of maternal health services was collected from mothers who delivered between 1st April and 30th June 2013. A facility survey using pre tested check list was undertaken. Analysis of the data using Epi Info Version 3.5.3 and proportion for selected maternal health care indicators were calculated. Results: Out of the 374 mothers included in the study, 122 (33.0% had registered within first trimester of pregnancy; nearly 50% had received more than three antenatal care (ANC visits and 90% had institutional delivery. Of the 70 mothers, who made phone call for ambulance service, 56 (80% utilized ambulance from their residence to the hospitals. Of the 183 mothers who delivered in Government hospitals, 103 (56.3% utilized it to reach home from hospitals after delivery. Of the eligible women, 96 (76.2% were registered for Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY scheme of the Government and 67 (69.8% received the benefit. In all 46 (16.4% Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs were trained as Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA. Of the 22 facilities, 14 (63.6% had delivery kits and in 6 (27.3% facilities maternal health services were monitored by medical officers. Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health care services and knowledge and implementation regarding JSY Scheme and ambulance service utilization among mothers was less than desirable. The coverage of training of ANMs as SBA was low. Provision of antenatal services in

  9. The Syrian civil war: The experience of the Surgical Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.

  10. [Predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biological markers in patients with severe sepsis: a five-year single-center retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuefeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Gu, Xuyun; Zhen, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers in patients with severe sepsis. A retrospective analysis of severe septic patients (patients with acute coronary syndrome and end stage renal disease were excluded) in department of intensive care unit of Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) within 6 hours after admission, and bedside echocardiography indexes [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of the peak blood flow velocity in the early stage of the mitral valve and the peak blood flow rate of the mitral valve (E/A ratio)] within 6 hours after diagnosis were recorded. The differences of indexes between patients with decreased contractile function (LVEF value in severe sepsis patients. (1) A total of 316 patients were enrolled in the survey period. Decreased cardiac systolic function (LVEF value for prognosis in severe sepsis patient, among which NT-proBNP and cTnI had higher predictive value [the area under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.920 and 0.901 respectively, both P values measured by echocardiography in early phrase were unrelated to 28-day prognosis. APACHE II score, E/A ratio, NT-proBNP, cTnI, MYO, CK and CK-MB were related to 28-day prognosis. APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP were independent prognostic factors in severe sepsis patient.

  11. The normal transverse mesocolon and involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao Xiao; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Tang, Wei; Xiao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To study the MRI findings of the normal transverse mesocolon and the involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis (AP) as well as the relationship between the involvement of the mesocolon and the severity of AP. Forty patients without pancreatic disorders were retrospectively analyzed to observe the normal transverse mesocolon using MRI; 210 patients with AP confirmed by clinical and laboratory tests were retrospectively analyzed using MRI to observe transverse-mesocolon involvement (TMI). The severity of TMI was recorded as zero points (no abnormalities and transverse-mesocolon vessel involvement), one point (linear and patchy signal in the transverse mesocolon) or two points (transverse-mesocolon effusion). The AP severity was graded by the MRI severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. The correlations of TMI with MRSI and APACHE-II were analyzed. In a normal transverse mesocolon, the display rates of the middle colic artery, the middle colic vein and the gastrocolic trunk on MRI were 95.0%, 82.5% and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 210 patients with AP, 130 patients (61.9%) had TMI. According to the TMI grading, 40%, 39% and 20% of the patients were graded at zero, one and two points, respectively. TMI was strongly correlated with the MRSI score (r = 0.759, P = 0.000) and the APACHE-II score (r = 0.384, P = 0.000). MRI could be used to visualize transverse-mesocolon involvement. The severity of TMI could reflect that of AP in the clinical setting and imaging. TMI might be a supplementary indicator of the severity of AP.

  12. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  13. Child abuse and neglect experts' determination of when a child being left home alone constitutes child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Evans, Erin; Oral, Resmiye; Denning, Gerene

    2018-04-10

    Only 14 states have laws or guidelines regarding the minimum age a child may be left home alone. These ages range from 6 to 14 years. Our objective was to identify factors that influence child neglect determination by experts with regards to parents leaving children home alone. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members (N = 523) were surveyed from July-August, 2015. Respondents were asked whether scenarios involving a child of varying age knowingly left home alone for 4 h were neglect in the presence or absence of injury to the child and the legality of the situation. Comparisons were performed using the chi-square test. One hundred ninety-three members responded (36.9%). In the scenario where there were no relevant laws and the child was uninjured, nearly 100% of the child experts determined this as being child neglect when the child was 6 years old. For 8, 10, 12, and 14 year olds, this was 88, 48, 4, and 1%, respectively. However, a significantly higher percentage of experts considered it child neglect for most ages when there was a law making the scenario illegal as compared when there was no law, and when the child was injured versus when they were not. The only demographic variable that showed a difference in child neglect determination was that females were more likely to consider higher aged children as having been neglected when there were no laws but the child was injured. The vast majority of experts (85%) stated that leaving a child home alone for 4 h should be illegal if the child is < 9 years old, and nearly one-half (44%) said it should be illegal for children < 11 years old. A number of factors affect how experts view children being left home alone as potential child neglect. Our data suggests that such cases may be evaluated differently due to variations in state laws, even though the risk to the child is the same. These results call for child safety law reform to provide greater uniformity in the

  14. Performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 In Predicting Hospital Mortality In Emergency Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bian Ma

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The SAPS 3 score system exhibited satisfactory performance even superior to APACHE II in discrimination. In predicting hospital mortality, SAPS 3 did not exhibit good calibration and overestimated hospital mortality, which demonstrated that SAPS 3 needs improvement in the future.

  15. The Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory: Current Status and Progress Towards Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol A.; Bally, John; Brinkmann, Jonathan V.; Bubeck, James; Gong, Qian; Hilton, George M.; Ketzeback, William F.; Lindler, Don; Llop Sayson, Jorge; Malatesta, Michael A.; Norton, Timothy; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Rothe, Johannes; Straka, Lorrie; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Wisniewski, John P.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; York, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status and progress towards photon counting with the Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph (GIFS), a new instrument at the Apache Point Observatory's ARC 3.5m telescope. GIFS is a visible light imager and integral field spectrograph operating from 400-1000 nm over a 2.8' x 2.8' and 14' x 14' field of view, respectively. As an IFS, GIFS obtains over 1000 spectra simultaneously and its data reduction pipeline reconstructs them into an image cube that has 32 x 32 spatial elements and more than 200 spectral channels. The IFS mode can be applied to a wide variety of science programs including exoplanet transit spectroscopy, protostellar jets, the galactic interstellar medium probed by background quasars, Lyman-alpha emission line objects, and spectral imaging of galactic winds. An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector enables photon counting in the high spectral resolution mode to be demonstrated at the ARC 3.5m in early 2015. The EMCCD work builds upon successful operational and characterization tests that have been conducted in the IFS laboratory at NASA Goddard. GIFS sets out to demonstrate an IFS photon-counting capability on-sky in preparation for future exoplanet direct imaging missions such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, Exo-C, and ATLAST mission concepts. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program under RTOP 10-APRA10-0103.

  16. Developing Online Communities with LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - the IMIA OSNI and CHIRAD Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter J; Oyri, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Many health informatics organisations do not seem to use, on a practical basis, for the benefit of their activities and interaction with their members, the very technologies that they often promote for use within healthcare environments. In particular, many organisations seem to be slow to take up the benefits of interactive web technologies. This paper presents an introduction to some of the many free/libre and open source (FLOSS) applications currently available and using the LAMP - Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP architecture - as a way of cheaply deploying reliable, scalable, and secure web applications. The experience of moving to applications using LAMP architecture, in particular that of the Open Source Nursing Informatics (OSNI) Working Group of the Special Interest Group in Nursing Informatics of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA-NI), in using PostNuke, a FLOSS Content Management System (CMS) illustrates many of the benefits of such applications. The experiences of the authors in installing and maintaining a large number of websites using FLOSS CMS to develop dynamic, interactive websites that facilitate real engagement with the members of IMIA-NI OSNI, the IMIA Open Source Working Group, and the Centre for Health Informatics Research and Development (CHIRAD), as well as other organisations, is used as the basis for discussing the potential benefits that could be realised by others within the health informatics community.

  17. Clinical Utility of Red Cell Distribution Width in Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolašević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as a part of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We re...

  18. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-07-01

    Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes.

  19. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  20. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Successful treatment of Reye's syndrome in a child (сase report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbalista O.L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old child with Reye's syndrome was successfully treated in the Department of Pediatric Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care of the Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Children's Clinical Hospital. At admission to the hospital the child's condition was critical due to cerebral vascular insufficiency (semicoma, psychomotor agitation, endogenous intoxication syndrome, severe anemic syndrome (Hb — 78g/l, and coagulopathy. Due to the progression of type II respiratory failure, hepatic failure, hemorrhagic and anemic syndromes, and cerebral deficit tracheal intubation for the purpose of controlled ventilation was performed. In order to correct anemia, hypoproteinemia and hemorrhagic syndrome washed erythrocytes, a 10% albumin solution and fresh frozen plasma were transfused. Therapeutic bronchoscopy was performed due to the progression of the expectorant component secondary to ventilator!associated pneumonia. Nonspecific detoxification therapy with discrete plasmapheresis was used. On the 3rd day of treatment tracheal extubation was performed, on the 10th day the child was transferred to the gastroenterology department. On the 13th day of hospital stay in the gastroenterology department and on the 24th day of admission the child was discharged home in satisfactory condition.

  2. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child psychosocial development at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Sharma, Andrea J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N

    2015-05-01

    Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children's health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother-child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children's development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80-11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10-8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09-4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33-2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5-24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child's birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. published in the public domain by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. DSM-IV disorders in children with borderline to moderate intellectual disability. II: Child and family predictors. [IF 3.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify child and family factors that predict DSM-IV disorders in children with intellectual disability. Method: In 1997, a total of 968 6- to 18-year-olds were randomly selected from Dutch schools for intellectual disability (response 69.3%). Parents completed the Child Behavior

  4. Comparison of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome between monomicrobial and polymicrobial Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Richard P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies of nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI have demonstrated a higher mortality for polymicrobial bacteremia when compared to monomicrobial nBSI. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in systemic inflammatory response and mortality between monomicrobial and polymicrobial nBSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods We performed a historical cohort study on 98 adults with P. aeruginosa (Pa nBSI. SIRS scores were determined 2 days prior to the first positive blood culture through 14 days afterwards. Monomicrobial (n = 77 and polymicrobial BSIs (n = 21 were compared. Results 78.6% of BSIs were caused by monomicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (MPa and 21.4% by polymicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (PPa. Median APACHE II score on the day of BSI was 22 for MPa and 23 for PPa BSIs. Septic shock occurred in 33.3% of PPa and in 39.0% of MPa (p = 0.64. Progression to septic shock was associated with death more frequently in PPa (OR 38.5, CI95 2.9–508.5 than MPa (OR 4.5, CI95 1.7–12.1. Maximal SIR (severe sepsis, septic shock or death was seen on day 0 for PPa BSI vs. day 1 for MPa. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of organ failure, 7-day or overall mortality between the two groups. Univariate analysis revealed that APACHE II score ≥20 at BSI onset, Charlson weighted comorbidity index ≥3, burn injury and respiratory, cardiovascular, renal and hematologic failure were associated with death, while age, malignant disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatic failure, gastrointestinal complications, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, infection with imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa and polymicrobial nBSI were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematologic failure (p Conclusion In this historical cohort study of nBSI with P. aeruginosa, the incidence of septic shock and organ failure was high in both groups. Additionally, patients with PPa BSI were not more acutely ill, as judged by APACHE II

  5. MAJEWSKI OSTEODYSPLASTIC PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM TYPE II: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND DENTAL MANAGEMENT OF A CHILD PATIENT

    OpenAIRE

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Çelebi, Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular prima...

  6. Nursing workload in a trauma intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Loppi Goulart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severely injured patients with multiple and conflicting injuries present themselves to nursing professionals at critical care units faced with care management challenges. The goal of the present study is to evaluate nursing workload and verify the correlation between workload and the APACHE II severity index. It is a descriptive study, conducted in the Trauma Intensive Care Unit of a teaching hospital. We used the Nursing Activities Score and APACHE II as instruments. The sample comprised 32 patients, of which most were male, young adults, presenting polytrauma, coming from the Reference Emergency Unit, in surgical treatment, and discharged from the ICU. The average obtained on the Nursing Activities Score instrument was 72% during hospitalization periods. The data displayed moderate correlation between workload and patient severity. In other words, the higher the score, the higher the patient’s mortality risk. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22922.

  7. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-11-14

    To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively ( P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans.

  8. Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Retrospective Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helene Køstner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Advanced HCC is a clinical challenge with limited treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first and only agent showing a survival benefit in these patients. In this study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in an unselected patient population. Furthermore we explore the role of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP as a potential biomarker for treatment efficacy and correlation to survival. Methods. Seventy-six patients with advanced HCC, not eligible for locoregional therapy, treated with sorafenib between 2007 and 2009 were included. Followup was until 2011. Results. Patients in PS 0-1 had a median overall survival (mOS of 6.2 months, compared to 1.8 months in patients with poorer PS (P=0.005. Child-Pugh A patients had a mOS of 6.6 months versus 3.6 months among patients in Child-Pugh B or C (P=0.0001. Serum αFP ≥ 200 at baseline was prognostic for a shorter survival. All patients with radiologically verified tumor response and baseline αFP ≥ 200 experienced a significant decline in αFP within the first four weeks of treatment. Conclusion. The survival of patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib is dependent on performance status and liver function. Treatment of patients with compromised liver function and poor performance status cannot be recommended. The correlation between αFP and objective tumor response warrants further investigation.

  9. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  10. Safety and toxicity of radioembolization plus Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of the European multicentre trial SORAMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Jens; Bulla, Karsten; Kolligs, Frank; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Reimer, Peter; Sangro, Bruno; Schott, Eckart; Schütte, Kerstin; Verslype, Chris; Walecki, Jerzy; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The benefits of combined systemic and liver-directed treatments in inoperable intermediate- or advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be defined. This article presents the planned safety analyses for the first 40 patients randomized to radioembolization with yttrium-90 ((90) Y) resin microspheres followed by sorafenib (n = 20) or sorafenib only (n = 20) in the SORAMIC study. Patients identified for palliative treatment who were poor candidates for transarterial (chemo)embolization (including those failing TACE) with preserved liver function (Child-Pugh ≤B7) and ECOG performance status arm. Patients were followed up for a median of 8.3 months. Median total implanted activity of (90) Y was 1.87 (range: 0.54-2.35) GBq. Patients received a similar intensity and duration of sorafenib in the combination-treatment arm (median daily dose 614 mg over 8.5 months) and control arm (557 mg over 9.6 months). The incidence of total (196 vs. 222) and grade ≥3 (43 vs. 47) adverse events was similar in combination-treatment arm and control arm respectively (P > 0.05). No significant differences in the number of total or grade 3/4 toxicities were recorded for: total bilirubin, albumin, liver enzymes, ascites, Child-Pugh, fatigue, hand-foot skin reaction, blood pressure or diarrhoea. Radioembolization followed by sorafenib appears to be as well tolerated as sorafenib alone. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo

    2002-01-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases

  12. Evaluation of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients using color duplex-doppler ultrasound. Preliminary study; Evaluacion de la hipertension portal del cirrotico mediante ultrasonografia duplex-Doppler color. Estudio prliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varas, M J; Torres, G; Sanllely, H [Unidad de Ecografias, Consorcio del Hospital de la Cruz Roja, L` Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    The objective was to compare data obtained by color duplex-Doppler ultrasound (mean velocity, flow and portal vein congestion index) in patients with chronic diffuse liver disease with and without portal hypertension (PH) (demonstrated endoscopically) with that of a healthy control group. Over a two-year period, 50 studies were performed in 10 healthy subjects (control group) with a mean age of 36 years and in 40 chronic liver disease patients (study group with a mean age of 58 years), most of whom presented alcoholic liver cirrhosis and belonged to Child-Pugh class B. They were subdivided according to endoscopic study into patients without (group 1) and with (group 2) portal hypertension. There were statistically significant differences in the diameters of splenic vein, spleen, portal vein and in the portal Vm, which decreased as the Child-Pugh score rose. When the patients without (group 1) and with (group 2) endoscopic evidence of PH (esophageal varices)were analyzed and compared, the two groups presented no statistically significant differences with respect to portal Vm, blood flow out of the liver, presence of collateral vessels, or the portal vein congestion index; the latter was significantly different in both the study group as a whole and in the patients with PH when compared with the control group. Given that this report is based on a pilot study which requires a larger sample number, we are unable to arrive at definitive conclusions. (Author) 18 refs.

  13. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hanai, Tatsunori; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-09-22

    Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm²/m² for women and ≤ 36.0 cm²/m² for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients ( p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child-Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age ( p = 0.015) and sex ( p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child-Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  14. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  15. Predictors of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Infections in Surgical Intensive Care Patients: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Camkıran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB is an important cause of hospital acquired infection and leads to an increasing morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICU. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of MRAB infection in surgical ICU patients. Material and Method: The charts of the patients who were admitted to the ICU between January 2008 and August 2010 were reviewed to identify patients with MRAB infection. Recorded data were as follows: age, sex, medical history, underlying surgical pathology, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (APACHE II and Glasgow Coma Score on ICU admission,presence of invasive procedures (intubation, arterial, central venous lines, urinary catheters, and renal replacement therapy, days in ICU and white blood cells (WBC and lactate count on infection day, infection site, complications (such as organ/system failure, length of stay (LOS in the ICU and hospital, and final outcome. Results: During the study period 25 patients with MRAB infection were identified. When compared with their matched control group (n=25, patients with MRAB infection had a significantly higher mean APACHE II score (p=0.001 and more frequently had an open wound (p=0.002 or required mechanical ventilation (p=0.005, with respiratory system disease (p=0.03, arterial catheterization (p=0.006, and central venous catheterization (p=0.004. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that APACHE II score (OR,1.155; CI, 1.008-1.324; p= 0.038 and open wound (OR, 27.77; CI, 2.020-333.333; p=0.018 were predictors of MRAB infection in these patients. Compared to their controls, patients with MRAB infection hand a longer LOS in ICU (36.44±30.44 days vs 7.80±8.13 days, p<0.000 and hospital (55.12±40.81 days vs 19.04±13.44 days, p<0.000. In hospital mortality rates for patients with MRAB infection and their controls were 56% and 32%, respectively (p=0.154. Conclusion: Our results indicate

  16. Parents' perceptions of child abuse and child discipline in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auemaneekul, Naruemon

    2013-12-01

    Violation of a child's right to protection is an issue for children all over the world. In Thailand, the greatest barrier to intervening in child abuse issues is the lack of awareness and the positive attitudes and beliefs on using violence as a way to discipline children. The incongruent definition used amongst Thai society and relevant sectors, causes incidences to be under reported and an obstacle to child survival and development. The present study is a qualitative study and aims to explore the perceptions of child abuse and child discipline definitions amongst parents in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area in order to extend broader knowledge for interpretation, definitions and to differentiate the line between child abuse and child discipline. Focus group discussions were used as the primary data collection method and content analysis was applied as the data analysis. The results produced two categories of parents' perceptions regarding child abuse and discipline. First, was the perception of the causes of child punishment and child discipline, and second was the meaning and difference between child abuse and child discipline. The study results would be beneficial for policy makers, health and related sectors to understand the meaning of the terms used amongst family members in order to apply and promote child protection strategies in culturally appropriate

  17. Survival in Patients Receiving Prolonged Ventilation: Factors that Influence Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Mamary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged mechanical ventilation is increasingly common. It is expensive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to comprehensively characterize patients admitted to a Ventilator Rehabilitation Unit (VRU for weaning and identify characteristics associated with survival. Methods 182 consecutive patients over 3.5 years admitted to Temple University Hospital (TUH VRU were characterized. Data were derived from comprehensive chart review and a prospectively collected computerized database. Survival was determined by hospital records and social security death index and mailed questionnaires. Results Upon admission to the VRU, patients were hypoalbuminemic (albumin 2.3 ± 0.6 g/dL, anemic (hemoglobin 9.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, with moderate severity of illness (APACHE II score 10.7 + 4.1, and multiple comorbidities (Charlson index 4.3 + 2.3. In-hospital mortality (19% was related to a higher Charlson Index score ( P = 0.006; OR 1.08-1.6, and APACHE II score ( P = 0.016; OR 1.03-1.29. In-hospital mortality was inversely related to admission albumin levels ( P = 0.023; OR 0.17-0.9. The presence of COPD as a comorbid illness or primary determinant of respiratory failure and higher VRU admission APACHE II score predicted higher long-term mortality. Conversely, higher VRU admission hemoglobin was associated with better long term survival (OR 0.57-0.90; P = 0.0006. Conclusion Patients receiving prolonged ventilation are hypoalbuminemic, anemic, have moderate severity of illness, and multiple comorbidities. Survival relates to these factors and the underlying illness precipitating respiratory failure, especially COPD.

  18. Combined enteral feeding and total parenteral nutritional support improves outcome in surgical intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Hui; Yu, Ying E; Tsai, Yueh-Miao; Lee, Hui-Chen; Huang, Ying-Che; Hsu, Han-Shui

    2012-09-01

    For intensive care unit (ICU) patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and in need of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, the benefit of additional enteral feeding is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether combined TPN with enteral feeding is associated with better outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. Clinical data of 88 patients in SICU were retrospectively collected. Variables used for analysis included route and percentage of nutritional support, total caloric intake, age, gender, body weight, body mass index, admission diagnosis, surgical procedure, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, blood glucose values and hospital mortality. Wound dehiscence and central catheter infection were observed more frequently in the group of patients receiving TPN calories less than 90% of total calorie intake (p = 0.004 and 0.043, respectively). APACHE II scores were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (p = 0.001). More nonsurvivors received TPN calories exceeding 90% of total calorie intake and were in need of dialysis during ICU admission (p = 0.005 and 0.013, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of TPN calories over total calories and APACHE II scores were independent predictors of ICU mortality in patients receiving supplementary TPN after surgery. In SICU patients receiving TPN, patients who could be fed enterally more than 10% of total calories had better clinical outcomes than patients receiving less than 10% of total calorie intake from enteral feeding. Enteral feeding should be given whenever possible in severely ill patients. 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V

  19. [Survival in acute renal failure with conventional therapy or continuous replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-Velázquez, Martín; Sánchez-Montoya, Felipe; Alvirde-Gutiérrez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To know the survival rate in patients with RIFLE I and II stages on acute renal failure, treated with supportive care or continuous renal replacement therapy with PRISMA machine, at an intensive care unit. There were included patients of both sexes, aged 16 to 69 years, with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages and score of scale APACHE II lower than 36 points. The sample studied was divided in two groups: a group was treated with supportive care, and the other group received continuous renal replacement therapy via PRISMA machine. We compared mortality between both groups and the association with the RIFLE stages with Pearson's chi-squared test. The average score of the scale APACHE I was 14 points, and the probability of death was 15 %. The patients with acute renal failure RIFLE I were 54.5 % and RIFLE II 45.5 %, with mortality of 30.4 % and 38.8 %, respectively. Patients in RIFLE I stage who received supportive care and continuous replacement therapy had non-statistical differences in mortality (p = 0.356). The mortality in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE II stage treated with continuous replacement therapy was higher (p = 0.000). Because of its accessibility and lower mortality, supportive care should be the initial procedure in patients with acute renal failure in RIFLE I and II stages.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY OF PERFORATED PERITONITIS USING MODIFIED APACHE II SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rajeswar Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalised peritonitis from gastrointestinal hollow viscus perforation is a potentially life threatening condition. It is a common surgical emergency in many general surgical units in the developing countries and it is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Grading the severity of acute peritonitis has assisted in no small way in decision making and has improved therapy in the management of severely ill patients. Empirically based risk assessment for important clinical events has been extremely useful in evaluating new therapies, in monitoring resources for effective use and improving quality of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective survey of patients with acute generalised peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation was carried out in general surgical wards of KIMS Hospital, Amalapuram during the period starting from July 2013-November 2016. The study population consisted of 50 consecutive patients who had laparotomy during the study period for acute peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation, after diagnostic conformation. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The most common cause of peritonitis in our study was perforated duodenal ulcer (31 cases, followed by appendicular perforation (7 cases, followed by stomach perforation (7 cases. Despite delay in seeking treatment, the overall mortality rate (14% was favourably comparable with other published series.

  1. Effects of a single terlipressin administration on cardiac function and perfusion in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Mortensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vasoconstrictor terlipressin is widely used in the treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome and variceal bleeding. However, terlipressin may compromise cardiac function and induce ischemia. AIM: Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of terlipressin on cardiac function and perfusion...... with nonrefractory ascites, both at baseline and after terlipressin treatment. The decrease in the left ventricular wall thickening and wall motion correlated with the Child--Pugh score, r=-0.59, P=0.005 and r=-0.48, P=0.03. CONCLUSION: In advanced cirrhosis, the increase in afterload and EDV after terlipressin...

  2. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  3. THE APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT: FIRST DETECTION OF HIGH-VELOCITY MILKY WAY BAR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bird, Jonathan; Schoenrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sellgren, Kris [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robin, Annie C.; Schultheis, Mathias [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, OSU THETA, Universite de Franche-Comte, 41bis avenue de l' Observatoire, F-25000 Besancon (France); Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: dln5q@virginia.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2012-08-20

    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for {approx}4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R {approx} 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 {mu}m) spectra provide accurate RVs ({epsilon}{sub V} {approx} 0.2 km s{sup -1}) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1 Degree-Sign -32 Degree-Sign . This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold ({sigma}{sub V} {approx} 30 km s{sup -1}), high-velocity peak (V{sub GSR} Almost-Equal-To +200 km s{sup -1}) is found to comprise a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  4. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space using spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Jones, Natalie; Bovy, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Chemical tagging of stars based on their similar compositions can offer new insights about the star formation and dynamical history of the Milky Way. We investigate the feasibility of identifying groups of stars in chemical space by forgoing the use of model derived abundances in favour of direct analysis of spectra. This facilitates the propagation of measurement uncertainties and does not pre-suppose knowledge of which elements are important for distinguishing stars in chemical space. We use ˜16 000 red giant and red clump H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and perform polynomial fits to remove trends not due to abundance-ratio variations. Using expectation maximized principal component analysis, we find principal components with high signal in the wavelength regions most important for distinguishing between stars. Different subsamples of red giant and red clump stars are all consistent with needing about 10 principal components to accurately model the spectra above the level of the measurement uncertainties. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space that can be investigated in the H band is therefore ≲10. For APOGEE observations with typical signal-to-noise ratios of 100, the number of chemical space cells within which stars cannot be distinguished is approximately 1010±2 × (5 ± 2)n - 10 with n the number of principal components. This high dimensionality and the fine-grained sampling of chemical space are a promising first step towards chemical tagging based on spectra alone.

  5. The experiences of families living with the anticipatory loss of a school-age child with spinal muscular atrophy - the parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Huan; Mu, Pei-Fan; Wang, Wen-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    To probe into parents' anticipatory loss of school-age children with Type I or II spinal muscular atrophy. Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare disorder that causes death. Children die early due to either gradual atrophy or an infection of the lungs. Therefore, family members experience anticipatory loss, which causes grief before the actual loss. Family members feel physically and mentally exhausted, which results in a family crisis. Therefore, it is important to explore their experiences related to anticipatory loss to assist with the adjustment of the families to their circumstances. This study applied a phenomenology method and purposive sampling. The 19 parents who participated in this study were referred to us by two medical centers in Taiwan. Their average age was 32-49 years. Using in-depth interviews, this study explored parents' anticipatory loss. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Meanings were extracted using Giorgi analysis, and precision was assessed according to Guba and Lincoln, which was treated as the evaluation standard. Four themes were identified from the parents' interviews. The themes included enduring the helplessness and pressure of care, suffering due to the child's rare and unknown condition, loss of hope and a reinforcement of the parent-child attachment, and avoiding the pressure of death and enriching the child's life. The research findings help nurses identify anticipatory loss among parents of school-age children with type I or II spinal muscular atrophy. They enhance health professionals' understanding of the panic that occurs in the society surrounding the families, family members' dynamic relationships, and the families' demands for care. In an attempt to providing intersubjective empathy and support with family having a child with type I and II SMA, nurses may recognize relevant family reactions and enhancing their hope and parent-child attachment. Encourage family members and child go beyond the pressure of death and

  6. Phosphate is a potential biomarker of disease severity and predicts adverse outcomes in acute kidney injury patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, and is common in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI; however, its clinical implication in these patients is unknown. We conducted an observational study in 1144 patients (mean age, 63.2 years; male, 705 [61.6%] with AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT between January 2009 and September 2016. Phosphate levels were measured before (0 h and 24 h after CRRT initiation. We assessed disease severity using various clinical parameters. Phosphate at 0 h positively correlated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II; P < 0.001 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA; P < 0.001 scores, and inversely with mean arterial pressure (MAP; P = 0.02 and urine output (UO; P = 0.01. In a fully adjusted linear regression analysis for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI, MAP, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, higher 0 h phosphate level was significantly associated with high APACHE II (P < 0.001 and SOFA (P = 0.04 scores, suggesting that phosphate represents disease severity. A multivariable Cox model also showed that hyperphosphatemia was significantly associated with increased 28-day (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001 and 90-day (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.001 mortality. Furthermore, patients with increased phosphate level during 24 h were at higher risk of death than those with stable or decreased phosphate levels. Finally, c-statistics significantly increased when phosphate was added to a model that included age, sex, CCI, body mass index, eGFR, MAP, hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, and APACHE II score. This study shows that phosphate is a potential biomarker that can reflect disease severity and predict mortality in critically ill patients receiving CRRT.

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the basis of child marriages in Northern Nigeria. It is an Islamic practice rooted in the interpretation of the Quran. Significantly, the caveat that copulation should be delayed until such girls are mature is often ignored as these child brides are engaged in sex. This paper analyzes the report of a Senator in ...

  9. Differentiation of homicidal child molesters, nonhomicidal child molesters, and nonoffenders by phallometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Nunes, K L

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of phallometry to discriminate among homicidal child molesters, nonhomicidal child molesters, and a comparison group of nonoffenders. Twenty-seven child molesters who had committed or had attempted a sexually motivated homicide, 189 nonhomicidal child molesters, and 47 nonoffenders were compared on demographic variables and psychometrically determined responses to aural descriptions of sexual vignettes. Two phallometric indexes were used: the pedophile index and the pedophile assault index. The pedophile index was computed by dividing the subject's highest response to an aural description of sex with a "consenting" child by his highest response to description of sex with a consenting adult. The pedophile assault index was computed by dividing the subject's highest response to an aural description of assault involving a child victim by his highest response to description of sex with a "consenting" child. Homicidal child molesters, nonhomicidal child molesters, and nonoffenders were not significantly different in age or IQ. Homicidal and nonhomicidal child molesters had significantly higher pedophile index scores than nonoffenders. Significantly more homicidal child molesters (14 [52%] of 27) and nonhomicidal child molesters (82 [46%] of 180) than nonoffenders (13 [28%] of 47) had pedophile index scores equal to or greater than 1.0, but homicidal and nonhomicidal child molesters did not differ from each other. Significantly more homicidal child molesters (17 [63%] of 27) than either nonhomicidal child molesters (71 [40%] of 178) or nonoffenders (17 [36%] of 47) had pedophile assault index scores equal to or greater than 1.0, and nonhomicidal child molesters and nonoffenders were not significantly different from each other. Within-group analyses revealed that of the three groups, only the nonhomicidal child molesters exhibited a significant difference between their pedophile index scores and their pedophile assault

  10. Clinical features of male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis or hepatitis B cirrhosis complicated by abnormal glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qidan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC or hepatitis B cirrhosis (HBC complicated by abnormal glucose metabolism. MethodsA total of 287 patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital from January 2008 to September 2013 were selected. Among these patients, 74 had ALC and were all male, including 54 with abnormal glucose metabolism; the other 213 had HBC, including 97 with abnormal glucose metabolism (69 male patients and 28 female patients. A controlled study was performed for the clinical data of ALC and HBC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, to investigate the association of patients′ clinical manifestations with the indices for laboratory examination, insulin resistance index, incidence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism, and Child-Pugh class. The t-test was applied for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Spearman rank correlation was applied for correlation analysis. ResultsCompared with HBC patients, ALC patients had significantly higher incidence rates of abnormal glucose metabolism (730% vs 32.4%, hepatogenous diabetes (35.1% vs 14.6%, fasting hypoglycemia (27.0% vs 10.3%, and impaired glucose tolerance (31.1% vs 14.1% (χ2=4.371, 3.274, 4.784, and 1.633, all P<0.05. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that in ALC and HBC patients, the incidence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism was positively correlated with Child-Pugh class (rs=0.41, P<005. Compared with the HBC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, the ALC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism had a significantly higher incidence rate of Child-Pugh class A (χ2=7.520, P=0.001, and a significantly lower incidence rate of Child-Pugh class C (χ2=6.542, P=0.003. There were significant differences in the incidence rates of dim complexion, telangiectasia of the

  11. Tracers of Chromospheric Structure. I. Observations of Ca II K and Hα in M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observing program4This paper is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. to capture simultaneous spectra of Ca II and Balmer lines in a sample of nearby M3 dwarfs. Our goal is to investigate the chromospheric temperature structure required to produce these lines at the observed levels. We find a strong positive correlation between instantaneous measurements of Ca II K and the Balmer lines in active stars, although these lines may not be positively correlated in time-resolved measurements. The relationship between Hα and Ca II K remains ambiguous for weak and intermediate activity stars, with Hα absorption corresponding to a range of Ca II K emission. A similar relationship is also observed between Ca II K and the higher-order Balmer lines. As our sample consists of a single spectral type, correlations between these important chromospheric tracers cannot be ascribed to continuum effects, as suggested by other authors. These data confirm prior nonsimultaneous observations of the Hα line behavior with increasing activity, showing an initial increase in the Hα absorption with increasing Ca II K emission, prior to Hα filling in and eventually becoming a pure emission line in the most active stars. We also compare our optical measurements with archival UV and X-ray measurements, finding a positive correlation between the chromospheric and coronal emission for both high and intermediate activity stars. We compare our results with previous determinations of the active fraction of low-mass stars

  12. Natural course of changes hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver diseases evaluated by scintigraphy with GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu Shiomi; Etsushi Kawamura; Takehiro Hayashi; Ai Oe; Jin Kotani; Hirotaka Ishizu; Kenji Torii; Joji Kawabe; Takashi Tanaka; Daiki Habu; Shubei Nishiguchi

    2004-01-01

    participate in this study. The patients were examined at least twice with 12 to 72 months (mean, 26 months) intervening. The annual changes were calculated from the parameters of GSA scintigraphy at baseline and at the time of final examination. Tc-99m GSA (185 MBq) was injected intravenously, and dynamic images were recorded with the patient supine under a gamma-camera with a large field of view and a low-energy multipurpose collimator with parallel holes (ZLC-3500, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). Computer acquisition of the gamma-camera data was started just before the injection of the Tc-99m GSA and was stopped 20 min later. Accumulation images in the anterior abdominal view were obtained for the first 20 min after the injection. Time-activity curves for the heart and liver were generated from ROI for the heart and liver. The receptor index was calculated by dividing the radioactivity of the liver ROI by that of the liver-plus-heart ROI at 15 min after the injection. The index of blood clearance was calculated by dividing the radioactivity of the heart ROI 15 min after injection by that of the heart ROI 3 min after injection. Results: In the cross-sectional study, the medians (25th and 75th percentiles) of the receptor index were 0.95 (0.93, 0.96) in the healthy subjects, 0.92 (0.89, 0.94) in patients with chronic hepatitis, 0.89 (0.86, 0.93) in cirrhotic patients in Child-Pugh stage A, 0.80 (0.76, 0.85) in cirrhotic patients in stage B, and 0.69 (0.61, 0.79) in cirrhotic patients in stage C. The differences in receptor index between healthy subjects and those in patients of each group were significant (all p<0.001). The medians (25th and 75th percentiles) of the index of blood clearance were 0.51 (0.43, 0.53) in the healthy subjects, 0.56 (0.51, 0.61) in patients with chronic hepatitis, 0.62 (0.55, 0.68) in cirrhotic patients in Child-Pugh stage A, 0.73 (0.68, 0.78) in cirrhotic patients in stage B, and 0.80 (0.74, 0.84) in cirrhotic patients in stage C. The differences in

  13. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of child welfare systems: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J

    2012-09-01

    The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a priori measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate profiles for child welfare systems; and (3) estimates the association of child welfare system-level organizational culture and climate profiles with individual caseworker-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study applies confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to a US nationwide sample of 1,740 caseworkers from 81 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW II). The participating child welfare systems were selected using a national probability procedure reflecting the number of children served by child welfare systems nationwide. The a priori OSC measurement model is confirmed in this nationwide sample of child welfare systems. In addition, caseworker responses to the OSC scales generate acceptable to high scale reliabilities, moderate to high within-system agreement, and significant between-system differences. Caseworkers in the child welfare systems with the best organizational culture and climate profiles report higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizational climates characterized by high engagement and functionality, and organizational cultures characterized by low rigidity are associated with the most positive work attitudes. The OSC is the first valid and reliable measure of organizational culture and climate with US national norms for child welfare systems. The OSC provides a useful measure of Organizational Social Context for child welfare service improvement and implementation research efforts which include a focus on child welfare system culture and climate. Copyright © 2012

  14. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C. [eds.] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  15. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C.

    1997-08-01

    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of 3 H and 14 C, fluid- and rock-derived 2343 U/ 238 U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature

  16. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  17. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 10 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    generalized septic peritonitis were analyzed in which the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health. Evaluation (APACHE) II score was over 16. This score computates predicted mortality according to temperature, mean blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, pO2 or PH, Na+, K+,. Creatinine, Haematocrit, WBC, Glasgow Coma.

  18. Case report: acquisition of three spoken languages by a child with a cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L; Ho, Diana Wai Lam

    2003-03-01

    There have been only two reports of multilingual cochlear implant users to date, and both of these were postlingually deafened adults. Here we report the case of a 6-year-old early-deafened child who is acquiring Cantonese, English and Mandarin in Hong Kong. He and two age-matched peers with similar educational backgrounds were tested using common, standardized tests of vocabulary and expressive and receptive language skills (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised) and Reynell Developmental Language Scales version II). Results show that this child is acquiring Cantonese, English and Mandarin to a degree comparable to two classmates with normal hearing and similar educational and social backgrounds.

  19. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth: An Exploratory Study of Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Rizo, Cynthia Fraga

    2017-08-01

    Our research team used the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore relationships between demographic factors, domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) status, and several psychosocial dependent variables for children and youth in the child welfare system who affirm that they have been paid for sex within the past 6 months. The sample included a total of 814 children and youth, 38 of whom reported DMST victimization. Results revealed that youth with a history of DMST victimization were more likely than their nonexploited peers to report runaway behavior, demonstrate externalizing behaviors, and test in the clinical range for a substance abuse problem. Research and practice implications are discussed.

  20. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  1. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2018bek as a Young Type II Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Kaicheng; Li, Wenxiong; DerKacy, James; Baron, Eddie; Brink, Thomas; Zheng, Weikang; Filippenko, Alex; Lin, Han; Rui, Liming; Hu, Lei; Hu, Maokai; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia

    2018-05-01

    We obtained a few optical spectra of SN 2018bek,discovered by Jaroslaw Grzegorzek,on UT May 05-09 2018 with the 3.5m telescope (+Dual Imaging Spectrograph) at the Apache Point Observatory, the 2.16-m telescope(+BFOSC) at Xinglong Observatory of NAOC, and the Lick 3.0-m telescope (+Kast) at Lick Observatory.

  2. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  3. Carefree in child care ?: child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...

  4. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: clinical findings and dental management of a child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlemez, Arslan; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Celebi, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient's history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  5. MAJEWSKI OSTEODYSPLASTIC PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM TYPE II: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND DENTAL MANAGEMENT OF A CHILD PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Terlemez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient’s history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  6. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  7. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  8. Vitamin D - Dependent Rickets, Type II Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Hoxha, Rina; Grajçevci-Uka, Violeta; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work the report of one case with vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. Methods: Diagnosis has been established based on anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological examination. Results: A female child (age 25 months) has been hospitalized due to bone deformity, bone pain, alopecia and walking difficulties. The laboratory findings have revealed that the calcium values was low (1.20 mmol/L), phosphates in the reference value (1.30 mmol/L) the alkal...

  9. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  10. Fear of dental pain in Italian children: child personality traits and parental dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Alkhamis, Nadia; Mattarozzi, Katia; Mazzetti, Michela; Piana, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Dental anxiety could impede dental treatment in children. Evidence shows that parents' fear of dentists contributes to children's anxiety towards dentists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and to what extent: a) parents' anxiety and depression personality traits, b) parent's dental fear, and c) child personality traits can predict children's dental anxiety in an Italian population. One hundred and four children (5-14 years old) and one of their parents participated in the study. Well-known and validated questionnaires were administered to children (MCDASf, CFSS-DS, TAD) and parents (FDPQ, STAI Y1, Y2, and BDI-II). Dental anxiety is significantly associated with the anxiety personality trait and depression of the child and with parental fear of dental pain. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that, regardless of age and gender, the best predictor of child dental anxiety is parent's fear of dental pain, rather than relatively stable temperaments of the child. In line with the literature concerning adults, these findings highlight the children dental anxiety as a complex phenomena consisting of different components, including the child's personality traits (anxiety trait and depression) and parents' dental fear. Clinical implications of this evidence are discussed. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. 38 CFR 10.42 - Claim of child other than legitimate child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of child other than legitimate child. 10.42 Section 10.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.42 Claim of child other than legitimate child. A...

  12. Early intervention services of children with physical disabilities: complexity of child and family needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization and infection in critically ill patients: a retrospective matched cohort comparison with non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Y; Edelman, R; Dror, T; Hussein, K; Bar-Lavie, Y; Paul, M

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriage is associated with incidence of clinical infection as a means of assessing whether the morbidity and mortality associated with these bacteria are mediated by underlying conditions or intrinsic properties of CRE. This retrospective matched cohort study compared the incidence of invasive infections in CRE-colonized patients and matched non-carriers in the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary outcome was infection caused by CRE of the same species as the colonizing strain among CRE carriers, and infections caused by carbapenem-sensitive strains of the same organism in non-carriers. Hospital discharge and death were considered as competing events. Competing-risks hazard analysis was performed for the entire cohort and for a nested cohort matched by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores, stratified by matching. In total, 146 CRE carriers were compared with 292 non-carriers. Patients were well matched for most risk factors for Enterobacteriaceae infection, including age, renal failure, previous invasive infection, previous hospitalization, APACHE II score, length of mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization and CRE carriage. On regression analysis, colonization with CRE was independently associated with Enterobacteriaceae infection {cause-specific hazard ratio (CSHR) 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-4.09]}. On regression analysis of the APACHE-II-matched cohort (N=284), colonization with CRE remained significantly associated with Enterobacteriaceae infection [CSHR 3.32 (95% CI 1.31-8.43)]. Colonization with CRE was associated with at least a two-fold increased risk of infection by the colonizing strain amongst ICU patients. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Features and treatment of gas-forming synergistic necrotizing cellulitis: a nine-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiangwei; Ye, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hailei; Liu, Zhengjun; Xia, Weidong; Lin, Cai

    2018-03-01

    As many doctors know little about gas-forming synergistic necrotizing cellulitis, we retrospectively explored it in our study. Totally, 30 patients diagnosed with gas-forming synergistic necrotizing cellulitis between November 2006 and September 2015 were included. They were divided into two groups: open drainage group (19 patients) and aggressive debridement group (11 patients). Retrospectively analyzed data comprised demographic characteristics, APACHE II scores, pathogen culture results, bleeding amount during the operation, white blood cell count, length of hospital stay and recovery. The mortality rate was 26% in the open drainage group and 73% in the aggressive debridement group (p=0.023). There was no statistical difference in the APACHE II score before treatment between the open drainageand aggressive debridement groups (16.6±4.5 vs 18.1±7.5, p=0.511). The APACHE II score was significantly higher after treatment in the aggressive debridement group (14.2±5.8 score vs 20.1±9.1, p=0.038). There were no statistical differences in the white blood count cell before and after treatment (13.49 × 109±5.05×109 cells/L vs 17.46×109±6.94×109 cells/L, p=0.082; 10.37×109±3.54×109 cells/L vs 15.47×109 ±7.51×109 cells/L, p=0.055; respectively). The bleeding amount during the operation was significantly more in the aggressive debridement group (315±112 ml vs 105±45 ml, pgas-forming synergistic necrotizing cellulitis, performing open drainage as early as possible isthe most important procedure after admission.

  15. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an excellent predictor of mortality in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa M. Algethamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL level as a potential predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI, and both intensive care unit (ICU and in-hospital mortality. Methods: Patients presenting to our ICU with a systolic blood pressure (SBP less than 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure (MAP less than 65 mmHg, and no prior kidney disease were followed prospectively. Baseline data were collected on patient demographics, admission diagnosis, APACHE II and SOFA scores, SBP, MAP, serum creatinine and cystatin C, and uNGAL. Patients were monitored throughout hospitalization, including daily uNGAL, serum creatinine and cystatin C, and continuous MAP. Bivariate analysis compared those dying in the ICU and in-hospital versus survivors; with hierarchical binary logistic regression used to identify predictors of mortality. Areas under receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUC were used to measure sensitivity and specificity at different uNGAL thresholds. Results: Among 75 patients followed, 16 died in the ICU, and another 24 prior to hospital discharge. Mortality rates were greatest in trauma and sepsis patients. The ICU survivors differed from non-survivors in almost all clinical variables; but only 2 predicted ICU mortality on multivariate analysis: day one uNGAL (p=0.01 and 24-hour APACHE II score (p=0.07. Only the APACHE II score significantly predicted in-hospital mortality (p=0.003. The AUC for day one uNGAL was greater for ICU (AUC=0.85 than in-hospital mortality (AUC=0.74. Conclusions: Day one uNGAL is a highly accurate predictor of ICU, but less so for in-hospital mortality.

  16. Serial evaluation of the MODS, SOFA and LOD scores to predict ICU mortality in mixed critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-09-01

    To perform a serial assessment and compare ability in predicting the intensive care unit (ICU) mortality of the multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and logistic organ dysfunction (LOD) score. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24-month period at a tertiary referral university hospital. The MODS, SOFA, and LOD scores were calculated on initial and repeated every 24 hrs. Two thousand fifty four patients were enrolled in the present study. The maximum and delta-scores of all the organ dysfunction scores correlated with ICU mortality. The maximum score of all models had better ability for predicting ICU mortality than initial or delta score. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for maximum scores was 0.892 for the MODS, 0.907 for the SOFA, and 0.92for the LOD. No statistical difference existed between all maximum scores and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Serial assessment of organ dysfunction during the ICU stay is reliable with ICU mortality. The maximum scores is the best discrimination comparable with APACHE II score in predicting ICU mortality.

  17. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20-44 in Finland during the period 1992-2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further birth more quickly, and (iii) whether the risk to proceed to a subsequent birth is related to educational level. The results show that women using the allowance have a higher risk of having a second and a third birth than women not using it. The risk of having a second birth is higher than that of having a third birth. Also, women using the allowance get their subsequent child sooner than women not using the allowance. No large educational differences in the effect of allowance use are found for second or third births.

  19. Desire for a child and eating disorders in women seeking infertility treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bruneau

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EDs in women seeking treatment for infertility, and to better characterize their clinical profile.Sixty participants completed self-report measures that assessed EDs, desire for a child, body preoccupations, quality of life, anxiety and depression.Ten patients (17% met criteria for a past or current ED. We showed a significant association between greater body dissatisfaction and a more ambivalent desire for a child. Furthermore, an ED was associated with (i a lower quality of life, and (ii more anxiety disorders.Screening for a history of ED in infertile women is recommended to plan for adapted care regarding infertility but also regarding ED and psychiatric comorbidities. Therefore, the assessment has to take into account the desire for a child and the body satisfaction, that are essential parts of the ED process on the one hand and infertility process on the other. This could help with the infertility treatment and the prevention of negative maternal and fetal outcomes.

  20. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  1. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  3. Regorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): considerations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung; Jha, Reena; Prins, Petra A; Wang, Hongkun; Chacha, Monica; Hartley, Marion L; He, Aiwu Ruth

    2017-11-01

    We report our institutional observations of ten patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (seven and three were Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively) who received compassionate regorafenib therapy between June 2016 and January 2017. These patients did not fit the rigid criteria of a clinical trial and represented the use of regorafenib in an everyday clinic situation. Regorafenib (160 mg P.O. daily) was administered to patients on a 4-week cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off) until disease progression (assessed using mRECIST criteria) or discontinuation secondary to toxicity (assessed using CTCAE criteria). Relevant clinical data were abstracted from patient medical records and reviewed retrospectively. The median duration of patient treatment was 6.6 weeks, and the median time to disease progression was 12.5 weeks. Most common treatment emergent adverse events were fatigue, diarrhea, and hand-foot skin reaction. Elevated AST and ALT were the most commonly observed laboratory-assessed adverse events, which reached grade 3 status in the Child-Pugh class B patients only. We observed intolerance to regorafenib treatment in one patient who had previously received a liver transplant. We also saw lithium toxicity in one patient receiving long-term lithium treatment, suggesting a potential and unexpected drug-drug interaction with regorafenib. Taken together, our observations indicate that regorafenib is beneficial in the treatment of patients with advanced HCC who progressed on or demonstrated intolerance to sorafenib therapy; however, careful selection and close monitoring of patients is necessary to maximize the benefit while minimizing the toxicities of regorafenib treatment.

  4. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable

  5. Transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma over three decades. Current progress and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization has been performed worldwide for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma for three decades. After long controversy, survival benefit was revealed by two randomized controlled trials. In Japan, chemoembolization accounted for initial treatment of 32% of patients and 58% for recurrent foci. The indications of chemoembolization are various: they are multinodular tumors in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system and two or three tumors >3 cm or four or more tumors in the Japanese guidelines, and both indications fulfill the Child-Pugh Class A/B or liver damage A/B and exclusion of vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. Recently, both guidelines were identified to have almost similar content. The 4966 patients stratified to chemoembolization recommended by the Japanese guidelines showed that 3-year survival of patients with two or three tumors >3 cm or four or more tumors was 55 and 46% in Child-Pugh A, respectively, and 30 and 22% in Class B, respectively. These results would help in comparing the outcome of chemoembolization in the different backgrounds of the East and West. The modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor guideline is now proposed to cover the deficiency of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor to evaluate the response to chemoembolization. Recently, chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads and radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres have been introduced, and each of them showed similar tumor response and median survival compared with conventional chemoembolization. Moreover, the combination of chemoembolization and molecular targeted agent is now on-going to evaluate the synergistic effect. (author)

  6. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  7. Clinical Profile of Alcoholic Liver Disease in a Tertiary Care Centre and its Correlation with Type, Amount and Duration of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Nitya; Malhotra, Parveen; Dhoot, Dipesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Various studies show contradictory results about the role of amount, type and duration of alcohol exposure in determining the risk to develop ALD with ethnic variations in susceptibility to develop ALD and South Asians are shown to be more prone to develop ALD. This study was carried out to evaluate clinical profile of ALD in Indian population and to find out the correlation of disease severity and outcome with alcohol intake. 201 patients of ALD were evaluated to correlate their clinical complications, biochemical parameters, prognostic markers (Discriminant function [DF] score, Model for end-stage liver disease [MELD] score and Child-Pugh score) and in-hospital mortality with their alcohol intake data in form of type, amount and duration of alcohol intake. Hepatic encephalopathy, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and all three prognostic scores showed a dose-dependent relation with the amount of alcohol intake (p < 0.05). However, the mortality rate didn't show a significant relation with amount. Further the type of alcohol intake didn't show any relation with disease severity; however, the duration of alcohol intake showed a positive relation with mortality rate. NLR emerged as a useful bedside marker of disease severity which correlates well with all prognostic markers (p < 0.05 for NLR's Spearman correlation with DF score and Child-Pugh Score), more so with MELD score (p < 0.0001); and complications like hepatic encephalopathy and hepato-renal syndrome. NLR also correlated with mortality rate but it was not statistically significant.

  8. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  9. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  10. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  11. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  12. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  13. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were obtained using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the likelihood of emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and experiencing multiple types of child maltreatment during lifetime increased with age. Boys had a higher risk than girls on lifetime sexual abuse, and past year and lifetime physical abuse. Living in a single parent family was the risk factor related to most types of child maltreatment including lifetime sexual abuse, neglect, and multiple types of child maltreatment, and both past year and lifetime witnessing parental conflict. Interestingly, low socioeconomic status (SES) and parental unemployment were associated with a decreased risk on experiencing emotional abuse in the past year and during lifetime, respectively. "Tiger parenting," a parenting style observed frequently in East Asian parents, may be more common in families with high SES and might explain this finding. This study highlights the importance of prioritizing single parent families in parenting programs and implementing child maltreatment interventions early because of the risk on child maltreatment increased with age. More research on emotional abuse and "Tiger parenting" in Vietnam could clarify the association of emotional abuse with high SES and parental employment. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of the risk factors in Vietnam should be studied more to inform interventions.

  14. A Critical Review of Child Labour in Nigeria and The Case for Child Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Akpa AjaNwachuku

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and the world over condemn forced or exploitative labour of a child, for the obvious reason of the adverse physical, psychological, mental and emotional effect of it on children. What is condemned is not child labour per se, but child forced or exploitative labour. This paper analyses the condemnable child forced or exploitative labour, distinguishes it from the accepted child labour and makes a case for the advancement from child labour to child entrepreneurship. It posits that the advancement to child entrepreneurship shall enable the Nigerian child to contribute their bit to the financial wellbeing of their family and the economic development of Nigeria.

  15. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  16. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  17. Realising the child's best interests: lessons from the Child Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Act to refine the Schools Act with regard to serious matters of school discipline and to ensure its proper alignment with the constitutional imperatives regarding the best-interests-of-the-child right. Keywords: School discipline; child justice; the best interests of the child; children's rights; education law; restorative justice ...

  18. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  19. Prognosis and therapy for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: Problems with staging and treatment strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Atsushi, E-mail: hirage@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Kawamura, Tomoe; Aibiki, Toshihiko; Okudaira, Tomonari; Toshimori, Akiko; Yamago, Hiroka; Nakahara, Hiromasa; Suga, Yoshifumi; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Miyata, Hideki; Miyamoto, Yasunao; Ninomiya, Tomoyuki [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Murakami, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Kawasaki, Hideki [Department of Surgery, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Hirooka, Masashi; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Michitaka, Kojiro [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Although a patient with a ruptured HCC is generally considered to have a poor prognosis and treated as T4 in the 7th edition of the AJCC/UICC, some ruptured cases show a good clinical course. •There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is classified as T4 in TNM stage of UICC 7th. •This article describes that better prognosis can be expected with curative treatment in patients with a ruptured HCC, especially those with a single tumor, and without decompensated liver cirrhosis and PVTT/extrahepatic metastasis. T4 classification should not include all types of ruptured HCC. -- Abstract: Background: There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To elucidate the clinical features of affected patients, we examined prognosis and therapy choices. Materials/methods: We enrolled 67 patients treated for a ruptured HCC (HCV 44, HBV 5, HBV + HCV 1, alcohol 2, others 15; naïve HCC 34, recurrent 33) from 2000 to 2013, and investigated their clinical background and prognosis. Results: Median survival time (MST) for all cases was 4 months. For patients who survived for more than 1 year after rupture, the percentages of Child-Pugh C and positive for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT)/extrahepatic metastasis were less than for those who died within 1 year. Child-Pugh classification (A:B:C = 14:15:5 vs. 4:9:20, P < 0.001) was better, while the percentage of patients with multiple tumors was lower [19/34 (55.9%) vs. 29/33 (87.9%), respectively; P < 0.001] in the naïve group. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were better in the naïve as compared to the recurrent group (60.6% and 33.3% vs. 12.6% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.01). MST according to modified TNM stage (UICC 7th) calculated after exclusion of T4 factor of rupture, stage I was better than others (22.7 vs. (II) 2.2, (III) 1.2, and (IV) 0.7 months) (P = 0.010). Conclusion: In patients with a ruptured

  20. Child labour in Bhutan : the challenges of implementing child rights in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Kishore Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to contextualize the practice of child labour in Bhutan by examining various socio-economic and cultural aspects. By reviewing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, this dissertation looks into the policies, Acts and strategies adopted by the Royal Government of Bhutan in reducing child labour. It describes various characteristics of child labour in Bhutan. It also provides an analysis of domestic child labour in the country. The study is mo...

  1. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Drory, Niv [McDonald Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); MacDonald, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weijmans, Anne-Marie [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Avila-Reese, Vladimir [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 OHara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, Jésus [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belfiore, Francesco [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å{sup –1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup –2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  3. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å –1 per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec –2 , which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M * ≳ 10 9 M ☉ using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr

  4. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  5. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  6. [INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILD AND YOUTH OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia

    2015-02-01

    To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.

  7. Cultural Resources Investigations at Redstone Arsenal, Madison County, Alabama. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    was an infant or child . Parts of broken pottery vessels were found with two of the burials. I As mentioned above, ceramics were relatively infrequent...ai-j- IL is also due to a certain amiount of I tI ’rt ie 1(a ao -- tilit- iV! t-ri i process does not porn i t an extant I ii tfel to !, -,I) Ip it

  8. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  9. BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD FOR CHILDREN IN CONTACT WITH THE LAW. VICTIMS AND WITNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina BOLOCAN-HOLBAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the moment a child victim/witness comes into contact with the justice system, he/she should be fully informed about the process they may have to go through as this can reduce any feelings of insecurity or anxiety that the child may have. Knowing when and where they will be interviewed and who by, how the justice process works, when they will be required to testify, who will be present, and the protection measures available for them both at an initial interview and when giving their testimony can have a positive impact on the quality of the statement they make. Providing a child with information can empower the child and allow him or her to feel more in control of an unfamiliar situation.INTERESELE PRIORITARE ALE COPILULUI, VICTIMĂ ŞI MARTOR AL INFRACŢIUNII Din momentul în care copilul interacţionează, pentru prima dată, cu sistemul de justiţie, acesta trebuie să fie informat pe deplin despre întregul proces pe care îl va parcurge, pentru a evita orice sentimente de nesiguranţă şi anxietate pe care le poate simţi. El trebuie să fie informat despre modalitatea de audiere, despre persoana care va realiza audierea; el trebuie să cunoască cum se desfăşoară întregul proces, care este procedura de a depune declaraţii, măsurile de protecţie ce sunt asigurate copilului – toate acestea pot avea o influenţă pozitivă asupra calităţii declaraţiilor făcute. Informarea copilului despre întregul proces îl va încuraja şi îi va permite să deţină controlul într-o situaţie mai puţin familiară.

  10. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  11. Impact of parenting practices on parent-child relationships in children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 6. The reasons given by farmers for changing varieties in Kasese, Apach and Arua districts of Uganda and relative impotance of the reasons given for abandoning varieties. V Kasest. (a). NAI. II. Apac. Arul have been influenced by the age of those 1201 interviewed and their ability to remember past 100 experience.

  13. Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: IV. Child care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J

    1993-08-01

    Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.

  14. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching HIV/AIDS through a Child-to-Child Approach: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Bosire Monari

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from a larger study conducted in Kenya, which was a narrative inquiry into a teacher's experiences of teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child approach. The two major research questions of this study were: 1) What are the experiences of a teacher teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child curriculum…

  16. Gaps in international nutrition and child feeding guidelines: a look at the nutrition and young child feeding education of Ghanaian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennie N; Brown, Helen; Ramsay, Samantha A

    2017-08-01

    To examine the nutrition and young child feeding (YCF) education and training of nurses in public health clinics of Ghana's Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem region (KEEA) in relation to global health guidelines, and how nurses served as educators for caregivers with children aged 0-5 years. A qualitative study of semi-structured one-on-one and group interviews (n 21) following a questionnaire of closed- and open-ended questions addressing child feeding, nutrition and global health recommendations. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded, transcribed and coded. Descriptive data were tabulated. Content analysis identified themes from open-ended questions. KEEA public health clinics (n 12). Nurses (n 41) purposefully recruited from KEEA clinics. A model capturing nurses' nutrition and YCF education emerged with five major themes: (i) adequacy of nurses' basic knowledge in breast-feeding, complementary feeding, iron-deficiency anaemia, YCF and hygiene; (ii) nurses' delivery of nutrition and YCF information; (iii) nurses' evaluation of children's health status to measure education effectiveness; (iv) nurses' perceived barriers of caregivers' ability to implement nutrition and YCF education; and (v) a gap in global health recommendations on YCF practices for children aged 2-5 years. Nurses demonstrated adequate nutrition and YCF knowledge, but reported a lack of in-depth nutrition knowledge and YCF education for children 2-5 years of age, specifically education and knowledge of YCF beyond complementary feeding. To optimize child health outcomes, a greater depth of nutrition and YCF education is needed in international health guidelines.

  17. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  18. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  19. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J.; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation

  20. MEASUREMENT OF FATHER-CHILD ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY AND ITS RELATIONS TO CHILD BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stgeorge, Jennifer; Freeman, Emily

    2017-11-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of paternal influence on child outcomes such as language and cognition, researchers are not yet clear on the features of father-child play that are most valuable in terms of child development. Physical play such as rough and tumble play (RTP) is a favored type of father-child play in Western societies that has been linked to children's socioemotional competence. It is important, therefore, to determine the implications of this play for child development. In this review and meta-analysis, associations between father-child physical play and child behavior were examined. The review also focused on study methods. Sixteen studies are reviewed, N = 1,521 father-child dyads, 35% boys. Study characteristics such as definitions of physical play, play settings, play measures, and coding were examined. The meta-analysis found weak to moderate population effects for links between father-child physical play and child aggression, social competence, emotional skills, and self-regulation. Research investigating the effect of father-child physical play on children's development will be improved when definitions clearly identify the nature of play, settings facilitate boisterous play, and measures include frequency and quality of play interactions. This play shows promise as an enhancer of positive father-child relationships and a catalyst for child development. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474

  2. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D

    2014-04-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual murderers with adult or child victims: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehr, Aranke; Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Briken, Peer; Berner, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates characteristics differentiating sexually motivated murderers targeting child victims (CV; n = 35) from those with only adult victims (AV; n = 100). In the initial phase, psychiatric court reports were evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, Static-99). In the second phase, data on duration of detention and reconviction rates were obtained from German federal criminal records. The CV group showed more often diagnostic criteria of pedophilia (43% vs. 4%) and less often alcohol abuse and drug dependency (31% vs. 55%), sexual dysfunctions (9% vs. 29%) and narcissistic personality disorder (0% vs. 13%). No significant differences were found regarding PCL-R and total risk assessment scores. Child victim perpetrators were more likely to have committed acts of sexual child abuse before the sexual homicide (46% vs. 16%) but were less likely to have committed rape or sexual assault (17% vs. 42%) or caused bodily injury (26% vs. 50%). The CV group was detained more frequently in forensic psychiatric hospitals (59% vs. 26%), but the two groups showed the same rates of release and reconviction for sexual (22% for both groups), nonsexual violent (CV 25% vs. AV 15%) and nonviolent offenses (CV 63% vs. AV 59%). Although well-known differences between nonhomicidal sexual child abusers and rapists were replicated in this study on sexual homicide perpetrators, the groups showed more similarities than differences. The high prevalence of violence and antisocial personality disorder in both groups seem to be important risk factors for committing a (sexual) homicide and might have outweighed other differences.

  4. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ethnic background, sex, religious affiliation, or disability; (2) Limit parental rights provided under... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98.20 Section 98.20 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD...