WorldWideScience

Sample records for ap-1 repressor protein

  1. ANKRD1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of MMP13 via the AP-1 site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar-García, Karinna; Kwon, Minjae; Samaras, Susan E; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    The transcriptional cofactor ANKRD1 is sharply induced during wound repair, and its overexpression enhances healing. We recently found that global deletion of murine Ankrd1 impairs wound contraction and enhances necrosis of ischemic wounds. A quantitative PCR array of Ankrd1(-/-) (KO) fibroblasts indicated that ANKRD1 regulates MMP genes. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses associated ANKRD1 with nucleolin, which represses AP-1 activation of MMP13. Ankrd1 deletion enhanced both basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP13 promoter activity; conversely, Ankrd1 overexpression in control cells decreased PMA-induced MMP13 promoter activity. Ankrd1 reconstitution in KO fibroblasts decreased MMP13 mRNA, while Ankrd1 knockdown increased these levels. MMP13 mRNA and protein were elevated in intact skin and wounds of KO versus Ankrd1(fl/fl) (FLOX) mice. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay gel shift patterns suggested that additional transcription factors bind to the MMP13 AP-1 site in the absence of Ankrd1, and this concept was reinforced by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis as greater binding of c-Jun to the AP-1 site in extracts from FLOX versus KO fibroblasts. We propose that ANKRD1, in association with factors such as nucleolin, represses MMP13 transcription. Ankrd1 deletion additionally relieved MMP10 transcriptional repression. Nuclear ANKRD1 appears to modulate extracellular matrix remodeling by MMPs. PMID:24515436

  2. Depletion of the AP-1 repressor JDP2 induces cell death similar to apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Dietrich, Nikolaj;

    2005-01-01

    depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only...

  3. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangnan Zheng; Minzhang Cheng; Liang Xiang; Jian Liang; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distrib...

  4. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez-Núñez

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  5. Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for statistical analyses. We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01). Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer

  6. Sip1, a Conserved AP-1 Accessory Protein, Is Important for Golgi/Endosome Trafficking in Fission Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yu; Ayako Kita; Masako Udo; Yuta Katayama; Mami Shintani; Kwihwa Park; Kanako Hagihara; Nanae Umeda; Reiko Sugiura

    2012-01-01

    We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1(+) that encodes a homolog of the mammalian μ 1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex and demonstrated that the AP-1 complex plays a role in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. Here, we isolated a mutant allele of its4(+)/sip1(+), which encodes a conserved AP-1 accessory protein. The its4-1/sip1-i4 mutants and apm1-deletion cells exhibited similar phenotypes, including ...

  7. Fos/AP-1 proteins in bone and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Erwin F; Eferl, Robert

    2005-12-01

    The skeleton and the immune system share a variety of different cytokines and transcription factors, thereby mutually influencing each other. These interactions are not confined to the bone marrow cavity where bone cells and hematopoietic cells exist in proximity but also occur at locations that are target sites for inflammatory bone diseases. The newly established research area termed 'osteoimmunology' attempts to unravel these skeletal/immunological relationships. Studies towards a molecular understanding of inflammatory bone diseases from an immunological as well as a bone-centered perspective have been very successful and led to the identification of several signaling pathways that are causally involved in inflammatory bone loss. Induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL) signals by activated T cells and subsequent activation of the key transcription factors Fos/activator protein-1 (AP-1), NF-kappaB, and NF for activation of T cells c1 (NFATc1) are in the center of the signaling networks leading to osteoclast-mediated bone loss. Conversely, nature has employed the interferon system to antagonize excessive osteoclast differentiation, although this counteracting activity appears to be overruled under pathological conditions. Here, we focus on Fos/AP-1 functions in osteoimmunology, because this osteoclastogenic transcription factor plays a central role in inflammatory bone loss by regulating genes like NFATc1 as well as the interferon system. We also attempt to put potential therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bone diseases in perspective.

  8. In vivo characterization of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).

    OpenAIRE

    Baudendistel, Nina; Knoch, Tobias; Müller, Gabriele; Wachsmuth, Malte; Weidemann, Thomas; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of these studies is the quantitative investigation of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system in vivo. First results of FCS measurements show an exchange in the nucleus of the proteins Fos-CFP and Jun-YFP in the stably mono-transfected HeLa-Cells. This is also shown by fitting the bleaching curves measured in the nucleus with an appropriate model. We obtained dissociation times between 10 and 20 seconds in the nucleus. In the autocorrelation function a free and an o...

  9. Solitons and Collapse in the lambda-repressor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-01-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding $\\lambda$-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability and folding pathways of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein, that controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the super-secondary helix-loop-helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the ba...

  10. Solitons and Collapse in the lambda-repressor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J

    2012-01-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding $\\lambda$-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability and folding pathways of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein, that controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the super-secondary helix-loop-helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the backbone spectrum in terms of bond and torsion angles. Instead of four, there appears to be seven individual loops. We model the putative loops using an explicit soliton Ansatz. It is based on the standard soliton profile of the continuum nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The accuracy of the Ansatz far exceeds the B-factor fluctuation distance accuracy of the experimentally determined protein configuration. We then investigate the folding pathways and dynamics of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein. We introduce a coarse-graine...

  11. Sip1, an AP-1 Accessory Protein in Fission Yeast, Is Required for Localization of Rho3 GTPase

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yu; Cuifang Li; Ayako Kita; Yuta Katayama; Koji Kubouchi; Masako Udo; Yukako Imanaka; Shiho Ueda; Takashi Masuko; Reiko Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Rho family GTPases act as molecular switches to regulate a range of physiological functions, including the regulation of the actin-based cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, cell morphology, nuclear gene expression, and cell growth. Rho function is regulated by its ability to bind GTP and by its localization. We previously demonstrated functional and physical interactions between Rho3 and the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which revealed a role of Rho3 in regulating Golg...

  12. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Attenuates Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression via c-Jun/AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Na; Yang, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Zhao, Jie; Li, Shao

    2015-11-01

    Scorpion venom has been used in the Orient to treat central nervous system diseases for many years, and the protein/peptide toxins in Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) venom are believed to be the effective components. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is an active component of the scorpion venom extracted from BmK. In a previous study, we found that SVHRP could inhibit the formation of a glial scar, which is characterized by enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, in the epileptic hippocampus. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain to be clarified. The results of the present study indicate that endogenous GFAP expression in primary rat astrocytes was attenuated by SVHRP. We further demonstrate that the suppression of GFAP was primarily mediated by inhibiting both c-Jun expression and its binding with AP-1 DNA binding site and other factors at the GFAP promoter. These results support that SVHRP contributes to reducing GFAP at least in part by decreasing the activity of the transcription factor AP-1. In conclusion, the effects of SVHRP on astrocytes with respect to the c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway in vitro provide a practical basis for studying astrocyte activation and inhibition and a scientific basis for further studies of traditional medicine.

  13. Sip1, an AP-1 accessory protein in fission yeast, is required for localization of Rho3 GTPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available Rho family GTPases act as molecular switches to regulate a range of physiological functions, including the regulation of the actin-based cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, cell morphology, nuclear gene expression, and cell growth. Rho function is regulated by its ability to bind GTP and by its localization. We previously demonstrated functional and physical interactions between Rho3 and the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1 complex, which revealed a role of Rho3 in regulating Golgi/endosomal trafficking in fission yeast. Sip1, a conserved AP-1 accessory protein, recruits the AP-1 complex to the Golgi/endosomes through physical interaction. In this study, we showed that Sip1 is required for Rho3 localization. First, overexpression of rho3⁺ suppressed defective membrane trafficking associated with sip1-i4 mutant cells, including defects in vacuolar fusion, Golgi/endosomal trafficking and secretion. Notably, Sip1 interacted with Rho3, and GFP-Rho3, similar to Apm1-GFP, did not properly localize to the Golgi/endosomes in sip1-i4 mutant cells at 27°C. Interestingly, the C-terminal region of Sip1 is required for its localization to the Golgi/endosomes, because Sip1-i4-GFP protein failed to properly localize to Golgi/endosomes, whereas the fluorescence of Sip1ΔN mutant protein co-localized with that of FM4-64. Consistently, in the sip1-i4 mutant cells, which lack the C-terminal region of Sip1, binding between Apm1 and Rho3 was greatly impaired, presumably due to mislocalization of these proteins in the sip1-i4 mutant cells. Furthermore, the interaction between Apm1 and Rho3 as well as Rho3 localization to the Golgi/endosomes were significantly rescued in sip1-i4 mutant cells by the expression of Sip1ΔN. Taken together, these results suggest that Sip1 recruits Rho3 to the Golgi/endosomes through physical interaction and enhances the formation of the Golgi/endosome AP-1/Rho3 complex, thereby promoting crosstalk between AP-1 and Rho3 in

  14. Sip1, an AP-1 accessory protein in fission yeast, is required for localization of Rho3 GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Cuifang; Kita, Ayako; Katayama, Yuta; Kubouchi, Koji; Udo, Masako; Imanaka, Yukako; Ueda, Shiho; Masuko, Takashi; Sugiura, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Rho family GTPases act as molecular switches to regulate a range of physiological functions, including the regulation of the actin-based cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, cell morphology, nuclear gene expression, and cell growth. Rho function is regulated by its ability to bind GTP and by its localization. We previously demonstrated functional and physical interactions between Rho3 and the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which revealed a role of Rho3 in regulating Golgi/endosomal trafficking in fission yeast. Sip1, a conserved AP-1 accessory protein, recruits the AP-1 complex to the Golgi/endosomes through physical interaction. In this study, we showed that Sip1 is required for Rho3 localization. First, overexpression of rho3⁺ suppressed defective membrane trafficking associated with sip1-i4 mutant cells, including defects in vacuolar fusion, Golgi/endosomal trafficking and secretion. Notably, Sip1 interacted with Rho3, and GFP-Rho3, similar to Apm1-GFP, did not properly localize to the Golgi/endosomes in sip1-i4 mutant cells at 27°C. Interestingly, the C-terminal region of Sip1 is required for its localization to the Golgi/endosomes, because Sip1-i4-GFP protein failed to properly localize to Golgi/endosomes, whereas the fluorescence of Sip1ΔN mutant protein co-localized with that of FM4-64. Consistently, in the sip1-i4 mutant cells, which lack the C-terminal region of Sip1, binding between Apm1 and Rho3 was greatly impaired, presumably due to mislocalization of these proteins in the sip1-i4 mutant cells. Furthermore, the interaction between Apm1 and Rho3 as well as Rho3 localization to the Golgi/endosomes were significantly rescued in sip1-i4 mutant cells by the expression of Sip1ΔN. Taken together, these results suggest that Sip1 recruits Rho3 to the Golgi/endosomes through physical interaction and enhances the formation of the Golgi/endosome AP-1/Rho3 complex, thereby promoting crosstalk between AP-1 and Rho3 in the regulation of

  15. Protein Product Encoded by a Human Novel Gene E9730 Enhances AP-1 Activity through Interacting with Jab1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Qing WANG; Han-Dong WEI; Fu-Chu HE

    2004-01-01

    A novel human gene, named E9730 (a clone number of fetal liver cDNA library), has been identified from more than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) based on our large scale sequencing of human fetal liver cDNA libraries. Although sequencing of this novel human gene indicates that it is a leucine zipper protein, the function of E9730 and its homologous genes among species is unknown yet. To find out physiological functional clue of E9730, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen the E9730-interacting protein(s), and one clone containing a cDNA insert with almost the entire coding sequence (amino acids 39-335) of human Jab1 (Jun-activating domain binding protein 1) that interacted specifically with E9730 was identified. A specific association between Jab1 and E9730 was shown by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments. Furthermore, E9730 appeared to enhance Jab1-induced AP-1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner and Jab1 may be involved in the intracellular signaling transduction from E9730 to AP-1.

  16. Protein Product Encoded by a Human Novel Gene E9730 Enhances AP-1 Activity through Interacting with Jab1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-QingWANG; Han-DongWEI; Fu-ChuHE

    2004-01-01

    A novel human gene, named E9730 (a clone number of fetal liver cDNA library), has been identified from more than 14,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) based on our large scale sequencing of human fetal liver cDNA libraries. Although sequencing of this novel human gene indicates that it is a leucine zipper protein, the function of E9730 and its homologous genes among species is unknown yet. To find out physiological functional clue of E9730, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen the E9730-interacting protein(s), and one clone containing a cDNA insert with almost the entire coding sequence (amino acids 39-335) of human Jabl (Jun-activating domain binding protein 1) that interacted specifically with E9730 was identified. A specific association between Jab1 and E9730 was shown by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments. Furthermore, E9730 appeared to enhance Jabl-induced AP-1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner and Jabl may be involved in the intracellular signaling tra.nsduction from E9730 to AP-1.

  17. CD2v interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African swine fever infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez Bonet, Marta; Nogal París, María Luisa; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golg...

  18. The retinoblastoma protein as a transcriptional repressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Ed, H

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is one of the best-studied tumour suppressor gene products. Its loss during the genesis of many human tumours, its inactivation by several DNA tumour virus oncoproteins, and its ability to inhibit cell growth when introduced into dividing cells all suggest that pRB...... negatively regulates some aspect of normal cell growth. The discovery that pRB associates with transcription factors such as E2F has provided the first model for pRB function. In this review, we discuss how pRB may regulate cell growth by repressing transcription of genes essential for cell proliferation....

  19. Solitons and collapse in the λ-repressor protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-08-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding λ-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability, and folding pathways of the λ-repressor protein, which controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the supersecondary helix-loop helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the backbone spectrum in terms of bond and torsion angles. Instead of four, there appears to be seven individual loops. We model the putative loops using an explicit soliton Ansatz. It is based on the standard soliton profile of the continuum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The accuracy of the Ansatz far exceeds the B-factor fluctuation distance accuracy of the experimentally determined protein configuration. We then investigate the folding pathways and dynamics of the λ-repressor protein. We introduce a coarse-grained energy function to model the backbone in terms of the Cα atoms and the side chains in terms of the relative orientation of the Cβ atoms. We describe the folding dynamics in terms of relaxation dynamics and find that the folded configuration can be reached from a very generic initial configuration. We conclude that folding is dominated by the temporal ordering of soliton formation. In particular, the third soliton should appear before the first and second. Otherwise, the DNA binding turn does not acquire its correct structure. We confirm the stability of the folded configuration by repeated heating and cooling simulations.

  20. The V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b mediates dorsal forerunner cell proliferation and left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokey, Jason J; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric fluid flows generated by motile cilia in a transient 'organ of asymmetry' are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryonic development. The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump has been identified as an early factor in the LR pathway that functions prior to cilia, but the role(s) for V-ATPase activity are not fully understood. In the zebrafish embryo, the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b is maternally supplied and expressed in dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) that give rise to the ciliated organ of asymmetry called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). V-ATPase accessory proteins modulate V-ATPase activity, but little is known about their functions in development. We investigated Atp6ap1b and V-ATPase in KV development using morpholinos, mutants and pharmacological inhibitors. Depletion of both maternal and zygotic atp6ap1b expression reduced KV organ size, altered cilia length and disrupted LR patterning of the embryo. Defects in other ciliated structures-neuromasts and olfactory placodes-suggested a broad role for Atp6ap1b during development of ciliated organs. V-ATPase inhibitor treatments reduced KV size and identified a window of development in which V-ATPase activity is required for proper LR asymmetry. Interfering with Atp6ap1b or V-ATPase function reduced the rate of DFC proliferation, which resulted in fewer ciliated cells incorporating into the KV organ. Analyses of pH and subcellular V-ATPase localizations suggested Atp6ap1b functions to localize the V-ATPase to the plasma membrane where it regulates proton flux and cytoplasmic pH. These results uncover a new role for the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b in early development to maintain the proliferation rate of precursor cells needed to construct a ciliated KV organ capable of generating LR asymmetry.

  1. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  2. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. → Adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. → The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. → AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. → AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells.

  3. Tethering of the conserved piggyBac transposase fusion protein CSB-PGBD3 to chromosomal AP-1 proteins regulates expression of nearby genes in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T Gray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein arose more than 43 million years ago when a 2.5-kb piggyBac 3 (PGBD3 transposon inserted into intron 5 of the Cockayne syndrome Group B (CSB gene in the common ancestor of all higher primates. As a result, full-length CSB is now coexpressed with an abundant CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein by alternative splicing of CSB exons 1-5 to the PGBD3 transposase. An internal deletion of the piggyBac transposase ORF also gave rise to 889 dispersed, 140-bp MER85 elements that were mobilized in trans by PGBD3 transposase. The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein binds MER85s in vitro and induces a strong interferon-like innate antiviral immune response when expressed in CSB-null UVSS1KO cells. To explore the connection between DNA binding and gene expression changes induced by CSB-PGBD3, we investigated the genome-wide DNA binding profile of the fusion protein. CSB-PGBD3 binds to 363 MER85 elements in vivo, but these sites do not correlate with gene expression changes induced by the fusion protein. Instead, CSB-PGBD3 is enriched at AP-1, TEAD1, and CTCF motifs, presumably through protein-protein interactions with the cognate transcription factors; moreover, recruitment of CSB-PGBD3 to AP-1 and TEAD1 motifs correlates with nearby genes regulated by CSB-PGBD3 expression in UVSS1KO cells and downregulated by CSB rescue of mutant CS1AN cells. Consistent with these data, the N-terminal CSB domain of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein interacts with the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun and with RNA polymerase II, and a chimeric CSB-LacI construct containing only the N-terminus of CSB upregulates many of the genes induced by CSB-PGBD3. We conclude that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein substantially reshapes the transcriptome in CS patient CS1AN and that continued expression of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein in the absence of functional CSB may affect the clinical presentation of CS patients by directly altering the transcriptional program.

  4. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  5. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, sug...

  6. The AP-1A and AP-1B clathrin adaptor complexes define biochemically and functionally distinct membrane domains

    OpenAIRE

    Fölsch, Heike; Pypaert, Marc; Maday, Sandra; Pelletier, Laurence; Mellman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Most epithelial cells contain two AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes. AP-1A is ubiquitously expressed and involved in transport between the TGN and endosomes. AP-1B is expressed only in epithelia and mediates the polarized targeting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface. Both AP-1 complexes are heterotetramers and differ only in their 50-kD μ1A or μ1B subunits. Here, we show that AP-1A and AP-1B, together with their respective cargoes, define physically and functionally distinct membra...

  7. Adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for rerouting of class I MHC molecules to the lysosomal compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Kimpler

    Full Text Available The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7 U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes.

  8. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1. The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1 as if it contained a Yxxphimotif. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that a direct interaction between the MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 plays a primary role in the down-regulation of MHC-I: GST pulldown assays using recombinant proteins indicated that most of the MHC-I CD and Nef residues that are required for the down-regulation in human cells contribute to direct interactions with a truncated version of micro1. Specifically, the tyrosine residue of the YSQA sequence in the MHC-I CD as well as Nef residues E62-65 and P78 each contributed to the interaction between MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 in vitro, whereas Nef M20 had little to no role. Conversely, residues F172/D174 and V392/L395 of the binding pocket on micro1 for Yxxphi motifs were required for a robust interaction. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, Nef, and the C-terminal two thirds of the mu subunit of AP-1 are sufficient to constitute a biologically relevant interaction. The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef.

  9. The euAP1 protein MPF3 represses MPF2 to specify floral calyx identity and displays crucial roles in Chinese lantern development in Physalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Ji-Si; Zhao, Man; Gong, Pichang; Riss, Simone; Saedler, Rainer; He, Chaoying

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese lantern phenotype or inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) is a postfloral morphological novelty in Physalis. Its origin is associated with the heterotopic expression of the MADS box gene 2 from Physalis floridana (MPF2) in floral organs, yet the process underlying its identity remains elusive. Here, we show that MPF3, which is expressed specifically in floral tissues, encodes a core eudicot APETALA1-like (euAP1) MADS-domain protein. MPF3 was primarily localized to the nucleus, and it interacted with MPF2 and some floral MADS-domain proteins to selectively bind the CC-A-rich-GG (CArG) boxes in the MPF2 promoter. Downregulating MPF3 resulted in a dramatic elevation in MPF2 in the calyces and androecium, leading to enlarged and leaf-like floral calyces; however, the postfloral lantern was smaller and deformed. Starch accumulation in pollen was blocked. MPF3 MPF2 double knockdowns showed normal floral calyces and more mature pollen than those found in plants in which either MPF3 or MPF2 was downregulated. Therefore, MPF3 specifies calyx identity and regulates ICS formation and male fertility through interactions with MPF2/MPF2. Furthermore, both genes were found to activate Physalis floridana invertase gene 4 homolog, which encodes an invertase cleaving Suc, a putative key gene in sugar partitioning. The novel role of the MPF3-MPF2 regulatory circuit in male fertility is integral to the origin of ICS. Our results shed light on the evolution and development of ICS in Physalis and on the functional evolution of euAP1s in angiosperms.

  10. Targeted transcriptional repression using a chimeric TALE-SRDX repressor protein

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-12-14

    Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria when they infect plants. TALEs contain a modular DNA binding domain that can be easily engineered to bind any sequence of interest, and have been used to provide user-selected DNA-binding modules to generate chimeric nucleases and transcriptional activators in mammalian cells and plants. Here we report the use of TALEs to generate chimeric sequence-specific transcriptional repressors. The dHax3 TALE was used as a scaffold to provide a DNA-binding module fused to the EAR-repression domain (SRDX) to generate a chimeric repressor that targets the RD29A promoter. The dHax3. SRDX protein efficiently repressed the transcription of the RD29A

  11. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  12. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator and repressor proteins use different nuclear localization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, M H; McBride, A A

    1996-02-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least three nuclear phosphoproteins that regulate viral transcription and DNA replication. All three proteins have a common C-terminal domain that has DNA-binding and dimerization activities. A basic region in this domain forms an alpha helix which makes direct contact with the DNA target. In this study, it is shown that in addition to its role in DNA binding, this basic region functions as a nuclear localization signal both in the E2 DNA-binding domain and in a heterologous protein. Deletion of this signal sequence resulted in increased accumulation of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins in the cytoplasm, but nuclear localization was not eliminated. In the full-length transactivator protein, another signal, present in the N-terminal transactivation domain, is used for transport to the nucleus, and the C-terminal nuclear localization signal(s) are masked. The use of different nuclear localization signals could potentially allow differential regulation of the subcellular localization of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins at some stage in the viral life cycle. PMID:8551571

  13. Characterization of the CI Repressor Protein Encoded by the Temperate Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Ligowska, Malgorzata Anna; Hammer, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The gene regulatory mechanism determining the developmental pathway of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 is regulated by two phage-encoded proteins, CI and MOR. Functional domains of the CI repressor were investigated by introducing linkers of 15 bp at various positions in cI and by limited...... proteolysis of purified CI protein. We show that insertions of five amino acids at positions in the N-terminal half of CI resulted in mutant proteins that could no longer repress transcription from the lytic promoter, P-L. We confirmed that the N-terminal domain of CI contains the DNA binding site, and we...... showed that this part of the protein is tightly folded, whereas the central part and the C-terminal part of CI seem to contain more flexible structures. Furthermore, insertions at several different positions in the central part of the CI protein reduced the cooperative binding of CI to the operator sites...

  14. Regulator of G-protein signaling - 5 (RGS5 is a novel repressor of hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays fundamental roles in morphogenesis, tissue repair, and human disease. Initiation of Hh signaling is controlled by the interaction of two multipass membrane proteins, patched (Ptc and smoothened (Smo. Recent studies identify Smo as a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR-like protein that signals through large G-protein complexes which contain the Gαi subunit. We hypothesize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling (RGS proteins, and specifically RGS5, are endogenous repressors of Hh signaling via their ability to act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs for GTP-bound Gαi, downstream of Smo. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that RGS5 over-expression inhibits sonic hedgehog (Shh-mediated signaling and osteogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells. Conversely, signaling is potentiated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of RGS5 expression, but not RGS4 expression. Furthermore, using immuohistochemical analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP, we demonstrate that RGS5 is present with Smo in primary cilia. This organelle is required for canonical Hh signaling in mammalian cells, and RGS5 is found in a physical complex with Smo in these cells. We therefore conclude that RGS5 is an endogenous regulator of Hh-mediated signaling and that RGS proteins are potential targets for novel therapeutics in Hh-mediated diseases.

  15. Ebi/AP-1 suppresses pro-apoptotic genes expression and permits long-term survival of Drosophila sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Lim

    Full Text Available Sensory organs are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses that collectively threaten the survival of sensory neurons. Failure to protect stressed neurons leads to age-related loss of neurons and sensory dysfunction in organs in which the supply of new sensory neurons is limited, such as the human auditory system. Transducin β-like protein 1 (TBL1 is a candidate gene for ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness, a form of X-linked age-related hearing loss. TBL1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved F-box-like and WD40 repeats-containing subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor/silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and other transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Here we report that a Drosophila homologue of TBL1, Ebi, is required for maintenance of photoreceptor neurons. Loss of ebi function caused late-onset neuronal apoptosis in the retina and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Ebi formed a complex with activator protein 1 (AP-1 and was required for repression of Drosophila pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expression. These results suggest that Ebi/AP-1 suppresses basal transcription levels of apoptotic genes and thereby protects sensory neurons from degeneration.

  16. DNA sequence-dependent mechanics and protein-assisted bending in repressor-mediated loop formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the chief informational molecule of life, DNA is subject to extensive physical manipulations. The energy required to deform double-helical DNA depends on sequence, and this mechanical code of DNA influences gene regulation, such as through nucleosome positioning. Here we examine the sequence-dependent flexibility of DNA in bacterial transcription factor-mediated looping, a context for which the role of sequence remains poorly understood. Using a suite of synthetic constructs repressed by the Lac repressor and two well-known sequences that show large flexibility differences in vitro, we make precise statistical mechanical predictions as to how DNA sequence influences loop formation and test these predictions using in vivo transcription and in vitro single-molecule assays. Surprisingly, sequence-dependent flexibility does not affect in vivo gene regulation. By theoretically and experimentally quantifying the relative contributions of sequence and the DNA-bending protein HU to DNA mechanical properties, we reveal that bending by HU dominates DNA mechanics and masks intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. Such a quantitative understanding of how mechanical regulatory information is encoded in the genome will be a key step towards a predictive understanding of gene regulation at single-base pair resolution. (paper)

  17. Crn7 interacts with AP-1 and is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology and protein export from the Golgi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybakin, Vasily; Gounko, Natalia V.; Spaete, Kira; Hoening, Stefan; Majoul, Irina V.; Duden, Rainer; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2006-01-01

    Crn7 is a novel cytosolic mammalian WD-repeat protein of unknown function that associates with Golgi membranes. Here, we demonstrate that Crn7 knockdown by small interfering-RNA results in dramatic changes in the Golgi morphology and function. First, the Golgi ribbon is disorganized in Crn7 KD cells

  18. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  19. Distal Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Response Element of Human Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) Binds Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) Transcription Factors and Regulates Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Adam C.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2012-01-01

    The collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the destruction of cartilage in arthritic joints. MMP-13 expression is strongly up-regulated in arthritis, largely because of stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Treatment of chondrocytes with IL-1β induces transcription of MMP-13 in vitro. IL-1β signaling converges upon the activator protein-1 transcription factors, which have been shown to be required for IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we detected activator protein-1 binding within an evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence ∼20 kb 5′ relative to the MMP-13 transcription start site (TSS). Also using ChIP, we detected histone modifications and binding of RNA polymerase II within this conserved region, all of which are consistent with transcriptional activation. Chromosome conformation capture indicates that chromosome looping brings this region in close proximity with the MMP-13 TSS. Finally, a luciferase reporter construct driven by a component of the conserved region demonstrated an expression pattern similar to that of endogenous MMP-13. These data suggest that a conserved region at 20 kb upstream from the MMP-13 TSS includes a distal transcriptional response element of MMP-13, which contributes to MMP-13 gene expression. PMID:22102411

  20. Activation of the transcription factor FosB/activating protein-1 (AP-1) is a prominent downstream signal of the extracellular nucleotide receptor P2RX7 in monocytic and osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica L; Hill, Lindsay M; Lenertz, Lisa Y; Karta, Maya R; Bertics, Paul J

    2010-10-29

    Activation of the ionotropic P2RX7 nucleotide receptor by extracellular ATP has been implicated in modulating inflammatory disease progression. Continuous exposure of P2RX7 to ligand can result in apoptosis in many cell types, including monocytic cells, whereas transient activation of P2RX7 is linked to inflammatory mediator production and the promotion of cell growth. Given the rapid hydrolysis of ATP in the circulation and interstitial space, transient activation of P2RX7 appears critically important for its action, yet its effects on gene expression are unclear. The present study demonstrates that short-term stimulation of human and mouse monocytic cells as well as mouse osteoblasts with P2RX7 agonists substantially induces the expression of several activating protein-1 (AP-1) members, particularly FosB. The potent activation of FosB after P2RX7 stimulation is especially noteworthy considering that little is known concerning the role of FosB in immunological regulation. Interestingly, the magnitude of FosB activation induced by P2RX7 stimulation appears greater than that observed with other known inducers of FosB expression. In addition, we have identified a previously unrecognized role for FosB in osteoblasts with respect to nucleotide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis from arachidonic acid and is critical for osteoblastic differentiation and immune behavior. The present studies are the first to link P2RX7 action to FosB/AP-1 regulation in multiple cell types, including a role in nucleotide-induced COX-2 expression, and support a role for FosB in the control of immune and osteogenic function by P2RX7. PMID:20813842

  1. Berberine inhibits cyclin D1 expression via suppressed binding of AP-1 transcription factors to CCND1 AP-1 motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LUO; Yu HAO; Tai-ping SHI; Wei-wei DENG; Na LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To verify the suppressive effect of berberine on the proliferation of the human pulmonary giant cell carcinoma cell line PG and to demonstrate the mecha-nisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine. Methods: The proliferative effects of PG cells were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetry. The cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. The expression level of cyclin D1 was detected by RT-PCR. The activities of the activating protein-1 (AP-1) and NF-κB signaling pathways related to cyclin D1 were examined by luciferase assay. The cytoplasmic level of c-Jun was detected by Western blot analysis. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to examiae the binding of transcription factors to the cyclin D1 gene (CCNDl) AP-1 motif. Results: The results showed that the proliferation of PG cells treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL) of berberine for 24 and 48 h was suppressed significantly compared to the control group. After treatment with berberine, the proportion of PG cells at the G0/G1 phase increased, while cells at the S and G2/M phases decreased. Berberine could inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 in PG cells. Berberine inhibited the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway, but had no significant effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Berberine suppressed the expression of c-Jun and decreased the binding of tran-scription factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. Conclusion: Berberine suppresses the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway and decreases the binding of transcrip-tion factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. This is one of the important mechanisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine as a regulator of cyclin D1.

  2. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  3. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  4. Arabidopsis ovate family proteins, a novel transcriptional repressor family, control multiple aspects of plant growth and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs, a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7, and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the

  5. 氧化低密度脂蛋白诱导Zucker肥胖大鼠肾小球系膜细胞AP-1活性的变化%Enhancement of Ox-LDL on activator protein-1 activation in glomerular mesangial cells from Zucker rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘卫华; 丁桂霞; 陈荣华

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究氧化低密度脂蛋白(oxidized low-density lipoprotein,Ox-LDL)对体外培养的Zucker大鼠肾小球系膜细胞(glomerular mesangial cell,GMC)中核转录因子激活蛋白1(activator protein-1,AP-1)活化的影响,以及观察Ox-LDL诱导的AP-1活性的变化与Zucker大鼠鼠龄以及基因型的相关性.方法:①采用Zucker肥胖大鼠(3月龄和10月龄)及Zucker瘦型大鼠(3月龄和10月龄)的4种GMC株(O3m,O10m,L3m,L10m)进行传代培养.②利用凝胶迁移率实验(EMSA)和超迁移率实验检测不同浓度及不同时相Ox-LDL对Zucker大鼠GMC AP-1活性的影响,以及AP-1二聚体中c-jun和c-fos成分的变化.结果:①经Ox-LDL诱导后,4个组GMC内AP-1活性均较对照组明显增强(F=177.84,P<0.01);②随着Ox-LDL刺激浓度增加和时间的延长,GMC内AP-1活性相应增强,50 mg/L的Ox-LDL刺激8h时,AP-1活性强度达最高峰;③Ox-LDL主要激活AP-1二聚体成分中的c-jun;④O10m组AP-1的活性显著高于O3m组(P<0.01),L10m组AP-1的活性显著高于L3m组(P<0.01),O10m组显著高于L10m组(P<0.01),O3m组显著高于L3m组(P<0.01).结论:Ox-LDL可诱导Zucker大鼠GMC内AP-1活化,其活化方式呈时间和剂量依赖;活化强度与大鼠的基因型及鼠龄密切相关;Ox-LDL对肥胖型、老龄大鼠GMC中AP-1的激活作用更为明显.

  6. Sulfur deficiency–induced repressor proteins optimize glucosinolate biosynthesis in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Fayezeh; Kusajima, Miyuki; Tohge, Takayuki; Konishi, Tomokazu; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Takamune, Makiko; Sasazaki, Yoko; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Nakashita, Hideo; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Hideki; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Hoefgen, Rainer; Maruyama-Nakashita, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) in the plant order of the Brassicales are sulfur-rich secondary metabolites that harbor antipathogenic and antiherbivory plant-protective functions and have medicinal properties, such as carcinopreventive and antibiotic activities. Plants repress GSL biosynthesis upon sulfur deficiency (−S); hence, field performance and medicinal quality are impaired by inadequate sulfate supply. The molecular mechanism that links –S to GSL biosynthesis has remained understudied. We report here the identification of the –S marker genes sulfur deficiency induced 1 (SDI1) and SDI2 acting as major repressors controlling GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis under –S condition. SDI1 and SDI2 expression negatively correlated with GSL biosynthesis in both transcript and metabolite levels. Principal components analysis of transcriptome data indicated that SDI1 regulates aliphatic GSL biosynthesis as part of –S response. SDI1 was localized to the nucleus and interacted with MYB28, a major transcription factor that promotes aliphatic GSL biosynthesis, in both yeast and plant cells. SDI1 inhibited the transcription of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes by maintaining the DNA binding composition in the form of an SDI1-MYB28 complex, leading to down-regulation of GSL biosynthesis and prioritization of sulfate usage for primary metabolites under sulfur-deprived conditions.

  7. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts induces p53 dependent senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N Alsayegh

    Full Text Available Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1 is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited γ-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1

  8. Radiation response in Deinococcus deserti: IrrE is a metalloprotease that cleaves repressor protein DdrO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludanyi, Monika; Blanchard, Laurence; Dulermo, Rémi; Brandelet, Géraldine; Bellanger, Laurent; Pignol, David; Lemaire, David; de Groot, Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Deinococcus bacteria are famous for their extreme radiation tolerance. The IrrE protein was shown to be essential for radiation tolerance and, in an unelucidated manner, for induction of a number of genes in response to radiation, including recA and other DNA repair genes. Earlier studies indicated that IrrE could be a zinc peptidase, but proteolytic activity was not demonstrated. Here, using several in vivo and in vitro experiments, IrrE from Deinococcus deserti was found to interact with DdrO, a predicted regulator encoded by a radiation-induced gene that is, like irrE, highly conserved in Deinococcus. Moreover, IrrE was found to cleave DdrO in vitro and when the proteins were coexpressed in Escherichia coli. This cleavage was not observed in the presence of metal chelator EDTA or when IrrE contains a mutation in the conserved active-site motif of metallopeptidases. In D. deserti, IrrE-dependent cleavage of DdrO was observed after exposure to radiation. Furthermore, DdrO-dependent repression of the promoter of a radiation-induced gene was shown. These results demonstrate that IrrE is a metalloprotease and we propose that IrrE-mediated cleavage inactivates repressor protein DdrO, leading to transcriptional induction of various genes required for repair and survival after exposure of Deinococcus to radiation.

  9. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341), alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108), each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases (UCSF, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Basel), high expression of

  10. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Dan H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Methods Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341, alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108, each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Results Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases

  11. Analyzing the role of AP-1B in polarized sorting from recycling endosomes in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsch, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells polarize their plasma membrane into apical and basolateral domains where the apical membrane faces the luminal side of an organ and the basolateral membrane is in contact with neighboring cells and the basement membrane. To maintain this polarity, newly synthesized and internalized cargos must be sorted to their correct target domain. Over the last ten years, recycling endosomes have emerged as an important sorting station at which proteins destined for the apical membrane are segregated from those destined for the basolateral membrane. Essential for basolateral sorting from recycling endosomes is the tissue-specific adaptor complex AP-1B. This chapter describes experimental protocols to analyze the AP-1B function in epithelial cells including the analysis of protein sorting in LLC-PK1 cells lines, immunoprecipitation of cargo proteins after chemical crosslinking to AP-1B, and radioactive pulse-chase experiments in MDCK cells depleted of the AP-1B subunit μ1B.

  12. The mouse nac1 gene, encoding a cocaine-regulated Bric-a-brac Tramtrac Broad complex/Pox virus and Zinc finger protein, is regulated by AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, S A; Homan, Y X; Korutla, L; Conti, A C; Blendy, J A

    2003-01-01

    NAC1 cDNA was identified as a novel transcript induced in the nucleus accumbens from rats chronically treated with cocaine. NAC1 is a member of the Bric-a-brac Tramtrac Broad complex/Pox virus and Zinc finger family of transcription factors and has been shown by overexpression studies to prevent the development of behavioral sensitization resulting from repeated cocaine treatment. This paper reports the cloning and characterization of the corresponding gene. The mouse Nac1 gene consist of six exons, with exon 2 containing an alternative splice donor, providing a molecular explanation of the splice variants observed in mouse and rat. Transcripts of Nac1 were ubiquitously detected in different mouse tissues with prominent expression in the brain. The mouse Nac1 gene was localized to chromosome 8, suggesting a highly plausible candidate gene to explain differences in cocaine-induced behaviors between C57BL6/J and DBA/2J mice that had previously been mapped to the area. In addition, a functional AP1 binding site has been identified in an intron 1 enhancer of the Nac1 gene that plays an essential role in the activation of the gene in differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Co-transfection with c-jun and c-fos expression plasmids, which encode the two subunits of AP1, activated the wild type Nac1 intron 1 enhancer two-fold over basal, nearly at the level of NAC1 enhancer activity seen in differentiated N2A cells. Mutation of the AP1 site completely abrogated all activation of the NAC1 enhancer in differentiated N2A cells. Activation of immediate early genes such as c-fos and c-jun following chronic drug treatments has been well characterized. The present data describe one potential regulatory cascade involving these transcription factors and activation of NAC1. Identification of drug induced alterations in gene expression is key to understanding the types of molecular adaptations underlying addiction.

  13. Sliding and target location of DNA-binding proteins:an NMR view of the lac repressor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, Karine [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, NMR Spectroscopy (Netherlands); Gnida, Manuel; Romanuka, Julija [Paderborn University, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf, E-mail: r.boelens@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, NMR Spectroscopy (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In non-specific lac headpiece-DNA complexes selective NMR line broadening is observed that strongly depends on length and composition of the DNA fragments. This broadening involves amide protons found in the non-specific lac-DNA structure to be interacting with the DNA phosphate backbone, and can be ascribed to DNA sliding of the protein along the DNA. This NMR exchange broadening has been used to estimate the 1D diffusion constant for sliding along non-specific DNA. The observed 1D diffusion constant of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} cm{sup 2}/s is two orders of magnitude smaller than derived from previous kinetic experiments, but falls in the range of values determined more recently using single molecule methods. This strongly supports the notion that sliding could play at most a minor role in the association kinetics of binding of lac repressor to lac operator and that other processes such as hopping and intersegment transfer contribute to facilitate the DNA recognition process.

  14. Sliding and target location of DNA-binding proteins: an NMR view of the lac repressor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Karine; Gnida, Manuel; Romanuka, Julija; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    In non-specific lac headpiece-DNA complexes selective NMR line broadening is observed that strongly depends on length and composition of the DNA fragments. This broadening involves amide protons found in the non-specific lac-DNA structure to be interacting with the DNA phosphate backbone, and can be ascribed to DNA sliding of the protein along the DNA. This NMR exchange broadening has been used to estimate the 1D diffusion constant for sliding along non-specific DNA. The observed 1D diffusion constant of 4×10(-12) cm(2)/s is two orders of magnitude smaller than derived from previous kinetic experiments, but falls in the range of values determined more recently using single molecule methods. This strongly supports the notion that sliding could play at most a minor role in the association kinetics of binding of lac repressor to lac operator and that other processes such as hopping and intersegment transfer contribute to facilitate the DNA recognition process.

  15. CLONING AND PURIFICATION OFA REPRESSOR PROTEIN FROM ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine The putative sugar catabolic pathway consists of 11 ORFś organized as a single operon and coding for an ABC-type sugar-transport system and several putative oxidoreductases and dehydrogenases. The current work is focused on orf32, a putative PdhR related protein, most probably involved in the control of the whole operon. The approx. 700 kb orf32 gene was cloned in the pH6EX3 plasmid vector and the gene product purified to homogeneity as a 29 kDa His-tagged recombinant protein. As indicated by GPC, it consists of a monomeric protein with a native molecular weight of 32 kDa. The specific UV/Vis spectra showed only a single peak at 280 nm common for all proteins and did not indicated the presence of any colored cofactors. This is in good agreement with the fact that PdhR-family proteins contain a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH domain responsible for DNA binding, and not a Zn-finger or any other metal containing domains

  16. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubito Nakatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  17. Design and characterization of an enhanced repressor of human papillomavirus E2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Kakoli; Meinke, Gretchen; Bohm, Andrew; Baleja, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are causative agents of cervical and anogenital cancers. The viral E2 protein mediates viral DNA replication and transactivation of viral oncogenes and thus represents a specific target for therapeutic intervention. Short forms of E2, E2R, contain only the C-terminal dimerization domain, and repress the normal function of E2 due to formation of an inactive heterodimer. Using structure-guided design, we replaced conserved residues at the dimer interface to design a heterodimer...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae induced c-Jun-N-terminal kinase- and AP-1 -dependent IL-8 release by lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosseau Simone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pneumococcal pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death due to infectious diseases, little is known about pneumococci-lung cell interaction. Herein we tested the hypothesis that pneumococci activated pulmonary epithelial cell cytokine release by c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B or epithelial HEK293 cells were infected with S. pneumoniae R6x and cytokine induction was measured by RT-PCR, ELISA and Bioplex assay. JNK-phosphorylation was detected by Western blot and nuclear signaling was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. JNK was modulated by the small molecule inhibitor SP600125 and AP1 by transfection of a dominant negative mutant. Results S. pneumoniae induced the release of distinct CC and CXC, as well as Th1 and Th2 cytokines and growth factors by human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Furthermore, pneumococci infection resulted in JNK phosphorylation in BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of JNK by small molecule inhibitor SP600125 reduced pneumococci-induced IL-8 mRNA expression and release of IL-8 and IL-6. One regulator of the il8 promoter is JNK-phosphorylated activator protein 1 (AP-1. We showed that S. pneumoniae time-dependently induced DNA binding of AP-1 and its phosphorylated subunit c-Jun with a maximum at 3 to 5 h after infection. Recruitment of Ser63/73-phosphorylated c-Jun and RNA polymerase II to the endogenous il8 promoter was found 2 h after S. pneumoniae infection by chromatin immunoprecipitation. AP-1 repressor A-Fos reduced IL-8 release by TLR2-overexpressing HEK293 cells induced by pneumococci but not by TNFα. Antisense-constructs targeting the AP-1 subunits Fra1 and Fra2 had no inhibitory effect on pneumococci-induced IL-8 release. Conclusion S. pneumoniae-induced IL-8 expression by human epithelial BEAS-2B cells depended on activation of JNK and recruitment of phosphorylated c

  19. AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setta-Kaffetzi, N.; Simpson, M.A.; Navarini, A.A.; Patel, V.M.; Lu, H.C.; Allen, M.H.; Duckworth, M.; Bachelez, H.; Burden, A.D.; Choon, S.E.; Griffiths, C.E.; Kirby, B.; Kolios, A.; Seyger, M.M.B.; Prins, C.; Smahi, A.; Trembath, R.C.; Fraternali, F.; Smith, C.H.; Barker, J.N.; Capon, F.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) is an evolutionary conserved heterotetramer that promotes vesicular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosomes. The knockout of most murine AP-1 complex subunits is embryonically lethal, so the identification of human disease-associated alleles has

  20. Regulation of endothelial-specific transgene expression by the LacI repressor protein in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Morton

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mice have played an important part in elucidating gene function in vivo. However, conclusions from transgenic studies may be compromised by complications arising from the site of transgene integration into the genome and, in inducible systems, the non-innocuous nature of inducer molecules. The aim of the present study was to use the vascular system to validate a technique based on the bacterial lac operon system, in which transgene expression can be repressed and de-repressed by an innocuous lactose analogue, IPTG. We have modified an endothelium specific promoter (TIE2 with synthetic LacO sequences and made transgenic mouse lines with this modified promoter driving expression of mutant forms of connexin40 and an independently translated reporter, EGFP. We show that tissue specificity of this modified promoter is retained in the vasculature of transgenic mice in spite of the presence of LacO sequences, and that transgene expression is uniform throughout the endothelium of a range of adult systemic and cerebral arteries and arterioles. Moreover, transgene expression can be consistently down-regulated by crossing the transgenic mice with mice expressing an inhibitor protein LacI(R, and in one transgenic line, transgene expression could be de-repressed rapidly by the innocuous inducer, IPTG. We conclude that the modified bacterial lac operon system can be used successfully to validate transgenic phenotypes through a simple breeding schedule with mice homozygous for the LacI(R protein.

  1. Three in-frame N-terminally different proteins are produced from the repressor locus of the Streptomyces bacteriophage phi C31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Owen, C E

    1991-11-01

    The sequence of the repressor locus, c, of the Streptomyces temperate phage, phi C31, was shown previously to contain an open reading frame encoding a 74 kDa protein. Further analysis of the transcriptional and translational products of the c gene shows a more complex pattern of expression. A nest of three in-frame N-terminally different, C-terminally identical proteins of 74, 54 and 42 kDa were found to be expressed from a corresponding nest of transcripts. The repressor proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and the 42 kDa protein was purified, verified by N-terminal sequencing, and used to raise antibody. The antibody cross-reacted in Western blots with the 74, 54 and 42 kDa proteins expressed in E. coli and Streptomyces lividans and from Streptomyces coelicolor phi C31 lysogens. Analysis of transcription of the c gene by S1 mapping and primer extension showed that the nest of transcripts encoding the repressor protein were induced after heat treatment of the cts locus (Sinclair and Bibb, 1989; this paper). Correspondingly, all three of the repressor proteins were induced. In addition to a promoter, cp1, which lies upstream of the 74 kDa open reading frame, the c locus contained at least one internal promoter, cp2, which transcribes DNA encoding the 54 and 42 kDa proteins. Transcripts initiating from cp3 were observed in RNA preparations from S. lividans containing the c gene deleted for cp1 and cp2, but gene fusions using DNA which should contain any putative promoting activity from this region transcriptionally fused to the xylE gene showed very low levels of expression of catechol 2,3 dioxygenase in S. lividans. The 74 kDa protein was not necessary for super-infection immunity. Data described here and current knowledge of the nature of other 'dual start' genes suggest a model for the regulation of lysis versus lysogeny in phi C31.

  2. Evidence that the Dictyostelium Dd-STATa protein is a repressor that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation and is also required for efficient chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, S; Jermyn, K A; Early, A; Kawata, T; Aubry, L; Ceccarelli, A; Schaap, P; Williams, J G; Firtel, R A

    1999-08-01

    Dd-STATa is a structural and functional homologue of the metazoan STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins. We show that Dd-STATa null cells exhibit several distinct developmental phenotypes. The aggregation of Dd-STATa null cells is delayed and they chemotax slowly to a cyclic AMP source, suggesting a role for Dd-STATa in these early processes. In Dd-STATa null strains, slug-like structures are formed but they have an aberrant pattern of gene expression. In such slugs, ecmB/lacZ, a marker that is normally specific for cells on the stalk cell differentiation pathway, is expressed throughout the prestalk region. Stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium has been proposed to be under negative control, mediated by repressor elements present in the promoters of stalk cell-specific genes. Dd-STATa binds these repressor elements in vitro and the ectopic expression of ecmB/lacZ in the null strain provides in vivo evidence that Dd-STATa is the repressor protein that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation. Dd-STATa null cells display aberrant behavior in a monolayer assay wherein stalk cell differentiation is induced using the stalk cell morphogen DIF. The ecmB gene, a general marker for stalk cell differentiation, is greatly overinduced by DIF in Dd-STATa null cells. Also, Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to DIF for expression of ST/lacZ, a marker for the earliest stages in the differentiation of one of the stalk cell sub-types. We suggest that both these manifestations of DIF hypersensitivity in the null strain result from the balance between activation and repression of the promoter elements being tipped in favor of activation when the repressor is absent. Paradoxically, although Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to the inducing effects of DIF and readily form stalk cells in monolayer assay, the Dd-STATa null cells show little or no terminal stalk cell differentiation within the slug. Dd-STATa null slugs remain

  3. Deletion mutants of AP-1 adaptin subunits display distinct phenotypes in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Takeuchi, Mai; Sugiura, Reiko; Sio, Susie O; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2009-08-01

    Adaptins are subunits of the heterotetrameric (beta/mu/gamma/sigma) adaptor protein (AP) complexes that are involved in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking. Here, we show that in Schizosaccharomyces pombe the deletion strains of each individual subunit of the AP-1 complex [Apl2 (beta), Apl4 (gamma), Apm1 (mu) and Aps1 (sigma)] caused distinct phenotypes on growth sensitivity to temperature or drugs. We also show that the Deltaapm1 and Deltaapl2 mutants displayed similar but more severe phenotypes than those of Deltaaps1 or Deltaapl4 mutants. Furthermore, the Deltaapl2Deltaaps1 and Deltaapl2Deltaapl4 double mutants displayed synthetic growth defects, whereas the Deltaaps1Deltaapl4 and Deltaapl2Deltaapm1 double mutants did not. In pull-down assay, Apm1 binds Apl2 even in the absence of Aps1 and Apl4, and Apl4 binds Aps1 even in the absence of Apm1 and Apl2. Consistently, the deletion of any subunit generally caused the disassociation of the heterotetrameric complex from endosomes, although some subunits weakly localized to endosomes. In addition, the deletion of individual subunits caused similar endosomal accumulation of v-SNARE synaptobrevin Syb1. Altogether, results suggest that the four subunits are all essential for the heterotetrameric complex formation and for the AP-1 function in exit transport from endosomes. PMID:19624755

  4. Cloning and characterization of the c1 repressor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3: a functional analog of phage lambda cI protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We cloned the gene (c1) which encodes the repressor of vegetative function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3. The cloned gene was shown to inhibit plating of D3 and the induction of D3 lysogens by UV irradiation. The efficiency of plating and prophage induction of the heteroimmune P. aeruginosa phage F116L were not affected by the presence of the cloned c1 gene of D3. When the D3 DNA fragment containing c1 was subcloned into pBR322 and introduced into Escherichia coli, it was shown to specifically inhibit the plating of phage lambda and the induction of the lambda prophage by mitomycin C. The plating of lambda imm434 phage was not affected. Analysis in minicells indicated that these effects correspond to the presence of a plasmid-encoded protein of 36,000 molecular weight. These data suggest the possibility that coliphage lambda and the P. aeruginosa phage D3 evolved from a common ancestor. The conservation of the functional similarities of their repressors may have occurred because of the advantage to these temperate phages of capitalizing on the potential of the evolutionarily conserved RecA protein to monitor the level of damage to the host genome

  5. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is down-regulated by AP-1-like regulatory elements in human lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2004-02-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyses the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into the 3'-hydroxyl end of DNA templates and is thought to increase junctional diversity of antigen receptor genes. TdT is expressed only on immature lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells and its transcriptional expression is tightly regulated. We had previously found that protein kinase C (PKC) activation down-regulates TdT expression. PKC-activation induces the synthesis of the Fos and Jun proteins, known as the major components of activation protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional factor implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report the identification of several DNA-protein interactions within the TdT promoter region in non-TdT expressing human cells. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative AP-1-like DNA-binding site, suggesting that AP-1 may play a relevant role in TdT transcriptional regulation. Using a different source of nuclear extracts and the AP-1-TdT motif as a probe we identified several DNA-protein retarded complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Super-band shifting analysis using an antibody against c-Jun protein confirmed that the main interaction is produced by a nuclear factor that belongs to the AP-1 family transcription factors. Our findings suggest that the TdT gene expression is down-regulated, at least in part, through AP-1-like transcription factors. PMID:15027905

  6. Temporal pattern of AP-1 DNA-binding activity in the rat hippocampus following a kindled seizure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomori, T. [Department of Neurology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho Okayama (Japan); Hayabara, T. [Clinical Research Institute, National Sanatorium Minamiokayama Hospital, 4066 Hayashima-cho (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho Okayama (Japan); Okada, S. [Department of Neurology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho Okayama (Japan); Akiyama, K. [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho Okayama (Japan); Sato, K. [Clinical Research Institute, National Sanatorium Minamiokayama Hospital, 4066 Hayashima-cho (Japan); Kashihara, K. [Department of Neurology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho Okayama (Japan)

    1997-07-28

    DNA binding by transcripton factor AP-1 was enhanced remarkably following kindling stimulation in rat amygdala. Maximum increase occurred 2 h after stimulation with return to baseline within 24 h. Supershift and western analyses revealed that 38,000 mol. wt Fos-related antigen and JunD were the main components of the evoked AP-1 complexes at the time their induction reached maximum. AP-1 induction 2 h after the last kindling stimulation was more prominent in samples from previously kindled rats than in those from non-kindled rats. This study sought to establish the role of AP-1 in plastic changes of the hippocampus associated with kindling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were kindled from the left amygdala until they exhibited Racine [15] class 5 generalized seizures. Nuclear proteins were extracted from dorsal hippocampi obtained from 0 to 24 h after final stimulations. From these, we evaluated the temporal pattern of DNA binding by AP-1 using a gel mobility-shift assay with a {sup 32}P-labelled AP-1 probe. Supershift and western analyses were added to investigate components of the seizure-evoked AP-1 complexes. Our results suggest that the basal level of AP-1 complexes is not associated with the seizure susceptibility in kindling. However, development of kindling appears to facilitate stimulus-evoked AP-1 induction, probably via plastic changes in the central nervous system. AP-1 may mediate such changes by regulating expression of certain genes. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazehoski, Kristina O., E-mail: pazehosk@pitt.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg, Greensburg, PA 15601 (United States); Cobine, Paul A., E-mail: pac0006@auburn.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Rouse Life Science Building, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Winzor, Donald J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Dameron, Charles T., E-mail: cdameron@francis.edu [Department of Chemistry, Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA 15940 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  8. Arsenic may be involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity through PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi-bing; Xu, Yu-yan; Yu, Xian; Yang, Jun; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Ai-hua

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to combined fluoride and arsenic continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting thousands of people. In recent years, more and more researchers began to focus on the interaction between the fluorine and the arsenic. In this study, the selected investigation site was located in China. The study group was selected from people living in fluoride-arsenic polluted areas due to burning coal. The total number of participants was 196; including the fluoride-arsenic anomaly group (130) and the fluoride-arsenic normal group (63). By observing the changes in gene and protein expression of PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway, the results show that fluoride can increase the expression levels of PTH, PKA, and AP1, but arsenic can only affect the expression of AP1; fluoride and arsenic have an interaction on the expression of AP1. Further study found that fluoride and arsenic can affect the mRNA expression level of c-fos gene (AP1 family members), and have an interaction on the expression of c-fos, but not c-jun. The results indicate that PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway may play an important role in bone toxicity of fluoride. Arsenic can affect the expression of c-fos, thereby affecting the expression of transcription factor AP1, indirectly involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity.

  9. Overexpression of members of the AP-1 transcriptional factor family from an early stage of renal carcinogenesis and inhibition of cell growth by AP-1 gene antisense oligonucleotides in the Tsc2 gene mutant (Eker) rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, S; Tsuchiya, H; Orimoto, K; Kobayashi, T; Igawa, M; Hino, O

    1997-12-01

    We previously isolated subtracted cDNA clones for genes having increased expression in Tsc2 gene mutant (Eker) rat renal carcinomas (RCs). Among them, fra-1 encoding a transcriptional factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) was identified. We have therefore investigated whether other members of the AP-1 transcription factor family might also be involved in renal carcinogenesis in the Eker rat model. In the present study, overexpression of fra-1, fra-2, c-jun, junB, and junD mRNAs was demonstrated in RCs by Northern blot analysis. Interestingly, AP-1 proteins were highly expressed even in the earliest preneoplastic lesions (e.g., phenotypically altered tubules) as suggested by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element (TRE)-binding activity of AP-1 proteins was observed in RC cell extracts by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. As a next step, we transfected antisense oligonucleotides targeting AP-1 genes into RC cells and demonstrated that their growth was strongly inhibited. Thus, the data suggest that overexpression of AP-1 genes might play a crucial role in renal carcinogenesis in the Eker rat model. PMID:9405228

  10. Activation of CXCL-8 Transcription by Hepatitis E Virus ORF-1 via AP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhubing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a small nonenveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and is one of the major causes for acute hepatitis worldwide. CXCL-8 is a small multifunctional proinflammatory chemokine. It was reported recently that HEV infection significantly upregulates CXCL-8 gene expression. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of HEV-induced CXCL-8 transcriptional activation. Using CXCL-8 promoter reporters of different lengths ranging from −1400 to −173, we showed that −173 promoter has the highest promoter activity in the presence of HEV genomic RNA, indicating that the −173 promoter contains sequences responsible for CXCL-8 activation by HEV. Ectopic expression of the ORF-1 protein can upregulate the −173 CXCL-8 promoter activity. In contrast, expression of the ORF-2 protein suppresses the CXCL-8 promoter activity and expression of the ORF-3 protein has no effect on the CXCL-8 promoter activity. We further showed that AP-1 is required for CXCL-8 activation because neither HEV genomic RNA nor the ORF-1 protein can upregulate the −173 CXCL-8 promoter in the absence of the AP-1 binding sequence. Taken together, our results showed that HEV and HEV ORF-1 protein activate the CXCL-8 promoter via AP-1. This novel function of HEV ORF-1 protein should contribute to our understanding of HEV-host interactions and HEV-associated pathogenesis.

  11. CYLD Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Metastasis by Blocking JNK/AP1 Signaling at Multiple Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marval, Paula Miliani; Lutfeali, Shazia; Jin, Jane Y.; Leshin, Benjamin; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.

    2011-01-01

    CYLD has been recognized as a tumor suppressor due to its dominant genetic linkage to multiple types of epidermal tumors and a range of other cancers. The molecular mechanisms governing CYLD control of skin cancer are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that K14-driven epidermal expression of a patient relevant and catalytically deficient CYLD truncation mutant (CYLDm) sensitized mice to skin tumor development in response to DMBA/TPA-challenge. Tumors developed on transgenic mice were prone to malignant progression and lymph node metastasis, and displayed increased activation of JNK and the downstream c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. Most importantly, topical application of a pharmacological JNK inhibitor significantly reduced tumor development and abolished metastasis in the transgenic mice. Further in line with these animal data, exogenous expression of CYLDm in A431, a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, markedly enhanced cell growth, migration and subcutaneous tumor growth in an AP1-depdendent manner. In contrast, expression of the wild type CYLD inhibited SCC tumorigenesis and AP1 function. Most importantly, CYLDm not only increased JNK activation but also induced an upregulation of K63-ubiquitination on both c-Jun and c-Fos, leading to sustained AP1 activation. Our findings uncovered c-Jun and c-Fos as novel CYLD-targets and underscore that CYLD controls epidermal tumorigenesis through blocking the JNK/AP1 signaling pathway at multiple levels. PMID:21478324

  12. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  13. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, σ adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal r...

  14. SCF Ubiquitin Ligase F-box Protein Fbx15 Controls Nuclear Co-repressor Localization, Stress Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöhnk, Bastian; Bayram, Özgür; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Mattern, Derek J.; Brakhage, Axel A.; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins share the F-box domain to connect substrates of E3 SCF ubiquitin RING ligases through the adaptor Skp1/A to Cul1/A scaffolds. F-box protein Fbx15 is part of the general stress response of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Oxidative stress induces a transient peak of fbx15 expression, resulting in 3x elevated Fbx15 protein levels. During non-stress conditions Fbx15 is phosphorylated and F-box mediated interaction with SkpA preferentially happens in smaller subpopulations in the cytoplasm. The F-box of Fbx15 is required for an appropriate oxidative stress response, which results in rapid dephosphorylation of Fbx15 and a shift of the cellular interaction with SkpA to the nucleus. Fbx15 binds SsnF/Ssn6 as part of the RcoA/Tup1-SsnF/Ssn6 co-repressor and is required for its correct nuclear localization. Dephosphorylated Fbx15 prevents SsnF/Ssn6 nuclear localization and results in the derepression of gliotoxin gene expression. fbx15 deletion mutants are unable to infect immunocompromised mice in a model for invasive aspergillosis. Fbx15 has a novel dual molecular function by controlling transcriptional repression and being part of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, which is essential for stress response, gliotoxin production and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus. PMID:27649508

  15. Mechanism of Iron-Dependent Repressor (IdeR Activation and DNA Binding: A Molecular Dynamics and Protein Structure Network Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteins form a major class of enzymes in the living system that are involved in crucial biological functions such as catalysis, redox reactions and as 'switches' in signal transductions. Iron dependent repressor (IdeR is a metal-sensing transcription factor that regulates free iron concentration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. IdeR is also known to promote bacterial virulence, making it an important target in the field of therapeutics. Mechanistic details of how iron ions modulate IdeR such that it dimerizes and binds to DNA is not understood clearly. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamic simulations and integrated it with protein structure networks to study the influence of iron on IdeR structure and function. A significant structural variation between the metallated and the non-metallated system is observed. Our simulations clearly indicate the importance of iron in stabilizing its monomeric subunit, which in turn promotes dimerization. However, the most striking results are obtained from the simulations of IdeR-DNA complex in the absence of metals, where at the end of 100ns simulations, the protein subunits are seen to rapidly dissociate away from the DNA, thereby forming an excellent resource to investigate the mechanism of DNA binding. We have also investigated the role of iron as an allosteric regulator of IdeR that positively induces IdeR-DNA complex formation. Based on this study, a mechanistic model of IdeR activation and DNA binding has been proposed.

  16. Loss of the transcriptional repressor PAG-3/Gfi-1 results in enhanced neurosecretion that is dependent on the dense-core vesicle membrane protein IDA-1/IA-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cai

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that neuroendocrine cells regulate dense core vesicle (DCV biogenesis and cargo packaging in response to secretory demands, although the molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. One factor that has previously been implicated in DCV regulation is IA-2, a catalytically inactive protein phosphatase present in DCV membranes. Our ability to directly visualize a functional, GFP-tagged version of an IA-2 homolog in live Caenorhabditis elegans animals has allowed us to capitalize on the genetics of the system to screen for mutations that disrupt DCV regulation. We found that loss of activity in the transcription factor PAG-3/Gfi-1, which functions as a repressor in many systems, results in a dramatic up-regulation of IDA-1/IA-2 and other DCV proteins. The up-regulation of DCV components was accompanied by an increase in presynaptic DCV numbers and resulted in phenotypes consistent with increased neuroendocrine secretion. Double mutant combinations revealed that these PAG-3 mutant phenotypes were dependent on wild type IDA-1 function. Our results support a model in which IDA-1/IA-2 is a critical element in DCV regulation and reveal a novel genetic link to PAG-3-mediated transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this is the first mutation identified that results in increased neurosecretion, a phenotype that has clinical implications for DCV-mediated secretory disorders.

  17. Identification of DNA-binding protein target sequences by physical effective energy functions: free energy analysis of lambda repressor-DNA complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caselle Michele

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific binding of proteins to DNA is one of the most common ways gene expression is controlled. Although general rules for the DNA-protein recognition can be derived, the ambiguous and complex nature of this mechanism precludes a simple recognition code, therefore the prediction of DNA target sequences is not straightforward. DNA-protein interactions can be studied using computational methods which can complement the current experimental methods and offer some advantages. In the present work we use physical effective potentials to evaluate the DNA-protein binding affinities for the λ repressor-DNA complex for which structural and thermodynamic experimental data are available. Results The binding free energy of two molecules can be expressed as the sum of an intermolecular energy (evaluated using a molecular mechanics forcefield, a solvation free energy term and an entropic term. Different solvation models are used including distance dependent dielectric constants, solvent accessible surface tension models and the Generalized Born model. The effect of conformational sampling by Molecular Dynamics simulations on the computed binding energy is assessed; results show that this effect is in general negative and the reproducibility of the experimental values decreases with the increase of simulation time considered. The free energy of binding for non-specific complexes, estimated using the best energetic model, agrees with earlier theoretical suggestions. As a results of these analyses, we propose a protocol for the prediction of DNA-binding target sequences. The possibility of searching regulatory elements within the bacteriophage λ genome using this protocol is explored. Our analysis shows good prediction capabilities, even in absence of any thermodynamic data and information on the naturally recognized sequence. Conclusion This study supports the conclusion that physics-based methods can offer a completely complementary

  18. Apigenin inhibits PMA-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Chidananda Sharma, S

    2015-05-01

    Acute and chronic alveolar or bronchial inflammation is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of many respiratory disorders. Cytokines and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) play an important role in chronic inflammation. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) the superfamily of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation including inflammation. Understanding the function and regulation of proinflammatory factors involved in inflammation may provide the novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Our aim of the present study is to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pattern of AP-1 factors expressed during activation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and to understand the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin. A549 cells were treated with and without PMA or apigenin, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Expressions of inflammatory mediators and different AP-1 factors were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. IL-6 protein secreted was analyzed by ELISA, and expressions of IL-1β, c-Jun, and c-Fos proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Activation of A549 cells by PMA, induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) mRNAs and secretion of IL-6 and the expression of specific AP-1 factors (c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1). Treatment of cells with apigenin, significantly inhibited PMA-stimulated mRNA expression of above pro-inflammatory cytokines, AP-1 factors, cyclooxygenase-2, and secretion of IL-6 protein. Results suggested that the AP-1 factors may be involved in inflammation and apigenin has anti-inflammatory effect, which may be useful for therapeutic management of lung inflammatory diseases. PMID:25666088

  19. JUNB/AP-1 controls IFN-γ during inflammatory liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Martin K.; Bakiri, Latifa; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.; Hamacher, Rainer; Martinez, Lola; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease is essential to design efficient therapeutic approaches. In hepatocytes, the dimeric transcription factor c-JUN/AP-1 is a major mediator of cell survival during hepatitis, although functions for other JUN proteins in liver disease are less defined. Here, we found that JUNB was specifically expressed in human and murine immune cells during acute liver injury. We analyzed the molecular function of JUNB in experimental models of hepatitis, including administration of concanavalin A (ConA) or α-galactosyl-ceramide, which induce liver inflammation and injury. Mice specifically lacking JUNB in hepatocytes displayed a mild increase in ConA-induced liver damage. However, targeted deletion of Junb in immune cells and hepatocytes protected against hepatitis in experimental models that involved NK/NKT cells. The absence of JUNB in immune cells decreased IFN-γ expression and secretion from NK and NKT cells, leading to reduced STAT1 pathway activation. Systemic IFN-γ treatment or adenovirus-based IRF1 delivery to Junb-deficient mice restored hepatotoxicity, and we demonstrate that Ifng is a direct transcriptional target of JUNB. These findings demonstrate that JUNB/AP-1 promotes cell death during acute hepatitis by regulating IFN-γ production in NK and NKT cells and thus functionally antagonizes the hepatoprotective function of c-JUN/AP-1 in hepatocytes. PMID:24200694

  20. Cell type-specific control of protein synthesis and proliferation by FGF-dependent signaling to the translation repressor 4E-BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rachel; Katsara, Olga; Kolupaeva, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of protein synthesis plays a vital role in posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression. Translational control most commonly targets the initiation of protein synthesis: loading 40S ribosome complexes onto mRNA and AUG start codon recognition. This step is initiated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) (the m7GTP cap-binding protein), whose binding to eIF4G (a scaffolding subunit) and eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) leads to assembly of active eIF4F complex. The ability of eIF4E to recognize the cap is prevented by its binding to eIF4E binding protein (4E-BP), which thereby inhibits cap-dependent translation by sequestering eIF4E. The 4E-BP activity is, in turn, inhibited by mTORC1 [mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1] mediated phosphorylation. Here, we define a previously unidentified mechanism of mTOR-independent 4E-BP1 regulation that is used by chondrocytes upon FGF signaling. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation of the skeleton long bones. Unlike the majority of cell types where FGF signaling triggers proliferation, chondrocytes respond to FGF with inhibition. We establish that FGF specifically suppresses protein synthesis in chondrocytes, but not in any other cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, 4E-BP1 repressor activity is necessary not only for suppression of protein synthesis, but also for FGF-induced cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, FGF-induced changes in the 4E-BP1 activity observed in cell culture are likewise detected in vivo and reflect the action of FGF signaling on downstream targets during bone development. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FGF signaling differentially impacts protein synthesis through either stimulation or repression, in a cell-type-dependent manner, with 4E-BP1 being a key player. PMID:27313212

  1. ERK和JNK/AP-1通路参与石英诱导的细胞周期改变%ERK,JNK/AP-1 pathway was involved in silica-induced cell cycle changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾效伟; 刘秉慈; 史香林; 高艾; 叶萌; 张凤梅; 刘海峰; 焦石

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨在石英刺激的人胚肺成纤维细胞(human embryo lung fibroblasts,HELF)中转录因子活化蛋白-1(activator protein-1,AP-1)的活性改变,以及丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(mitogen activated protein kinase,MAPK),AP-1通路在石英诱导的细胞周期改变中的作用.方法 用200 μg/ml石英处理HELF细胞;用免疫荧光法检测细胞外调节蛋白激酶(extracellular signal-regdated protein kinase,ERK)和c-Jun氨基末端激酶(c-Jun N-terminal kinase,JNK)蛋白磷酸化水平及细胞分布;运用AP-1荧光素酶报告基因技术检测AP-1荧光素酶活力;用MAPK显性失活突变体(dominant negative mutant,DN)(DN-ERK2、DN-JNKl和DN-p38)证明通路的上下游关系;用流式细胞术检测细胞周期变化.结果 用200μg/ml石英分别处理转染AP-1报告基因的细胞(HELF-AP-1)6、12、24h,结果显示,AP-1活性随着时间变化而发生变化,6 h活性增强,12 h活性达峰值,24 h活性略有降低;用200 μg/ml石英分别处理细胞1和2 h,结果显示,ERK和JNK在石英刺激1 h后,磷酸化水平升高,主要集中于胞浆,2 h后磷酸化水平进一步升高,并主要集中于胞核;200 μg/ml石英处理细胞24 h,G1期细胞所占比例从(63.80±9.57)%下降到(32.23±7.22)%,S期细胞所占比例从(35.17±10.33)%升高到(66.00±8.07)%;AP-1化学抑制剂姜黄素(20μmol/L)可明显减弱石英引起的G1期细胞比例减少和S期细胞比例增加;DN-ERK和DN-JNK的过表达均可明显降低石英诱导的AP-1活性增强,DN-p38的过表达对石英诱导的AP-1活性增强无明显影响.结论 200 μg/ml石英可诱导AP-1活性增强,并通过ERK、JNK/AP-1通路诱导细胞周期改变.

  2. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dreer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1 as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication

  3. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  4. Signalling in inflammatory skin disease by AP-1 (Fos/Jun).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçkan, Özge; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Jimenez, Maria; Wagner, Erwin F

    2015-01-01

    Skin inflammation is a physiological reaction to tissue injury, pathogen invasion and irritants. During this process, innate and/or adaptive immune cells are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation to either promote or suppress inflammation. The sequential recruitment and activation of immune cells is modulated by a combination of cytokines and chemokines, which are regulated by transcription factors, such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NF-κB, NFATs, and STATs. Here we review the present evidence and the underlying mechanisms of how Jun/AP-1 proteins control skin inflammation. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) in which AP-1 proteins are deleted in the epidermis have revealed that these proteins control cytokine expression at multiple levels. Constitutive epidermal deletion of JunB in mice leads to a multi-organ disease characterised by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These JunB-deficient mutant mice display several phenotypes from skin inflammation to a G-CSF-dependent myeloproliferative disease, as well as kidney atrophy and bone loss, reminiscent of psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Importantly, epidermal deletion of both JunB and c-Jun in an inducible manner in adult mice leads to a psoriasis-like disease, in which the epidermal proteome expression profile is comparable to the one from psoriasis patient samples. In this GEMM and in psoriasis patient-derived material, S100A8/A9-dependent C3/CFB complement activation, as well as a miR-21-dependent TIMP-3/TACE pathway leading to TNF-α shedding, plays causal roles in disease development. The newly identified therapeutic targets from GEMMs together with investigations in human patient samples open up new avenues for therapeutic interventions for psoriasis and related inflammatory skin diseases.

  5. Human ZCCHC12 activates AP-1 and CREB signaling as a transcriptional co-activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Qian Liu; Xiang Hu; Du Feng; Shuanglin Xiang; Zhicheng He; Xingwang Hu; Jianlin Zhou; Xiaofeng Ding; Chang Zhou; Jian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Mouse zinc finger CCHC domain containing 12 gene (ZCCHC12) has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) sig-naling,and human ZCCHC12 was reported to be related to non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR).However,the details of how human ZCCHCI2 involve in the NS-XLMR still remain unclear.In this study,we identified a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the middle of human ZCCHC12 protein which is responsible for the nuclear localization.Multiple-tissue northern blot analysis indi-cated that ZCCHC12 is highly expressed in human brain.Furthermore,in situ hybridization showed that ZCCHC12 is specifically expressed in neuroepithelium of forebrain,midbrain,and diencephalon regions of mouse E10.5 embryos.Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ZCCHC12 enhanced the transcrip-tional activities of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) as a co-activator.In conclusion,we identified a new NLS in ZCCHC12 and figured out that ZCCHC12 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-1 and CREB.

  6. An analysis of the binding of repressor protein ModE to modABCD (molybdate transport) operator/promoter DNA of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, A M; Self, W T; Villain, M; Blalock, J E; Shanmugam, K T

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the modABCD operon in Escherichia coli, which codes for a molybdate-specific transporter, is repressed by ModE in vivo in a molybdate-dependent fashion. In vitro DNase I-footprinting experiments identified three distinct regions of protection by ModE-molybdate on the modA operator/promoter DNA, GTTATATT (-15 to -8; region 1), GCCTACAT (-4 to +4; region 2), and GTTACAT (+8 to +14; region 3). Within the three regions of the protected DNA, a pentamer sequence, TAYAT (Y = C or T), can be identified. DNA-electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that the protected regions 1 and 2 are essential for binding of ModE-molybdate to DNA, whereas the protected region 3 increases the affinity of the DNA to the repressor. The stoichiometry of this interaction was found to be two ModE-molybdate per modA operator DNA. ModE-molybdate at 5 nM completely protected the modABCD operator/promoter DNA from DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis, whereas ModE alone failed to protect the DNA even at 100 nM. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between the modA operator DNA and ModE-molybdate was 0.3 nM, and the K(d) increased to 8 nM in the absence of molybdate. Among the various oxyanions tested, only tungstate replaced molybdate in the repression of modA by ModE, but the affinity of ModE-tungstate for modABCD operator DNA was 6 times lower than with ModE-molybdate. A mutant ModE(T125I) protein, which repressed modA-lac even in the absence of molybdate, protected the same region of modA operator DNA in the absence of molybdate. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between modA operator DNA and ModE(T125I) was 3 nM in the presence of molybdate and 4 nM without molybdate. The binding of molybdate to ModE resulted in a decrease in fluorescence emission, indicating a conformational change of the protein upon molybdate binding. The fluorescence emission spectra of mutant ModE proteins, ModE(T125I) and ModE(Q216*), were unaffected by molybdate. The molybdate-independent mutant Mod

  7. Intracellular CMTM2 negatively regulates human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription through targeting the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-shuo; SHI Shuang; LU Xiao-zhi; GAO Feng; YAN Ling; WANG Ying; ZHUANG Hui

    2010-01-01

    Background The CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of proteins linking chemokines and TM4SF. Different members exhibit diverse biological functions. In this study, the effect of intracellular CMTM2 on regulating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) transcription was evaluated.Methods The effects of CMTM2 on regulating full-length HIV-1 provirus and the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed transcription were assessed by luciferase assay. Transcription factor assays, using the luciferase reporter plasmids of AP-1, CRE, and NF-κB were conducted to explore the signaling pathway(s) that may be regulated by CMTM2. The potential relationship between CMTM2 and the transcription factor AP-1 was further analyzed by Western blotting analyses to investigate the effect of CMTM2 on PMA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.Results The results from the current study revealed that CMTM2 acts as a negative regulator of HIV-1 transcription.CMTM2 exerted a suppressive action on both full-length HIV-1 provirus and HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription.Transcription factor assays showed that CMTM2 selectively inhibited basal AP-1 and CREB activity. Co-expression of HIV-1 Tat, a potent AP-1 and CREB activator, can not reverse CMTM2-mediated AP-1 and CREB inhibition, suggesting a potent and specific effect of CMTM2 on negatively regulating these two signaling pathways.Conclusion Intracellular CMTM2 can negatively regulate HIV-1 transcription, at least in part, by targeting the AP-1 and CREB pathways. Exploring the mechanisms further may lead to new ways to control HIV-1 replication.

  8. The p38 SAPK pathway regulates the expression of the MMP-9 collagenase via AP-1-dependent promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Simon, M; Vucelic, G; Hicks, M J; Plinkert, P K; Koitschev, A; Zenner, H P

    2001-12-10

    The invasive phenotype of cancers critically depends on the expression of proteases such as the M(R) 92,000 type IV collagenase (MMP-9). Several growth factors and oncogenes were found to increase promoter activity and as a consequence protease expression. This frequently requires the activation of the transcription factor AP-1 by signal transduction cascades such as the ERK and JNK pathways. We have previously demonstrated that the tumor promoter TPA can induce MMP-9 expression via a third signaling cascade, the p38 pathway. Considering that TPA is a potent activator of AP-1, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might also be required for p38 pathway-dependent MMP-9 regulation. While dominant negative p38 and MKK-6 mutants reduced MMP-9 promoter activity in CAT assays, a construct encoding an activating mutation in the MKK-6 protein potently stimulated it. This was mediated via 144 bp of the 5'flanking region of the wild-type promoter, which contains an AP-1 site at -79. Both point mutations in this motif and the expression of a c-jun protein lacking its transactivation domain and therefore acting as a dominant negative AP-1 mutant abrogated MKK-6-dependent promoter stimulation. Finally SB 203580, a specific p38 pathway inhibitor, reduced MMP-9 expression/secretion and in vitro invasion of cancer cells. Thus, our results provide evidence that also the third SAPK/MAPK signaling cascade, the p38 signal transduction pathway, stimulates MMP-9 expression in an AP-1-dependent fashion. PMID:11716547

  9. Duplication of AP1 within the Spinacia oleracea L. AP1/FUL clade is followed by rapid amino acid and regulatory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, D Noah; Golenberg, Edward M

    2009-02-01

    The AP1/FUL clade of MADS box genes have undergone multiple duplication events among angiosperm species. While initially identified as having floral meristem identity and floral organ identity function in Arabidopsis, the role of AP1 homologs does not appear to be universally conserved even among eudicots. In comparison, the role of FRUITFULL has not been extensively explored in non-model species. We report on the isolation of three AP1/FUL genes from cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L. Two genes, designated SpAPETALA1-1 (SpAP1-1) and SpAPETALA1-2 (SpAP1-2), cluster as paralogous genes within the Caryophyllales AP1 clade. They are highly differentiated in the 3', carboxyl-end encoding region of the gene following the third amphipathic alpha-helix region, while still retaining some elements of a signature AP1 carboxyl motifs. In situ hybridization studies also demonstrate that the two paralogs have evolved different temporal and spatial expression patterns, and that neither gene is expressed in the developing sepal whorl, suggesting that the AP1 floral organ identity function is not conserved in spinach. The spinach FRUITFULL homolog, SpFRUITFULL (SpFUL), has retained the conserved motif and groups with Caryophyllales FRUITFULL homologs. SpFUL is expressed in leaf as well as in floral tissue, and shows strong expression late in flower development, particularly in the tapetal layer in males, and in the endothecium layer and stigma, in the females. The combined evidence of high rates of non-synonymous substitutions and differential expression patterns supports a scenario in which the AP1 homologs in the spinach AP1/FUL gene family have experienced rapid evolution following duplication.

  10. Heparin (GAG-hed inhibits LCR activity of Human Papillomavirus type 18 by decreasing AP1 binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Bayghen Esther

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High risk HPVs are causative agents of anogenital cancers. Viral E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed and are largely responsible for the oncogenic activity of these viruses. Transcription of the E6 and E7 genes is controlled by the viral Long Control Region (LCR, plus several cellular transcription factors including AP1 and the viral protein E2. Within the LCR, the binding and activity of the transcription factor AP1 represents a key regulatory event in maintaining E6/E7 gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, such as heparin, can inhibit tumour growth; they have also shown antiviral effects and inhibition of AP1 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to test the heparinoid GAG-hed, as a possible antiviral and antitumoral agent in an HPV18 positive HeLa cell line. Methods Using in vivo and in vitro approaches we tested GAG-hed effects on HeLa tumour cell growth, cell proliferation and on the expression of HPV18 E6/E7 oncogenes. GAG-hed effects on AP1 binding to HPV18-LCR-DNA were tested by EMSA. Results We were able to record the antitumoral effect of GAG-hed in vivo by using as a model tumours induced by injection of HeLa cells into athymic female mice. The antiviral effect of GAG-hed resulted in the inhibition of LCR activity and, consequently, the inhibition of E6 and E7 transcription. A specific diminishing of cell proliferation rates was observed in HeLa but not in HPV-free colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Treated HeLa cells did not undergo apoptosis but the percentage of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle was increased. We also detected that GAG-hed prevents the binding of the transcription factor AP1 to the LCR. Conclusion Direct interaction of GAG-hed with the components of the AP1 complex and subsequent interference with its ability to correctly bind specific sites within the viral LCR may contribute to the inhibition of E6/E7 transcription and cell

  11. 真菌中氧胁迫调控因子AP-1研究进展%Research progress on oxidative stress transcript factor AP-1 in fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 王龑; 戴小枫; 郭维; 刘阳

    2015-01-01

    氧化应激是细胞应激反应的一种,在所有生物中都是保守进化的。应激反应的调控包括转录、翻译和翻译后修饰,决定生物体是否适应、存活、或者死亡。酵母中b-ZIP型激活蛋白(Yap)家族包括8个成员, Yap1是酵母Yap家族中首先发现的成员,具有DNA结合结构域和转录激活活性,在细胞的氧化应激中发挥着必不可少的作用。在氧化压力下, Yap1的活性增加。本文对近年来AP-1转录因子在真菌中的主要研究进展进行了综述,重点介绍了 AP-1作为主要的氧化应激调节器参与的生物学应激反应、致病性及产生真菌毒素等,并介绍了AP-1在铁代谢、钴毒性、DNA损伤、耐药性中的功能。%ABSTRACT:Oxidative stress, which is one of cellular stress responses, is evolutionarily conserved in all living organisms. The regulation of stress response includes transcriptional, translational and post-translational mechanisms, deciding whether the organism adapts, survives, or dies. The yeast activator protein (Yap) family of b-ZIP proteins consists of 8 members. Yap1, the first member of the Yap family to be found, has a DNA binding domain and transcriptional activation and is essential for the normal response of cells to oxidative stress. When it is under oxidative stress conditions, the activity of Yap1 will increase. In this paper, the main research progress in recent years on the AP-1 transcription factor in fungi was reviewed, focusing on AP-1 involving in biological stress response as the main regulator of oxidative stress, pathogenicity, and mycotoxin biosynthesis, and the function of AP-1 in iron metabolism, cobalt toxicity, DNA damage, and drug resistance was also be introduced.

  12. The CreA repressor is the sole DNA-binding protein responsible for carbon catabolite repression of the alcA gene in Aspergillus nidulans via its binding to a couple of specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, C; Cornillot, E; Felenbok, B

    1998-03-13

    Carbon catabolite repression is mediated in Aspergillus nidulans by the negative acting protein CreA. The CreA repressor plays a major role in the control of the expression of the alc regulon, encoding proteins required for the ethanol utilization pathway. It represses directly, at the transcriptional level, the specific transacting gene alcR, the two structural genes alcA and aldA, and other alc genes in all physiological growth conditions. Among the seven putative CreA sites identified in the alcA promoter region, we have determined the CreA functional targets in AlcR constitutive and derepressed genetic backgrounds. Two different divergent CreA sites, of which one overlaps a functional AlcR inverted repeat site, are largely responsible for alcA repression. Totally derepressed alcA expression is achieved when these two CreA sites are disrupted in addition to another single site, which overlaps the functional palindromic induction target. The fact that derepression is always associated with alcA overexpression is consistent with a competition model between AlcR and CreA for their cognate targets in the same region of the alcA promoter. Our results also indicate that the CreA repressor is necessary and sufficient for the total repression of the alcA gene.

  13. Photodynamic activation as a molecular switch to promote osteoblast cell differentiation via AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical "molecular switch" to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470

  14. AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Montero-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3. PMID:27490694

  15. Tiron Inhibits UVB-Induced AP-1 Binding Sites Transcriptional Activation on MMP-1 and MMP-3 Promoters by MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Quan-Wu; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research found that Tiron was an effective antioxidant that could act as the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger or alleviate the acute toxic metal overload in vivo. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Tiron on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expression in human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot and ELISA analysis revealed that Tiron inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced protein expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that Tiron could inhibit UVB-induced mRNA expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Furthermore, Tiron significantly blocked UVB-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and activator protein (AP)-1 in the downstream of this transduction pathway in fibroblasts. Through the AP-1 binding site mutation, it was found that Tiron could inhibit AP-1-induced upregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression through blocking AP-1 binding to the AP-1 binding sites in the MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter region. In conclusion, Tiron may be a novel antioxidant for preventing and treating skin photoaging UV-induced. PMID:27486852

  16. SUMOylation of the inducible (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex occurs on target promoters to limit transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempé, D; Vives, E; Brockly, F; Brooks, H; De Rossi, S; Piechaczyk, M; Bossis, G

    2014-02-13

    The inducible proto-oncogenic (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex binds 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) in its target genes. It is tightly controlled at multiple levels to avoid the deleterious effects of its inappropriate activation. In particular, SUMOylation represses its transactivation capacity in transient reporter assays using constitutively expressed proteins. This led to the presumption that (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation would be required to turn-off transcription of its target genes, as proposed for various transcription factors. Instead, thanks to the generation of an antibody specific for SUMO-modified c-Fos, we provide here direct evidence that SUMOylated c-Fos is present on a stably integrated reporter TPA-inducible promoter at the onset of transcriptional activation and colocalizes with RNA polymerase II within chromatin. Interestingly, (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation limits reporter gene induction, as well as the appearance of active transcription-specific histone marks on its promoter. Moreover, non-SUMOylatable mutant (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 dimers accumulate to higher levels on their target promoter, suggesting that SUMOylation might facilitate the release of (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 from promoters. Finally, activation of GADD153, an AP-1 target gene, is also associated with a rapid increase in SUMOylation at the level of its TRE and c-Fos SUMOylation dampens its induction by TPA. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation could serve to buffer transcriptional activation of AP-1 target genes.

  17. The NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase mimics TCR signalling pathways, inducing NFAT and AP-1 by RAS-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Suzanne D; Yeung, Debra; Hadfield, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-04-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) expression is associated with the lymphoid malignancy anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and results from a t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. We show that NPM-ALK induces Ras activation and phosphorylation of the ERK MAP Kinase consistent with activation of the Ras-MAP Kinase pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activation of Ras is necessary for inducing transcription via NFAT/AP-1 composite transcriptional binding sites. This activity is dependent on NPM-ALK forming complexes with proteins that bind to autophosphorylated tyrosine residues at positions 156, 567 and 664, associated with binding to IRS-1, Shc and PLCgamma, respectively. Specifically, NPM-ALK activates transcription from the TRE promoter element, an AP-1 binding region, an activity dependent on both Ras and Shc activity. Our results show that NPM-ALK mimics activated T-cell receptor signalling by inducing pathways associated with the activation of NFAT/AP-1 transcription factors that bind to promoter elements found in a broad array of cytokine genes.

  18. A novel bipartite UNC-101/AP-1 μ1 binding signal mediates KVS-4/Kv2.1 somatodendritic distribution in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Jia; Ouyang, Chenxi; Luo, Qianyun; Yu, Miao; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shen, Kang; Shi, Anbing

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels such as Kv2.1 are targeted to specific subcellular compartments to fulfill various functions. However, the mechanisms for their localization are poorly understood. Here, we show that KVS-4/Kv2.1 somatodendritic localization in Caenorhabditis elegansDA9 neuron requires UNC-101(AP-1 μ subunit). We define a bipartite sorting signal within KVS-4 consisting of a C-terminal EQMIL and N-terminal WNIIE motifs. The bipartite signal is sufficient to target nonpolarized transmembrane protein MIG-13 into DA9 somatodendritic compartments. Furthermore, we found that AP-1 interacts with the bipartite signal through UNC-101/AP-1 μ N-terminal predicted Longin-like domain. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of Kv2.1 post-Golgi sorting and targeting.

  19. Polarized Traffic of LRP1 Involves AP1B and SNX17 Operating on Y- dependent Sorting Motifs in Different Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donoso, Maribel; Cancino, Jorge; Lee, Jiyeon; van Kerkhof, Peter; Retamal, Claudio; Bu, Guojun; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Caceres, Alfredo; Marzolo, Maria-Paz

    2009-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is an endocytic recycling receptor with two cytoplasmic tyrosine-based basolateral sorting signals. Here we show that during biosynthetic trafficking LRP1 uses AP1B adaptor complex to move from a post-TGN recycling endosome (RE) to the basola

  20. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  1. Identification of Quaternary Structure and Functional Domains of the CI Repressor from Bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Lo Leggio, Leila; Grossmann, J. Günter;

    2008-01-01

    The bacteriophage-encoded repressor protein plays a key role in determining the life cycle of a temperate phage following infection of a sensitive host. The repressor protein Cl, which is encoded by the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1, represses transcription from both the lytic promoter P...... is involved in the interaction with host proteins. By using small-angle X-ray scattering, we show for the first time the overall solution structure of a full-length wild-type bacteriophage repressor at low resolution revealing that the TP901-1 repressor forms a flat oligomer, most probably a trimer of dimers....

  2. Binding Specificities of the Telomere Phage ϕKO2 Prophage Repressor CB and Lytic Repressor Cro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Jäckel, Claudia; Lanka, Erich; Roschanski, Nicole; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54, and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor (cI or cB), the lytic repressor (cro) and a putative antiterminator (q). The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI (CI prophage repressor), Cro (Cro repressor), and Q (antiterminator Q), respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are reminiscent of lambda-like phages. We determined binding sites of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor CB and lytic repressor Cro on the ϕKO2 genome in detail by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies. Unexpectedly, ϕKO2 CB and Cro revealed different binding specificities. CB was bound to three OR operators in the intergenic region between cB and cro, two OL operators between cB and the replication gene repA and even to operators of N15. Cro bound exclusively to the 16 bp operator site OR3 upstream of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor gene. The ϕKO2 genes cB and cro are regulated by several strong promoters overlapping with the OR operators. The data suggest that Cro represses cB transcription but not its own synthesis, as already reported for PY54 Cro. Thus, not only PY54, but also phage ϕKO2 possesses a genetic switch that diverges significantly from the switch of lambda-like phages. PMID:27527206

  3. Concomitant expression of far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants induce migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Benedikt; Bovet, Michael; Yin, Yi; Stichel, Damian; Malz, Mona; González-Vallinas, Margarita; Middleton, Alistair; Ehemann, Volker; Schmitt, Jennifer; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Herpel, Esther; Singer, Stephan; Warth, Arne; Schirmacher, Peter; Drasdo, Dirk; Matthäus, Franziska; Breuhahn, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factors integrate a variety of oncogenic input information, facilitate tumour growth and cell dissemination, and therefore represent promising therapeutic target structures. Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration, we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell biology. Different FIR splice variants were highly expressed in the majority of NSCLCs, with the highest levels in tumours carrying genomic gains of chromosome 8q24.3, which contained the FIR gene locus. Nuclear FIR expression was significantly enriched at the invasion front of primary NSCLCs, but this did not correlate with tumour cell proliferation. FIR accumulation was associated with worse patient survival and tumour recurrence; in addition, FIR over-expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In vitro, we applied newly developed methods and modelling approaches for the quantitative and time-resolved description of the pro-migratory and pro-invasive capacities of SCC cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of all FIR variants significantly reduced the speed and directional movement of tumour cells in all phases of migration. Furthermore, sprouting efficiency and single cell invasiveness were diminished following FIR inhibition. Interestingly, the silencing of FIR isoforms lacking exon 2 (FIR(Δexon2)) alone was sufficient to reduce lateral migration and invasion. In summary, by using scale-spanning data derived from primary human tissues, quantitative cellular analyses and mathematical modelling, we have demonstrated that concomitant over-expression of FIR and its splice variants drives NSCLC migration and dissemination.

  4. Structure and dynamics in Lac repressor-DNA interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli lac operon is the classical model for gene regulation in bacteria. An overview will be given of our work on the lac repressor-operator system. An early result was the 3D structure of lac headpiece in 1985, one of the first protein structures determined by NMR. Our studies of the structur

  5. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; Balish, Rebecca S.; Tehryung, Kim; McKinney, Elizabeth C.

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  6. The AP-1 Transcription Factor c-Jun Prevents Stress-Imposed Maladaptive Remodeling of the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windak, Renata; Müller, Julius; Felley, Allison; Akhmedov, Alexander; Wagner, Erwin F.; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Sumara, Grzegorz; Ricci, Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Systemic hypertension increases cardiac workload and subsequently induces signaling networks in heart that underlie myocyte growth (hypertrophic response) through expansion of sarcomeres with the aim to increase contractility. However, conditions of increased workload can induce both adaptive and maladaptive growth of heart muscle. Previous studies implicate two members of the AP-1 transcription factor family, junD and fra-1, in regulation of heart growth during hypertrophic response. In this study, we investigate the function of the AP-1 transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos, in heart growth. Using pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice and targeted deletion of Jun or Fos in cardiomyocytes, we show that c-jun is required for adaptive cardiac hypertrophy, while c-fos is dispensable in this context. c-jun promotes expression of sarcomere proteins and suppresses expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Capacity of cardiac muscle to contract depends on organization of principal thick and thin filaments, myosin and actin, within the sarcomere. In line with decreased expression of sarcomere-associated proteins, Jun-deficient cardiomyocytes present disarrangement of filaments in sarcomeres and actin cytoskeleton disorganization. Moreover, Jun-deficient hearts subjected to pressure overload display pronounced fibrosis and increased myocyte apoptosis finally resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, c-jun but not c-fos is required to induce a transcriptional program aimed at adapting heart growth upon increased workload. PMID:24039904

  7. Pseudoephedrine inhibits T-cell activation by targeting NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, Bernd L; Collado, Juan A; Stratz, Cristian; Valina, Christian; Hochholzer, Willibald; Muñoz, Eduardo; Bellido, Luz M

    2012-02-01

    Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a stereoisomer of ephedrine that is commonly used as a nasal decongestant in combination with other anti-inflammatory drugs for the symptomatic treatment of some common pathologies such as common cold. Herein, we describe for the first time the effects of PSE on T-cell activation events. We found that PSE inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha-gene transcription in stimulated Jurkat cells, a human T-cell leukemia cell line. To further characterize the inhibitory mechanisms of PSE at the transcriptional level, we examined the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors and found that PSE inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity without affecting either the phosphorylation, the degradation of the cytoplasmic NF-κB inhibitory protein, IκBα or the DNA-binding activity. However, phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit was clearly inhibited by PSE in stimulated cells. In addition, PSE inhibited the transcriptional activity of NFAT without interfering with the calcium-induced NFAT dephosphorylation event, which represents the major signaling pathway for its activation. NFAT cooperates with c-Jun, a compound of the AP-1 complex, to activate target genes, and we also found that PSE inhibited both JNK activation and AP-1 transcriptional activity. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the potential immunomodulatory activities of PSE and highlight their potential in designing novel therapeutic strategies to manage inflammatory diseases.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Apigenin on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and AP-1 Factors in Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is one of the plant flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables, acting as an important nutraceutical component. It is recognized as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory molecule. In the present study, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and activator protein-1 (AP-1) factors in human lung A549 cells was investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammation was determined by analyzing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and different AP-1 factors. Apigenin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α), and AP-1 proteins (c-Jun, c-Fos, and JunB) including nitric oxide production. Study confirms the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory mediators and AP-1 factors involved in the inflammation and its importance in the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. PMID:26276128

  9. The Synonymous Ala87 Mutation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Modifies Transcriptional Activation Through Both ERE and AP1 Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Flouriot, Gilles; Marín, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) exerts regulatory actions through genomic mechanisms. In the classical pathway, ligand-activated ERα binds directly to DNA through estrogen response elements (ERE) located in the promoter of target genes. ERα can also exert indirect regulation of transcription via protein-protein interaction with other transcription factors such as AP-1.S everal ERα synonymous polymorphisms have been identified and efforts to understand their implications have been made. Nevertheless effects of synonymous polymorphisms are still neglected. This chapter focuses on the experimental procedure employed in order to characterize the transcriptional activity of a synonymous polymorphism of the ERα (rs746432) called Alanine 87 (Ala87). Activity of both WT and Ala87 ERα isoforms on transcriptional pathways can be analyzed in transiently transfected cells using different reporter constructs. ERα efficiency on the classical genomic pathway can be analyzed by determining its transactivation activity on an ERE-driven thymidine kinase (TK) promoter controlling the expression of the luciferase reporter gene. Transcriptional activity through the indirect genomic pathway can be analyzed by employing an AP-1 DNA response element-driven promoter also controlling the expression of luciferase reporter gene.

  10. A genomic and expression study of AP-1 in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: evidence for dysregulated expression of JUNB and JUND in MF and SS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xin; Orchard, Guy; Mitchell, Tracey J; Oyama, Noritaka; Russell-Jones, Robin; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; van Doorn, Remko; Tensen, Cornelis P; Young, Bryan D; Whittaker, Sean J

    2008-10-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) consists of a group of transcription factors including the JUN and FOS family proteins with diverse biological functions. This study assessed the genomic and expression status of the AP-1 transcription factors in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) by using immunohistochemistry (IHC), Affymetrix expression microarray, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). IHC showed JUNB protein expression in tumor cells from 17 of 33 cases of Sezary syndrome (SS) and JUND protein expression in 16 of 23 mycosis fungoides cases. There was no correlation between JUNB and CD30 expression. However, 7 of 12 JUNB-positive SS cases expressed both phosphorylated and total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins. Expression microarray showed over threefold increased expression of JUNB in three of six SS patients and similar findings were also noted after re-analysis of previously published data. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed the overexpression of JUNB in four SS cases and of JUND in three of four cases. FISH showed increased JUNB copy number in four of seven SS cases. These findings suggest that deregulation of AP-1 expression in CTCL is the result of aberrant expression of JUNB and possible JUND resulting from genomic amplification and constitutive activation of ERK1/2 MAPK in this type of lymphoma.

  11. Loss of the repressor REST in uterine fibroids promotes aberrant G protein-coupled receptor 10 expression and activates mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Binny V.; Koohestani, Faezeh; McWilliams, Michelle; Colvin, Arlene; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Kinsey, William H.; Romana A Nowak; Nothnick, Warren B.; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract, occurring in up to 77% of reproductive-aged women, yet molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A role for atypically activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids has been suggested in several studies. We identified that G protein-coupled receptor 10 [GPR10, a putative signaling protein upstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–protein kinase B/...

  12. Reciprocal expression of the endocytic protein HIP1R and its repressor FOXP1 predicts outcome in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, K K; Gascoyne, D M; Brown, P J;

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified autoantibodies to the endocytic-associated protein Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. HIP1R regulates internalization of cell surface receptors via endocytosis, a process relevant to many therapeutic strateg...

  13. Surface expression of GABAA receptors is transcriptionally controlled by the interplay of cAMP-response element-binding protein and its binding partner inducible cAMP early repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghui; Lund, Ingrid V; Gravielle, Maria C; Farb, David H; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Russek, Shelley J

    2008-04-01

    The regulated expression of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA(A)R) subunit genes plays a critical role in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis. It is also associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Changes in GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit gene (GABRA1) expression have been reported in animal models of epilepsy, alcohol abuse, withdrawal, and stress. Understanding the genetic mechanism behind such changes in alpha subunit expression will lead to a better understanding of the role that signal transduction plays in control over GABA(A)R function and brings with it the promise of providing new therapeutic tools for the prevention or cure of a variety of neurological disorders. Here we show that activation of protein kinase C increases alpha1 subunit levels via phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB) that is bound to the GABRA1 promoter (GABRA1p). In contrast, activation of protein kinase A decreases levels of alpha1 even in the presence of pCREB. Decrease of alpha1 is dependent upon the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) as directly demonstrated by ICER-induced down-regulation of endogenous alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs at the cell surface of cortical neurons. Taken together with the fact that there are less alpha1gamma2-containing GABA(A)Rs in neurons after protein kinase A stimulation and that activation of endogenous dopamine receptors down-regulates alpha1 subunit mRNA levels subsequent to induction of ICER, our studies identify a transcriptional mechanism for regulating the cell surface expression of alpha1-containing GABA(A)Rs that is dependent upon the formation of CREB heterodimers. PMID:18180303

  14. Loss of p12CDK2-AP1 Expression in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor-β-Smad Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined correlations between TGF-β1, TβR-I and TβR-II, p12CDK2-AP1 p21WAF1 p27KIP1 Smad2, and p-Smad2 in 125 cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to test the hypothesis that resistance to TGF-β1-induced growth suppression is due to the disruption of its signaling pathway as a consequence of reduced or lost p12CDK2-AP1. Immunoreactivity for TβR-II decreased in OSCC with increasing disease aggressiveness; however, no differences were observed for TβR-I and TGF-β1. The expression of TβR-II significantly correlated with p12CDK2-AP1 and p27KIP1 (P<.001 and P<.01, respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between TβR-II expression and p-Smad2 (P < .001. The in vivo correlation of the levels of TβR-II, p12CDK2-AP1 and p27 KIP1 was confirmed in normal and OSCC cell lines. Additionally, in vitro analysis of TGF-β-treated cells showed that TGF-β1 treatment of normal keratinocytes suppressed cell growth with upregulation of p-Smad2, p12CDK2-API and p21WAF1 expression, whereas there was no effect on OSCC cell lines. These results provide evidence of a link between a disrupted TGF-β-Smad signaling pathway and loss of induction of cell cycle-inhibitory proteins, especially p12CDK2-AP1 in OSCC, which may lead to the resistance of TGF-β1 growth-inhibitory effect on OSCC.

  15. Cells in G2/M phase increased in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line by EBV-LMP1 through activation of NF-κB and AP-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN DENG; JING YANG; XIAO RONG ZHAO; XI YUN DENG; LIANG ZENG; HUAN HUA GU; MIN TANG; YA CAO

    2003-01-01

    Although previous studies showed that the principal oncoprotein encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, latentmembrane protein 1(LMP1), could induce the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in G2/M phase increased, littleis known about the target molecules and mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that LMP1 couldinduce the accumulation of p53 protein and upregulate its transactivity in a dose dependent manner, whichresulted in the decrease of the kinase activity of cdc2/cyclin B complex and inducing arrest at G2/M phasethrough the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways, and the effect of NF-κB was more obviousthan that of AP-1. This study provided some significant evidence for further elucidating the molecularmechanisms that LMP1 had effects on the surveillance mechanism of cell cycle and promoting the survivalof transformed cells and tumorigenesis.

  16. CDK2-AP1基因过表达对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞增殖及周期的影响%Effect of CDK2-AP1 gene over-expression on proliferation and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓燕; 周卫兵; 黄隽; 王龙云; 廖遇平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To over-express cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2-AP1) gene, and investigate its effect on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Methods: CDK2-AP1 gene coding region was cloned into lentivirus vector. Lentivirus particles were infected into MCF-7 cells to upregulate the expression of CDK2-AP1 gene. The expression level of CDK2-AP1 was detected at both mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and Western blot. MTT assay, colony formatting assay, and flow cytometry were performed to detect the change of proliferation and cell cycle in MCF-7 cells. We examined the expression of cell cycle associated genes (CDK2, CDK4, P16Ink4A, and P2lCiP1/Wafl) followed by CDK2-AP1 over-expression by Western blot.Results: CDK2-AP1 gene was up-regulated significantly at both mRNA (6.94 folds) and protein level. MTT based growth curve, colony formatting assay and flow cytometry showed that CDK2- API over-expression lentivirus inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with statistical difference (P<0.05). In addition, with CDK2-AP1 over-expression, MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 phase accompanied by apoptosis. Western blot showed that the expression level of P21Clpl/wafl and P16Int4A was upregulated, while the expression level of CDK2 and CDK4, members of the CDK family, was downregulated.Conclusion: CDK2-AP1 gene plays a cancer suppressor role in breast cancer. Its function includes inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and arresting the cell cycle in G, phase.%目的:通过过表达手段上调细胞周期调节蛋白依赖性激酶2-关联蛋白1(CDK2-AP1)基因在乳腺癌细胞MCF-7中的表达,并观察其对MCF-7细胞生长和细胞周期调控的作用.方法:将CDK2-AP1基因的编码框构建于慢病毒表达载体,导入MCF-7细胞,应用实时定量PCR和Western印迹验证CDK2-AP1基因mRNA和蛋白的表达效率.利用MTT法绘制生长曲线、克隆形成实验观察CDK2-AP1

  17. Regulation of the epithelial Mg2+ channel TRPM6 by estrogen and the associated repressor protein of estrogen receptor activity (REA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, G.; Wijst, J.A.J. van der; Kemp, A. van der; Zeeland, F. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of the Mg(2+) balance of the body is essential for neuromuscular excitability, protein synthesis, nucleic acid stability, and numerous enzymatic systems. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 6 (TRPM6) functions as the gatekeeper of transepithelial Mg(2+) transport. However, th

  18. AP-1 Transcription Factors c-FOS and c-JUN Mediate GnRH-Induced Cadherin-11 Expression and Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Liyang; Wang, Yan-Ling; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-06-01

    GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion. PMID:25794160

  19. The mammalian Cut homeodomain protein functions as a cell-cycle-dependent transcriptional repressor which downmodulates p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 in S phase.

    OpenAIRE

    Coqueret, O; Bérubé, G; Nepveu, A

    1998-01-01

    Cut is a homeodomain transcription factor which has the unusual property of containing several DNA-binding domains: three regions called Cut repeats and the Cut homeodomain. Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster indicate that cut plays important roles in the determination and maintenance of cell-type specificity. In the present study, we show that mammalian Cut proteins may yet play another biological role, specifically in proliferating cells. We found that the binding of Cut to a consen...

  20. Loss of the repressor REST in uterine fibroids promotes aberrant G protein-coupled receptor 10 expression and activates mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Binny V.; Koohestani, Faezeh; McWilliams, Michelle; Colvin, Arlene; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Kinsey, William H.; Nowak, Romana A.; Nothnick, Warren B.; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common tumors of the female reproductive tract, occurring in up to 77% of reproductive-aged women, yet molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A role for atypically activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids has been suggested in several studies. We identified that G protein-coupled receptor 10 [GPR10, a putative signaling protein upstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase–protein kinase B/AKT–mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT–mTOR) pathway] is aberrantly expressed in uterine fibroids. The activation of GPR10 by its cognate ligand, prolactin releasing peptide, promotes PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathways and cell proliferation specifically in cultured primary leiomyoma cells. Additionally, we report that RE1 suppressing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF), a known tumor suppressor, transcriptionally represses GPR10 in the normal myometrium, and that the loss of REST in fibroids permits GPR10 expression. Importantly, mice overexpressing human GPR10 in the myometrium develop myometrial hyperplasia with excessive extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of uterine fibroids. We demonstrate previously unrecognized roles for GPR10 and its upstream regulator REST in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Importantly, we report a unique genetically modified mouse model for a gene that is misexpressed in uterine fibroids. PMID:23284171

  1. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Aideen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. Results DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. Conclusion DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate.

  2. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA) has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate

  3. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Looby, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The progression from Barrett\\'s metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA) has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. RESULTS: DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1\\/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1\\/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK\\/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. CONCLUSION: DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate.

  4. The histone-like protein H-NS acts as a transcriptional repressor for expression of the anaerobic and growth phase activator AppY of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Tove; Sund, Susanne; Olesen, Kirsten;

    1996-01-01

    The transcriptional activator AppY is required for anaerobic and stationary phase induction of the cyx-appA and hya operons of Escherichia coli, and the expression of the appY gene itself is induced by these environmental conditions. The sequence of the appY gene and its promoter region is unusua......The transcriptional activator AppY is required for anaerobic and stationary phase induction of the cyx-appA and hya operons of Escherichia coli, and the expression of the appY gene itself is induced by these environmental conditions. The sequence of the appY gene and its promoter region...... is unusually AT-rich DNA. The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS has a DNA-binding specificity for intrinscally curved AT-rich DNA. Using a single-copy transcriptional appY-lacZ fusion, we have shown that appY gene expression is derepressed in hns mutants during aerobic exponential growth. In the hns mutant...

  5. Overexpression of Two PsnAP1 Genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra Causes Early Flowering in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 a...

  6. DNA conformation driven by AP-1 triggers cell-specific expression via a strong epithelial enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolle, T; Djabari, Z; Ortonne, J P; Aberdam, D

    2000-10-01

    We report here the characterization of the regulatory region of the human LAMA3 gene, coding for the alpha3A chain of laminin-5. A 202 bp fragment is sufficient to confer epithelial-specific expression to a thymidine kinase promoter through the cooperative effect of three AP-1 binding sites. Remarkably, removal of the sequences located between the AP-1 sites does not modify the promoter activity in keratinocytes but allows strong expression in fibroblasts. Replacement of the deleted sequences by non-homologous ones fully restores the restricted enhancement in keratinocytes. Functional analysis and mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that a minimal distance between the AP-1 sites is required for the enhancer DNA fragment to adopt a particular conformation driven by the binding of Jun-Fos heterodimers. In non-permissive cells, this conformation leads to the anchorage of non-DNA-binding fibroblastic cofactors to form an inhibitory ternary complex. Therefore, our results describe for the first time an unusual conformation-dependent epithelial-specific enhancer. PMID:11269498

  7. Novel and recurrent mutations in the AIRE gene of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiyaz-Ul-Haque, M; Bin-Abbas, B; Al-Abdullatif, A; Abdullah Abalkhail, H; Toulimat, M; Al-Gazlan, S; Almutawa, A M; Al-Sagheir, A; Peltekova, I; Al-Dayel, F; Zaidi, S H E

    2009-11-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include Addison's disease, hypoparathyroidism, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. This disorder is caused by mutations in the AIRE (autoimmune regulator) gene. While several AIRE mutations have been described in APS1 patients of various ethnic origins, the genetic cause of APS1 in Arab patients requires further investigation. This study describes seven Arab families, in which 18 patients had APS1. In addition to the cardinal features of APS1, some patients exhibited alopecia, diabetes mellitus, nephrocalcinosis and other phenotypes associated with APS1. DNA sequencing of the AIRE gene of patients from this study identified four novel and one recurrent mutation. These mutations likely result in loss of AIRE function in the patients. In addition, it was noted that the non-pathogenic c.834C> G mutation (rs1800520, encoding for p.Ser278Arg) occurs with high incidence in the AIRE gene of Arab individuals. Furthermore, this investigation demonstrates inflammation of the hair follicles in APS1 patients with alopecia universalis. We conclude that Arab APS1 patients carry novel and recurrent mutations in the AIRE gene. PMID:19758376

  8. Proapoptotic RYBP interacts with FANK1 and induces tumor cell apoptosis through the AP-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Meng; Ma, Xiaoli; Huang, Bingren; Chen, Hong; Chen, Deng

    2016-08-01

    Ring1 and YY1 Binding Protein (RYBP) induces tumor-specific cell apoptosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully understood. Here we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen and identified FANK1 (Fibronectin type III and ankyrin repeat domains 1) as a novel RYBP-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and immunofluorescence assays. We mapped that the FNIII domain at the N-terminal of FANK1 binds to the Serine/Threonine-rich region at the C-terminal of RYBP. Further studies showed that overexpression of RYBP stabilized, whereas knockdown of RYBP by its specific shRNAs reduced, the expression of FANK1. Mechanistic studies revealed that RYBP inhibited the proteasome degradation of polyubiquitinated FANK1, thus prolonging the half-life of FANK1 protein. Functional studies indicated that RYBP activates FANK1-mediated activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathway which contributes to tumor cell apoptosis. Taken together, our current study uncovered a new mechanism which RYBP utilizes to exert its pro-apoptotic activity in human tumor cells. PMID:27060496

  9. Staphylococcus aureus induces TGF-β1 and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors in bovine mammary gland fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmei; Ding, Yulin; Bi, Yannan; Wang, Yi; Zhi, Yu; Wang, Jinling; Wang, Fenglong

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of bovine mammary fibroblasts (BMFBs) and the roles of the TLR-NF-κB and TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibosis, BMFBs cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Specific NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors were also used to investigate their effects on the regulation of TGF-β1 and bFGF expression. The results indicated that, in addition to increasing mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4, S. aureus could also upregulate TGF-β1 and bFGF mRNA expression and secretion through the activation of NF-κB and AP-1. The increase in TGF-β1 and bFGF expression was shown to be inhibited by AP-1- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors. Taken together, S. aureus induces TGF-β1 and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB in BMFBs. This information offers new potential targets for the treatment of bovine mammary fibrosis. PMID:26948281

  10. IL-1β and IL-6 activate inflammatory responses of astrocytes against Naegleria fowleri infection via the modulation of MAPKs and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Song, A-R; Sohn, H-J; Lee, J; Yoo, J-K; Kwon, D; Shin, H-J

    2013-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, has been found in diverse habitats throughout the world. It causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in children and young adults. The amoeba attaches to nasal mucosa, migrates along olfactory nerves and enters the brain. Astrocytes are involved in the defence against infection and produce inflammatory responses. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of immune responses in astrocytes. We showed, using RNase protection assay, RT-PCR and ELISA in an in vitro culture system, that N. fowleri lysates induce interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 expression of astrocytes. In addition, cytokine levels of astrocytes gradually decreased due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 inhibitors. To determine the transcription factor, we used transcription inhibitor (AP-1 inhibitor), which downregulated IL-1β and IL-6 expression. These results show that AP-1 is related to IL-1β and IL-6 production. N. fowleri-mediated IL-1β and IL-6 expression requires ERK, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in astrocytes. These findings show that N. fowleri-stimulated astrocytes in an in vitro culture system lead to AP-1 activation and the subsequent expressions of IL-1β and IL-6, which are dependent on ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs activation. These results may imply that proinflammatory cytokines have important roles in inflammatory responses to N. fowleri infection.

  11. Molecular targets of the antiinflammatory Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw): inhibition of TNFα and COX-2 gene expression by preventing activation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, Bernd L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Rose, Thorsten; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P

    2012-06-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) is often used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeletal system. Although the clinical efficacy in osteoarthritis has been demonstrated in clinical trials, the molecular target(s) of Hp are unclear. This study quantified the effects of the ethanol Hp extract (60% v/v ethanol, sole active ingredient of Pascoe®-Agil), on the expression and release of the major pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human monocytes and the intracellular signalling pathways involved in inflammation. The Hp extract dose-dependently inhibited the release of TNFα as well as that of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). The Hp prevented TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in human monocytes and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the Hp extract inhibited LPS-stimulated AP-1-mediated gene transcription activity and binding to the AP-1 response elements. The extract had no effect on the LPS-induced binding of nuclear factor-κB in RAW 264.7 cells, on LPS-induced degradation of IκBα or on LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), p38MAPK and JNK in human monocytes. The data indicate that a standardized ethanol Hp extract inhibits induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression, possibly by blocking the AP-1 pathway. This is novel evidence of a possible mechanism of action of this antiinflammatory drug. PMID:22072539

  12. Sargahydroquinoic acid inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells through PPARα activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Youngsic; Jung, Yujung; Kim, Min Cheol; Kwon, Hak Cheol [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Sung [College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seongnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sm.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • SHQA increases PPARα/γ transactivation and inhibits MMP-2/-9 expression. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and MAPK signaling. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced p65 translocation and IκBα phosphorylation. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling via PPARα. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and expressed in various cell types in the skin, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, their ligands are targets for the treatment of various skin disorders, such as photo-aging and chronological aging of skin. Intensive studies have revealed that PPARα/γ functions in photo-aging and age-related inflammation by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, the detailed mechanism of PPARα/γ’s role in skin aging has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA) as a PPARα/γ ligand significantly decreased Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced MMP-2/-9 expression by downregulating TNFα-induced transcription factors, subsequently reducing IκBα degradation and blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocyte cells. Treatment of cells with SHQA and GW6471 (PPARα antagonist) not bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (PPARγ antagonists), reversed the effect on TNFα-induced inflammatory signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our data suggest that SHQA inhibit TNFα-induced MMP-2/-9 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing AP-1 and NF-κB pathway via PPARα.

  13. Effect of estrogen and tamoxifen on the expression pattern of AP-1 factors in MCF-7 cells: role of c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 in cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Patil, Rajeshwari H; Devaraju, K S; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2013-08-01

    The activated transcription factor ERα plays an important role in the breast development and progression of cancer. In a non-classical pathway ER interacts with other transcription factors AP-1, NFkB, SP1, etc. AP-1 transcription factors control rapid responses of mammalian cells to stimuli that impact proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. AP-1 factors are leucine zipper proteins belonging to members of the Jun family (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) and Fos family (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) proteins. Although AP-1 factors are well characterized, not much is known about the expression pattern of the AP-1 factors in breast cancer cells. Hence to determine which AP-1 factors are expressed and regulated by estrogen, we used human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as in vitro model system. The MCF-7 cells were treated with or without estradiol-17β (E2) or antiestrogen tamoxifen (TMX) and the cell proliferation and viability was assessed by MTT assay. The expression of different AP-1 factors was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cells treated with E2 found to increase the cell proliferation by more than 35 % and TMX an antiestrogen decreased by 29 % compared to control. The E2 found to induce the expression of c-Jun, Fra-1, and c-Fos, while TMX decreased the expression. In addition TMX also decreased the mRNA levels of Jun-D and Fra-2. These results suggest that the AP-1 factors c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 may be involved in the proliferation and transformation of MCF-7 cells. E2 also found to induce cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 mRNA transcripts of cell cycle regulators while TMX significantly decreased compared to control. Further E2 induced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and TMX decreased mRNA transcripts. The data presented here support the E2-ERα-mediated MCF-7 cell proliferation and confirms the role of AP-1 factors in cell cycle regulation. PMID:23625206

  14. TBLR1 regulates the expression of nuclear hormone receptor co-repressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Stuart

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription is regulated by a complex interaction of activators and repressors. The effectors of repression are large multimeric complexes which contain both the repressor proteins that bind to transcription factors and a number of co-repressors that actually mediate transcriptional silencing either by inhibiting the basal transcription machinery or by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Results TBLR1 [GenBank: NM024665] is a co-repressor of nuclear hormone transcription factors. A single highly conserved gene encodes a small family of protein molecules. Different isoforms are produced by differential exon utilization. Although the ORF of the predominant form contains only 1545 bp, the human gene occupies ~200 kb of genomic DNA on chromosome 3q and contains 16 exons. The genomic sequence overlaps with the putative DC42 [GenBank: NM030921] locus. The murine homologue is structurally similar and is also located on Chromosome 3. TBLR1 is closely related (79% homology at the mRNA level to TBL1X and TBL1Y, which are located on Chromosomes X and Y. The expression of TBLR1 overlaps but is distinct from that of TBL1. An alternatively spliced form of TBLR1 has been demonstrated in human material and it too has an unique pattern of expression. TBLR1 and the homologous genes interact with proteins that regulate the nuclear hormone receptor family of transcription factors. In resting cells TBLR1 is primarily cytoplasmic but after perturbation the protein translocates to the nucleus. TBLR1 co-precipitates with SMRT, a co-repressor of nuclear hormone receptors, and co-precipitates in complexes immunoprecipitated by antiserum to HDAC3. Cells engineered to over express either TBLR1 or N- and C-terminal deletion variants, have elevated levels of endogenous N-CoR. Co-transfection of TBLR1 and SMRT results in increased expression of SMRT. This co-repressor undergoes ubiquitin-mediated degradation and we suggest that the stabilization of

  15. Self-report of anger in repressors

    OpenAIRE

    HYNEK, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is focused on repressive coping style and self-reports of the anger. In the theoretical part are elaborated chapters concerning the definition of emotion, emotion regulation, coping and repressive coping style. The Repressors are characterized by unconscious denial of their own anxiety and self-image distortion within the low susceptibility to negative emotions. The research study focuses on the expression of anger by repressors and their comparison with other groups. Respondents (...

  16. Expression and significance of TLR7and AP-1 in basal cell carcinoma%TLR7和AP-1在基底细胞癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓妮; 高永良; 赵恒光

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the expression of TLR7 and AP - 1 in basal cell carcinoma , and to explore their possibilities of occurrence and development .Method The expression of TLR7 and AP -1 were detected in 30 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 26 cases of normal tissue .Specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry .Result Immunohistochemistry showed that TLR 7 and AP-1 were both highly expressed in tumor tissue (P 0 .05) .Conclusion TLR7 and AP -1 were highly expressed in basal cell carcinoma ,and their expression level was significant positive correlation .These results suggested the TLR7 and AP -1 gene may play important roles in basal cell carcinoma occurrence and development .%提目的:观察基底细胞癌中TLR7和AP-1蛋白的表达,探讨二者与基底细胞癌发生发展的关系。方法:收集基底细胞癌患者皮损30例及正常人皮肤组织26例,采用免疫组织化学法检测癌组织中TLR7和AP-1蛋白的表达水平;分析TLR7和AP-1在基底细胞癌中的表达水平以及二者之间的相互关系。结果:TLR7和AP-1在癌组织中表达均较正常皮肤组织高(P<0.05),表达水平与性别、年龄均无差异( P>0.05);TLR7和AP-1在基底细胞癌中的蛋白表达水平成明显正相关(r=0.78,p<0.01)。结论:TLR7和AP -1蛋白在基底细胞癌中高表达,且二者的表达水平呈明显正相关;TLR7和AP-1可能与基底细胞癌的发生发展有关。

  17. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers

  18. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde, tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative

  19. Co-expression Analysis Identifies CRC and AP1 the Regulator of Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Han; Linlin Yin; Hongwei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development,however,the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood.To study the relevant regulatory network,fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases,desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network.Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT)identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes.Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism,and function in many processes.Interestingly,63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched.Two TF genes,CRC and AP1,both correlating with 8 FA guide genes,were further characterized.Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds.The contents of palmitoleic acid,stearic acid,arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased,whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds,which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes.In addition,yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15,indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis.

  20. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Activator protein (AP)-1 family members play important roles in the development and maintenance of the adult skeleton. Transgenic mice that overexpress the naturally occurring DeltaFosB splice variant of FosB develop severe osteosclerosis. Translation of Deltafosb mRNA produces both...

  1. Sharp weak type estimates for weights in the class $A_{p_1, p_2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Reznikov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We get sharp estimates for the distribution function of nonnegative weights, which satisfy so called $A_{p_1, p_2}$ condition. For particular choices of parameters $p_1$, $p_2$ this condition becomes an $A_p$-condition or Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition. We also get maximizers for these sharp estimates. We use the Bellman technique and try to carefully present and motivate our tactics. As an illustration of how these results can be used, we deduce the following result: if a weight $w$ is in $A_2$ then it self-improves to a weight, which satisfies a Reverse H\\"{o}lder condition.

  2. CDK2-AP1通过调控细胞周期抑制乳腺癌生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何向明; 黄润; 俞洋; 向华; 杨红健; 宗祥云

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨CDK2-AP1在乳腺癌的作用及其机制。方法分别在正常乳腺组织及不同分期乳腺癌组织中检测CDK2-AP1的表达情况;进行CDK2-AP1的LOF & GOF细胞功能实验;接种CDK2-AP1干扰或过表达的乳腺癌细胞及对照细胞在裸鼠观察成瘤及相应指标。结果在乳腺癌存在CDK2-AP1表达降低/缺失而CDK2/CyclinD1表达升高的情况,且CDK2-AP1的表达在正常乳腺组织细胞、乳腺导管原位癌、侵袭性乳腺癌、复发转移性乳腺癌渐次降低(P<0.001),与CDK2/CyclinD1相反。体内、外实验均发现抑制CDK2-AP1表达后乳腺癌细胞周期后移、增殖加快;过表达CDK2-AP1的乳腺癌细胞周期阻滞在G0/G1和G2/M期,生长受抑制、裸鼠成瘤速度及大小均受抑制。结论 CDK2-AP1的表达降低以至缺失促进乳腺细胞进入恶性增殖形成肿瘤,缺乏细胞周期负性调控的乳腺癌细胞增殖能力增强。%Objective To observe the role of CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer.Methods Expressions of CDK2-AP1,CDK2 and CyclinD1 were examined in 209 cases of pathological specimens using IHC staining. Lost-of-function and Gain-of-function assays were performed in vivo and in vitro to assess the specific role of CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer. ResultsThe positive ratio of CDK2-AP1 expression was reduced successively in normal breast tissue,DCIS,invasive breast cancer and relapsed breast cancer,suggesting that CDK2-AP1 was correlated closely with the tumor’s genesis and progress and might work as a tumor suppressor. After down-regulating CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer cells,the cell cycle was accelerated and the cell proliferation was promoted. The cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase after up-regulating CDK2-AP1 in breast cancer cells,resulting in inhibited cell proliferation. The same results were obtained by animal assays.Conclusions CDK2-AP1 affects tumor genesis and tumor growth by cell cycle regulation,which has the potential to be

  3. Activating PER repressor through a DBT-directed phosphorylation switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Kivimäe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in the generation of circadian rhythms, regulating the stability, activity, and subcellular localization of certain proteins that constitute the biological clock. This study examines the role of the protein kinase Doubletime (DBT, a Drosophila ortholog of human casein kinase I (CKIepsilon/delta. An enzymatically active DBT protein is shown to directly phosphorylate the Drosophila clock protein Period (PER. DBT-dependent phosphorylation sites are identified within PER, and their functional significance is assessed in a cultured cell system and in vivo. The per(S mutation, which is associated with short-period (19-h circadian rhythms, alters a key phosphorylation target within PER. Inspection of this and neighboring sequence variants indicates that several DBT-directed phosphorylations regulate PER activity in an integrated fashion: Alternative phosphorylations of two adjoining sequence motifs appear to be associated with switch-like changes in PER stability and repressor function.

  4. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Regulates AP-1 Dependent Transcriptional Response to Minimally Oxidized LDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp; Almazan, Felicidad; Kim, Jungsu; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turns it into an endogenous ligand recognized by pattern-recognition receptors. We have demonstrated that minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) binds to CD14 and mediates TLR4/MD-2-dependent responses in macrophages, many of which are MyD88-independent. We have also demonstrated that the mmLDL activation leads to recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to TLR4 and TLR4 and Syk phosphorylation. In this study, we produced a macrophage-specific Syk knockout mouse and used primary Syk−/− macrophages in our studies. We demonstrated that Syk mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, which in turn phosphorylated c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively, as assessed by an in vitro kinase assay. c-Jun phosphorylation was also mediated by IKKε. c-Jun and c-Fos bound to consensus DNA sites and thereby completed an AP-1 transcriptional complex and induced expression of CXCL2 and IL-6. These results suggest that Syk plays a key role in TLR4-mediated macrophage responses to host-generated ligands, like mmLDL, with subsequent activation of an AP-1 transcription program. PMID:22384232

  5. c-fos/c-jun expression and AP-1 activation in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, E; Bellesia, E; Salomoni, P; Croce, M A; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Latorraca, S; Barbieri, D; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Sorbi, S; Franceschi, C

    1996-09-13

    In vitro replicative senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest due to the inability of the cell to induce some key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as c-fos and AP-1, in response to mitogenic stimuli. In vitro replicative senescence and in vivo aging have been assumed to be two related phenomena, likely controlled by overlapping or interacting genes. As a corollary, fibroblasts from centenarians, which have undergone a long process of senescence in vivo should have very limited proliferative capability. On the contrary, in a previous work we found that fibroblasts from centenarians exhibited the same capacity to respond to different mitogenic stimuli as fibroblasts from young donors. Here we provide evidences that the well preserved proliferative response is likely due to the fact that some pivotal regulators- c-fos, c-jun and AP-1-are still fully inducible, despite a long process of in vivo senescence. Our data therefore suggest that in vivo and in vitro aging are separate phenomena whose possible relationships, if any, have to be ascertained very carefully. PMID:8806666

  6. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolo...

  7. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect...

  8. Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Nepelska

    Full Text Available The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells.

  9. Molecular Weight-Dependent Immunostimulative Activity of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan via Regulating NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Huang, Yun-Juan; Xia, Mei-Sheng; Xiang, Xing-Wei; Qu, You-Le

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives such as low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) have been found to possess many important biological properties, such as antioxidant and antitumor effects. In our previous study, LMWCs were found to elicit a strong immunomodulatory response in macrophages dependent on molecular weight. Herein we further investigated the molecular weight-dependent immunostimulative activity of LMWCs and elucidated its mechanism of action on RAW264.7 macrophages. LMWCs (3 kDa and 50 kDa of molecular weight) could significantly enhance the mRNA expression levels of COX-2, IL-10 and MCP-1 in a molecular weight and concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that LMWCs elicited a significant immunomodulatory response, which was dependent on the dose and the molecular weight. Regarding the possible molecular mechanism of action, LMWCs promoted the expression of the genes of key molecules in NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, including IKKβ, TRAF6 and JNK1, and induced the phosphorylation of protein IKBα in RAW264.7 macrophage. Moreover, LMWCs increased nuclear translocation of p65 and activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1, C-Jun and C-Fos) in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggested that LMWCs exert immunostimulative activity via activation of NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages in a molecular weight-dependent manner and that 3 kDa LMWC shows great potential as a novel agent for the treatment of immune suppression diseases and in future vaccines. PMID:27657093

  10. Thrombin induced connective tissue growth factor expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via the PAR-1/JNK/AP-1 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-chin KO; Bing-chang CHEN; Ming-jen HSU; Chia-ti TSAI; Chuang-ye HONG; Chien-huang LIN

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).Methods:Experiments were preformed on primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) and a rat VSMC line (A10).CTGF protein levels were measured using Western blotting.Luciferase reporter genes and dominant negative mutants (DNs) were used to investigate the signaling pathways mediating the induction of CTGF expression by thrombin.Results:Thrombin (0.3-3.0 U/mL) caused a concentration- and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression in both RASMCs and A10 cells.Pretreating A10 cells with the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist SCH79797 (0.1 μmol/L) significantly blocked thrombin-induced CTGF expression,while the PAR-4 antagonist tcY-NH2 (30 μmol/L) had no effect.The PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN-NH2 (300 μmol/L) induced CTGF expression,while the PAR-4 agonist GYPGQV-NH2 (300 μmol/L) had no effect.Thrombin (1 U/mL) caused time-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).Pretreating with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (3-30 μmol/L) or transfection with DNs of JNK1/2 significantly attenuated thrombin-induced CTGF expression.Thrombin (0.3-3.0 U/mL) increased activator protein-1 (AP-1)-Iuciferase activity,which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125.The AP-1 inhibitor curcumin (1-10 μmol/L) concentration-dependently attenuated thrombin-induced CTGF expression.Conclusion:Thrombin acts on PAR-1 to activate the JNK signaling pathway,which in turn initiates AP-1 activation and ultimately induces CTGF expression in VSMCs.

  11. Long-range enhancer associated with chromatin looping allows AP-1 regulation of the peptidylarginine deiminase 3 gene in differentiated keratinocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chavanas

    Full Text Available Transcription control at a distance is a critical mechanism, particularly for contiguous genes. The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs catalyse the conversion of protein-bound arginine into citrulline (deimination, a critical reaction in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and in the metabolism of the major epidermal barrier protein filaggrin, a strong predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. PADs are encoded by 5 clustered PADI genes (1p35-6. Unclear are the mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene PADI3 encoding the PAD3 isoform, a strong candidate for the deimination of filaggrin in the terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocyte. We describe the first PAD Intergenic Enhancer (PIE, an evolutionary conserved non coding segment located 86-kb from the PADI3 promoter. PIE is a strong enhancer of the PADI3 promoter in Ca2+-differentiated epidermal keratinocytes, and requires bound AP-1 factors, namely c-Jun and c-Fos. As compared to proliferative keratinocytes, calcium stimulation specifically associates with increased local DNase I hypersensitivity around PIE, and increased physical proximity of PIE and PADI3 as assessed by Chromosome Conformation Capture. The specific AP-1 inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid suppresses the calcium-induced increase of PADI3 mRNA levels in keratinocytes. Our findings pave the way to the exploration of deimination control during tumorigenesis and wound healing, two conditions for which AP-1 factors are critical, and disclose that long-range transcription control has a role in the regulation of the gene PADI3. Since invalidation of distant regulators causes a variety of human diseases, PIE results to be a plausible candidate in association studies on deimination-related disorders or atopic disease.

  12. Redox regulation of an AP-1-like transcription factor, YapA, in the fungal symbiont Epichloe festucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Gemma M; Scott, Barry

    2013-10-01

    One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 family. In unstressed cells, Yap1 is reduced and cytoplasmic, but in response to oxidative stress, it becomes oxidized and accumulates in the nucleus. To date, there have been no reports on the role of AP-1-like transcription factors in symbiotic fungi. An ortholog of Yap1, named YapA, was identified in the genome of the grass symbiont Epichloë festucae and shown to complement an S. cerevisiae Δyap1 mutant. Hyphae of the E. festucae ΔyapA strain were sensitive to menadione and diamide but resistant to H2O2, KO2, and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In contrast, conidia of the ΔyapA strain were very sensitive to H2O2 and failed to germinate. Using a PcatA-eGFP degron-tagged reporter, YapA was shown to be required for expression of a spore-specific catalase gene, catA. Although YapA-EGFP localized to the nucleus in response to host reactive oxygen species during seedling infection, there was no difference in whole-plant and cellular phenotypes of plants infected with the ΔyapA strain compared to the wild-type strain. Homologs of the S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe redox-sensing proteins (Gpx3 and Tpx1, respectively) did not act as redox sensors for YapA in E. festucae. In response to oxidative stress, YapA-EGFP localized to the nuclei of E. festucae ΔgpxC, ΔtpxA, and ΔgpxC ΔtpxA cells to the same degree as that in wild-type cells. These results show that E. festucae has a robust system for countering oxidative stress in culture and in planta but that Gpx3- or Tpx1-like thiol peroxidases are dispensable for activation of YapA. PMID:23893078

  13. The function of AP-1 in the develotment of dentine and enamel%AP-1与牙本质、釉质发育相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易思健(综述); 刘建国; 吴家媛(审校)

    2014-01-01

    AP-1是被国内外学者广泛研究的转录因子,是由原癌基因编码的蛋白质jun和fos组成的二聚体复合物。AP-1能与DNA结合,作为转录调控因子可通过激活或抑制目标基因的转录,参与多项细胞的活动,如细胞增殖、凋亡、生存,以及肿瘤的发生和组织形态等。近年来研究又发现,AP-1在牙发育过程中也有表达,主要表达于成熟的成釉细胞、成牙本质细胞等。本文就AP-1在牙本质、釉质发育过程中对相关因子的调节作用作一综述。%AP-1isatranscriptionfactor,adimercomplexofc-Junandc-Fosencodedbyproto-onco-gene.As a transcription regulatory factor,it binds to DNA.Through activating or inhibiting target gene transcription,it is involved in many cell activities,such as cell proliferation,apoptosis,cell survival and tumor development .AP-1 was recently found to be expressed in the process of tooth development,mainly in mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts. This review summarizes the regulatory role of AP-1 in dentine and enamel development.

  14. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters with highly specific, tightly regulated and uniquely expressed activity during floral transition, initiation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotech engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters in flower or other tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco AP1-like promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using GUS reporter and tissue-speci...

  15. MCP-1 Upregulates Amylin Expression in Murine Pancreatic β Cells through ERK/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB Related Signaling Pathways Independent of CCR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Qi, Dongfei; Hou, Xinwei; Wang, Oumei; Chen, Juan; Deng, Bo; Qian, Lihua; Liu, Xiaolong; Le, Yingying

    2011-01-01

    Background Amylin is the most abundant component of islet amyloid implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Plasma amylin levels are elevated in individuals with obesity and insulin resistance. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) is involved in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of MCP-1 on amylin expression and the underlying mechanisms with murine pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 and pancreatic islets. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that MCP-1 induced amylin expression at transcriptional level and increased proamylin and intermediate forms of amylin at protein level in MIN6 cells and islets. However, MCP-1 had no effect on the expressions of proinsulin 1 and 2, as well as prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2, suggesting that MCP-1 specifically induces amylin expression in β-cells. Mechanistic studies showed that although there is no detectable CCR2 mRNA in MIN6 cells and islets, pretreatment of MIN6 cells with pertussis toxin inhibited MCP-1 induced amylin expression, suggesting that alternative Gi-coupled receptor(s) mediates the inductive effect of MCP-1. MCP-1 rapidly induced ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibitors for MEK1/2 (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) or AP1 (curcumin) significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin mRNA expression. MCP-1 failed to induce amylin expression in pancreatic islets isolated from Fos knockout mice. EMSA showed that JNK and ERK1/2 were involved in MCP-1-induced AP1 activation. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces murine amylin expression through AP1 activation mediated by ERK1/2 or JNK. Further studies showed that treatment of MIN6 cells with NF-κB inhibitor or overexpression of IκBα dominant-negative construct in MIN6 cells significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin expression, suggesting that NF-κB related signaling also participates in MCP-1-induced murine amylin expression. Conclusions/Significance MCP-1 induces amylin expression through ERK1/2/JNK-AP

  16. MCP-1 upregulates amylin expression in murine pancreatic β cells through ERK/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB related signaling pathways independent of CCR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amylin is the most abundant component of islet amyloid implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Plasma amylin levels are elevated in individuals with obesity and insulin resistance. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2 is involved in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of MCP-1 on amylin expression and the underlying mechanisms with murine pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 and pancreatic islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that MCP-1 induced amylin expression at transcriptional level and increased proamylin and intermediate forms of amylin at protein level in MIN6 cells and islets. However, MCP-1 had no effect on the expressions of proinsulin 1 and 2, as well as prohormone convertase (PC 1/3 and PC2, suggesting that MCP-1 specifically induces amylin expression in β-cells. Mechanistic studies showed that although there is no detectable CCR2 mRNA in MIN6 cells and islets, pretreatment of MIN6 cells with pertussis toxin inhibited MCP-1 induced amylin expression, suggesting that alternative Gi-coupled receptor(s mediates the inductive effect of MCP-1. MCP-1 rapidly induced ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibitors for MEK1/2 (PD98059, JNK (SP600125 or AP1 (curcumin significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin mRNA expression. MCP-1 failed to induce amylin expression in pancreatic islets isolated from Fos knockout mice. EMSA showed that JNK and ERK1/2 were involved in MCP-1-induced AP1 activation. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces murine amylin expression through AP1 activation mediated by ERK1/2 or JNK. Further studies showed that treatment of MIN6 cells with NF-κB inhibitor or overexpression of IκBα dominant-negative construct in MIN6 cells significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin expression, suggesting that NF-κB related signaling also participates in MCP-1-induced murine amylin expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MCP-1 induces amylin expression

  17. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  18. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction

  19. Genome-wide profiling of AP-1-regulated transcription provides insights into the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Qiao, Yichun; Jonsson, Philip; Wang, Jian; Xu, Li; Rouhi, Pegah; Sinha, Indranil; Cao, Yihai; Williams, Cecilia; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2014-07-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive clinical subtype accounting for up to 20% of all breast cancers, but its malignant determinants remain largely undefined. Here, we show that in TNBC the overexpression of Fra-1, a component of the transcription factor AP-1, offers prognostic potential. Fra-1 depletion or its heterodimeric partner c-Jun inhibits the proliferative and invasive phenotypes of TNBC cells in vitro. Similarly, RNAi-mediated attenuation of Fra-1 or c-Jun reduced cellular invasion in vivo in a zebrafish tumor xenograft model. Exploring the AP-1 cistrome and the AP-1-regulated transcriptome, we obtained insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of AP-1 in TNBC cells. Among the direct targets identified for Fra-1/c-Jun involved in proliferation, adhesion, and cell-cell contact, we found that AP-1 repressed the expression of E-cadherin by transcriptional upregulation of ZEB2 to stimulate cell invasion. Overall, this work illuminates the pathways through which TNBC cells acquire invasive and proliferative properties.

  20. Cadmium induces urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and the cell invasiveness of human gastric cancer cells via the ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and AP-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Xia, Yong; Lian, Sen; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Do Hyun; Joo, Young Eun; Chay, Kee-Oh; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium exposure has been linked to human cancers, including stomach cancer. In this study, the effects of cadmium on urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in human gastric cancer cells and the underlying signal transduction pathways were investigated. Cadmium induced uPAR expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cadmium also induced uPAR promoter activity. Additionally, cadmium induced the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the activation of c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). A specific inhibitor of MEK-1 (PD98059) inhibited cadmium-induced uPAR expression, while JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant-negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) also prevented cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift studies showed that sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were involved in cadmium-induced uPAR transcription. Suppression of the cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity by a mutated-type NF-κB-inducing kinase and I-κB and an AP-1 decoy oligonucleotide confirmed that the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 are essential for cadmium-induced uPAR upregulation. Cells pretreated with cadmium showed markedly enhanced invasiveness and this effect was partially abrogated by uPAR-neutralizing antibodies and by inhibitors of ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and AP-1. These results suggest that cadmium induces uPAR expression via ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and AP-1 signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates cell invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells.

  1. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  2. Purinergic P2Y2 Receptor Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: NEW AP-1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR SITE AND NEGATIVE REGULATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Chuan; Roy, Shama; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is the predominant nucleotide receptor expressed in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and that P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP induces dramatic up-regulation of tissue factor (TF), a key initiator of the coagulation cascade. However, the molecular mechanism of this P2Y2R-TF axis remains unclear. Here, we report the role of a newly identified AP-1 consensus sequence in the TF gene promoter and its original binding components in P2Y2R regulation of TF transcription. Using bioinformatics tools, we found that a novel AP-1 site at -1363 bp of the human TF promoter region is highly conserved across multiple species. Activation of P2Y2R increased TF promoter activity and mRNA expression in HCAEC. Truncation, deletion, and mutation of this distal AP-1 site all significantly suppressed TF promoter activity in response to P2Y2R activation. EMSA and ChIP assays further confirmed that upon P2Y2R activation, c-Jun, ATF-2, and Fra-1, but not the typical c-Fos, bound to the new AP-1 site. In addition, loss-of-function studies using siRNAs confirmed a positive transactivation role of c-Jun and ATF-2 but unexpectedly revealed a strong negative role of Fra-1 in P2Y2R-induced TF up-regulation. Furthermore, we found that P2Y2R activation promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Src, leading to Fra-1 activation, whereas Rho/JNK mediated P2Y2R-induced activation of c-Jun and ATF-2. These findings reveal the molecular basis for P2Y G protein-coupled receptor control of endothelial TF expression and indicate that targeting the P2Y2R-Fra-1-TF pathway may be an attractive new strategy for controlling vascular inflammation and thrombogenicity associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  3. IL12A, MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 and RGS1 are novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    same direction of effect observed in the discovery phase. Three loci exceeded genome-wide significance in the joint analysis: RGS1 (P value=3.55 x 10(-9)), IL12A (P=3.08 x 10(-8)) and MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 (P=3.96 x 10(-8)). The RGS1 risk allele is shared with celiac disease (CD), and the IL12A risk allele...... seems to be protective for celiac disease. Within the MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 locus, the risk allele correlates with diminished RNA expression of the cell cycle regulator CDK2AP1; this effect is seen in both lymphoblastic cell lines (P=1.18 x 10(-5)) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with...

  4. IL12A, MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 and RGS1 are novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    and the same direction of effect observed in the discovery phase. Three loci exceeded genome-wide significance in the joint analysis: RGS1 (P value=3.55 x 10(-9)), IL12A (P=3.08 x 10(-8)) and MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 (P=3.96 x 10(-8)). The RGS1 risk allele is shared with celiac disease (CD), and the IL12A risk allele...... seems to be protective for celiac disease. Within the MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 locus, the risk allele correlates with diminished RNA expression of the cell cycle regulator CDK2AP1; this effect is seen in both lymphoblastic cell lines (P=1.18 x 10(-5)) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects...... with MS (P=0.01). Thus, we report three new MS susceptibility loci, including a novel inflammatory disease locus that could affect autoreactive cell proliferation....

  5. The transcriptional repressor domain of Gli3 is intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tsanev

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Gli3 is acting mainly as a transcriptional repressor in the Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway. Gli3 contains a repressor domain in its N-terminus from residue G106 to E236. In this study we have characterized the intracellular structure of the Gli3 repressor domain using a combined bioinformatics and experimental approach. According to our findings the Gli3 repressor domain while being intrinsically disordered contains predicted anchor sites for partner interactions. The obvious interaction partners to test were Ski and DNA; however, with both of these the structure of Gli3 repressor domain remained disordered. To locate residues important for the repressor function we mutated several residues within the Gli3 repressor domain. Two of these, H141A and H157N, targeting predicted helical regions, significantly decreased transcriptional repression and thus identify important functional parts of the domain.

  6. The transcription factor Ets21C drives tumor growth by cooperating with AP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Janine; Willecke, Maria; Basler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is driven by genetic alterations that perturb the signaling networks regulating proliferation or cell death. In order to block tumor growth, one has to precisely know how these signaling pathways function and interplay. Here, we identified the transcription factor Ets21C as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth and propose a new model of how Ets21C could affect this process. We demonstrate that a depletion of Ets21C strongly suppressed tumor growth while ectopic expression of Ets21C further increased tumor size. We confirm that Ets21C expression is regulated by the JNK pathway and show that Ets21C acts via a positive feed-forward mechanism to induce a specific set of target genes that is critical for tumor growth. These genes are known downstream targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also on Ets21C suggesting a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism. Taken together we show that Ets21C is a crucial player in regulating the transcriptional program of the JNK pathway and enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern neoplastic growth. PMID:27713480

  7. The role of JNK/AP-1 signal pathway in As2 O3 induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cells%JNK/AP-1信号通路在As2O3诱导乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝一; 高明; 董雯; 胡美茹; 黎卫平; 宋伦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨c-Jun N端激酶(JNK)信号通路在As2 O3诱导乳腺癌细胞凋亡中的作用.方法 体外培养MCF7细胞,以As2 O3为刺激源,溴化丙锭(PI)染色结合流式细胞术方法 检测细胞周期及细胞凋亡;双荧光素酶报告基因法检测MCF7细胞中AP-1的诱导活化;Western 印迹法检测JNK、c-Jun的诱导活化及Fra-1的蛋白表达.结果 As2 O3可显著诱导MCF7细胞凋亡并导致细胞周期行进阻滞;As2 O3可诱导JNK持续性高强度表达,转录因子AP-1的转录激活活性上调;As2 O3可诱导c-Jun活化并诱导Fra-1表达;转染c-Jun显性负性突变体TAM67或Fra-1shRNA可有效降低As2 O3诱导的乳腺癌细胞凋亡.结论 JNK/AP-1途径是介导As2 O3诱导乳腺癌细胞凋亡反应的重要信号通路.%Objective To explore the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in mediating the apoptotic effect in human breast cancer cells exposed to arsenic trioxide ( As2O3, arsenite). Methods MCF7cells were treated with arsenite. The cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis were detected by flow cytometric analysis with PI staining of the nuclei. Luciferase assay was used to detect the activation of the transcriptional factor of activated protein-1 ( AP-1 ) in the MCF7 cells. The induced activation of JNK, c-Jun and the expression of Fra-1 were tested by Western blot assay. Results Both growth arrest and apoptosis could be induced by arsenite in MCF7 cells, along with the strong and persistent activation of JNK and AP-1 under the same conditions. Moreover, the phosphorylation and the expression of the AP-1 components, cJun and Fra-1, could be induced by arsenite in MCF7 cells. Arsenite-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in the DNc-Jun (TAM67) or Fra-lshRNA-transfected MCF7cells. Conclusion JNK/AP-1 is a critical signal pathway in mediating arsenite-induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer cells.

  8. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. Teresa; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Carvalho, Arsélio P.; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, M. Celeste

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO4) and increases the ...

  9. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA, was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae. MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1. Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

  10. Melittin has a chondroprotective effect by inhibiting MMP-1 and MMP-8 expressions via blocking NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathway in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Jae-Moon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Han, Sang-Mi; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Chang, Young-Chae

    2015-04-01

    Bee venom is a natural ingredient produced by the honey bee (Apis mellifera), and has been widely used in China, Korea and Japan as a traditional medicine for various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism, and skin diseases However, the regulation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the anti-arthritis by bee venom and its major peptides is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-arthritis effect of bee venom and its major peptides, melittin and apamin, in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) responsive C57BL/6 mice chondrocyte cells. The bee venom and melittin significantly and selectively suppressed the TNF-α-mediated decrease of type II collagen expression, whereas the apamin had no effects on the type II collagen expression. We, furthermore, found that the bee venom and melittin inhibited the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-8, which suggests that the chondroprotective effect of bee venom may be caused by melittin. The inhibitory effects of melittin on the TNF-α-induced MMP-1 and MMP-8 protein expression were regulated by the inhibition of NF-kB and AP-1. In addition, melittin suppressed the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of Akt, JNK and ERK1/2, but did not affect the phosphorylation of p38 kinase. These results suggest that melittin suppresses TNF-α-stimulated decrease of type II collagen expression by the inhibiting MMP-1 and MMP-8 through regulation of the NF-kB and AP-1 pathway and provision of a novel role for melittin in anti-arthritis action. PMID:25708656

  11. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  12. Repressor for the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: primary structure and identification of the DNA-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, G; Ye, S; Larson, T J

    1996-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the glpEGR operon of Escherichia coli was determined. The translational reading frame at the beginning, middle, and end of each gene was verified. The glpE gene encodes an acidic, cytoplasmic protein of 108 amino acids with a molecular weight of 12,082. The glpG gene encodes a basic, cytoplasmic membrane-associated protein of 276 amino acids with a molecular weight of 31,278. The functions of GlpE and GlpG are unknown. The glpR gene encodes the repressor for the glycerol 3-phosphate regulon, a protein predicted to contain 252 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28,048. The amino acid sequence of the glp repressor was similar to several repressors of carbohydrate catabolic systems, including those of the glucitol (GutR), fucose (FucR), and deoxyribonucleoside (DeoR) systems of E. coli, as well as those of the lactose (LacR) and inositol (IolR) systems of gram-positive bacteria and agrocinopine (AccR) system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These repressors constitute a family of related proteins, all of which contain approximately 250 amino acids, possess a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif near the amino terminus, and bind a sugar phosphate molecule as the inducing signal. The DNA recognition helix of the glp repressor and the nucleotide sequence of the glp operator were very similar to those of the deo system. The presumptive recognition helix of the glp repressor was changed by site-directed mutagenesis to match that of the deo repressor or, in a separate construct, to abolish DNA binding. Neither altered form of the glp repressor recognized the glp or deo operator, either in vivo or in vitro. However, both altered forms of the glp repressor were negatively dominant to the wild-type glp repressor, indicating that the inability to bind DNA with high affinity was due to alteration of the DNA-binding domain, not to an inability to oligomerize or instability of the altered repressors. For the first time, analysis of repressors

  13. AP-1 mediated transcriptional repression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 in response to interferon β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Mittelstadt

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is a 92 kDa zinc-dependant endopeptidase that degrades components of the extracellular matrix. Increased expression of MMP-9 is implicated in many pathological conditions including metastatic cancer, multiple sclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Although it has been widely noted that interferon-β (IFNβ downregulates both the basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level, the molecular mechanism of this repression is poorly understood. In the present study we identify a novel mechanism for repression of MMP-9 transcription by IFNβ in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Using reporter assays with promoter deletion constructs we show that IFNβ's inhibitory effects require a region of the promoter between -154 and -72, which contains an AP-1 binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP studies indicate that IFNβ increases histone deacetylase (HDAC-1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and reduces histone H3 acetylation, in addition to reduced NF-κB recruitment. ChIP analysis shows that IFNβ induced HDAC1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and IFNβ mediated transcriptional repression is lost when the AP-1 binding site is inactivated by a point mutation. Altogether, our results establish that the repression of MMP-9 transcription in response to IFNβ occurs by the recruitment of HDAC1 via the proximal AP-1 binding site.

  14. Characterization of CRTAM gene promoter: AP-1 transcription factor control its expression in human T CD8 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Rios, Ricardo; Patiño-Lopez, Genaro; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Canche-Pool, Elsy; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Zlotnik, Albert; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2009-10-01

    Class-I MHC-restricted T-cell associated molecule (CRTAM) is a member of the Nectin-like adhesion molecule family. It is rapidly induced in NK, NKT and CD8(+) T cells. Interaction with its ligand Nectin-like 2 results in increased secretion of IFN-gamma by activated CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Through sequential bioinformatic analyses of the upstream region of the human CRTAM gene, we detected cis-elements potentially important for CRTAM gene transcription. Analyzing 2kb upstream from the ATG translation codon by mutation analysis in conjunction with luciferase reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shify assay (EMSA) and supershift assays, we identified an AP-1 binding site, located at 1.4kb from the ATG translation codon of CRTAM gene as an essential element for CRTAM expression in activated but not resting human CD8(+) T cells. CRTAM expression was reduced in activated CD8(+) T cells treated with the JNK inhibitor SP600125, indicating that CRTAM expression is driven by the JNK-AP-1 signaling pathway. This study represents the first CRTAM gene promoter analysis in human T cells and indicates that AP-1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of this gene, a likely important finding because CRTAM has recently been shown to play a role in IFN-gamma and IL-17 production and T cell proliferation.

  15. SERPINE2 Inhibits IL-1α-Induced MMP-13 Expression in Human Chondrocytes: Involvement of ERK/NF-κB/AP-1 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Santoro

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic joint disease, characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage. During OA, proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin IL-1, induce the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in chondrocytes, contributing thus to the extracellular matrix (ECM degradation. Members of Serpine family, including plasminogen activator inhibitors have been reported to participate in ECM regulation. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of serpin peptidase inhibitor clade E member 2 (SERPINE2, under basal conditions and in response to increasing doses of IL-1α, in human cultured chondrocytes. We also examined the effects of SERPINE2 on IL-1α-induced MMP-13 expression. For completeness, the signaling pathway involved in this process was also explored.SERPINE2 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis in human T/C-28a2 cell line and human primary chondrocytes. These cells were treated with human recombinant SERPINE2, alone or in combination with IL-1α. ERK 1/2, NFκB and AP-1 activation were assessed by western blot analysis.Human cultured chondrocytes express SERPINE2 in basal condition. This expression increased in response to IL-1α stimulation. In addition, recombinant SERPINE2 induced a clear inhibition of MMP-13 expression in IL-1α-stimulated chondrocytes. This inhibitory effect is likely regulated through a pathway involving ERK 1/2, NF-κB and AP-1.Taken together, these data demonstrate that SERPINE2 might prevent cartilage catabolism by inhibiting the expression of MMP-13, one of the most relevant collagenases, involved in cartilage breakdown in OA.

  16. Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Dun, Sai-Hong; Gu, Jian-Qiu; Guo, Yang; Ikuyama, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Aiton) with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 (mouse-derived) microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2). Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia. PMID:26367267

  17. Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    Full Text Available Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Aiton with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 (mouse-derived microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide (NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1 and perilipin 2 (PLIN2. Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia.

  18. A novel repressor-type homeobox gene, ved, is involved in dharma/bozozok-mediated dorsal organizer formation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Yamanaka, Yojiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Yabe, Taijiro; Hibi, Masahiko; Hirano, Toshio

    2002-10-01

    Dharma/Bozozok (Dha/Boz) is a homeodomain protein containing an Engrailed homology (Eh) 1 repressor motif. It is important in zebrafish dorsal organizer formation. Dha/Boz interacted with a co-repressor Groucho through the Eh1 motif. Expression of a Dha/Boz fused to the transcriptional activator VP16 repressed dorsal axis formation and the expression of organizer genes but led to the dorsal expansion of expression of the homeobox gene vox/vega1, indicating that Dha/Boz functions as a transcriptional repressor for dorsal axis formation. We also isolated a novel homeobox gene, ved, whose expression was negatively regulated by dha/boz. ved's sequence and expression profile were similar to those of vox/vega1 and vent/vega2. Like Vox/Vega1 and Vent/Vega2, Ved acted as a transcriptional repressor. The combined inhibition of ved, vox/vega1, and vent/vega2, by antisense morpholino injection, strongly dorsalized the embryos and elicited ventral expansion of organizer gene expression, compared with the effect of inhibiting each of these genes alone. These results suggest that ved is a target for the repressor Dha/Boz. Ved functions redundantly with vox/vega1 and vent/vega2 to restrict the organizer domain.

  19. Structure of the MecI repressor from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the cognate DNA operator of mec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safo, Martin K., E-mail: msafo@vcu.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529,Taiwan (China); Musayev, Faik N. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Zhao, Qixun [Department of Medicine and Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529,Taiwan (China); Archer, Gordon L. [Department of Medicine and Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2006-04-01

    The up-and-down binding of dimeric MecI to mecA dyad DNA may account for the cooperative effect of the repressor. The dimeric repressor MecI regulates the mecA gene that encodes the penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MecI is similar to BlaI, the repressor for the blaZ gene of β-lactamase. MecI and BlaI can bind to both operator DNA sequences. The crystal structure of MecI in complex with the 32 base-pair cognate DNA of mec was determined to 3.8 Å resolution. MecI is a homodimer and each monomer consists of a compact N-terminal winged-helix domain, which binds to DNA, and a loosely packed C-terminal helical domain, which intertwines with its counter-monomer. The crystal contains horizontal layers of virtual DNA double helices extending in three directions, which are separated by perpendicular DNA segments. Each DNA segment is bound to two MecI dimers. Similar to the BlaI–mec complex, but unlike the MecI–bla complex, the MecI repressors bind to both sides of the mec DNA dyad that contains four conserved sequences of TACA/TGTA. The results confirm the up-and-down binding to the mec operator, which may account for cooperative effect of the repressor.

  20. Structure of the MecI repressor from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the cognate DNA operator of mec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The up-and-down binding of dimeric MecI to mecA dyad DNA may account for the cooperative effect of the repressor. The dimeric repressor MecI regulates the mecA gene that encodes the penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MecI is similar to BlaI, the repressor for the blaZ gene of β-lactamase. MecI and BlaI can bind to both operator DNA sequences. The crystal structure of MecI in complex with the 32 base-pair cognate DNA of mec was determined to 3.8 Å resolution. MecI is a homodimer and each monomer consists of a compact N-terminal winged-helix domain, which binds to DNA, and a loosely packed C-terminal helical domain, which intertwines with its counter-monomer. The crystal contains horizontal layers of virtual DNA double helices extending in three directions, which are separated by perpendicular DNA segments. Each DNA segment is bound to two MecI dimers. Similar to the BlaI–mec complex, but unlike the MecI–bla complex, the MecI repressors bind to both sides of the mec DNA dyad that contains four conserved sequences of TACA/TGTA. The results confirm the up-and-down binding to the mec operator, which may account for cooperative effect of the repressor

  1. Structural and dynamics studies of a truncated variant of CI repressor from bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Frandsen, Kristian E. H.; Erba, Elisabetta Boeri;

    2016-01-01

    The CI repressor from the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 consists of two folded domains, an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain (NTD) and a C-terminal oligomerization domain (CTD), which we here suggest to be further divided into CTD1 and CTD2. Full-length CI is a hexameric protein...

  2. o,p'-DDT induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in murine macrophages: Role of AP-1 and CRE promoter elements and PI3-kinase/Akt/MAPK signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used as an insecticide to prevent the devastation of malaria in tropical zones. However, many reports suggest that DDT may act as an endocrine disruptor and may have possible carcinogenic effects. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) acts as a link between inflammation and carcinogenesis through its involvement in tumor promotion. In the present study, we examined the effect of o,p'-DDT on COX-2 gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Exposure to o,p'-DDT markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in murine macrophages. Furthermore, o,p'-DDT dose-dependently increased the levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA. Transfection with human COX-2 promoter construct, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA-affinity protein-binding assay experiments revealed that o,p'-DDT activated the activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) sites, but not the NF-κB site. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, its downstream signaling molecule, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also significantly activated by the o,p'-DDT-induced AP-1 and CRE activation. These results demonstrate that o,p'-DDT induced COX-2 expression via AP-1 and CRE activation through the PI3-K/Akt/ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the carcinogenic effects of o,p'-DDT

  3. The chromatin remodeling factor CHD5 is a transcriptional repressor of WEE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Quan

    Full Text Available Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression.

  4. Lac repressor: Crystallization of intact tetramer and its complexes with inducer and operator DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intact lac repressor tetramer, which regulates expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the native form, with an inducer, and in a ternary complex with operator DNA and an anti-inducer. The crystals without DNA diffract to better than 3.5 angstrom. They belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have cell dimensions a = 164.7 angstrom, b = 75.6 angstrom, and c = 161.2 angstrom, with α = γ = 90 degree and β = 125.5 degree. Cocrystals have been obtained with a number of different lac operator-related DNA fragments. The complex with a blunt-ended 16-base-pair strand yielded tetragonal bipyramids that diffract to 6.5 angstrom. These protein-DNA cocrystals crack upon exposure to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside, suggesting a conformational change in the repressor-operator complex

  5. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Shen; Woo Seok Yang; Young-Su Yi; Gi-Ho Sung; Man Hee Rhee; Haryoung Poo; Mi-Yeon Kim; Kyung-Woon Kim; Jong Heon Kim; Jae Youl Cho

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) an...

  6. Increased DNA binding activity of NF-κB, STAT-3, SMAD3 and AP-1 in acutely damaged liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana Salazar-Montes; Luis Ruiz-Corro; Ana SandovaI-Rodriguez; Alberto Lopez-Reyes; Juan Armendariz-Borunda

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of genes and kinetics of specific transcription factors in liver regeneration, and to analyze the gene expression and the activity of some molecules crucially involved in hepatic regeneration.METHODS: USING gel-shift assay and RT-PCR,transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT-3, SMAD3and AP-1, and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and c-met were analyzed in an animal model of chemically induced hepatectomy.RESULTS: Gene expression of HGF and its receptor c-met peaked at 3 h and 24 h after acute CCl4 intoxication. iNOS expression was only observed from 6 to 48 h.Transcriptional factor NF-κB had an early activation at 30min after acute liver damage. STAT-3 peaked 3 h postintoxication, while AP-1 displayed a peak of activation at 48 h. SMAD3 showed a high activity at all analyzed times.CONCLUSION: TNF-α and IL-6 play a central role in hepatic regeneration. These two molecules are responsible for triggering the cascade of events and switch-on of genes involved in cell proliferation, such as growth factors, kinases and cyclins which are direct participants of cell proliferation.

  7. Breeding of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Lines Containing AP1 Gene with Enhanced Disease Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Heng-xiu; LIU Qiao-quan; WANG Ling; ZHAO Zhi-peng; XU Li; HUANG Ben-li; GONG Zhi-yun; TANG Shu-zhu; GU Ming-hong

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain marker-free transgenic rice with improved disease resistance, the AP1 gene of Capsicum annuum and hygromycin-resistance gene (HPT) were cloned into the two separate T-DNA regions of the binary vector pSB 130,respectively, and introduced into the calli derived from the immature seeds of two elite japonica rice varieties, Guangling Xiangjing and Wuxiangjing 9, mediated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Many cotransgenic rice lines containing both the AP1 gene and the marker gene were regenerated and the integration of both transgenes in the transgenic rice plants was confirmed by either PCR or Southern blotting technique. Several selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants were subsequently obtained from the progeny of the cotransformants, and confirmed by both PCR and Southern blotting analysis. These transgenic rice lines were tested in the field and their resistance to disease was c arefully investigated, the results showed that after inoculation the resistance to either bacterial blight or sheath blight of the selected transgenic lines was improved when compared with those of wild type.

  8. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, MT; Gonçalo, Margarida; A. Figueiredo; Carvalho, AP; Duarte, CB

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)) and increases the expression of the i...

  9. Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Yang, Xudong; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2013-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene (PPARδ) is correlated with carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer, but the regulation of its gene transcription remains unclear. We herein report that AP1 binds the promoter and regulates PPARδ gene expression. With a luciferase reporter system, we identified a functional promoter region of 30 bp of PPARδ gene by deletion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Using site-directed mutagenesis and decoy analyses, we demonstrated that AP1 bound the functional transcriptional factor binding site in a region extending from -176 to -73 of the PPARδ promoter, which was confirmed using EMSA and supershift assays. Consequently, inhibition of the AP1 binding site led to decreased PPARδ mRNA. Our study demonstrated that AP1 is the transcriptional factor that contributes to PPARδ expression in LoVo cells.

  10. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25996379

  11. Peroxide sensing and signaling in the Sporothrix schenckii complex: an in silico analysis to uncover putative mechanisms regulating the Hog1 and AP-1 like signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivy; Soares Felipe, Maria Sueli; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Lopes Bezerra, Leila Maria; Da Silva Dantas, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how fungal pathogens can survive inside the host, we must analyze how they evade the fungicidal mechanisms mounted by the host's immune system, such as generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Studies have shown that infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis can be more aggressive than those due to Sporothrix schenckii. Therefore, we propose to analyze and compare the ability of these two pathogenic species to counteract oxidative stress, which, as noted, can be relevant in the host response to infection. We have shown that S. brasiliensis is more resistant to different oxidants, such as H2O2 and menadione, when compared with S. schenckii. Furthermore, our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms by which Sporothrix spp. AP-1 like transcription factors are regulated probably differs from the one seen in other fungal pathogens. Interestingly, comparison between sequences of SbHog1 and SsHog1 stress activated protein kinases suggest that S. brasiliensis Hog1 display mutations that could account for the differences seen in stress sensitivities of these two species. In summary, this is the first study to our knowledge to investigate oxidative stress responses of Sporothrix spp. and provided a model that can be employed in vivo to address how these fungal pathogens can surmount the oxidative stress generated by the host.

  12. A new APE1/Ref-1-dependent pathway leading to reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and activation of their DNA-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kozue; Hirao, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Ogura, Yuji; Sato, Iwao; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Wada, Tadashi; Handa, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    APE1/Ref-1 is thought to be a multifunctional protein involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) regulation and base excision DNA repair, and is required for early embryonic development in mice. APE1/Ref-1 has redox activity and AP endonuclease activity, and is able to enhance DNA-binding activity of several transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53, through reduction of their critical cysteine residues. However, it remains elusive exactly how APE1/Ref-1 carries out its essential functions in vivo. Here, we show that APE1/Ref-1 not only reduces target transcription factors directly but also facilitates their reduction by other reducing molecules such as glutathione or thioredoxin. The new activity of APE1/Ref-1, termed redox chaperone activity, is exerted at concentration significantly lower than that required for its redox activity and is neither dependent on its redox activity nor on its AP endonuclease activity. We also show evidence that redox chaperone activity of APE1/Ref-1 is critical to NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in human cells and is mediated through its physical association with target transcription factors. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may play multiple roles in an antioxidative stress response pathway through its different biochemical activities. These findings also provide new insight into the mechanism of intracellular redox regulation.

  13. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters drive highly specific, tightly regulated and unique expression patterns during floral transition, initiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Yan, Guohua; Wen, Zhifeng; An, Young-Qiang; Singer, Stacy D; Liu, Zongrang

    2014-02-01

    The genetic engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters that drive expression in floral tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco APETALA1-like (AP1-like) promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using the GUS reporter system, along with tissue-specific ablation analyses. Our results demonstrated that the two promoters are active in floral inflorescences but not in vegetative apical meristems or other vegetative tissues, as reflected by strong GUS staining and DT-A-mediated ablation of apical shoot tips during reproductive but not vegetative growth. We also showed that the NtAP1Lb1 promoter was more active than NtAP1La in inflorescences, as the former yielded higher frequencies and greater phenotypic evidence of tissue ablation compared to the latter. We further revealed that both promoters were uniformly expressed in the meristems of stage 1 and 2 floral buds, but were differentially expressed in floral organs later during development. While NtAP1La was found to be active in stage 4-5 carpels, later becoming confined to ovary tissue from stage 9 onwards, NtAP1Lb1 activity was apparent in all floral organs from stages 3 to 7, becoming completely absent in all floral organs from stage 11 onward. Therefore, it seems that the two tobacco promoters have acquired similar but distinct inflorescence-, floral meristem- and floral organ-specific and development-dependent regulatory features without any leaky activity in vegetative tissues. These features are novel and have rarely been observed in other flower-specific promoters characterized to date. The potential application of these promoters for engineering sterility, increasing biomass production and modifying flower architecture, as well as their putative use in flower-specific transgene excision, will be discussed.

  14. Parthenolide inhibits ERK and AP-1 which are dysregulated and contribute to excessive IL-8 expression and secretion in cystic fibrosis cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadane Aicha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive secretion of IL-8 characterizes cystic fibrosis (CF. This has been attributed to excessive activation of epithelial cell I-κB Kinase and/or NFκB. Maximum IL-8 production requires 3 cooperative mechanisms: 1 release of the promoter from repression; 2 activation of transcription by NFκB and AP-1; 3 stabilization of mRNA by p38-MAPK. Little is known about regulation of IL-8 by MAPKs or AP-1 in CF. Methods We studied our hypothesis in vitro using 3-cellular models. Two of these models are transformed cell lines with defective versus normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expression: an antisense/sense transfected cell line and the patient derived IB3-1/S9. In the third series of studies, we studied primary necropsy human tracheal epithelial cells treated with an inhibitor of CFTR function. All cell lines were pretreated with parthenolide and then stimulated with TNFα and/or IL-1β. Results In response to stimulation with TNFα and/or IL-1β, IL-8 production and mRNA expression was greater in CF-type cells than in non-CF controls. This was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK and increased activation of AP-1. Since we previously showed that parthenolide inhibits excessive IL-8 production by CF cells, we evaluated its effects on MAPK and AP-1 activation and showed that parthenolide inhibited ERK and AP-1 activation. Using a luciferase promoter assay, our studies showed that parthenolide decreased activation of the IL-8 promoter in CF cells stimulated with TNFα/IL-1β. Conclusions In addition to NFκB MAPKs ERK, JNK and p38 and the transcription factor AP-1 are also dysregulated in CF epithelial cells. Parthenolide inhibited both NFκB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways contributing to the inhibition of IL-8 production.

  15. Structure of the Mecl Repressor from Staphylococcus aureus in Complex with the Cognate DNA Operator of mec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safo,M.; Ko, T.; Musayev, F.; Zhao, Q.; Wang, A.; Archer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The dimeric repressor MecI regulates the mecA gene that encodes the penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MecI is similar to BlaI, the repressor for the blaZ gene of {beta}-lactamase. MecI and BlaI can bind to both operator DNA sequences. The crystal structure of MecI in complex with the 32 base-pair cognate DNA of mec was determined to 3.8 Angstroms resolution. MecI is a homodimer and each monomer consists of a compact N-terminal winged-helix domain, which binds to DNA, and a loosely packed C-terminal helical domain, which intertwines with its counter-monomer. The crystal contains horizontal layers of virtual DNA double helices extending in three directions, which are separated by perpendicular DNA segments. Each DNA segment is bound to two MecI dimers. Similar to the BlaI-mec complex, but unlike the MecI-bla complex, the MecI repressors bind to both sides of the mec DNA dyad that contains four conserved sequences of TACA/TGTA. The results confirm the up-and-down binding to the mec operator, which may account for cooperative effect of the repressor.

  16. TE-domestication and horizontal transfer in a putative Nef-AP1mu mimic of HLA-A cytoplasmic domain re-trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph S; Murray, Elaina H

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist.(2,3) We previously reported that HLA-A isotype alleles with the α1-helix, R65 motif, are wide-spread in phylogeny, but that the α 2-helix, H151R motif, has apparently segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in T. syrichta (Loc-103275158) encoded R151, but within a truncated A-23 like gene containing 5'- and 3'- footprints of the transposon (TE), tigger-1; the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part-of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele (Murray, 2015a).(4) The unique Loc-103275158 orf encodes a putative 15-exon transcript with no apparent paralogs throughout phylogeny. However, an HLA-A11 like gene in M. leucophaeus with a shortened C-terminal domain, and an HLA-A like orf in C. atys with two linked α1/α2/α3 domains, both contain a second transmembrane segment, which is conserved in Loc-103275158. Thus, we could model the putative protein with its Nef-like tail domain docked to its MHC-I like α3 domain (i.e., on the same side of a membrane). This modeled tertiary structure is strikingly similar to the solved structure of the Nef:MHC-I CD:AP1mu transporter (Jia, 2012).(5) Nef:AP1mu binds the CD of MHC-I in trafficking MHC-I away from the trans-golgi and into the endocytic pathway in HIV-1 infected cells. The CD loop of the

  17. TE-domestication and horizontal transfer in a putative Nef-AP1mu mimic of HLA-A cytoplasmic domain re-trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph S; Murray, Elaina H

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist.(2,3) We previously reported that HLA-A isotype alleles with the α1-helix, R65 motif, are wide-spread in phylogeny, but that the α 2-helix, H151R motif, has apparently segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in T. syrichta (Loc-103275158) encoded R151, but within a truncated A-23 like gene containing 5'- and 3'- footprints of the transposon (TE), tigger-1; the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part-of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele (Murray, 2015a).(4) The unique Loc-103275158 orf encodes a putative 15-exon transcript with no apparent paralogs throughout phylogeny. However, an HLA-A11 like gene in M. leucophaeus with a shortened C-terminal domain, and an HLA-A like orf in C. atys with two linked α1/α2/α3 domains, both contain a second transmembrane segment, which is conserved in Loc-103275158. Thus, we could model the putative protein with its Nef-like tail domain docked to its MHC-I like α3 domain (i.e., on the same side of a membrane). This modeled tertiary structure is strikingly similar to the solved structure of the Nef:MHC-I CD:AP1mu transporter (Jia, 2012).(5) Nef:AP1mu binds the CD of MHC-I in trafficking MHC-I away from the trans-golgi and into the endocytic pathway in HIV-1 infected cells. The CD loop of the

  18. Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47phox pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases. - Highlights: • LPS activates the Nox2/p47phox/JNK/AP-1 and induces COX2 expression in Hs68 cells. • Eupafolin inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression via Nox2/p47phox inhibition. • Eupafolin may be used in the treatment of skin diseases involving inflammation

  19. Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47{sup phox} pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Lin, Zih-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chan-Jung [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yen, Feng-Lin [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Yao-Chang [Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chiang-Wen, E-mail: cwlee@gw.cgust.edu.tw [Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-01

    Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases. - Highlights: • LPS activates the Nox2/p47{sup phox}/JNK/AP-1 and induces COX2 expression in Hs68 cells. • Eupafolin inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression via Nox2/p47{sup phox} inhibition. • Eupafolin may be used in the treatment of skin diseases involving inflammation.

  20. Osteopontin selectively regulates p70S6K/mTOR phosphorylation leading to NF-κB dependent AP-1-mediated ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Gopal C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer and accounts for over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. It causes premature death in women, despite progress in early detection, treatment, and advances in understanding the molecular basis of the disease. Therefore, it is important to understand the in depth mechanism of tumor progression and develop new strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, this study is aimed at gaining an insight into the molecular mechanism by which osteopontin (OPN, a member of SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoprotein family of protein regulates tumor progression through activation of various transcription factors and expression of their downstream effector gene(s in breast cancer. Results In this study, we report that purified native OPN induces ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cells. The data revealed that OPN induces NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent ICAM-1 expression. We also observed that OPN-induced NF-κB further controls AP-1 transactivation, suggesting that there is cross talk between NF-κB and AP-1 which is unidirectional towards AP-1 that in turn regulates ICAM-1 expression in these cells. We also delineated the role of mTOR and p70S6 kinase in OPN-induced ICAM-1 expression. The study suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin augments whereas overexpression of mTOR/p70S6 kinase inhibits OPN-induced ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, overexpression of mTOR inhibits OPN-induced NF-κB and AP-1-DNA binding and transcriptional activity. However, rapamycin further enhanced these OPN-induced effects. We also report that OPN induces p70S6 kinase phosphorylation at Thr-421/Ser-424, but not at Thr-389 or Ser-371 and mTOR phosphorylation at Ser-2448. Overexpression of mTOR has no effect in regulation of OPN-induced phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at Thr-421/Ser-424. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin attenuates Ser-371 phosphorylation but does not have

  1. Role of transcriptional repressors in transformation by bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Zemlo, T R; Lohrbach, B; Lambert, P F

    1994-01-01

    Transformation of rodent cells by bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) has been shown to require the direct contribution of the viral oncogenes encoded by the E5, E6, and E7 translational open reading frames (ORFs). It is also known that the viral E1 and E2 ORFs contribute indirectly to cellular transformation through their transcriptional modulation of these viral oncogenes. A mutant BPV-1 disrupted in two of the proteins encoded by the E2 ORF, the E2 transcriptional repressors, has a comple...

  2. HIV-1 Nef Induces CCL5 production in astrocytes through p38-MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathway and utilizes NF-kB, CEBP and AP-1 transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Shah, Ankit; Gangwani, Mohitkumar R.; Silverstein, Peter S.; Fu, Mingui; Kumar, Anil

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients infected with HIV-1. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by astrocytes/microglia exposed to viral proteins is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. In the present study we examined the effects of Nef on CCL5 induction in astrocytes. The results demonstrate that CCL5 is significantly induced in Nef-transfected SVGA astrocytes. To determine the mechanisms responsible for the increased CCL5 caused by Nef, we employed siRNA and chemical antagonists. Antagonists of NF-κB, PI3K, and p38 significantly reduced the expression levels of CCL5 induced by Nef transfection. Furthermore, specific siRNAs demonstrated that the Akt, p38MAPK, NF-κB, CEBP, and AP-1 pathways play a role in Nef-mediated CCL5 expression. The results demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, along with the transcription factors NF-κB, CEBP, and AP-1, are involved in Nef-induced CCL5 production in astrocytes.

  3. Oligomeric properties and DNA binding specificities of repressor isoforms from the Streptomyces bacteriophage phiC31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E; Smith, M C

    1998-05-15

    Three protein isoforms (74, 54 and 42 kDa) are expressed from repressor gene c in the Streptomyces temperate bacteriophage phiC31. Because expression of the two smaller isoforms, 54 and 42 kDa, is sufficient for superinfection immunity, the interaction between these isoforms was studied. The native 42 kDa repressor (Nat42) and an N-terminally 6x histidine-tagged 54 kDa isoform (His54) were shown by co-purification on a Ni-NTA column to interact in Streptomyces lividans . In vitro three repressor preparations, containing Nat42, His54 and the native 54 and 42 kDa isoforms expressed together (Nat54&42), were subjected to chemical crosslinking and gel filtration analysis. Homo- and hetero-tetramers were observed. Previous work showed that the smallest isoform bound to 17 bp operators containing aconservedinvertedrepeat (CIR) and that the CIRs were located at 16 loci throughout the phiC31 genome. One of the CIRs (CIR6) is believed to be critical for regulating the lytic pathway. The DNA binding activities of the three repressor preparations were studied using fragments containing CIRs (CIR3-CIR6) from the essential early region as templates for DNase I footprinting. Whereas Nat42 bound to CIR6, poorly to CIR5 but undetectably to CIR3 or CIR4, the Nat54&42 preparation could bind to all CIRs tested, albeit poorly to CIR3 and CIR4. The His54 isoform bound all CIRs tested. Isoforms expressed from the phiC31 repressor gene, like those which are expressed from many eukaryotic transcription factor genes, apparently have different binding specificities.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS or concanavalin A (ConA, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies.

  5. FSL-1 Induces MMP-9 Production through TLR-2 and NF-κB /AP-1 Signaling Pathways in Monocytic THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disorders. FSL-1 (fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 induces cytokine production by monocytes/macrophages. However, it is unclear whether FSL-1 is also able to induce MMP-9 production. Herein, we determined whether FSL-1 could induce MMP-9 production, and if so, which signal transduction pathway(s were involved. Methods: MMP-9 expression was assessed with real-time qPCR and ELISA. Signaling pathways were studied by using THP1-XBlue™ cells, THP1-XBlue™-defMyD cells, anti-TLR2 mAb and pharmacological inhibitors. Phospho and total proteins were determined by Western blotting. Results: FSL-1 induces MMP-9 expression (PP-/- THP-1 cells did not express MMP-9 in response to FSL-1 treatment. By small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, we also show that FSL-1-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 requires MyD88. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with inhibitors of JNK (SP600125, MEK/ERK (U0126; PD98056; XMD 8-92, p38 MAPK (SB203580 and NF-κB (BAY11-7085, Triptolide, Resveratrol significantly suppressed (PConclusion: These findings provide the first evidence that FSL-1 induces TLR-2-dependent MMP-9 gene expression which requires the recruitment of MyD88 and leads to activation of MEK1/2 /ERK 1/2, MEK5/ERK5, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB/AP-1.

  6. A novel synthetic derivative of the natural product berbamine inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells, associated with activation of JNK/AP-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Zhao, Robin; Tian, Yan; Liu, Lucy; Horne, David A; Jove, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There is a critical need to find more potent drugs for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Berbamine (BBM) is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plants. BBM and its derivatives have been shown to have antitumor effects in several cancers. Here, we report that a novel synthetic berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of G292, KHOS, and MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Induction of apoptosis in these tumor cells depends on activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Since pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) could block the cleavage of PARP, the apoptosis induced by BBMD3 is through intrinsic signaling pathway. BBMD3 increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), resulting in increase of phosphorylated c-Jun and total c-Fos, the major components of transcriptional factor AP-1. JNK inhibitor could partially suppress antitumor effect of BBMD3 on osteosarcoma cells. BBMD3 increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), could block the phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun induced by BBMD3. BBMD3 increased the expression of the pro-apototic gene Bad, associated with apoptosis induction. Finally, BBMD3 also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and D2, the positive cell cycle regulators, which is correlated with growth inhibition in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that BBMD3 is a potentially promising drug for the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:24025361

  7. The AP-1 transcription factor component Fosl2 potentiates the rate of myocardial differentiation from the zebrafish second heart field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Leila; Sharpe, Michka; Novikov, Natasha; González-Rosa, Juan Manuel; Borikova, Asya; Nevis, Kathleen; Paffett-Lugassy, Noelle; Zhao, Long; Adams, Meghan; Guner-Ataman, Burcu; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate heart forms through successive phases of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Initially, cardiomyocytes derived from first heart field (FHF) progenitors assemble the linear heart tube. Thereafter, second heart field (SHF) progenitors differentiate into cardiomyocytes that are accreted to the poles of the heart tube over a well-defined developmental window. Although heart tube elongation deficiencies lead to life-threatening congenital heart defects, the variables controlling the initiation, rate and duration of myocardial accretion remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor, Fos-like antigen 2 (Fosl2), potentiates the rate of myocardial accretion from the zebrafish SHF. fosl2 mutants initiate accretion appropriately, but cardiomyocyte production is sluggish, resulting in a ventricular deficit coupled with an accumulation of SHF progenitors. Surprisingly, mutant embryos eventually correct the myocardial deficit by extending the accretion window. Overexpression of Fosl2 also compromises production of SHF-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes, a phenotype that is consistent with precocious depletion of the progenitor pool. Our data implicate Fosl2 in promoting the progenitor to cardiomyocyte transition and uncover the existence of regulatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate SHF-mediated cardiomyocyte contribution irrespective of embryonic stage.

  8. Targeting the microRNA-21/AP1 axis by 5-fluorouracil and pirarubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Li, Jingjing; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Wei; Yu, Jia; Song, Wei; Dong, Lei; Wang, Fang; Yu, Shuangni; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Songsen; Kong, Yan; Liu, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs function as oncomiRs and tumor suppressors in diverse cancers. However, the utility of specific microRNAs in predicting the clinical benefit of chemotherapy has not been well-established. Here, we investigated the correlation between microRNA-21 expression and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and pirarubicin (HAIC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that HCC patients with low microRNA-21 levels in tumors tended to have a longer time to recurrence and disease-free survival. We demonstrated that microRNA-21 suppression in combination with 5-fluorouracil and pirarubicin treatment inhibited tumor growth in subcutaneous xenograft mice models. Mechanistically, the AP-1 and microRNA-21-mediated axis was verified to be a therapeutic target of cytotoxic drugs and deregulation of this axis led to an enhanced cell growth in HCC. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients undergoing HAIC. Targeting microRNA-21 enhances the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby suggesting that microRNA-21 suppression in combination with HAIC may be a novel approach for HCC treatment. PMID:25544773

  9. BigR, a Transcriptional Repressor from Plant-Associated Bacteria, Regulates an Operon Implicated in Biofilm Growth▿

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Rosicler L.; Benedetti, Celso E.

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that colonizes the xylem vessels, causing vascular occlusion due to bacterial biofilm growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving biofilm formation in Xylella-plant interactions. Here we show that BigR (for “biofilm growth-associated repressor”) is a novel helix-turn-helix repressor that controls the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth. This operon, which encodes BigR, membrane proteins, and an unusual beta...

  10. Myeloid translocation gene-16 co-repressor promotes degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    Full Text Available The myeloid translocation gene 16 (MTG16 co-repressor down regulates expression of multiple glycolytic genes, which are targets of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 heterodimer transcription factor that is composed of oxygen-regulated labile HIF1α and stable HIF1β subunits. For this reason, we investigated whether MTG16 might regulate HIF1 negatively contributing to inhibition of glycolysis and stimulation of mitochondrial respiration. A doxycycline Tet-On system was used to control levels of MTG16 in B-lymphoblastic Raji cells. Results from co-association studies revealed MTG16 to interact with HIF1α. The co-association required intact N-terminal MTG16 residues including Nervy Homology Region 1 (NHR1. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated an association of MTG16 with hypoxia response elements (HREs in PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 promoters in-vitro. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed co-occupancy of these and other glycolytic gene promoters by HIF1α, HIF1β and MTG16 in agreement with possible involvement of these proteins in regulation of glycolytic target genes. In addition, MTG16 interacted with prolyl hydroxylase D2 and promoted ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of HIF1α. Our findings broaden the area of MTG co-repressor functions and reveal MTG16 to be part of a protein complex that controls the levels of HIF1α.

  11. A CRE/AP-1-like motif is essential for induced syncytin-2 expression and fusion in human trophoblast-like model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirine Toufaily

    Full Text Available Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1 and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.

  12. Low salt induces the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a mouse macula densa cells through the activation of ERK、AP-1 pathways%低盐通过激活ERK和AP-1通路诱导小鼠致密斑细胞系COX-2的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬妍; 李学旺; 李航; 李雪梅

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨低盐培养对小鼠致密斑(mouse macula densa derived cells,MMDD1)细胞环氧化酶-2(cyclooxygenase,COX-2)表达和p44/42 激酶(ERK)、 AP-1活性的影响.方法 经脂质体转染含AP-1的报告质粒,采用瞬时表达方法检测AP-1转录活性;RT-PCR检测MMDD1细胞COX-2的表达;免疫印迹方法检测细胞内p-p44/42、C-JUN、C-FOS和COX-2蛋白的表达.用ELISA法检测上清液PGE2的含量.结果 低盐(LS)培养促进MMDD1细胞COX-2 mRNA和蛋白表达.培养后ERK的磷酸化程度显著上调,180 min达到高峰;ERK抑制剂PD-98059降低LS诱导的COX-2表达和PGE2分泌;LS培养促进C-JUN、C-FOS蛋白表达,激活AP-1的转录活性.AP-1抑制剂curcumin (20 μmol/L)下调LS诱导的AP-1活性、COX-2 mRNA和蛋白表达.结论 LS促进MMDD1细胞COX-2的表达,其作用可能与促进ERK的磷酸化、增加AP-1的活性有关.

  13. Correlation of CDK2-AP1 gene over-expression with proliferation and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cell line MCF-7%乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖及周期与CDK2-AP1基因的表达的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高双全; 高双荣; 肖高芳; 丁宇; 王林辉; 黄伟; 李静

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖及周期与CDK2-AP1基因的表达的相关性研究,为临床乳腺癌的分子治疗提供基础.方法 取我院研究所保存的人乳腺癌细胞MCF-7进行培养,并构建CDK2-AP1基因编码的病毒表达载体,应用实时定量PCR验证CDK2-AP1基因mRNA和蛋白的表达率.利用流式细胞仪检测MCF-7细胞周期的改变.结果 过表达CDK2-AP1基因的慢病毒感染MCF-7细胞可上调其mRNA表达6.87倍.MCF-7细胞过表达CDK2-AP1基因后,增殖能力显著降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).流式细胞仪检测证实MCF-7细胞过表达CDK2-AP1能够使细胞周期出现G1期阻滞.结论 CDK2-AP1基因具有抑癌基因的功能,在乳腺癌MCF-7细胞过表达该基因能够抑制细胞的生长和克隆形成能力,并且使细胞阻滞于G1期.

  14. Change of function of the wheat stress-responsive transcriptional repressor TaRAP2.1L by repressor motif modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Amritha; Luang, Sukanya; Kumar, Manoj Yadav; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Eini, Omid; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Bazanova, Natalia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Nannan; Eliby, Serik; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-02-01

    Plants respond to abiotic stresses by changes in gene regulation, including stress-inducible expression of transcriptional activators and repressors. One of the best characterized families of drought-related transcription factors are dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins, known as C-repeat binding factors (CBF). The wheat DREB/CBF gene TaRAP2.1L was isolated from drought-affected tissues using a dehydration-responsive element (DRE) as bait in a yeast one-hybrid screen. TaRAP2.1L is induced by elevated abscisic acid, drought and cold. A C-terminal ethylene responsive factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, known to be responsible for active repression of target genes, was identified in the TaRAP2.1L protein. It was found that TaRAP2.1L has a unique selectivity of DNA-binding, which differs from that of DREB activators. This binding selectivity remains unchanged in a TaRAP2.1L variant with an inactivated EAR motif (TaRAP2.1Lmut). To study the role of the TaRAP2.1L repressor activity associated with the EAR motif in planta, transgenic wheat overexpressing native or mutated TaRAP2.1L was generated. Overexpression of TaRAP2.1L under constitutive and stress-inducible promoters in transgenic wheat and barley led to dwarfism and decreased frost tolerance. By contrast, constitutive overexpression of the TaRAP2.1Lmut gene had little or no negative influence on wheat development or grain yield. Transgenic lines with the TaRAP2.1Lmut transgene had an enhanced ability to survive frost and drought. The improved stress tolerance is attributed to up-regulation of several stress-related genes known to be downstream genes of DREB/CBF activators. PMID:26150199

  15. Thioredoxin inhibits human vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules expression via Smad3/AP-1 pathway%硫氧还蛋白通过Smad3/AP-1通路抑制人血管内皮细胞黏附蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈北冬; 王文东; 赵革新; 马丽娜; 刘雪青; 齐若梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究硫氧还蛋白(Trx)在动脉粥样硬化中对血管内皮细胞保护作用的分子机制. 方法 应用腺病毒感染的方法在原代人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)中建立过表达硫氧还蛋白及其对照的细胞模型.以致动脉粥样硬化重要危险因子氧化型低密度脂蛋白(oxLDL)为刺激剂.应用免疫印迹及间接免疫荧光法检测Trx,黏附分子(ICAM-1,VCAM-1)及其上游信号分子(Smad3,AP-1)的蛋白表达及细胞定位.应用胰岛素还原法检测Trx的活性,应用荧光探针DCFHDA进行细胞内活性氧检测. 结果 和对照组相比过表达Trx组Trx表达量明显提高,活性检测显示Ad-Trx的活性上调率为(26.2±3.3)%,细胞内活性氧(ROS)检测提示过表达Trx显著抑制细胞内ROS的产生.和对照组相比在基础及氧化型低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)刺激下过表达Trx组明显下调了内皮细胞黏附分子的表达(P<0.05),显著提高了内皮细胞中Smad3的磷酸化(P<0.05).而应用Smad3磷酸化特异性的抑制剂SIS3预处理细胞反转了Trx对黏附蛋白的抑制作用.SIS3预处理细胞进一步上调了oxLDL刺激下AP-1亚基c-Fos的核蛋白表达. 结论 Trx抑制内皮细胞黏附分子表达的作用可能是通过上调Smad3蛋白的磷酸化及抑制核转录因子AP-1亚基c-Fos的核表达来调节的.%Objective To investigate the molecular mechanisms of protective effects of thioredoxin (Trx) on human vascular endothelial cells in atherosclerosis.Methods The cell models of Trx-overexpressing cells (Ad Trx) and the control cells (Ad-con) were established by adenovirus vector gene transfer technology in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).The oxidized low density lipoprotein,a risk factor of atherosclerosis,was used as a stimulator.Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence were used to detect the protein expression levels and the cellular localization of Trx,adhesion molecules (ICAM-1,VCAM-1) and the upstream signal pathways

  16. Eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB AND AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKS and AKT/IkappaBalpha signaling pathways in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J L; Hsu, J H; Hong, Y S; Wu, J R; Liang, J C; Wu, B N; Chen, I J; Liou, S F

    2011-01-01

    Eugenol and isoeugenol, two components of clover oil, have been reported to possess several biomedical properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol, isoeugenol and four of their derivatives on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), and to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that two derivatives, eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol, had potent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced upregulation of nitrite levels, iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA. In addition, they both suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced by LPS. Moreover, they both attenuated the DNA binding of NF-kB and AP-1, phosphorylation of inhibitory kB-alpha (IkB-alpha), and nuclear translocation of p65 protein induced by LPS. Finally, we demonstrated that glyceryl-isoeugenol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, whereas eugenolol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results suggest that that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol suppress LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulating NF-kB and AP-1 through inhibition of MAPKs and Akt/IkB-alpha signaling pathways. Thus, this study implies that eugenolol and glyceryl-isoeugenol may provide therapeutic benefits for inflammatory diseases. PMID:21658309

  17. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tiebing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Aggarwal, A. K., Rodgers, D. W., Drottar, M. et al., Recognition of a DNA operator by the repressor of phage 434: A view at high resolution, Science, 1988, 242: 899-907.[2]Anderson, J. E., Ptashne, M., Harrison, S. C., Structure of the repressor-operator complex of bacteriophage 434, Nature, 1987, 326: 846-852.[3]Bushman, F. D., The Bacteriophage 434 right operator roles of OR1, OR2 and OR3, J. Mol. Biol., 1993, 230: 28-40.[4]Bell, A. C., Koudelka, G. B., How 434 repressor discriminates between OR1 and OR3, J. Biological Chemistry, 1995, 270: 1205-1212.[5]Bell, A. C., Koudelka, G. B., Operator sequence context influences amino acid-base-pair interaction in 434 repressor-operator complexes, J. Mol. Biol., 1993, 234: 542-553.[6]Wharton, R. P., Ptashne, M., A new-specificity mutant of 434 repressor that defines an amino acid-base pair contact, Na-ture, 1987, 326: 888-891.[7]Wharton, R. P., Brown, E. L., Ptashne, M., Substituting an α-helix switches the sequence-specific DNA interaction of a repressor, Cell., 1984, 38: 361-369.[8]Hollis, M., Valenzuela, D., Pioli, D. et al., A repressor heterodimer binds to a chimeric operator, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1988, 85: 5834-5838.[9]Huang, L. -X., Sera, T., Schultz, P. G., A permutational approach toward protein-DNA recognition, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91: 3969-3973.[10]Percipalle, P., Simoncsits, A., Zakhariev, S. et al., Rationally designed helix-turn-helix proteins and their conformational changes upon DNA binding, EMBO J., 1995, 14: 3200-3205.[11]Simoncsits, A., Chen, J. -Q., Percipalle, P. et al., Single-chain repressors containing engineered DNA-binding domains of the phage 434 repressor recognize symmetric or asymmetric DNA operators, J. Mol. Biol., 1997, 267: 118-131.[12]Gates, C. M., Stemmer, W. P. C., Kaptein, R. et al., Affinity selective isolation of ligands from peptide libraries through display on a lac repressor "headpiece dimmer", J. Mol. Biol

  18. TGF-{beta} signals the formation of a unique NF1/Smad4-dependent transcription repressor-complex in human diploid fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciakova, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.luciakova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kollarovic, Gabriel; Kretova, Miroslava; Sabova, Ludmila [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vlarska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Nelson, B. Dean [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} TGF-{beta} induces the formation of unique nuclear NF1/Smad4 complexes that repress expression of the ANT-2 gene. {yields} Repression is mediated through an NF1-dependent repressor element in the promoter. {yields} The formation of NF1/Smad4 complexes and the repression of ANT2 are prevented by inhibitors of p38 kinase and TGF-{beta} RI. {yields} NF1/Smad complexes implicate novel role for NF1 and Smad proteins in the regulation of growth. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the formation of a unique nuclear NF1/Smad complex in serum-restricted fibroblasts that acts as an NF1-dependent repressor of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (ANT2) [K. Luciakova, G. Kollarovic, P. Barath, B.D. Nelson, Growth-dependent repression of human adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) transcription: evidence for the participation of Smad and Sp family proteins in the NF1-dependent repressor complex, Biochem. J. 412 (2008) 123-130]. In the present study, we show that TGF-{beta}, like serum-restriction: (a) induces the formation of NF1/Smad repressor complexes, (b) increases binding of the complexes to the repressor elements (Go elements) in the ANT2 promoter, and (c) inhibits ANT2 expression. Repression of ANT2 by TGF-{beta} is eliminated by mutating the NF1 binding sites in the Go repressor elements. All of the above responses to TGF-{beta} are prevented by inhibitors of TGF-{beta} RI and MAPK p38. These inhibitors also prevent NF1/Smad4 repressor complex formation and repression of ANT2 expression in serum-restricted cells, suggesting that similar signaling pathways are initiated by TGF-{beta} and serum-restriction. The present finding that NF1/Smad4 repressor complexes are formed through TGF-{beta} signaling pathways suggests a new, but much broader, role for these complexes in the initiation or maintenance of the growth-inhibited state.

  19. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS‑G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]‑glutarimide (DTCM‑G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS‑Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer‑aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti‑inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the

  20. Chrysin inhibits tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking AP-1 via suppression of ERK and JNK pathways in gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xia

    Full Text Available Cell invasion is a crucial mechanism of cancer metastasis and malignancy. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the cancer cell invasion process. High expression levels of MMP-9 in gastric cancer positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness and have a significant negative correlation with patients' survival times. Recently, mechanisms suppressing MMP-9 by phytochemicals have become increasingly investigated. Chrysin, a naturally occurring chemical in plants, has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer have not been well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer cells, and determined its underlying mechanism. We examined the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression and activity via RT-PCR, zymography, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin inhibited phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, we confirmed that AP-1 was the crucial transcriptional factor for MMP-9 expression. Chrysin blocked AP-1 via suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos through blocking the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, AGS cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by chrysin and MMP-9 antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling MMP-9 expression through suppression of AP-1 activity via a block of the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in gastric cancer AGS cells.

  1. Binding of the N-terminal domain of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 CI repressor to its target DNA: a crystallography, small angle scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most temperate bacteriophages, regulation of the choice of lysogenic or lytic life cycle is controlled by a CI repressor protein. Inhibition of transcription is dependent on a helix-turn-helix motif, often located in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which binds to specific DNA sequences (operator sites). Here the crystal structure of the NTD of the CI repressor from phage TP901-1 has been determined at 1.6 Angstroms resolution, and at 2.6 Angstroms resolution in complex with a 9 bp double-stranded DNA fragment that constitutes a half-site of the OL operator. This N-terminal construct, comprising residues 2-74 of the CI repressor, is monomeric in solution as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), small angle X-ray scattering, and gel filtration and is monomeric in the crystal structures. The binding interface between the NTD and the half-site in the crystal is very similar to the interface that can be mapped by NMR in solution with a full palindromic site. The interactions seen in the complexes (in the crystal and in solution) explain the observed affinity for the OR site that is lower than that for the OL site and the specificity for the recognized DNA sequence in comparison to that for other repressors. Compared with many well-studied phage repressor systems, the NTD from TP901-1 CI has a longer extended scaffolding helix that, interestingly, is strongly conserved in putative repressors of Gram-positive pathogens. On the basis of sequence comparisons, we suggest that these bacteria also possess repressor/anti-repressor systems similar to that found in phage TP901-1. (authors)

  2. Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three AP1/FUL-like MADS box genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS box gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Yasuno, Naoko; Sato, Yutaka; Yoda, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ryo; Kimizu, Mayumi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Kyozuka, Junko

    2012-05-01

    In plants, the transition to reproductive growth is of particular importance for successful seed production. Transformation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to the inflorescence meristem (IM) is the crucial first step in this transition. Using laser microdissection and microarrays, we found that expression of PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2) and three APETALA1 (AP1)/FRUITFULL (FUL)-like genes (MADS14, MADS15, and MADS18) is induced in the SAM during meristem phase transition in rice (Oryza sativa). PAP2 is a MADS box gene belonging to a grass-specific subclade of the SEPALLATA subfamily. Suppression of these three AP1/FUL-like genes by RNA interference caused a slight delay in reproductive transition. Further depletion of PAP2 function from these triple knockdown plants inhibited the transition of the meristem to the IM. In the quadruple knockdown lines, the meristem continued to generate leaves, rather than becoming an IM. Consequently, multiple shoots were formed instead of an inflorescence. PAP2 physically interacts with MAD14 and MADS15 in vivo. Furthermore, the precocious flowering phenotype caused by the overexpression of Hd3a, a rice florigen gene, was weakened in pap2-1 mutants. Based on these results, we propose that PAP2 and the three AP1/FUL-like genes coordinately act in the meristem to specify the identity of the IM downstream of the florigen signal.

  3. Extracellular histones induce tissue factor expression in vascular endothelial cells via TLR and activation of NF-κB and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Li, Lin; Liu, Jin; Lv, Ben; Chen, Fangping

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular histones have been recognized recently as proinflammatory mediators; they are released from dying cells in response to inflammatory challenge, contributing to endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombin formation, organ failure, and death during sepsis. Clinical studies suggest that the plasma concentration of the histone-DNA complex is correlated with the severity of DIC and is a poor independent prognostic marker in sepsis. In addition, platelet activation stimulates thrombus formation. Whether histones contribute to procoagulant activity in other ways remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that histones induce tissue factor (TF) expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages. However, histones did not affect TF pathway inhibitor expression. Moreover, blocking the cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2 with specific neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced histone-induced TF expression. Furthermore, histones enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (c-Rel/p65) and AP-1 expression in a time-dependent manner in ECs. Mutating NF-κB and AP-1 significantly reduced histone-induced TF expression. Altogether, our experiments suggest that histone induces TF expression in ECs via cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2, simultaneously depending on the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

  4. Prednisone inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 in HEI-OC1 murine auditory cells through the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hua; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-12-01

    Hearing loss can be induced by multiple causes, including cochlear inflammation. Prednisone (PDN) is a well-known steroid clinically used in the treatment of hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and the mechanisms of action of PDN on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammatory enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells (a murine auditory cell line) treated with the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β. The exposure of HEI-OC1 cells to IL-1β increased COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity and COX-2 enzymatic activity [as indicated by the increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite]. However, PDN markedly inhibited the IL-1β-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter activity and PGE2 production in the HEI-OC1 cells without affecting COX-2 protein and mRNA stability. PDN further inhibited the IL-1β-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1, but had no effect on the cytokine-induced activation of p38 MAPK and proteolysis of IκB-α, a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory protein. PDN also partially suppressed the IL-1β‑induced activation of activator protein (AP)-1 (but not that of NF-κB) promoter-driven luciferase activity. Of note, the inhibitory effects of PDN on the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and the activation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1 in the HEI-OC1 cells were significantly diminished by RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, suggesting that PDN exerts its inhibitory effects through GR. To the best of our knowledge, our study demonstrates for the first time that PDN inhibits the IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression and activity in HEI-OC1 cells by COX-2 transcriptional repression, which is partly associated with the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activation.

  5. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Single-chain repressor RRTRES is a derivative of bacteriophage 434 repressor, which contains covalently dimerized DNA-binding domains (amino acids 1-69) of the phage 434 repressor. In this single-chain molecule, the wild type domain R is connected to the mutant domain RTRES by a recombinant linker in a head-to-tail arrangement. The DNA-contacting amino acids of RTRES at the -1, 1, 2, and 5 positions of the a3 helix are T, R, E, S respectively. By using a randomized DNA pool containing the central sequence -CATACAAGAAAGNNNNNNTTT-, a cyclic, in vitro DNA-binding site selection was performed. The selected population was cloned and the individual members were characterized by determining their binding affinities to RRTRES. The results showed that the optimal operators contained the TTAC or TTCC sequences in the underlined positions as above, and that the Kd values were in the 1×10-12 mol/L-1×10-11mol/L concentration range. Since the affinity of the natural 434 repressor to its natural operator sites is in the 1×10-9 mol/L range, the observed binding affinity increase is remarkable. It was also found that binding affinity was strongly affected by the flanking bases of the optimal tetramer binding sites, especially by the base at the 5′ position. We constructed a new homodimeric single-chain repressor RTRESRTRES and its DNA-binding specificity was tested by using a series of new operators designed according to the recog-nition properties previously determined for the RTRES domain. These operators containing the con-sensus sequence GTAAGAAARNTTACN or GGAAGAAARNTTCCN (R is A or G) were recognized by RTRESRTRES specifically, and with high binding affinity. Thus, by using a combination of random selection and rational design principles, we have discovered novel, high affinity protein-DNA inter-actions with new specificity. This method can potentially be used to obtain new binding specificity for other DNA-binding proteins.

  6. 丝/苏氨酸蛋白激酶Plk1和转录阻遏子NAC1存在相互作用%Interaction of serine/threonine protein kinase Plk1 and transcriptional repressor NAC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊福银; 温叶飞; 林艳丽; 周艳荣; 施庚寿; 田利源; 曾强成; 韩正滨; 邓继先; 陈红星

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究与丝/苏氨酸蛋白激酶Plk1(polo-like kinase 1)相互作用的分子.方法:通过酵母双杂交技术初步确定可能与Plk1存在相互作用的靶分子,进一步通过蛋白分子的细胞亚定位、体内免疫共沉淀和GST-pulldown分析Plk1与候选蛋白之间的相互作用.结果:细胞亚定位表明,Plk1与转录阻遏子NAC1(transcriptional repressor nucleus accumbens-1, transcriptional repressor NAC1)在空间上存在相互作用的可能,酵母双杂交、体内免疫共沉淀、GST-pulldown分析均表明Plk1和NAC1存在相互作用.结论:Plk1和NAC1存在相互作用,二者的相互作用可能在细胞的发育分化、肿瘤及神经系统疾病的发生发展中起着重要作用.

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel repressor site in the human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, C L; Siddiqui, A H; Mark, D F

    1994-01-01

    In human monocytic cell lines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) expression is induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We have identified positive and negative cis-acting elements in the TNF alpha promoter by deletion analysis. Here we present the initial characterization of the repressor element. The repressor element was shown to function in either orientation and at various distances upstream from the positive element of the TNF alpha promoter. The TNF alpha repressor site (TRS) ...

  8. Ectopic expression and knockdown of a zebrafish sox21 reveal its role as a transcriptional repressor in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenton, Francesco; Giudici, Simona; Deflorian, Gianluca; Cimbro, Simona; Cotelli, Franco; Beltrame, Monica

    2004-02-01

    Sox proteins are DNA-binding proteins belonging to the HMG box superfamily and they play key roles in animal embryonic development. Zebrafish Sox21a is part of group B Sox proteins and its chicken and mouse orthologs have been described as transcriptional repressor and activator, respectively, in two different target gene contexts. Zebrafish sox21a is present as a maternal transcript in the oocyte and is mainly expressed at the developing midbrain-hindbrain boundary from the onset of neurulation. In order to understand its role in vivo, we ectopically expressed sox21a by microinjection. Ectopic expression of full length sox21a leads to dorsalization of the embryos. A subset of the dorsalized embryos shows a partial axis splitting, and hence an ectopic neural tube, as an additional phenotype. At gastrulation, injected embryos show expansion of the expression domains of organizer-specific genes, such as chordin and goosecoid. Molecular markers used in somitogenesis highlight that sox21a-injected embryos have shortened AP axis, undulating axial structures, enlarged or even radialized paraxial territory. The developmental abnormalities caused by ectopic expression of sox21a are suggestive of defects in convergence-extension morphogenetic movements. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, designed to functionally knockdown sox21a, cause ventralization of the embryos. Moreover, gain-of-function experiments with chimeric constructs, where Sox21a DNA-binding domain is fused to a transcriptional activator (VP16) or repressor (EnR) domain, suggests that zebrafish Sox21a acts as a repressor in dorso-ventral patterning.

  9. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) down-regulated arsenic-induced heme oxygenase-1 and ARS2 expression by inhibiting Nrf2, NF-κB, AP-1 and MAPK pathways in human proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuezhong; Ivanov, Vladimir N; Hei, Tom K

    2016-09-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that sodium arsenite at a clinically relevant dose induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2, which could be inhibited by natural product 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) with antioxidant activity. The present study demonstrated that arsenic exposure resulted in protein and enzymatic induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells. Blocking HO-1 enzymatic activity by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) augmented arsenic-induced apoptosis, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting a critical role for HO-1 as a renal protectant in this procession. On the other hand, TMP, upstream of HO-1, inhibited arsenic-induced ROS production and ROS-dependent HO-1 expression. TMP also prevented mitochondria dysfunction and suppressed activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HK-2 cells. Our results revealed that the regulation of arsenic-induced HO-1 expression was performed through multiple ROS-dependent signal pathways and the corresponding transcription factors, including p38 MAPK and JNK (but not ERK), AP-1, Nrf2 and NF-κB. TMP inhibited arsenic-induced activations of JNK, p38 MAPK, ERK, AP-1 and Nrf2 and block HO-1 protein expression. The present study, furthermore, demonstrated arsenic-induced expression of arsenic response protein 2 (ARS2) that was regulated by p38 MAPK, ERK and NF-κB. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ARS2 involved in arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity, while TMP pretreatment prevented such an up-regulation of ARS2 in HK-2 cells. Given ARS2 and HO-1 sharing the similar regulation mechanism, we speculated that ARS2 might also mediate cell survival in this procession. In summary, our study highlighted a role of HO-1 in the protection against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity downstream from the primary targets of TMP and further indicated that TMP may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of arsenic

  10. Complex Binding of the FabR Repressor of Bacterial Unsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis to its Cognate Promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Two transcriptional regulators, the FadR activator and the FabR repressor control biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Escherichia coli. FabR represses expression of the two genes, fabA and fabB, required for unsaturated fatty acid synthesis and has been reported to require the presence of an unsaturated thioester (of either acyl carrier protein or CoA) in order to bind the fabA and fabB promoters in vitro. We report in vivo experiments in which unsaturated fatty acid synthesis was bloc...

  11. Low doses of LPS and minimally oxidized LDL cooperatively activate macrophages via NF-kappaB and AP-1: Possible mechanism for acceleration of atherosclerosis by subclinical endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Benner, Christopher; Huang, Wendy; Diehl, Cody J.; Gonen, Ayelet; Butler, Susan; Witztum, Joseph L.; Glass, Christopher K.; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important determinant of inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. It has also been documented that certain chronic infectious diseases, such as periodontitis and chlamydial infection, exacerbate clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. In addition, low-level but persistent metabolic endotoxemia is often found in diabetic and obese subjects and is induced in mice fed a high-fat diet. Objective In this study, we examined cooperative macrophage activation by low levels of bacterial LPS and by minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL), as a model for subclinical endotoxemia-complicated atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We found that both in vitro and in vivo, mmLDL and LPS (Kdo2-LipidA) cooperatively activated macrophages to express pro-inflammatory cytokines Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Ccl3 (MIP-1alpha), and Ccl4 (MIP-1beta). Importantly, the mmLDL and LPS cooperative effects were evident at a threshold LPS concentration (1 ng/ml) at which LPS alone induced only a limited macrophage response. Analyzing microarray data with a de novo motif discovery algorithm, we found that genes transcribed by promoters containing an AP-1 binding site were significantly upregulated by co-stimulation with mmLDL and LPS. In a nuclear factor-DNA binding assay, the cooperative effect of mmLDL and LPS co-stimulation on c-Jun and c-Fos DNA binding, but not on p65 or p50, was dependent on mmLDL-induced activation of ERK1/2. In addition, mmLDL induced JNK-dependent derepression of AP-1 by removing the corepressor NCoR from the chemokine promoters. Conclusions The cooperative engagement of AP-1 and NF-kappaB by mmLDL and LPS may constitute a mechanism of increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines within atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:20489162

  12. Calcium-dependent Nr4a1 expression in mouse Leydig cells requires distinct AP1/CRE and MEF2 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Houssein S; Robert, Nicholas M; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear receptor NR4A1 is expressed in steroidogenic Leydig cells where it plays pivotal roles by regulating the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis and male sex differentiation including Star, HSD3B2, and Insl3 Activation of the cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathways in response to LH stimulation leads to a rapid and robust activation of Nr4a1 gene expression that requires the Ca(2+)/CAMKI pathway. However, the downstream transcription factor(s) have yet to be characterized. To identify potential Ca(2+)/CaM effectors responsible for hormone-induced Nr4a1 expression, MA-10 Leydig cells were treated with forskolin to increase endogenous cAMP levels, dantrolene to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release, and W7 to inhibit CaM activity. We identified Ca(2+)-responsive elements located in the discrete regions of the Nr4a1 promoter, which contain binding sites for several transcription factors such as AP1, CREB, and MEF2. We found that one of the three AP1/CRE sites located at -255 bp is the most responsive to the Ca(2+) signaling pathway as are the two MEF2 binding sites at -315 and -285 bp. Furthermore, we found that the hormone-induced recruitment of phospho-CREB and of the co-activator p300 to the Nr4a1 promoter requires the Ca(2+) pathway. Lastly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CREB impaired NR4A1 expression and steroidogenesis. Together, our data indicate that the Ca(2+) signaling pathway increases Nr4a1 expression in MA-10 Leydig cells, at least in part, by enhancing the recruitment of coactivator most likely through the MEF2, AP1, and CREB transcription factors thus demonstrating an important interplay between the Ca(2+) and cAMP pathways in regulating Nr4a1 expression. PMID:26647388

  13. GDNF-independent ureteric budding: role of PI3K-independent activation of AKT and FOSB/JUN/AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Tee

    2013-07-01

    A significant fraction of mice deficient in either glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF or its co-receptors (Gfrα1, Ret, undergoes ureteric bud (UB outgrowth leading to the formation of a rudimentary kidney. Previous studies using the isolated Wolffian duct (WD culture indicate that activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptor signaling, together with suppression of BMP/Activin signaling, is critical for GDNF-independent WD budding (Maeshima et al., 2007. By expression analysis of embryonic kidney from Ret(−/− mice, we found the upregulation of several FGFs, including FGF7. To examine the intracellular pathways, we then analyzed GDNF-dependent and GDNF-independent budding in the isolated WD culture. In both conditions, Akt activation was found to be important; however, whereas this occurred through PI3-kinase in GDNF-dependent budding, in the case of GDNF-independent budding, Akt activation was apparently via a PI3-kinase independent mechanism. Jnk signaling and the AP-1 transcription factor complex were also implicated in GDNF-independent budding. FosB, a binding partner of c-Jun in the formation of AP-1, was the most highly upregulated gene in the ret knockout kidney (in which budding had still occurred, and we found that its siRNA-mediated knockdown in isolated WDs also blocked GDNF-independent budding. Taken together with the finding that inhibition of Jnk signaling does not block Akt activation/phosphorylation in GDNF-independent budding, the data support necessary roles for both FosB/Jun/AP-1 signaling and PI3-kinase-independent activation of Akt in GDNF-independent budding. A model is proposed for signaling events that involve Akt and JNK working to regulate GDNF-independent WD budding.

  14. Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinqing; Jiang, Yun; Chen, He; Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches using feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation.

  15. Activators and repressors: A balancing act for X-inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Leeanne; Panning, Barbara; Leung, Karen Nicole

    2016-08-01

    In early female embryos X-chromosome inactivation occurs concomitant with up regulation of the non-coding RNA, Xist, on the future inactive X-chromosome. Up regulation of Xist and coating of the future inactive X is sufficient to induce silencing. Therefore unlocking the mechanisms of X-chromosome inactivation requires thorough understanding of the transcriptional regulators, both activators and repressors, which control Xist. Mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cells, which have two active X chromosomes, provide a tractable ex vivo model system for studying X-chromosome inactivation, since this process is triggered by differentiation signals in these cultured cells. Yet there are significant discrepancies found between ex vivo analyses in mouse embryonic stem cells and in vivo studies of early embryos. In this review we elaborate on potential models of how Xist is up regulated on a single X chromosome in female cells and how ex vivo and in vivo analyses enlighten our understanding of the activators and repressors that control this non-coding RNA gene.

  16. [6]-Gingerol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and prevents PMA-induced proliferation in colon cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E K Radhakrishnan

    Full Text Available We report mechanism-based evidence for the anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol, the major active principle of the medicinal plant, Ginger (Zingiber officinale, in colon cancer cells. The compound was evaluated in two human colon cancer cell lines for its cytotoxic effect and the most sensitive cell line, SW-480, was selected for the mechanistic evaluation of its anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy. The non-toxic nature of [6]-gingerol was confirmed by viability assays on rapidly dividing normal mouse colon cells. [6]-gingerol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidyl serine in SW-480, while the normal colon cells were unaffected. Sensitivity to [6]-gingerol in SW-480 cells was associated with activation of caspases 8, 9, 3 &7 and cleavage of PARP, which attests induction of apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, [6]-gingerol down-regulated Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases and activation of AP-1 transcription factor, but had only little effects on phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and activation of NF-kappa B. Additionally, it complemented the inhibitors of either ERK1/2 or JNK MAP kinase in bringing down the PMA-induced cell proliferation in SW-480 cells. We report the inhibition of ERK1/2/JNK/AP-1 pathway as a possible mechanism behind the anticancer as well as chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol against colon cancer.

  17. Radical Scavenging Activity-Based and AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lutein in Macrophage-Like and Skin Keratinocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueun Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL- 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX- 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF- α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP- 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.

  18. Sulforaphane controls TPA-induced MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, but not AP-1, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rae Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl-butane] is anisothiocyanate found in some cruciferous vegetables, especiallybroccoli. Sulforaphane has been shown to displayanti-cancer properties against various cancer cell lines. Matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, which degrades the extracellularmatrix (ECM, plays an important role in cancer cell invasion.In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced MMP-9expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 cells. TPA-inducedMMP-9 expression and cell invasion were decreased bysulforaphane treatment. TPA substantially increased NF-κB andAP-1 DNA binding activity. Pre-treatment with sulforaphaneinhibited TPA-stimulated NF-κB binding activity, but not AP-1binding activity. In addition, we found that sulforaphanesuppressed NF-κB activation, by inhibiting phosphorylation ofIκB in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. In this study, we demonstratedthat the inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cellinvasion by sulforaphane was mediated by the suppression ofthe NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4:201-206

  19. Sequence of galR gene indicates a common evolutionary origin of lac and gal repressor in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    von Wilcken-Bergmann, B; Müller-Hill, B

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the galR gene of Escherichia coli, which codes for galactose repressor, has been determined. The subunits of gal repressor are predicted to consist of 343 residues, including the NH2-terminal methionine. Twenty-six of the predicted NH2-terminal 55 residues of gal repressor are identical to the NH2-terminal residues of lac repressor. Additional homologies appear between residues 165 and 200, between residues 235 and 255, and around residue 325.

  20. Inducing a Site Specific Replication Blockage in E. coli Using a Fluorescent Repressor Operator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettrick, Karla A; Lawrence, Nikki; Mason, Claire; Weaver, Georgia M; Corocher, Tayla-Ann; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles present on DNA, including tightly-bound proteins and various lesions, can severely inhibit the progression of the cell's replication machinery. The stalling of a replisome can lead to its dissociation from the chromosome, either in part or its entirety, leading to the collapse of the replication fork. The recovery from this collapse is a necessity for the cell to accurately complete chromosomal duplication and subsequently divide. Therefore, when the collapse occurs, the cell has evolved diverse mechanisms that take place to restore the DNA fork and allow replication to be completed with high fidelity. Previously, these replication repair pathways in bacteria have been studied using UV damage, which has the disadvantage of not being localized to a known site. This manuscript describes a system utilizing a Fluorescence Repressor Operator System (FROS) to create a site-specific protein block that can induce the stalling and collapse of replication forks in Escherichia coli. Protocols detail how the status of replication can be visualized in single living cells using fluorescence microscopy and DNA replication intermediates can be analyzed by 2-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis. Temperature sensitive mutants of replisome components (e.g. DnaBts) can be incorporated into the system to induce a synchronous collapse of the replication forks. Furthermore, the roles of the recombination proteins and helicases that are involved in these processes can be studied using genetic knockouts within this system. PMID:27583408

  1. Evolutionary divergence of the APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin WANG; Ning ZHANG; Chun-Ce GUO; Gui-Xia XU; Hong-Zhi KONG; Hong-Yan SHAN

    2012-01-01

    APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) are apair of paralogous genes that were generated through the pre-Brassicaceae whole-genome duplication event.AP1 and CAL have both partially redundant and unique functions.Previous studies have shown that the K and C regions of their proteins are essential for the functional divergence.However,which differences in these regions are the major contributors and how the differences were accumulated remain unknown.In the present study,we compared the sequences of the two proteins and identified five gaps and 55 amino acid replacements between them.Investigation of genomic sequences further indicated that the differences in the proteins were caused by non-synonymous substitutions and changes in exon-intron structures.Reconstruction of three-dimensional structures revealed that the sequence divergence of AP1 and CAL has resulted in differences between the two in terms of the number,length,position and orientation of α-helices,especially in the K and C regions.Comparisons of sequences and three-dimensional structures of ancestral proteins with AP1 and CAL suggest that the ancestral AP1 protein experienced fewer changes,whereas the ancestral CAL protein accumulated more changes shortly after gene duplication,relative to their common ancestor.Thereafter,AP1-like proteins experienced few mutations,whereas CAL-like proteins were not conserved until the diversification of the Brassicaceae lineage Ⅰ.This indicates that AP1- and CAL-like proteins evolved asymmetrically after gene duplication.These findings provide new insights into the functional divergence of AP1 and CAL genes.

  2. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  3. A novel strategy to analyze L-tryptophan through allosteric Trp repressor based on rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guojie; Hu, Tianyu; Li, Jun; Wei, Hua; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2015-09-15

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been considered as a powerful tool for nucleic acids detection. Here, a novel repressor-RCA-based method for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) detection was developed. This method utilizes the specific interaction between the RCA circular template and the Trp repressor protein (TrpR) involved in trp operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the absence of L-Trp, the TrpR protein could not bind to the RCA template, and the RCA process can be continued. When L-Trp is present, the activated TrpR will bind to the operon sequence on the RCA template and inhibit the RCA reaction. Thus, the concentration of L-Trp is correlated directly with the fluorescent RCA signals. We succeeded in detecting L-Trp in a single step in simple homogeneous reaction system. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.77 μM (S/N=3) with good linearity. The method can unambiguously distinguish L-Trp from other 19 standard amino acids and L-Trp analogs. This strategy is also promising for detecting many small molecules such as other amino acids and carbohydrates.

  4. Transcriptional repressor domain of MBD1 is intrinsically disordered and interacts with its binding partners in a selective manner.

    KAUST Repository

    Hameed, Umar Farook Shahul

    2014-05-09

    Methylation of DNA CpG sites is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and plays important roles in cell division, development and carcinogenesis. One of its regulators is the 64-residue C-terminal Transcriptional Repressor Domain (the TRD) of MBD1, which recruits several repressor proteins such as MCAF1, HDAC3 and MPG that are essential for the gene silencing. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have characterized the solution structure of the C-terminus of MBD1 (MBD1-c, residues D507 to Q605), which included the TRD (A529 to P592). Surprisingly, the MBD1-c is intrinsically disordered. Despite its lack of a tertiary folding, MBD1-c could still bind to different partner proteins in a selective manner. MPG and MCAF1Δ8 showed binding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal residues of MBD1-c but HDAC3 preferably bound to the C-terminal region. This study reveals how MBD1-c discriminates different binding partners, and thus, expands our understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation by MBD1.

  5. A novel strategy to analyze L-tryptophan through allosteric Trp repressor based on rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guojie; Hu, Tianyu; Li, Jun; Wei, Hua; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2015-09-15

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been considered as a powerful tool for nucleic acids detection. Here, a novel repressor-RCA-based method for L-tryptophan (L-Trp) detection was developed. This method utilizes the specific interaction between the RCA circular template and the Trp repressor protein (TrpR) involved in trp operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In the absence of L-Trp, the TrpR protein could not bind to the RCA template, and the RCA process can be continued. When L-Trp is present, the activated TrpR will bind to the operon sequence on the RCA template and inhibit the RCA reaction. Thus, the concentration of L-Trp is correlated directly with the fluorescent RCA signals. We succeeded in detecting L-Trp in a single step in simple homogeneous reaction system. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.77 μM (S/N=3) with good linearity. The method can unambiguously distinguish L-Trp from other 19 standard amino acids and L-Trp analogs. This strategy is also promising for detecting many small molecules such as other amino acids and carbohydrates. PMID:25889351

  6. A novel berbamine derivative inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells of human glioblastoma, via up-regulation of miRNA-4284 and JNK/AP-1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor, accounting for approximately 40% of all central nervous system malignancies. Despite standard treatment consisting of surgical resection, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM is poor; with a median survival of 14.6 months. The cancer stem cell or cancer-initiating cell model has provided a new paradigm for understanding development and recurrence of GBM following treatment. Berbamine (BBM is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plant, and along with its derivatives, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in several cancers. Here, we reported that a novel synthetic Berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the CSCs from four GBM patients (PBT003, PBT008, PBT022, and PBT030 were cultured. These CSCs grew in neurospheres and expressed CD133 and nestin as markers. Treatment with BBMD3 destroyed the neurosphere morphology, and led to the induction of apoptosis in the CSCs. Induction of apoptosis in these CSCs is dependent upon activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. MicroRNA-4284 (miR-4284 was shown to be over-expressed about 4-fold in the CSCs following BBMD3 treatment. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic anti-sense oligonucleotide against human miR-4284 partially blocked the anticancer effects of BBMD3 on the GBM derived CSCs. BBMD3 also increased phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK, resulting in an increase expression of phosphorylated c-Jun and total c-Fos; the major components of transcriptional factor AP-1. The JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis in response to UV irradiation and some drug treatments. Targeting glioblastoma stem-like cells with BBMD3 is therefore novel, and may have promise as an

  7. Binding of the N-Terminal Domain of the Lactococcal Bacteriophage TP901-1 CI Repressor to Its Target DNA: A Crystallography, Small Angle Scattering, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kristian Erik Høpfner; Rasmussen, Kim K.; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing;

    2013-01-01

    In most temperate bacteriophages, regulation of the choice of lysogenic or lytic life cycle is controlled by a CI repressor protein. Inhibition of transcription is dependent on a helix–turn–helix motif, often located in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which binds to specific DNA sequences (operator ...

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases in the adult brain physiology: a link between c-Fos, AP-1 and remodeling of neuronal connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lapinska-Dzwonek, Joanna; Szymczak, Sylwia

    2002-12-16

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) form an enzymatic system that plays an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. These proteins are also expressed in the brain, especially under pathological conditions, in which glia as well as invading inflammatory cells provide the major source of the MMP activity. Surprisingly little is known about the MMP function(s) in adult neuronal physiology. This review describes available data on this topic, which is presented in a context of knowledge about the MMP/TIMP system in other organs as well as in brain disorders. An analysis of the MMP and TIMP expression patterns in the brain, along with a consideration of their regulatory mechanisms and substrates, leads to the proposal of possible roles of the MMP system in the brain. This analysis suggests that MMPs may play an important role in the neuronal physiology, especially in neuronal plasticity, including their direct participation in the remodeling of synaptic connections-a mechanism pivotal for learning and memory.

  9. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-κB, AP-1, C/EBPα and C/EBPγ transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha R Nookala

    Full Text Available The incidence of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND has increased during recent years even though the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly curtailed the virus replication and increased the life expectancy among HIV-1 infected individuals. These neurological deficits have been attributed to HIV proteins including HIV-1 Tat. HIV-1 Tat is known to up-regulate CCL5 expression in mouse astrocytes, but the mechanism of up-regulation is not known. The present study was undertaken with the objective of determining the mechanism(s underlying HIV-1 Tat-mediated expression of CCL5 in astrocytes. SVGA astrocytes were transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding Tat, and expression of CCL5 was studied at the mRNA and protein levels using real time RT-PCR and multiplex cytokine bead array, respectively. HIV-1 Tat showed a time-dependent increase in the CCL5 expression with peak mRNA and protein levels, observed at 1 h and 48 h post-transfection, respectively. In order to explore the mechanism(s, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA against different pathway(s were used. Pre-treatment with SC514 (NF-κB inhibitor, LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, AG490 (JAK2 inhibitor and Janex-1 (JAK3 inhibitor showed partial reduction of the Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 suggesting involvement of JAK, PI3K/Akt and NF-κB in CCL5 expression. These results were further confirmed by knockdown of the respective genes using siRNA. Furthermore, p38 MAPK was found to be involved since the knockdown of p38δ but not other isoforms showed partial reduction in CCL5 induction. This was further confirmed at transcriptional level that AP-1, C/EBPα and C/EBPγ were involved in CCL5 up-regulation.

  10. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  11. Anticancer effects of monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin: oxidative stress, nuclear translocation and modulation of AP-1 and NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to elucidate anticancer effects of monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs, we have undertaken the present study to obtain information regarding drug targets by using a microarray approach, and to study the cellular localization of EF24 and the activity of two key transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB, involved in complex cellular responses of cell survival and death. Methods: Cytotoxic activity of various drugs was evaluated using a Neutral Red Dye assay. Cellular localization of biotinylated EF24 (active and reduced EF24 (inactive was determined using light and confocal microscopy. Measurement of transcription factor binding was carried out using Transfactor ELISA kits (BD Clontech, Palo Alto, CA. Gene microarray processing was performed at Expression Analysis, Inc (Durham, NC using Affymetrix Human U133A Gene Chips.Results: In this study, we demonstrated that EF24 and UBS109 exhibit much more potent cytotoxic activity against pancreatic cancer than the current standard chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine. EF24, rapidly localizes to the cell nucleus. The compound modulates the DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical studies utilizing biotinylated-EF24 and chemically-reduced EF24 show that the unsaturated compound and biotinylated EF24, but not reduced EF24, translocates to the nucleus within 30 minutes after the addition of drug. Through a gene microarray study, EF24 is shown to affect genes directly involved in cytoprotection, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and apoptosis. Conclusion: EF24 and UBS109 warrant further investigation for development of pancreatic cancer therapy. The dualistic modulations of gene expression may be a manifestation of the cell responses for survival against oxidative stress by EF24. However, the cytotoxic action of EF24 ultimately prevails to kill the cells.

  12. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Berne)

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  13. Apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC restrains Bax-mediated pathogenesis in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Davis

    Full Text Available Myofiber wasting in muscular dystrophy has largely been ascribed to necrotic cell death, despite reports identifying apoptotic markers in dystrophic muscle. Here we set out to identify the contribution of canonical apoptotic pathways to skeletal muscle degeneration in muscular dystrophy by genetically deleting a known inhibitor of apoptosis, apoptosis repressor with a card domain (Arc, in dystrophic mouse models. Nol3 (Arc protein genetic deletion in the dystrophic Sgcd or Lama2 null backgrounds showed exacerbated skeletal muscle pathology with decreased muscle performance compared with single null dystrophic littermate controls. The enhanced severity of the dystrophic phenotype associated with Nol3 deletion was caspase independent but dependent on the mitochondria permeability transition pore (MPTP, as the inhibitor Debio-025 partially rescued skeletal muscle pathology in Nol3 (-/- Sgcd (-/- double targeted mice. Mechanistically, Nol3 (-/- Sgcd (-/- mice showed elevated total and mitochondrial Bax protein levels, as well as greater mitochondrial swelling, suggesting that Arc normally restrains the cell death effects of Bax in skeletal muscle. Indeed, knockdown of Arc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused an increased sensitivity to cell death that was fully blocked in Bax Bak1 (genes encoding Bax and Bak double null fibroblasts. Thus Arc deficiency in dystrophic muscle exacerbates disease pathogenesis due to a Bax-mediated sensitization of mitochondria-dependent death mechanisms.

  14. The effect of steroid receptor coactivator-3 knock-out on AP-1 during the inflammatory response%类固醇受体辅活化子-3基因敲除对炎症反应中活化蛋白-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 田伏洲; 粟永萍; 王军平

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察类固醇受体辅活化子(SRC)-3基因敲除对脂多糖(LPS)诱导的炎症反应中活化蛋白-1(AP-1)表达水平及活性的影响.方法 健康清洁野生型(SRC-3+/+)小鼠、SRC-3基因敲除(SRC-3-/-)小鼠各20只,雌性,体质量约20 g,分为SRC-3+/+组和SRC-3-/-组,每组设正常(N)、1 h、4 h、12 h四个时相点,每个时相点各5只小鼠.采用腹腔注射5 mg/kg体质量LPS构建炎症反应动物模型,Western blot测定肝、脾组织c-Jun、c-Fos的蛋白表达.结果 SRC-3+/+组、SRC-3-/-组小鼠肝、脾组织在LPS刺激后c-Jun、c-Fos蛋白表达水平均显著增加,在相应时相点SRC-3-/-组小鼠显著低于SRC-3+/+组.LPS刺激后1、4 h两组小鼠肝组织c-Jun核转位程度显著增加,且SRC-3-/-组仅在1 h显著低于SRC-3+/+组;两组脾组织c-Jun、肝脾组织c-Fos核转位在所有时相点均显著增加,但在相应时相点SRC-3-/-组小鼠均显著低于SRC-3+/+组.结论 LPS刺激后引起AP-1的表达和活性显著增加,SRC-3蛋白缺失可部分抑制AP-1的表达及活性,这可能与致炎细胞因子合成释放减少有关.%Objective To observe the effect of the absence of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) - 3 on the level of LPS - induced activator protein ( AP) - 1 expression and its activity.Methods We use 20 healthy SPF - grade SRC - 3+/+ mice and SRC - 3 -/- mice respectively, all of which are female, 20 g and are named SRC -3 +/+ group and SRC - 3 -/- group. Then we set four phase points: normal, 1 h, 4 h, and 12 h. Each of the phase points has five mice. On the model of inflammatory response induced by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS ( 5 mg/kg body weight) , western blot was used to detect the expression of c - Jun and c - Fos in liver and spleen. Results After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS with a dose of 5mg/kg body weight, the level of LPS - induced c - Jun and c - Fos expression in liver and spleen were significantly increased in both SRC - 3+/+ group and SRC -3

  15. The Molecular Switch of Telomere Phages: High Binding Specificity of the PY54 Cro Lytic Repressor to a Single Operator Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Roschanski, Nicole; Lurz, Rudi; Johne, Reimar; Lanka, Erich; Hertwig, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a molecular switch, which regulates the lytic and lysogenic growth. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54 and ɸKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator. The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI, Cro and Q, respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ɸKO2 are also reminiscent of lambda-like phages. By contrast, in silico analyses revealed the presence of only one operator (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3) in PY54. The purified PY54 Cro protein was used for EMSA studies demonstrating that it exclusively binds to a 16-bp palindromic site (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3) upstream of the prophage repressor gene. The O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\)3 operator sequences of PY54 and ɸKO2/N15 only differ by their peripheral base pairs, which are responsible for Cro specificity. PY54 cI and cro transcription is regulated by highly active promoters initiating the synthesis of a homogenious species of leaderless mRNA. The location of the PY54 Cro binding site and of the identified promoters suggests that the lytic repressor suppresses cI transcription but not its own synthesis. The results indicate an unexpected diversity of the growth regulation mechanisms in lambda-related phages. PMID:26043380

  16. The Molecular Switch of Telomere Phages: High Binding Specificity of the PY54 Cro Lytic Repressor to a Single Operator Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Andre Hammerl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperate bacteriophages possess a molecular switch, which regulates the lytic and lysogenic growth. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54 and ɸKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator. The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI, Cro and Q, respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ɸKO2 are also reminiscent of lambda-like phages. By contrast, in silico analyses revealed the presence of only one operator (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 in PY54. The purified PY54 Cro protein was used for EMSA studies demonstrating that it exclusively binds to a 16-bp palindromic site (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 upstream of the prophage repressor gene. The O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 operator sequences of PY54 and ɸKO2/N15 only differ by their peripheral base pairs, which are responsible for Cro specificity. PY54 cI and cro transcription is regulated by highly active promoters initiating the synthesis of a homogenious species of leaderless mRNA. The location of the PY54 Cro binding site and of the identified promoters suggests that the lytic repressor suppresses cI transcription but not its own synthesis. The results indicate an unexpected diversity of the growth regulation mechanisms in lambda-related phages.

  17. 下调AP-1基因表达在冬凌草甲素抑制结直肠癌中的作用%Downregulation of AP-1 gene expression is an initial event in oridonin-mediated inhibition of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金黑鹰; 戴功建; 丁义江; 夏建国; 刘秀芳; 刘飞; 谈瑄忠; 耿建祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective Oridonin is the active ingredient isolated from the Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens. We used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the oridonin-mediated inhibition of colorectal cancer. Methods Two colorectal cell lines, LoVo and SW480,were treated with oridonin in solution. The effect of this treatment on inhibition of cell proliferation rate was determined by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method. The changes in gene expression that occurred in both cell lines in response to treatment with oridonin were determined via illumine expression sensor.Additionally, a colorectal cancer colostomy implantation model was established. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with an oridonin solution. Results Treatment of LoVo and SW480 cells with oridonin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition rate was increased with prolonged treatment. The growth rate of the colorectal cancer colostomy implantation model was significantly lower than control cells when treated with oridonin ( P < 0. 01 ). However, oridonin treatment did not have a signiticant effect on tumor growth rate ( P > 0. 05 ). In the tumor model, AP-1 was the only gene found to be downregulated after oridonin treatment by the gene expression sensor. After 4 weeks of treatment, AP-1,nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 were all found to be downregulated. Conclusion Our study has confirmed the inhibitory effects of oridonin on colovectal cancer. These results indicate that the downregulation of AP-1 might be an initial response to treatment by oridonin. This regulation could, in turn, affect the expression of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth.%目的 探讨冬凌草甲素对结自肠癌的抑制作用及其机制.方法 以冬凌草甲素水溶液处理LoVo和SW480结直肠癌细胞株,噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测细胞增殖抑制率,以Illumina表达芯片检测LoVo细胞和SW480细胞基因表

  18. VIP gene transcription is regulated by far upstream enhancer and repressor elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Krajniak, K; Chun, D; Sena, M; Casillas, R; Lelièvre, V; Nguyen, T; Bravo, D; Colburn, S; Waschek, J A

    2001-06-01

    SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma subclones differ widely in basal and second messenger induction of the gene encoding the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These differences were recapitulated by a chimeric gene which consisted of 5.2 kb of the human VIP gene 5' flanking sequence fused to a reporter. Subsequent gene deletion experiments revealed several regulatory regions on the gene, including a 645-bp sequence located approximately 4.0 upstream from the transcription start site. Here we examined this upstream region in detail. Inhibitory sequences were found to be present on each end of the 645-bp fragment. When removed, basal transcription increased more than 50-fold. Subsequent deletion/mutation analysis showed that the 213-bp fragment contained at least two enhancer elements. One of these was localized to an AT-rich 42-bp sequence shown by others to bind Oct proteins in neuroblastoma cells, while the other corresponded to a composite AP-1/ets element. In addition to these enhancers, a 28-bp sequence on the 213-bp fragment with no apparent homology to known silencers inhibited transcription. The studies provide molecular details of a complex regulatory region on the VIP gene that is likely to be used to finely tune the level of gene transcription in vivo.

  19. Clinical significance of AP-1 pathway alterations in cervical carcinoma%宫颈癌中激活蛋白1通路的活化及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱皓皞; 于晓红; 杜丽英; 熊敦勇; 寇辉; 王芳胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of activator protein-1 (AP-1),an important sig-naling pathway component of c-jun and c-fos,in cervical cancer .Methods Immunohistochemical ( SP) method was used to detect the expression of c-jun and c-fos in 70 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma ,30 cases of cervical intraepithelial lesions and 20 cases of chronic cervicitis .The relationship between expressions and clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance was analyzed . Results The positive expression rates of c-jun and c-fos were 57.1%(40/70) and 60%(42/70) in 70 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.The positive expression rates were 53.3%(16/30) and 63.3%(19/30) in 30 cases of cervical intraepithelial neopla-sia.The positive expression rate in the 20 cases of chronic cervicitis was 0.The expression rate in cervical cancer group and the chronic cervicitis group has a significant difference (P0.05).The different expression of c-jun and c-fos protein in cervical carcinomas was statistically signif-icant in the different groups of clinical stage ,pathology grading and lymph node metastasis (P0.05).Additionally,the expression of c-jun was positively correlated with that of c-fos (r=0.67,P<0.05).Conclusion AP-1 pathway alterations may play a critical role in the development of cervical cancer,and c-jun and c-fos make synergistic action during the process of cervical cancer .%目的:探讨激活蛋白1(AP-1)信号通路的重要组分c-jun和c-fos在宫颈癌中的表达及临床意义。方法免疫组织化学( SP)法检测c-jun和c-fos在70例宫颈鳞状细胞癌、30例宫颈上皮内瘤变及20例慢性宫颈炎中的表达情况,同时分析其与宫颈癌临床病理特征和预后的关系。结果70例宫颈癌中c-jun和c-fos的阳性表达率分别为57.1%(40/70)、60.0%(42/70),在30例宫颈上皮内瘤变的表达阳性率分别为53.3%(16/30)、63.3%(19/30),而在20

  20. Recombinant methionine aminopeptidase protein of Babesia microti: immunobiochemical characterization as a vaccine candidate against human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-09-01

    Human babesiosis is the most important zoonotic protozoan infection in the world. This is the first report of the cloning, expression, purification, and immunobiochemical characterization of a methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) protein from Babesia microti (B. microti). The gene encodes a MetAP1 protein of B. microti (BmMetAP1) of approximately 66.8 kDa that includes glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and shows MetAP activity. BmMetAP1 was detected in a lysate of B. microti and further localized in cytoplasm of the B. microti merozoite. rBmMetAP1 was found to be immunogenic, eliciting a high antibody titer in mice. Moreover, rBmMetAP1 stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 but not IL-4. Finally, rBmMetAP1 was able to provide considerable protection to mice against a B. microti challenge infection based on a reduction in peak parasitemia levels and earlier clearance of the parasite as compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest that rBmMetAP1 confers significant protection against experimental B. microti infection and might be considered a potential vaccine target against human babesiosis. PMID:27306898

  1. Molecular Binding Mechanism of TtgR Repressor to Antibiotics and Antimicrobials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandez-Escamilla

    Full Text Available A disturbing phenomenon in contemporary medicine is the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Efflux pumps contribute strongly to this antimicrobial drug resistance, which leads to the subsequent failure of clinical treatments. The TtgR protein of Pseudomonas putida is a HTH-type transcriptional repressor that controls expression of the TtgABC efflux pump, which is the main contributor to resistance against several antimicrobials and toxic compounds in this microbe. One of the main strategies to modulate the bacterial resistance is the rational modification of the ligand binding target site. We report the design and characterization of four mutants-TtgRS77A, TtgRE78A, TtgRN110A and TtgRH114A - at the active ligand binding site. The biophysical characterization of the mutants, in the presence and in the absence of different antimicrobials, revealed that TtgRN110A is the variant with highest thermal stability, under any of the experimental conditions tested. EMSA experiments also showed a different dissociation pattern from the operator for TtgRN110A, in the presence of several antimicrobials, making it a key residue in the TtgR protein repression mechanism of the TtgABC efflux pump. We found that TtgRE78A stability is the most affected upon effector binding. We also probe that one mutation at the C-terminal half of helix-α4, TtgRS77A, provokes a severe protein structure distortion, demonstrating the important role of this residue in the overall protein structure and on the ligand binding site. The data provide new information and deepen the understanding of the TtgR-effector binding mechanism and consequently the TtgABC efflux pump regulation mechanism in Pseudomonas putida.

  2. 三氯乙烯致敏豚鼠单核淋巴细胞中β-arrestin蛋白表达和核转录因子及激活蛋白-1活性的研究%β-arrestin and NF-κB, AP-1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of guinea pigs sensitized by trichloroethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪立杰; 郭瑞娟; 沈彤; 朱启星

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the regulatory mechanism of immune response of guinea pigs sensitized by trichloroethylene (TCE), and the expression level of β-arrestin, and the activity of NF-κB and AP-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of guinea pigs sensitized by TCE. Methods Guinea pigs were treated with TCE based on the guinea pig maximum response test (GPMT); Blank control group and DNCB positive control group were established. Scores of skin reaction were evaluated and used to determine whether or not allergy in guinea pig. Then TCE treated group was divided into sensitized group or un-sensitized group. The expression levels of β-arrestin protein, activity of NF-κB and AP-1 in PBMC were detected by Western Blotting and EMSA, respectively. TNF-α level in serum was detected by ELISA Kits. Results No erythema or edema was found in the control group; part of guinea pigs treated with TCE developed erythema and edema, while obvious erythema and edema could be found in DNCB group. The sensitization rates were 71.4% and 100% in TCE and DNCB group,respectively. Compared with TCE un-sensitized group, expression of β-arrestin and AP-1 activity were not significantly different in TCE sensitized group (P>0.05). While the NF-κB activity was elevated obviously(P0.05).与空白对照组和TCE未致敏组相比,TCE致敏组NF-κB活性明显升高,且差异有统计学意义(P0.05).TCE致敏组血清中TNF-α水平[(55.485+8.732)pg/ml]较空白对照组[(32.118±12.550)pg/ml]明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 以TCE致敏豚鼠β-arrestin和AP-1可能没被激活,而NF-κB被明显激活且在TCE致敏免疫反应中发挥着调节作用.

  3. The src Homology 3-Like Domain of the Diphtheria Toxin Repressor (DtxR) Modulates Repressor Activation through Interaction with the Ancillary Metal Ion-Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Love, John F.; vanderSpek, Johanna C.; Murphy, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is a transition metal ion-activated repressor that acts as a global regulatory element in the control of iron-sensitive genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. We recently described (L. Sun, J. C. vanderSpek, and J. R. Murphy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:14985-14990, 1998) the isolation and in vivo characterization of a hyperactive mutant of DtxR, DtxR(E175K), that appeared to be constitutively active. We demonstrate here that while DtxR(E175K) remains ac...

  4. Heat-induced fibrillation of BclXL apoptotic repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Vikas; Olenick, Max B; Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; McDonald, Caleb B; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Kurouski, Dmitry; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Shareef, Mohammed M; Gupta, Vineet; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-09-01

    The BclXL apoptotic repressor bears the propensity to associate into megadalton oligomers in solution, particularly under acidic pH. Herein, using various biophysical methods, we analyze the effect of temperature on the oligomerization of BclXL. Our data show that BclXL undergoes irreversible aggregation and assembles into highly-ordered rope-like homogeneous fibrils with length in the order of mm and a diameter in the μm-range under elevated temperatures. Remarkably, the formation of such fibrils correlates with the decay of a largely α-helical fold into a predominantly β-sheet architecture of BclXL in a manner akin to the formation of amyloid fibrils. Further interrogation reveals that while BclXL fibrils formed under elevated temperatures show no observable affinity toward BH3 ligands, they appear to be optimally primed for insertion into cardiolipin bicelles. This salient observation strongly argues that BclXL fibrils likely represent an on-pathway intermediate for insertion into mitochondrial outer membrane during the onset of apoptosis. Collectively, our study sheds light on the propensity of BclXL to form amyloid-like fibrils with important consequences on its mechanism of action in gauging the apoptotic fate of cells in health and disease. PMID:23714425

  5. Regulatable and Modulable Background Expression Control in Prokaryotic Synthetic Circuits by Auxiliary Repressor Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merulla, Davide; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-15

    Expression control in synthetic genetic circuitry, for example, for construction of sensitive biosensors, is hampered by the lack of DNA parts that maintain ultralow background yet achieve high output upon signal integration by the cells. Here, we demonstrate how placement of auxiliary transcription factor binding sites within a regulatable promoter context can yield an important gain in signal-to-noise output ratios from prokaryotic biosensor circuits. As a proof of principle, we use the arsenite-responsive ArsR repressor protein from Escherichia coli and its cognate operator. Additional ArsR operators placed downstream of its target promoter can act as a transcription roadblock in a distance-dependent manner and reduce background expression of downstream-placed reporter genes. We show that the transcription roadblock functions both in cognate and heterologous promoter contexts. Secondary ArsR operators placed upstream of their promoter can also improve signal-to-noise output while maintaining effector dependency. Importantly, background control can be released through the addition of micromolar concentrations of arsenite. The ArsR-operator system thus provides a flexible system for additional gene expression control, which, given the extreme sensitivity to micrograms per liter effector concentrations, could be applicable in more general contexts.

  6. Thrombin mediates migration of rat brain astrocytes via PLC, Ca²⁺, CaMKII, PKCα, and AP-1-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lee, I-Ta; Wu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Chiung-Ju; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chien-Chung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2013-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cells migration. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells) remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of pro-form MMP-9 and migration of RBA-1 cells, which were inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitor of Gq-coupled receptor (GPAnt2A), Gi/o-coupled receptor (GPAnt2), PC-PLC (D609), PI-PLC (U73122), Ca(2+)-ATPase (thapsigargin, TG), calmodulin (CaMI), CaMKII (KN62), PKC (Gö6976 or GF109203X), MEK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), or AP-1 (Tanshinone IIA) or the intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM) and transfection with siRNA of PKCα, Erk2, JNK1, p38 MAPK, c-Jun, or c-Fos. In addition, thrombin-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was attenuated by PPACK (a thrombin inhibitor). Thrombin further induced CaMKII phosphorylation and PKCα translocation, which were inhibited by U73122, D609, KN62, TG, or BAPTA/AM. Thrombin also induced PKCα-dependent p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2, but not p38 MAPK activation. Finally, we showed that thrombin enhanced c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation. c-Fos mRNA levels induced by thrombin were reduced by PD98059, SP600125, and Gö6976, but not SB202190. Thrombin stimulated in vivo binding of c-Fos to the MMP-9 promoter, which was reduced by pretreatment with SP600125 or PD98059, but not SB202190. These results concluded that thrombin activated a PLC/Ca(2+)/CaMKII/PKCα/p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathway, which in turn triggered AP-1 activation and ultimately induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells.

  7. JAZ repressors: Possible Involvement in Nutrients Deficiency Response in Rice and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JA are well-known phytohormones which play important roles in plant development and defence against pathogens. Jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ proteins are plant-specific proteins and act as transcriptional repressors of JA-responsive genes. JA regulates both biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants; however, its role in nutrient deficiency responses is very elusive. Although, JA is well-known for root growth inhibition, little is known about behaviour of JAZ genes in response to nutrient deficiencies, under which root architectural alteration is an important adaptation. Using protein sequence homology and a conserved-domains approach, here we identify ten novel JAZ genes from the recently sequenced Chickpea genome, which is one of the most nutrient efficient crops. Both rice and chickpea JAZ genes express in tissue- and stimuli-specific manners. Many of which are preferentially expressed in root. Our analysis further showed differential expression of JAZ genes under macro (NPK and micronutrients (Zn, Fe deficiency in rice and chickpea roots. While both rice and chickpea JAZ genes showed a certain level of specificity towards type of nutrient deficiency, generally majority of them showed induction under K deficiency. Generally, JAZ genes showed an induction at early stages of stress and expression declined at later stages of macro-nutrient deficiency. Our results suggest that JAZ genes might play a role in early nutrient deficiency response both in monocot and dicot roots, and information generated here can be further used for understanding the possible roles of JA in root architectural alterations for nutrient deficiency adaptations

  8. Molecular analysis of the notch repressor-complex in Drosophila: characterization of potential hairless binding sites on suppressor of hairless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kurth

    Full Text Available The Notch signalling pathway mediates cell-cell communication in a wide variety of organisms. The major components, as well as the basic mechanisms of Notch signal transduction, are remarkably well conserved amongst vertebrates and invertebrates. Notch signalling results in transcriptional activation of Notch target genes, which is mediated by an activator complex composed of the DNA binding protein CSL, the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and the transcriptional coactivator Mastermind. In the absence of active signalling, CSL represses transcription from Notch target genes by the recruitment of corepressors. The Notch activator complex is extremely well conserved and has been studied in great detail. However, Notch repressor complexes are far less understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CSL protein is termed Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H]. Su(H functions as a transcriptional repressor by binding Hairless, the major antagonist of Notch signalling in Drosophila, which in turn recruits two general corepressors--Groucho and C-terminal binding protein CtBP. Recently, we determined that the C-terminal domain (CTD of Su(H binds Hairless and identified a single site in Hairless, which is essential for contacting Su(H. Here we present additional biochemical and in vivo studies aimed at mapping the residues in Su(H that contact Hairless. Focusing on surface exposed residues in the CTD, we identified two sites that affect Hairless binding in biochemical assays. Mutation of these sites neither affects binding to DNA nor to Notch. Subsequently, these Su(H mutants were found to function normally in cellular and in vivo assays using transgenic flies. However, these experiments rely on Su(H overexpression, which does not allow for detection of quantitative or subtle differences in activity. We discuss the implications of our results.

  9. The Groucho co-repressor is primarily recruited to local target sites in active chromatin to attenuate transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamna Kaul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is regulated by the complex interaction between transcriptional activators and repressors, which function in part by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to control accessibility of DNA to RNA polymerase. The evolutionarily conserved family of Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE proteins act as co-repressors for numerous transcription factors. Gro/TLE proteins act in several key pathways during development (including Notch and Wnt signaling, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Gro/TLE proteins form oligomers and it has been proposed that their ability to exert long-range repression on target genes involves oligomerization over broad regions of chromatin. However, analysis of an endogenous gro mutation in Drosophila revealed that oligomerization of Gro is not always obligatory for repression in vivo. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq to profile Gro recruitment in two Drosophila cell lines. We find that Gro predominantly binds at discrete peaks (<1 kilobase. We also demonstrate that blocking Gro oligomerization does not reduce peak width as would be expected if Gro oligomerization induced spreading along the chromatin from the site of recruitment. Gro recruitment is enriched in "active" chromatin containing developmentally regulated genes. However, Gro binding is associated with local regions containing hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4, which is indicative of chromatin that is not fully open for efficient transcription. We also find that peaks of Gro binding frequently overlap the transcription start sites of expressed genes that exhibit strong RNA polymerase pausing and that depletion of Gro leads to release of polymerase pausing and increased transcription at a bona fide target gene. Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone

  10. 胰岛素诱导Zucker肥胖大鼠肾小球系膜细胞AP-1活化强度与基因型和鼠龄的关系:一项关于糖尿病肾损伤机制的研究%Relationship between the activity of AP-1 in glomrular mesangial cells induced by insulin to the ages and genotype of Zucker rats:a study of regarding injury of kidney induced by diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘卫华; 丁桂霞; 陈荣华

    2004-01-01

    目的 :研究胰岛素( INS)对体外培养的 Zucker大鼠肾小球系膜细胞( GMC)中核转录因子激活蛋白- 1( AP-1)活性的影响,观察 INS诱导的 AP-1活性的变化与 Zucker大鼠鼠龄及基因型的相关性. 方法:①采用 Zucker 肥胖大鼠( 3月龄和 10月龄)及 Zucker 瘦型大鼠( 3月龄和 10月龄)的 4种 GMC株( O3m, O10m, L3m ,L10m)进行传代培养.②利用凝胶迁移率实验( EMSA)和超迁移率实验检测不同浓度及不同时相 INS对 Zucker大鼠 GMC AP-1活性的影响,以及 AP-1二聚体中 c-jun和 c-fos成分的变化. 结果 :① INS诱导后, 4组 GMC内 AP-1活性均较对照组明显增强( F= 244.53, P< 0.01).②随着 INS刺激浓度增加和时间的延长, GMC内 AP-1活性相应增强, 0.5 mg/L的 INS刺激 15 h时, AP-1活性强度达最高峰.③ INS主要激活 AP-1二聚体成分中的 c-jun.④ O10m组 AP-1的活性显著高于 O3m组( q=10.72, P< 0.01), L10m组 AP-1的活性显著高于 L3m组( q=9.88, P< 0.01), O10m组显著高于 L10m组( P< 0.01) , O3m组显著高于 L3m组( q=16.37, P< 0.01). 结论 :INS可诱导 Zucker大鼠 GMC内 AP-1活化,其活化方式呈时间和浓度依赖;活化强度与大鼠的基因型及鼠龄密切相关; INS对 GMC内 AP-1的诱导活化在 Zucker肥胖大鼠晚期的肾损害中起着更为重要的作用.

  11. A versatile ΦC31 based reporter system for measuring AP-1 and Nrf2 signaling in Drosophila and in tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Chatterjee

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a system of transcriptional reporter genes for monitoring the activity of signaling pathways and gene regulation mechanisms in intact Drosophila, dissected tissues or cultured cells. Transgenic integration of the reporters into the Drosophila germline was performed in a site-directed manner, using ΦC31 integrase. This strategy avoids variable position effects and assures low base level activity and high signal responsiveness. Defined integration sites furthermore enable the experimenter to compare the activity of different reporters in one organism. The reporter constructs have a modular design to facilitate the combination of promoter elements (synthetic transcription factor binding sites or natural regulatory sequences, reporter genes (eGFP, or DsRed.T4, and genomic integration sites. The system was used to analyze and compare the activity and signal response profiles of two stress inducible transcription factors, AP-1 and Nrf2. To complement the transgenic reporter fly lines, tissue culture assays were developed in which the same synthetic ARE and TRE elements control the expression of firefly luciferase.

  12. CR3 and Dectin-1 Collaborate in Macrophage Cytokine Response through Association on Lipid Rafts and Activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Hua Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between heterogeneous pattern recognition receptors (PRRs leading to synergistic coordination of immune response is important for the host to fight against invading pathogens. Although complement receptor 3 (CR3 and Dectin-1 are major PRRs to detect fungi, crosstalk between these two receptors in antifungal immunity is largely undefined. Here we took advantage of Histoplasma capsulatum which is known to interact with both CR3 and Dectin-1 and specific particulate ligands to study the collaboration of CR3 and Dectin-1 in macrophage cytokine response. By employing Micro-Western Array (MWA, genetic approach, and pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrated that CR3 and Dectin-1 act collaboratively to trigger macrophage TNF and IL-6 response through signaling integration at Syk kinase, allowing subsequent enhanced activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 pathway. Upon engagement, CR3 and Dectin-1 colocalize and form clusters on lipid raft microdomains which serve as a platform facilitating their cooperation in signaling activation and cytokine production. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that CR3 and Dectin-1 cooperatively participate in host defense against disseminated histoplasmosis and instruct adaptive immune response. Taken together, our findings define the mechanism of receptor crosstalk between CR3 and Dectin-1 and demonstrate the importance of their collaboration in host defense against fungal infection.

  13. AP1000反应堆厂房总体布置设计分析%Analysis of the Overall Layout Design of AP1 000 Reactor Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛静; 马强

    2013-01-01

    The general layout design of nuclear power plant is an important stage in the whole design work, plays a decisive role to improve plant safety, economy. This paper introduces designs the overal arrangement in the AP1 000 reactor buildin-g, by analyzing the main characteristics of its layout, reviewes and discusses the design idea in the general arrangement of re-actor buildings, and provides some references for other power plant general layout designs.%核电站的总体布置设计是整个设计工作中的重要阶段,对提高电站的安全性、经济性有着举足轻重的作用。本文对AP1000的反应堆厂房内的总体布置设计进行介绍,通过分析其布置的主要特点,对其在反应堆厂房的总体布置中采取的设计理念进行总结和探讨,为其他电站的厂房总体布置设计提供一定的借鉴和参考。

  14. Stromelysin-3 induction and interstitial collagenase repression by retinoic acid. Therapeutical implication of receptor-selective retinoids dissociating transactivation and AP-1-mediated transrepression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, E; Ludwig, M G; Basset, P; Anglard, P

    1997-04-25

    Human stromelysin-3 and interstitial collagenase are matrix metalloproteinases whose expression by stromal cells in several types of carcinomas has been associated with cancer progression. We compared here the regulation of the expression of both proteinases by retinoids in human fibroblasts. Physiological concentrations of retinoic acid were found to simultaneously induce stromelysin-3 and repress interstitial collagenase. In both cases, the involvement of a transcriptional mechanism was supported by run-on assays. Furthermore, in transient transfection experiments, the activity of the stromelysin-3 promoter was induced by retinoic acid through endogenous receptors acting on a DR1 retinoic acid-responsive element. The ligand-dependent activation of the receptors was also investigated by using selective synthetic retinoids, and we demonstrated that retinoic acid-retinoid X receptor heterodimers were the most potent functional units controlling both stromelysin-3 induction and interstitial collagenase repression. However, specific retinoids dissociating the transactivation and the AP-1-mediated transrepression functions of the receptors were found to repress interstitial collagenase without inducing stromelysin-3. These findings indicate that such retinoids may represent efficient inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase expression in the treatment of human carcinomas. PMID:9111003

  15. Characterization and purification of Adh distal promoter factor 2, Adf-2, a cell-specific and promoter-specific repressor in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyajati, C; Ewel, A; McKeon, J; Chovav, M; Juan, E

    1992-01-01

    Chromatin footprinting in Drosophila tissue culture cells has detected the binding of a non-histone protein at +8 of the distal Adh RNA start site, on a 10-bp direct repeat motif abutting a nucleosome positioned over the inactive Adh distal promoter. Alternatively the active promoter is bound by a transcription initiation complex. We have characterized and purified a protein Adf-2 that binds specifically to this direct repeat motif 5'TCTCAGTGCA3', present at +8 and -202 of the distal RNA start site. DNase I footprinting, methylation interference, and UV-crosslinking analyses showed that both direct repeats interact in vitro with a nuclear protein of approximately 120 kilodaltons (kDa). We purified Adf-2 through multiple rounds of sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography. Southwestern analysis showed that the purified 120 KDa polypeptide binds the Adf-2 motif efficiently as a monomer or homomultimer. In vivo titrations of Adf-2 activity with the Adf-2 motif by transient co-transfection competitions in different Drosophila cell lines suggested that Adf-2 is a cell-specific repressor. Adf-2 has been detected ubiquitously in vitro, but is functional in vivo as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein and repressor only in the cells that have the inactive distal promoter. We discuss the possibility that an activation process is required for Adf-2 protein to bind DNA and function in vivo. Images PMID:1408750

  16. Quaternary re-arrangement analysed by spectral enhancement: the interaction of a sporulation repressor with its antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D J; Leejeerajumnean, S; Brannigan, J A; Lewis, R J; Wilkinson, A J; Hoggett, J G

    1999-11-12

    The protein/protein interaction between SinI and SinR has been studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and gel electrophoresis in an attempt to understand how these proteins contribute to developmental control of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. SinR was found to be tetrameric, while SinI was found to exist as monomers and dimers in a rapidly reversible equilibrium. Labelling of SinR by incorporating the tryptophan analogue 7-azatryptophan (7AW) into the protein in place of tryptophan shifts the UV absorbance spectrum, thus allowing selective monitoring of 7AWSinR at 315 nm using the UV absorption optics of the analytical ultracentrifuge. Selective monitoring of SinR in mixtures of SinR and SinI enables the binding and stoichiometry of the interaction to be investigated quantitatively and unambiguously. We demonstrate that the oligomeric forms of SinR and SinI re-arrange to form a tight 1:1 SinR:SinI complex, with no stable intermediate species. A fragment of SinR, SinR(1-69), which contains only the DNA-binding domain, was found to be monomeric, showing that the protein appears not to oligomerise in a similar manner to the Cro repressor, a protein with which it shares a marked structural similarity. PMID:10547280

  17. Identification and characterization a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limeng; Li, Chenghua; Chang, Yaqing; Gao, Yinxue; Wang, Yi; Wei, Jing; Song, Jian; Sun, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important gene expression regulator with typical Jun and region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domains and can respond to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimulus. In this study, we identified a novel AP-1 gene in Apostichopus japonicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjAP-1). The full-length of AjAP-1 was of 2944 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 201 bp, a 3' UTR of 1753 bp and a putative open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a polypeptide of 329 amino acid residues. Two representative domains of Jun and bZIP as well as two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were also detected in deduced amino acid of AjAP-1. Spatial distribution expression indicated that AjAP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the body wall, moderate in the tube feet, respiratory tree and colemocytes and slightly weak in the intestine and longitudinal muscle. Time-course expression analysis in intestine and coelomocytes revealed that AjAP-1 both reached its peak expression at 4 h after Vibrio splendidus challenge with a 2.6 and 8.2-fold increase compared to their control groups, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggested that AjAP-1 was a novel immune factor and might be involved in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber. PMID:26093208

  18. Interplay of protein and DNA structure revealed in simulations of the lac operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Czapla

    Full Text Available The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information.

  19. Investigation of Changes in Tetracycline Repressor Binding upon Mutations in the Tetracycline Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Volzing, Katherine; Vivcharuk, Victor; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Srivastava, Poonam; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2014-10-01

    The tetracycline operon is an important gene network component, commonly used in synthetic biology applications because of its switch-like character. At the heart of this system is the highly specific interaction of the tet repressor protein (TetR) with its cognate DNA sequence (tetO). TetR binding on tetO practically stops expression of genes downstream of tetO by excluding RNA polymerase from binding the promoter and initiating transcription. Mutating the tetO sequence alters the strength of TetR-tetO binding and thus provides a tool to synthetic biologists to manipulate gene expression levels. We employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the free energy perturbation method to investigate the binding affinity of TetR to different tetO mutants. We also carry out in vivo tests in Escherichia coli for a series of promoters based on these mutants. We obtain reasonable agreement between experimental green fluorescent protein (GFP) repression levels and binding free energy differences computed from molecular simulations. In all cases, the wild-type tetO sequence yields the strongest TetR binding, which is observed both experimentally, in terms of GFP levels, and in simulation, in terms of free energy changes. Two of the four tetO mutants we tested yield relatively strong binding, whereas the other two mutants tend to be significantly weaker. The clustering and relative ranking of this subset of tetO mutants is generally consistent between our own experimental data, previous experiments with different systems and the free energy changes computed from our simulations. Overall, this work offers insights into an important synthetic biological system and demonstrates the potential, as well as limitations of molecular simulations to quantitatively explain biologically relevant behavior.

  20. ZEB-1, a Repressor of the Semaphorin 3F Tumor Suppressor Gene in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Clarhaut

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available SEMA3F is a secreted semaphorin with potent antitumor activity, which is frequently downregulated in lung cancer. In cancer cell lines, SEMA3F overexpression decreases hypoxia-induced factor 1α protein and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, and inhibits multiple signaling components. Therefore, understanding how SEMA3F expression is inhibited in cancer cells is important. We previously defined the promoter organization of SEMA3F and found that chromatin remodeling by a histone deacetylase inhibitor was sufficient to activate SEMA3F expression. In lung cancer, we have also shown that ZEB-1, an E-box transcription repressor, is predominantly responsible for loss of E-Cadherin associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. In the present study, we demonstrated that ZEB-1 also inhibits SEMA3F in lung cancer cells. Levels of ZEB-1, but not ZEB-2, Snail or Slug, significantly correlate with SEMA3F inhibition, and overexpression or inhibition of ZEB-1 correspondingly affected SEMA3F expression. Four conserved E-box sites were identified in the SEMA3F gene. Direct ZEB-1 binding was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays for two of these, and ZEB-1 binding was reduced when cells were treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These results demonstrate that ZEB-1 directly inhibits SEMA3F expression in lung cancer cells. SEMA3F loss was associated with changes in cell signaling: increased phospho-AKT in normoxia and increase of hypoxia-induced factor 1α protein in hypoxia. Moreover, exogenous addition of SEMA3F could modulate ZEB-1-induced angiogenesis in a chorioallantoic membrane assay. Together, these data provide further support for the importance of SEMA3F and ZEB-1 in lung cancer progression.

  1. Genome-wide RIP-Chip analysis of translational repressor-bound mRNAs in the Plasmodium gametocyte

    KAUST Repository

    Guerreiro, Ana

    2014-11-03

    Background Following fertilization, the early proteomes of metazoans are defined by the translation of stored but repressed transcripts; further embryonic development relies on de novo transcription of the zygotic genome. During sexual development of Plasmodium berghei, a rodent model for human malaria species including P. falciparum, the stability of repressed mRNAs requires the translational repressors DOZI and CITH. When these repressors are absent, Plasmodium zygote development and transmission to the mosquito vector is halted, as hundreds of transcripts become destabilized. However, which mRNAs are direct targets of these RNA binding proteins, and thus subject to translational repression, is unknown. Results We identify the maternal mRNA contribution to post-fertilization development of P. berghei using RNA immunoprecipitation and microarray analysis. We find that 731 mRNAs, approximately 50% of the transcriptome, are associated with DOZI and CITH, allowing zygote development to proceed in the absence of RNA polymerase II transcription. Using GFP-tagging, we validate the repression phenotype of selected genes and identify mRNAs relying on the 5′ untranslated region for translational control. Gene deletion reveals a novel protein located in the ookinete crystalloid with an essential function for sporozoite development. Conclusions Our study details for the first time the P. berghei maternal repressome. This mRNA population provides the developing ookinete with coding potential for key molecules required for life-cycle progression, and that are likely to be critical for the transmission of the malaria parasite from the rodent and the human host to the mosquito vector.

  2. Identification of operator sites of the CI repressor of phage TP901-1: evolutionary link to other phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.H.; Brøndsted, L.; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    The repressor encoded by the cI gene of the temperate Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris bacteriophage TP901-1 has been purified. Gel-retardation and footprinting analyses identified three palindromic operator sites (O-R, O-L, and O-D). The operator site O-R is located between the two divergent...... forms of the repressor were observed, thus indicating that the repressor may bind simultaneously to all three operator sites. Inverted repeats with homology to the operator sites of TP901-1 were identified in phage genomes encoding repressors homologous to CI of TP901-1. Interestingly, the locations...

  3. Curcumin nanoparticles ameliorate ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated lung epithelial cells through p47 (phox and MAPKs/AP-1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    Full Text Available Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human lung epithelial cells during lung inflammatory reactions. We have previously demonstrated that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (CURN improve the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of curcumin in hepatocytes. In this study, we focused on the effects of CURN on the expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-α-treated lung epithelial cells and compared these to the effects of curcumin water preparation (CURH. TNF-αinduced ICAM-1 expression, ROS production, and cell-cell adhesion were significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidants (DPI, APO, or NAC and CURN, but not by CURH, as revealed by western blot analysis, RT-PCR, promoter assay, and ROS detection and adhesion assay. In addition, treatment of TNF-α-treated cells with CURN and antioxidants also resulted in an inhibition of activation of p47 (phox and phosphorylation of MAPKs, as compared to that using CURH. Our findings also suggest that phosphorylation of MAPKs may eventually lead to the activation of transcription factors. We also observed that the effects of TNF-α treatment for 30 min, which includes a significant increase in the binding activity of AP-1 and phosphorylation of c-jun and c-fos genes, were reduced by CURN treatment. In vivo studies have revealed that CURN improved the anti-inflammation activities of CURH in the lung epithelial cells of TNF-α-treated mice. Our results indicate that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles may potentially serve as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  4. Japanese encephalitis virus induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via a ROS/c-Src/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/MAPKs-dependent AP-1 pathway in rat brain astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chuen-Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection is a major cause of acute encephalopathy in children, which destroys central nervous system (CNS cells, including astrocytes and neurons. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 has been shown to degrade components of the basal lamina, leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and to contribute to neuroinflammatory responses in many neurological diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of JEV-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells are largely unclear. Methods In this study, the effect of JEV on expression of MMP-9 was determined by gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. The involvement of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos, c-Src, PDGFR, PI3K/Akt, and MAPKs in these responses were investigated by using the selective pharmacological inhibitors and transfection with siRNAs. Results Here, we demonstrate that JEV induces expression of pro-form MMP-9 via ROS/c-Src/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/MAPKs-dependent, AP-1 activation in RBA-1 cells. JEV-induced MMP-9 expression and promoter activity were inhibited by pretreatment with inhibitors of AP-1 (tanshinone, c-Src (PP1, PDGFR (AG1296, and PI3K (LY294002, and by transfection with siRNAs of c-Jun, c-Fos, PDGFR, and Akt. Moreover, JEV-stimulated AP-1 activation was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitors of c-Src, PDGFR, PI3K, and MAPKs. Conclusion From these results, we conclude that JEV activates the ROS/c-Src/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/MAPKs pathway, which in turn triggers AP-1 activation and ultimately induces MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells. These findings concerning JEV-induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells imply that JEV might play an important role in CNS inflammation and diseases.

  5. Neuroendocrine differentiation factor, IA-1, is a transcriptional repressor and contains a specific DNA-binding domain: identification of consensus IA-1 binding sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Mary B; Zhu, Min; Notkins, Abner L.; Lan, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    A novel cDNA, insulinoma-associated antigen-1 (IA-1), containing five zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs, was isolated from a human insulinoma subtraction library. IA-1 expression is restricted to fetal but not adult pancreatic and brain tissues as well as tumors of neuroendocrine origin. Using various GAL4 DNA binding domain (DBD)/IA-1 fusion protein constructs, we demonstrated that IA-1 functions as a transcriptional repressor and that the region between amino acids 168 and 263 contains the maj...

  6. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Delcuratolo; Jasmin Fertey; Markus Schneider; Johanna Schuetz; Natalie Leiprecht; Benjamin Hudjetz; Stephan Brodbeck; Silke Corall; Marcel Dreer; Roxana Michaela Schwab; Martin Grimm; Shwu-Yuan Wu; Frank Stubenrauch; Cheng-Ming Chiang; Thomas Iftner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncog...

  7. Opine catabolism and conjugal transfer of the nopaline Ti plasmid pTiC58 are coordinately regulated by a single repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck von Bodman, S; Hayman, G T; Farrand, S K

    1992-01-15

    The Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are conjugal elements whose transfer is strongly repressed. Transfer is induced by the conjugal opines, a group of unique carbon compounds synthesized in crown gall tumors. The opines also induce Ti plasmid-encoded genes required by the bacteria for opine catabolism. We have cloned and sequenced a gene from the Ti plasmid pTiC58, whose product mediates the opine-dependent regulation of conjugal transfer and catabolism of the conjugal opines, agrocinopines A and B. The gene, accR, is closely linked to the agrocinopine catabolic locus. A spontaneous mutant Ti plasmid, pTiC58Trac, which constitutively expresses conjugal transfer and opine catabolism, was complemented in trans by a clone of wild-type accR. Comparative sequence analysis identified a 5-base-pair deletion close to the 5' end of the mutant accR allele from pTiC58Trac. Analysis of lacZ fusions in conjugal transfer and opine catabolic structural genes demonstrated that the accR-encoded function is a transcriptional repressor. accR can encode a 28-kDa protein. This protein is related to a class of repressor proteins that includes LacR, GutR, DeoR, FucR, and GlpR that regulate sugar catabolic systems in several bacterial genera. PMID:1731335

  8. BTG2 is an LXXLL-dependent co-repressor for androgen receptor transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → BTG2 associates with AR, androgen causes an increase of the interaction. → BTG2 as a co-repressor inhibits the AR-mediated transcription activity. → BTG2 inhibits the transcription activity and expression of PSA. → An intact 92LxxLL96 motif is essential and necessary for these activities of BTG2, while the 20LxxLL24 motif is not required. → Ectopic expression of BTG2 reduces proliferation of prostate cancer cells. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor gene, BTG2 has been down-regulated in prostate cancer and the ectopic expression of this gene has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Sequence analysis revealed that the BTG2 protein contains two leucine-rich motifs (20LxxLL24 and 92LxxLL96), which are usually found in nuclear receptor co-factors. Based on this, we postulated that there will be an association between BTG2 and AR. In this study, we discovered that BTG2 directly bound to the androgen receptor (AR) in the absence of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and in the presence of the androgen, this interaction was increased. BTG2 bearing the mutant 20LxxLL24 motif bound to AR equally efficient as the wild-type BTG2, while BTG2 bearing the mutant 92LxxLL96 motif failed to interact with AR. Functional studies indicated that ectopic expression of BTG2 caused a significant inhibition of AR-mediated transcriptional activity and a decreased growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen-induced promoter activation and expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are significantly attenuated by BTG2. The intact 92LxxLL96 motif is required for these activities. These findings, for the first time, demonstrate that BTG2 complexes with AR via an LxxLL-dependent mechanism and may play a role in prostate cancer via modulating the AR signaling pathway.

  9. A critical role for the co-repressor N-CoR in erythroid differentiation and heme synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzheng Zhang; Ellen Cho; Jiemin Wong

    2007-01-01

    Co-repressor N-CoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor) has important roles in different biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and development. Mutant mice lacking N-CoR are embryonically lethal and appear to die from anemia owing to defects in definitive erythropoiesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of N-CoR-mediated erythroid differentiation are largely unknown. Using the human erythroleukemic K562 cell line, which can be chemically induced to differentiate into either erythroid or megakaryocytic lineages depending on the inducers used, we have investigated the role of N-CoR in erythroid differentiation. We show that knockdown of N-CoR either transiently (siRNA) or permanently (shRNA) impairs the cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)- but not hemin-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. RT-PCR analysis reveals that N-CoR is required for induction by Ara-C of 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALA-S2), a key enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. Furthermore, the amount of N-CoR proteins increases significantly during Ara-C-induced K562 differentiation, apparently through a post-transcriptional mechanism. Consistent with the data from N-CoR-null mice, N-CoR is not required for the differentiation of K562 cells into megakaryocytic lineages, induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Thus, our in vitro study confirms a role for N-CoR in erythroid differentiation and reveals for the first time that N-CoR is required for the induction of a key enzyme involved in heme synthesis.

  10. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  11. MENINGKATKAN KEAKTIFAN BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN MEMAHAMI PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENYELENGGARAAN ADMINISTRASI PERKANTORAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE PEMBELAJARAN PROBING PROMPTING DI KELAS X AP 1 SMK HIDAYAH SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Rahmawati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hasil observasi awal menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata keaktifan siswa kelas X AP 1 tergolong rendah yaitu hanya sebesar 52 %. Siswa di kelas tersebut cenderung pasif hanya beberapa siswa yang bertanya dan mengemukakan pendapat pada saat pembelajaran berlangsung. Berdasarkan latar belakang diatas, maka rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran 1 SMK Hidayah Semarang yang terdiri dari 18 siswa. Hasil penelitian pada siklus I menunjukkan rata-rata keaktifan siswa sebesar 62,4% dalam kategori cukup aktif, rata-rata hasil belajar siswa sebesar 74,20 dengan ketuntasan klasikal sebesar 67%. Untuk hasil penelitian siklus II menunjukkan rata-rata keaktifan siswa sebesar 72% dalam kategori tinggi, rata-rata hasil belajar sebesar 79,62 dengan ketuntasan klasikal sebesar 72%. Untuk hasil penelitian siklus III menunjukkan rata-rata keaktifan siswa sebesar 78,88% dalam kategori tinggi, rata-rata hasil belajar sebesar 84,375 dengan ketuntasan klasikal sebesar 78%. Based on the initial observation, the data showed that the average students’ activeness of 10th grade students of Office Administration1 was less active, it was only 52%. Students were passive on the learning process because only several students who gave question and delivered arguments during the teaching learning proccess. Based on the background above, the questions of research were; 1 Did the implementations of Probing Prompting learning model improve students’ activeness? 2 The subject of this research was10th grade students of Office Administration I in SMK Hidayah Semarang, they were 18 students.. The data were collected by observation, documentation, and examination. The data were analyzed by classroom action research analysis and linear regression analysis.The result of cycle I showed that the average of students’ activeness was 62.4% which categorized on active enough, the average scor eof study result

  12. Role of the lytic repressor in prophage induction of phage lambda as analyzed by a module-replacement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Shota; Little, John W

    2006-03-21

    Using a module exchange approach, we have tested a long-standing model for the role of Cro repressor in lambda prophage induction. This epigenetic switch from lysogeny to the lytic state occurs on activation of the host SOS system, which leads to specific cleavage of CI repressor. It has been proposed that Cro repressor, which operates during lytic growth and which we shall term the lytic repressor, is crucial to prophage induction. In this view, Cro binds to the O(R)3 operator, thereby repressing the cI gene and making the switch irreversible. Here we tested this model by replacing lambda Cro with a dimeric form of Lac repressor and adding several lac operators. This approach allowed us to regulate the function of the lytic repressor at will and to prevent it from repressing cI, because lac repressor could not repress P(RM) in our constructs. Repression of cI by the lytic repressor was not required for prophage induction to occur. However, our evidence suggests that this binding can make induction more efficient, particularly at intermediate levels of DNA damage that otherwise cause induction of only a fraction of the population. These results indicate that this strategy of module exchange will have broad applications for analysis of gene regulatory circuits. PMID:16537413

  13. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work as transcri......The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work...... as transcriptional repressors is incompletely understood, but involves post-translational modifications of histones by two major PcG protein complexes: polycomb repressive complex 1 and polycomb repressive complex 2....

  14. Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway by Inorganic Arsenic in Human Hepatocytes and the Role of Transcriptional Repressor Bach1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have proved that the environmental toxicant, inorganic arsenic, activates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway in many different cell types. This study tried to explore the hepatic Nrf2 pathway upon arsenic treatment comprehensively, since liver is one of the major target organs of arsenical toxicity. Our results showed that inorganic arsenic significantly induced Nrf2 protein and mRNA expression in Chang human hepatocytes. We also observed a dose-dependent increase of antioxidant response element- (ARE- luciferase activity. Both the mRNA and protein levels of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 were all upregulated dramatically. On the other hand, entry and accumulation of Nrf2 protein in the nucleus, while exportting the transcriptional repressor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1 from nucleus to cytoplasm, were also confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Our results therefore confirmed the arsenic-induced Nrf2 pathway activation in hepatocytes and also suggested that the translocation of Bach1 was associated with the regulation of Nrf2 pathway by arsenic. Hepatic Nrf2 pathway plays indispensable roles for cellular defenses against arsenic hepatotoxicity, and the interplay of Bach1 and Nrf2 may be helpful to understand the self-defensive responses and the diverse biological effects of arsenicals.

  15. Effects of Task Familiarity on Stress Responses of Repressors and Sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Don F.

    1973-01-01

    R.S. Lazarus's theory of coping was used to investigate appraisal and reappraisal of threat in repressors and sensitizers. Two indexes of stress, self-report ratings of affect and palmar skin conductance, were measured prior to performance on a reaction time task, after one-third of the task was completed and after two-thirds of the task was…

  16. In vitro transcription accurately predicts lac repressor phenotype in vivo in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Almond Sochor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of studies have looked at the in vivo and in vitro behavior of the lac repressor binding to DNA and effector molecules in order to study transcriptional repression, however these studies are not always reconcilable. Here we use in vitro transcription to directly mimic the in vivo system in order to build a self consistent set of experiments to directly compare in vivo and in vitro genetic repression. A thermodynamic model of the lac repressor binding to operator DNA and effector is used to link DNA occupancy to either normalized in vitro mRNA product or normalized in vivo fluorescence of a regulated gene, YFP. An accurate measurement of repressor, DNA and effector concentrations were made both in vivo and in vitro allowing for direct modeling of the entire thermodynamic equilibrium. In vivo repression profiles are accurately predicted from the given in vitro parameters when molecular crowding is considered. Interestingly, our measured repressor–operator DNA affinity differs significantly from previous in vitro measurements. The literature values are unable to replicate in vivo binding data. We therefore conclude that the repressor-DNA affinity is much weaker than previously thought. This finding would suggest that in vitro techniques that are specifically designed to mimic the in vivo process may be necessary to replicate the native system.

  17. Dynamical analysis on gene activity in the presence of repressors and an interfering promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-11-01

    Transcription is regulated through interplay among transcription factors, an RNA polymerase (RNAP), and a promoter. Even for a simple repressive transcription factor that disturbs promoter activity at initial binding of RNAP, its repression level is not determined solely by the dissociation constant of transcription factor but is sensitive to timescales of processes in RNAP. We first analyze the promoter activity under strong repression by a slow binding repressor, in which case transcription events occur in bursts, followed by long quiescent periods while a repressor binds to the operator; the number of transcription events, bursting, and quiescent times are estimated by reaction rates. We then examine interference effect from an opposing promoter, using the correlation function of initiation events for a single promoter. The interference is shown to de-repress the promoter because RNAPs from the opposing promoter most likely encounter the repressor and remove it in case of strong repression. This de-repression mechanism should be especially prominent for the promoters that facilitate fast formation of open complex with the repressor whose binding rate is slower than approximately 1/s. Finally, we discuss possibility of this mechanism for high activity of promoter PR in the hyp-mutant of lambda-phage. PMID:18658208

  18. Processing bias in anxious subjects and repressors, measured by emotional Stroop interference and attentional allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Brosschot; C. de Ruiter; M. Kindt

    1999-01-01

    Hypothesized that repressors (Ss high in defensiveness with low trait anxiety) would show cognitive avoidance of threatening information in an attention deployment task, but an attentional bias for the same information in an emotional interference task, while Ss high in anxiety would show a threat-r

  19. Mechanism of Metal Ion Activation of the Diphtheria Toxin Repressor DtxR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino,J.; Tetenbaum-Novatt, J.; White, A.; Berkovitch, F.; Ringe, D.

    2005-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is a metal ion-activated transcriptional regulator that has been linked to the virulence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure determination has shown that there are two metal ion binding sites per repressor monomer, and site-directed mutagenesis has demonstrated that binding site 2 (primary) is essential for recognition of the target DNA repressor, leaving the role of binding site 1 (ancillary) unclear. Calorimetric techniques have demonstrated that although binding site 1 (ancillary) has high affinity for metal ion with a binding constant of 2 x 10{sup -7}, binding site 2 (primary) is a low-affinity binding site with a binding constant of 6.3 x 10{sup -4}. These two binding sites act in an independent fashion, and their contribution can be easily dissected by traditional mutational analysis. Our results clearly demonstrate that binding site 1 (ancillary) is the first one to be occupied during metal ion activation, playing a critical role in stabilization of the repressor. In addition, structural data obtained for the mutants Ni-DtxR(H79A, C102D), reported here, and the previously reported DtxR(H79A) have allowed us to propose a mechanism of metal activation for DtxR.

  20. A single mutation in the core domain of the lac repressor reduces leakiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Dijkman, Willem; Devenish, Sean RA; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The lac operon provides cells with the ability to switch from glucose to lactose metabolism precisely when necessary. This metabolic switch is mediated by the lac repressor (LacI), which in the absence of lactose binds to the operator DNA sequence to inhibit transcription. Allosteric rearrangements

  1. Identification of a Transcriptional Repressor Involved in Benzoate Metabolism in Geobacter bemidjiensis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species. A transcription factor that represses expression of bamA, a benzoate-inducible gene, in Geobacter bemidjiensis during growth with acetate was identified. It is likely that this repressor also regulates other genes involved in aromatic compound metabolism.

  2. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to...

  3. An Estrogen Receptor-α/p300 Complex Activates the BRCA-1 Promoter at an AP-1 Site That Binds Jun/Fos Transcription Factors: Repressive Effects of p53 on BRCA-1 Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D. Jeffy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles in cancer predisposition is that women carrying BRCA-1 mutations preferentially develop tumors in epithelial tissues of the breast, ovary. Moreover, sporadic breast tumors contain lower levels of BRCA-1 in the absence of mutations in the BRCA-1 gene. The problem of tissue specificity requires analysis of factors that are unique to tissues of the breast. For example, the expression of estrogen receptor-α (ERα is inversely correlated with breast cancer risk, 90% of BRCA-1 tumors are negative for ERα. Here, we show that estrogen stimulates BRCA-1 promoter activity in transfected cells, the recruitment of ERα, its cofactor p300 to an AP-1 site that binds Jun/Fos transcription factors. The recruitment of ERα/dp300 coincides with accumulation in the S-phase of the cell cycle, is antagonized by the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Conversely, we document that overexpression of wild-type p53 prevents the recruitment of ERα to the AP-1 site, represses BRCA-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our findings support a model in which an ERα/AP-1 complex modulates BRCA-1 transcription under conditions of estrogen stimulation. Conversely, the formation of this transcription complex is abrogated in cells overexpressing p53.

  4. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. → THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. → THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. → THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  5. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Goto, Yamafumi [Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Takata, Minoru [Department of Dermatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medical Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Zervos, Antonis S., E-mail: azervos@mail.ucf.edu [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. {yields} THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. {yields} THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. {yields} THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of BigR, a transcription repressor from Xylella fastidiosa involved in biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Rosicler Lázaro; Rinaldi, Fábio Cupri; Guimarães, Beatriz Gomes, E-mail: beatriz@lnls.br; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo, E-mail: beatriz@lnls.br [Center for Molecular and Structural Biology, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, CP 6192, CEP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. BigR (biofilm growth-associated repressor) is a novel repressor protein that regulates the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth in both Xylella fastidiosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This protein binds to a palindromic TA-rich element located in the promoter of the BigR operon and strongly represses transcription of the operon. BigR contains a helix–turn–helix (HTH) domain that is found in some members of the ArsR/SmtB family of metal sensors, which control metal resistance in bacteria. Although functional studies have suggested that BigR does not act as a metal sensor, the presence of two cysteines and a methionine in its primary structure raised the possibility of BigR being a metal-ligand protein. In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from native and SeMet crystals to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.2 Å, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group P321 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of BigR, a transcription repressor from Xylella fastidiosa involved in biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. BigR (biofilm growth-associated repressor) is a novel repressor protein that regulates the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth in both Xylella fastidiosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This protein binds to a palindromic TA-rich element located in the promoter of the BigR operon and strongly represses transcription of the operon. BigR contains a helix–turn–helix (HTH) domain that is found in some members of the ArsR/SmtB family of metal sensors, which control metal resistance in bacteria. Although functional studies have suggested that BigR does not act as a metal sensor, the presence of two cysteines and a methionine in its primary structure raised the possibility of BigR being a metal-ligand protein. In order to gain new insights into the protein structure and its possible interaction with a metal ion or effector ligand, BigR from X. fastidiosa was crystallized in native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from native and SeMet crystals to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.2 Å, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group P321 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit

  8. BTG2 is an LXXLL-dependent co-repressor for androgen receptor transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xu-Dong [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Meng, Qing-Hui [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Xu, Jia-Ying; Jiao, Yang [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Ge, Chun-Min [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Jacob, Asha; Wang, Ping [North Shore University Hospital-Long Island Jewish Medical Center and The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Rosen, Eliot M [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Fan, Saijun, E-mail: sjfan@suda.edu.cn [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} BTG2 associates with AR, androgen causes an increase of the interaction. {yields} BTG2 as a co-repressor inhibits the AR-mediated transcription activity. {yields} BTG2 inhibits the transcription activity and expression of PSA. {yields} An intact {sup 92}LxxLL{sup 96} motif is essential and necessary for these activities of BTG2, while the {sup 20}LxxLL{sup 24} motif is not required. {yields} Ectopic expression of BTG2 reduces proliferation of prostate cancer cells. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor gene, BTG2 has been down-regulated in prostate cancer and the ectopic expression of this gene has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Sequence analysis revealed that the BTG2 protein contains two leucine-rich motifs ({sup 20}LxxLL{sup 24} and {sup 92}LxxLL{sup 96}), which are usually found in nuclear receptor co-factors. Based on this, we postulated that there will be an association between BTG2 and AR. In this study, we discovered that BTG2 directly bound to the androgen receptor (AR) in the absence of 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and in the presence of the androgen, this interaction was increased. BTG2 bearing the mutant {sup 20}LxxLL{sup 24} motif bound to AR equally efficient as the wild-type BTG2, while BTG2 bearing the mutant {sup 92}LxxLL{sup 96} motif failed to interact with AR. Functional studies indicated that ectopic expression of BTG2 caused a significant inhibition of AR-mediated transcriptional activity and a decreased growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen-induced promoter activation and expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are significantly attenuated by BTG2. The intact {sup 92}LxxLL{sup 96} motif is required for these activities. These findings, for the first time, demonstrate that BTG2 complexes with AR via an LxxLL-dependent mechanism and may play a role in prostate cancer via modulating the AR signaling pathway.

  9. Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR and ScoC, in Bacillus subtilis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monica Gupta; Madhulika Dixit; K Krishnamurthy Rao

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis under nutritional deprivation exhibits several physiological responses such as synthesis of degradative enzymes, motility, competence, sporulation, etc. At the onset of post-exponential phase the global response regulator, Spo0A, directly or indirectly activates the expression of genes involved in the above processes. These genes are repressed during the exponential phase by a group of proteins called transition state regulators, e.g. AbrB, ScoC and SinR. One such post-exponentially expressed gene is epr, which encodes a minor extracellular serine protease and is involved in the swarming motility of B. subtilis. Deletion studies of the upstream region of epr promoter revealed that epr is co-repressed by transition state regulators, SinR and ScoC. Our study shows that Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by nullifying the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR and ScoC. We demonstrate via in vitro mobility shift assays that Spo0A binds to the upstream region of epr promoter and in turn occludes the binding site of one of the co-repressor, SinR. This explains the mechanism behind the positive regulatory effect of Spo0A on epr expression.

  10. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca

    Full Text Available Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs. Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation.

  11. FHL2 Interacts with and Acts as a Functional Repressor of Id2 in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong Han; Zhi-qiang Wu; Ya-li Zhao; Yi-ling Si; Xiao-bing Fu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Id2 is a natural inhibitor of the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) transcription factors. Although it is well known that active Id2 prevents differentiation and promotes cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, the molecular events that regulate Id2 activity remain to be investigated.Methods: Yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, GST-pulldown and immunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays were used to screen and identify novel Id2 interactors. Luciferase assays were used to detect E47-mediated transcription activity. Colony formation and BrdU incorporation assays were used to determine cellular proliferation abilities. Northorn blot, western blot and quantitative PCR methods were used to measure gene expression levels. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed to investigate protein/DNA binding.Results: The LIM-only protein FHL2 (four-and-a-half-LIM-only protein 2) was identified to be a novel Id2 interactor. The HLH domain within Id2 is not required for its interaction with FHL2. FHL2 antagonizes the inhibitory effect of Id2 on the basic helix-loop-helix protein E47-mediated transcription. FHL2 prevents the formation of Id2-E47 heterdimer, thus releasing E47 to its target DNA and restoring its transcriptional activity. FHL2 expression was remarkably up-regulated during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, during which the expression of Id2 is opposite to that. Ectopic FHL2 expression in neuroblastoma cells markedly reduces the transcriptional and cell-cycle promoting functions of Id2.Conclusion: These results indicate that FHL2 is an important repressor of the oncogenic activity of Id2 in neuroblastoma cells.

  12. The bacterial effector HopX1 targets JAZ transcriptional repressors to activate jasmonate signaling and promote infection in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Gimenez-Ibanez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR, which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile. Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome.

  13. Situational Discrimination in Repressor-type and Sensitizer-type Approval Seekers and the Birth Order by Subject Sex Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gilbert

    1970-01-01

    Five experiments are reported. One conclusion in that repressor-type high need-for-approval subjects made the discrimination and permitted less favorable self-description, but sensitizer-type high need-for-approval subjects did not. (DB)

  14. Repressors report fewer intrusions following a laboratory stressor: the role of reduced stressor-relevant concept activation and inhibitory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overwijk, Sippie; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated whether a repressive coping style is associated with fewer intrusions following an experimentally controlled stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether lower activation of stressor-relevant concepts in long-term memory and better inhibitory functioning may contribute to this association. Extreme-scoring participants on a trait anxiety and a social desirability scale were selected to form repressor (n=35), low anxious (n=15), high anxious (n=30), and defensive (n=21) groups. In line with predictions, repressors reported fewer intrusions following a failure manipulation compared to non-repressors. Furthermore, pre-stressor inhibitory functioning was negatively associated with color-naming interference of stressor-related words. This suggests that overall, higher inhibitory control is related to lower activation of failure-related concepts. However, there was no evidence that concept activation and inhibitory control were responsible for repressors' lower number of self-reported intrusions. PMID:18937086

  15. 花发育中的转录共抑制子%Transcription Co-repressors in Flower Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘重持

    2003-01-01

    Transcription co-repressors are negative regulators of gene expression. Since they do not possess a DNA-binding motif, their ability to repress gene expression depends on their association with other DNA-binding transcription factors. One well characterized transcription co-repressor is the yeast Tup1. Although unable to bind DNA by itself, the Tup1 co-repressor is recruited by different DNA-binding transcription factors to repress pathway-specific gene expression. Recent isolations of two Arabidopsis genes, LEUNIG (LUG) and SEUSS (SEU), suggest that similar types of co-repressors are involved in the transcription repression of floral homeotic genes during flower development. This review will summarize these findings, speculate on mechanisms, and discuss future directions.

  16. LSD1 co-repressor Rcor2 orchestrates neurogenesis in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Wu, Qian; Yang, Peng; Wang, Chenfei; Liu, Jing; Ding, Wenyu; Liu, Wensu; Bai, Ye; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong; Gao, Shaorong; Wang, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulatory complexes play key roles in the modulation of transcriptional regulation underlying neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and progeny specification. How specific cofactors guide histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1A complex to regulate distinct NSC-related gene activation and repression in cortical neurogenesis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Rcor2, a co-repressor of LSD1, is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of cortical development. Depletion of Rcor2 results in reduced NPC proliferation, neuron population, neocortex thickness and brain size. We find that Rcor2 directly targets Dlx2 and Shh, and represses their expressions in developing neocortex. In addition, inhibition of Shh signals rescues the neurogenesis defects caused by Rcor2 depletion both in vivo and in vitro. Hence, our findings suggest that co-repressor Rcor2 is critical for cortical development by repressing Shh signalling pathway in dorsal telencephalon. PMID:26795843

  17. Adaptor protein complexes and intracellular transport

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The AP (adaptor protein) complexes are heterotetrameric protein complexes that mediate intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways. There are five different AP complexes: AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 are clathrin-associated complexes; whereas AP-4 and AP-5 are not. These five AP complexes localize to different intracellular compartments and mediate membrane trafficking in distinct pathways. They recognize and concentrate cargo proteins into vesicular carriers th...

  18. Accurate genetic switch in Escherichia coli: novel mechanism of regulation by co-repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaka, Marcin; Cybulski, Olgierd; Hołyst, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Understanding a biological module involves recognition of its structure and the dynamics of its principal components. In this report we present an analysis of the dynamics of the repression module within the regulation of the trp operon in Escherichia coli. We combine biochemical data for reaction rate constants for the trp repressor binding to trp operator and in vivo data of a number of tryptophan repressors (TrpRs) that bind to the operator. The model of repression presented in this report greatly differs from previous mathematical models. One, two or three TrpRs can bind to the operator and repress the transcription. Moreover, reaction rates for detachment of TrpRs from the operator strongly depend on tryptophan (Trp) concentration, since Trp can also bind to the repressor-operator complex and stabilize it. From the mathematical modeling and analysis of reaction rates and equilibrium constants emerges a high-quality, accurate and effective module of trp repression. This genetic switch responds accurately to fast consumption of Trp from the interior of a cell. It switches with minimal dispersion when the concentration of Trp drops below a thousand molecules per cell. PMID:18313075

  19. The MogR Transcriptional Repressor Regulates Nonhierarchal Expression of Flagellar Motility Genes and Virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Flagella are surface structures critical for motility and virulence of many bacterial species. In Listeria monocytogenes, MogR tightly represses expression of flagellin (FlaA during extracellular growth at 37 degrees C and during intracellular infection. MogR is also required for full virulence in a murine model of infection. Using in vitro and in vivo infection models, we determined that the severe virulence defect of MogR-negative bacteria is due to overexpression of FlaA. Specifically, overproduction of FlaA in MogR-negative bacteria caused pleiotropic defects in bacterial division (chaining phenotype, intracellular spread, and virulence in mice. DNA binding and microarray analyses revealed that MogR represses transcription of all known flagellar motility genes by binding directly to a minimum of two TTTT-N(5-AAAA recognition sites positioned within promoter regions such that RNA polymerase binding is occluded. Analysis of MogR protein levels demonstrated that modulation of MogR repression activity confers the temperature-specificity to flagellar motility gene expression. Epistasis analysis revealed that MogR repression of transcription is antagonized in a temperature-dependent manner by the DegU response regulator and that DegU further regulates FlaA levels through a posttranscriptional mechanism. These studies provide the first known example to our knowledge of a transcriptional repressor functioning as a master regulator controlling nonhierarchal expression of flagellar motility genes.

  20. The Response Regulator YycF Inhibits Expression of the Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Repressor FabT in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Maria L.; Amblar, Mónica; de la Fuente, Alicia; Wells, Jerry M.; López, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    The YycFG (also known as WalRK, VicRK, MicAB, or TCS02) two-component system (TCS) is highly conserved among Gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the YycF response regulator has been reported to be essential due to its control of pcsB gene expression. Previously we showed that overexpression of yycF in S. pneumoniae TIGR4 altered the transcription of genes involved in cell wall metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, giving rise to anomalous cell division and increased chain length of membrane fatty acids. Here, we have overexpressed the yycFG system in TIGR4 wild-type strain and yycF in a TIGR4 mutant depleted of YycG, and analyzed their effects on expression of proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis during activation of the TCS. We demonstrate that transcription of the fab genes and levels of their products were only altered in the YycF overexpressing strain, indicating that the unphosphorylated form of YycF is involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. In addition, DNA-binding assays and in vitro transcription experiments with purified YycF and the promoter region of the FabTH-acp operon support a direct inhibition of transcription of the FabT repressor by YycF, thus confirming the role of the unphosphorylated form in transcriptional regulation. PMID:27610104

  1. High-throughput cell-based screening reveals a role for ZNF131 as a repressor of ERalpha signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Peige

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα is a transcription factor whose activity is affected by multiple regulatory cofactors. In an effort to identify the human genes involved in the regulation of ERα, we constructed a high-throughput, cell-based, functional screening platform by linking a response element (ERE with a reporter gene. This allowed the cellular activity of ERα, in cells cotransfected with the candidate gene, to be quantified in the presence or absence of its cognate ligand E2. Results From a library of 570 human cDNA clones, we identified zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131 as a repressor of ERα mediated transactivation. ZNF131 is a typical member of the BTB/POZ family of transcription factors, and shows both ubiquitous expression and a high degree of sequence conservation. The luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that ZNF131 inhibits ligand-dependent transactivation by ERα in a dose-dependent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay clearly demonstrated that the interaction between ZNF131 and ERα interrupts or prevents ERα binding to the estrogen response element (ERE. In addition, ZNF131 was able to suppress the expression of pS2, an ERα target gene. Conclusion We suggest that the functional screening platform we constructed can be applied for high-throughput genomic screening candidate ERα-related genes. This in turn may provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of ERα regulation in mammalian cells.

  2. Repressor mutant forms of the Azospirillum brasilense NtrC protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Assumpção, Marcelo C; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Yates, M Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O

    2004-10-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense mutant strains FP8 and FP9, after treatment with nitrosoguanidine, showed a null Nif phenotype and were unable to use nitrate as their sole nitrogen source. Sequencing of the ntrC genes revealed single nucleotide mutations in the NtrC nucleotide-binding site. The phenotypes of these strains are discussed in relation to their genotypes.

  3. TGF-β2 induces Grb2 to recruit PI3-K to TGF-RII that activates JNK/AP-1-signaling and augments invasiveness of Theileria-transformed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Malak; Whitworth, Jessie; Noé, Gaelle; Liu, Wang Qing; Vidal, Michel; Langsley, Gordon

    2015-10-29

    Theileria-infected macrophages display many features of cancer cells such as heightened invasive capacity; however, the tumor-like phenotype is reversible by killing the parasite. Moreover, virulent macrophages can be attenuated by multiple in vitro passages and so provide a powerful model to elucidate mechanisms related to transformed macrophage virulence. Here, we demonstrate that in two independent Theileria-transformed macrophage cell lines Grb2 expression is down-regulated concomitant with loss of tumor virulence. Using peptidimer-c to ablate SH2 and SH3 interactions of Grb2 we identify TGF-receptor II and the p85 subunit of PI3-K, as Grb2 partners in virulent macrophages. Ablation of Grb2 interactions reduces PI3-K recruitment to TGF-RII and decreases PIP3 production, and dampens JNK phosphorylation and AP-1-driven transcriptional activity down to levels characteristic of attenuated macrophages. Loss of TGF-R>PI3-K>JNK>AP-1 signaling negatively impacts on virulence traits such as reduced JAM-L/ITG4A and Fos-B/MMP9 expression that contribute to virulent macrophage adhesion and invasiveness.

  4. Luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside inhibits invasion and suppresses TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-8 via ERK/AP-1 and ERK/NF-κB signaling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Yoon, Do-Young

    2013-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) play major roles in tumor progression and invasion of breast cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of cell invasion by luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside (named as LU8C-FP), a C-glycosylflavone, in human breast cancer cells. We investigated whether LU8C-FP would inhibit MMP-9 activation and IL-8 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. LU8C-FP suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-8 secretion and mRNA expression via inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulation of nuclear AP-1 and NF-κB. TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 was suppressed by LU8C-FP, whereas JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were unaffected. In addition, LU8C-FP blocked the ERK 1/2 pathways following expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. These results suggest LU8C-FP may function to suppress invasion of breast cancer cells through the ERK/AP-1 and ERK/NF-κB signaling cascades.

  5. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications.

  6. The leukemia associated ETO nuclear repressor gene is regulated by the GATA-1 transcription factor in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullberg Urban

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eight-Twenty-One (ETO nuclear co-repressor gene belongs to the ETO homologue family also containing Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16 (MTG16 and myeloid translocation Gene-Related protein 1 (MTGR1. By chromosomal translocations ETO and MTG16 become parts of fusion proteins characteristic of morphological variants of acute myeloid leukemia. Normal functions of ETO homologues have as yet not been examined. The goal of this work was to identify structural and functional promoter elements upstream of the coding sequence of the ETO gene in order to explore lineage-specific hematopoietic expression and get hints to function. Results A putative proximal ETO promoter was identified within 411 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Strong ETO promoter activity was specifically observed upon transfection of a promoter reporter construct into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells, which have endogeneous ETO gene activity. An evolutionary conserved region of 228 bp revealed potential cis-elements involved in transcription of ETO. Disruption of the evolutionary conserved GATA -636 consensus binding site repressed transactivation and disruption of the ETS1 -705 consensus binding site enhanced activity of the ETO promoter. The promoter was stimulated by overexpression of GATA-1 into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with erythroid/megakaryocytic cells showed specific binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -636 site. Furthermore, results from chromatin immunoprecipitation showed GATA-1 binding in vivo to the conserved region of the ETO promoter containing the -636 site. The results suggest that the GATA -636 site may have a role in activation of the ETO gene activity in cells with erythroid/megakaryocytic potential. Leukemia associated AML1-ETO strongly suppressed an ETO promoter reporter in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Conclusions We demonstrate that the GATA-1 transcription factor binds and

  7. Overexpression of the novel MATE fluoroquinolone efflux pump FepA in Listeria monocytogenes is driven by inactivation of its local repressor FepR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Guérin

    Full Text Available Whereas fluoroquinolone resistance mainly results from target modifications in gram-positive bacteria, it is primarily due to active efflux in Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to dissect a novel molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in this important human pathogen. Isogenic L. monocytogenes clinical isolates BM4715 and BM4716, respectively susceptible and resistant to fluoroquinolones, were studied. MICs of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence or in the absence of reserpine (10 mg/L. Strain BM4715 was susceptible to norfloxacin (MIC, 4 mg/L and ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.5 mg/L whereas BM4716 was highly resistant to both drugs (MICs 128 and 32 mg/L, respectively. Reserpine was responsible for a 16-fold decrease in both norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin MICs against BM4716 suggesting efflux associated resistance. Whole-genome sequencing of the strains followed by comparative genomic analysis revealed a single point mutation in the gene for a transcriptional regulator, designated fepR (for fluoroquinolone efflux protein regulator belonging to the TetR family. The frame-shift mutation was responsible for the introduction of a premature stop codon resulting in an inactive truncated protein. Just downstream from fepR, the structural gene for an efflux pump of the MATE family (named FepA was identified. Gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and demonstrated that fepA expression was more than 64-fold higher in BM4716 than in BM4715. The clean deletion of the fepR gene from BM4715 was responsible for an overexpression of fepA with resistance to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, confirming the role of FepR as a local repressor of fepA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that overexpression of the new MATE efflux pump FepA is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in L. monocytogenes and secondary to inactivation of the FepR repressor.

  8. Use of urea and glycine betaine to quantify coupled folding and probe the burial of DNA phosphates in lac repressor-lac operator binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiang; Capp, Mike W; Saecker, Ruth M; Record, M Thomas

    2005-12-27

    Thermodynamic analysis of urea-biopolymer interactions and effects of urea on folding of proteins and alpha-helical peptides shows that urea interacts primarily with polar amide surface. Urea is therefore predicted to be a quantitative probe of coupled folding, remodeling, and other large-scale changes in the amount of water-accessible polar amide surface in protein processes. A parallel analysis indicates that glycine betaine [N,N,N-trimethylglycine (GB)] can be used to detect burial or exposure of anionic (carboxylate, phosphate) biopolymer surface. To test these predictions, we have investigated the effects of these solutes (0-3 m) on the formation of 1:1 complexes between lac repressor (LacI) and its symmetric operator site (SymL) at a constant KCl molality. Urea reduces the binding constant K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(urea) = -1.7 +/- 0.2], and GB increases K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(GB) = 2.1 +/- 0.2]. For both solutes, this derivative decreases with an increase in solute concentration. Analysis of these initial slopes predicts that (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and (4.5 +/- 1.0) x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in the association process. Analysis of published structural data, together with modeling of unfolded regions of free LacI as extended chains, indicates that 1.5 x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and 6.3 x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in complexation. Quantitative agreement between structural and thermodynamic results is obtained for amide surface (urea); for anionic surface (GB), the experimental value is approximately 70% of the structural value. For LacI-SymL binding, two-thirds of the structurally predicted change in amide surface (1.0 x 10(3) A2) occurs outside the protein-DNA interface in protein-protein interfaces formed by folding of the hinge helices and interactions of the DNA binding domain (DBD) with the core of the repressor. Since urea interacts principally with amide surface, it is

  9. [Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 in chicken embryos of different sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Feng, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ping; Huang, Pan; Li, Shi-Jun; Peng, Xiu-Li; Gong, Yan-Zhang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the expression and functions of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (cdk2ap1) screened by suppression subtractive hybridization in chicken embryo development, a pair of primers was designed to amplify the cdk2ap1 fragment by RT-PCR and subsequently the fragment obtained was cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T. Sense and antisense probes labeled with digoxigenin were generated using SP6 and T7 RNA polymerases, respectively, and used to examine cdk2ap1 expression in chicken embryos of both sexes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In both sexes, cdk2ap1 was expressed in the head mesenchyme, rhombencephalon, optic vesicles, spinal neural tube, and forelimb of 4.0-day-old embryos and the expression in males was significantly higher than that in females. In addition, in the genital ridge and hindlimb of the 4.0-day-old chicken embryo, cdk2ap1 was obviously expressed in the males but not in females. It is supposed that cdk2ap1 may play a role in the sexual differentiation and development of gonad of chicken embryo. PMID:19819846

  10. Tristetraprolin induces cell cycle arrest in breast tumor cells through targeting AP-1/c-Jun and NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Ning, Huan; Gu, Ling; Wang, Qinghong; Lu, Wenbao; Peng, Hui; Cui, Weiguang; Ying, Baoling; Ross, Christina R; Wilson, Gerald M; Wei, Lin; Wold, William S M; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The main characteristic of cancers, including breast cancer, is the ability of cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably. However, the underlying mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation, especially those regulated by the RNA binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP), are not completely understood. In this study, we found that TTP inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo through inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Our studies demonstrate that TTP inhibits c-Jun expression through the C-terminal Zn finger and therefore increases Wee1 expression, a regulatory molecule which controls cell cycle transition from the S to the G2 phase. In contrast to the well-known function of TTP in regulating mRNA stability, TTP inhibits c-Jun expression at the level of transcription by selectively blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Reconstitution of NF-κB p65 completely abolishes the inhibition of c-Jun transcription by TTP. Moreover, reconstitution of c-Jun in TTP-expressing breast tumor cells diminishes Wee1 overexpression and promotes cell proliferation. Our results indicate that TTP suppresses c-Jun expression that results in Wee1 induction which causes cell cycle arrest at the S phase and inhibition of cell proliferation. Our study provides a new pathway for TTP function as a tumor suppressor which could be targeted in tumor treatment. PMID:26497679

  11. Fragile X mental retardation protein and synaptic plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorov, Michael S.; Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Bear, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maintenance and regulation of long-lasting changes in synaptic strength. In this role as a translational inhibitor, FMRP exerts profound effects on synaptic plasticity.

  12. Role of Activator Protein-1 in the Transcription of Interleukin-5 Gene Regulated by Protein Kinase C Signal in Asthmatic Human T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the role of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the transcription of interleukin-5 (IL-5) gene regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) signal in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from asthmatic patient, T lymphocytes were isolated and purified from peripheral blood of each asthmatic patient. The T lymphocytes were randomly divided int9 4 groups: group A (blank control), group B (treated with PKC agonist phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)), Group C (treated with PMA and AP-1 cis-element decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODNs)), and group D (treated with PMA and AP-1 mutant decoy ODNs). The ODNs were transfected into the T cells of group C and D by cation liposome respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to assess IL-5 mRNA expression, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) for the activation of AP-1. The results showed that the activation of AP-1 (88 003.58±1 626.57) and the expression of IL5 mRNA (0. 8300±0. 0294) in T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA were significantly higher than these in blank control (20 888.47±1103.56 and 0. 3050±0. 0208, respectively, P< 0.01), while the indexes (23 219.83±1 024.86 and 0. 3425±0. 0171 respectively) of T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA and AP-1 decoy ODNs were significantly inhibited, as compared with group B (P<0.01). The indexes (87 107. 41±1 342.92 and 0. 8225±0. 0222, respectively) in T lymphocytes stimulated with PMA and AP-1 mutant decoy ODNs did not exhibit significant changes, as compared with group B (P>0.05). The significant positive correlation was found between the activation of AP-1 and the expression of IL-5 mRNA (P< 0.01). It was concluded that AP-1 might participate in the signal transduction of PKC-triggered transcription of IL-5 gene in asthmatic T lymphocytes. This suggests the activation of PKC/AP-1 signal transduction cascade of T lymphocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma.

  13. H-NS is a repressor of major virulence gene loci in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng eZhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a leading cause of seafood-associated diarrhea and gastroenteritis, harbors three major virulence gene loci T3SS1, Vp-PAI (T3SS1+tdh2 and T6SS2. As showing is this study, the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding regulator H-NS binds to multiple promoter-proximal regions in each of the above three loci to repress their transcription, and moreover H-NS inhibits the cytotoxicitiy, enterotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and mouse lethality of V. parahaemolyticus. H-NS appears to act as a major repressor of the virulence of this pathogen.

  14. Multi-petal cyclamen flowers produced by AGAMOUS chimeric repressor expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Tanaka; Yoshimi Oshima; Tomomichi Yamamura; Masao Sugiyama; Nobutaka Mitsuda; Norihiro Ohtsubo; Masaru Ohme-Takagi; Teruhiko Terakawa

    2013-01-01

    Cyclamen persicum (cyclamen) is a commercially valuable, winter-blooming perennial plant. We cloned two cyclamen orthologues of AGAMOUS (AG), CpAG1 and CpAG2, which are mainly expressed in the stamen and carpel, respectively. Cyclamen flowers have 5 petals, but expression of a chimeric repressor of CpAG1 (CpAG1-SRDX) caused stamens to convert into petals, resulting in a flower with 10 petals. By contrast, CpAG2-SRDX only caused incomplete formation of stamens and carpels. Expression in Arabid...

  15. Highly Specific Epigenome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9 Repressors for Silencing of Distal Regulatory Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; D’Ippolito, Anthony M.; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Shivakumar, Nishkala K.; Kabadi, Ami M.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Crawford, Gregory E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Epigenome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 platform is a promising technology to modulate gene expression to direct cell phenotype and to dissect the causal epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Fusions of the nuclease-inactive dCas9 to the KRAB repressor (dCas9-KRAB) can silence target gene expression, but the genome-wide specificity and the extent of heterochromatin formation catalyzed by dCas9-KRAB is not known. We targeted dCas9-KRAB to the HS2 enhancer, a distal regulatory element that o...

  16. Control of gene expression in Helicobacter pylori using the Tet repressor

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Mark S.; Duncan, Stacy S.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a versatile system to control gene expression in Helicobacter pylori has hampered efforts to study H. pylori physiology and pathogenesis. To overcome these limitations, we evaluated the utility of an inducible system based on the well-characterized Tet repressor (TetR) and Tet operator (tetO). As validation of this system, we introduced three copies of tetO into the promoter region upstream of the cagUT operon (encoding two virulence factors required for function of the H. pylori ...

  17. Protein expression in response to folate stress in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, E Y; Mohler, A M; Rohlman, C E

    1997-01-01

    Interruption of folate metabolism by trimethoprim results in the elevated expression of folate stress proteins in Escherichia coli. E. coli grown in culture medium supplemented with the folate-dependent metabolites glycine, methionine, and the purine nucleoside inosine shows reduced expression of folate stress proteins. The folate stress proteins include the universal stress protein, the ferric uptake regulatory repressor, and possibly, lipoamide dehydrogenase, the L protein component of the ...

  18. Prediction of DtxR regulon: Identification of binding sites and operons controlled by Diphtheria toxin repressor in Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Seyed

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR, of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been shown to be an iron-activated transcription regulator that controls not only the expression of diphtheria toxin but also of iron uptake genes. This study aims to identify putative binding sites and operons controlled by DtxR to understand the role of DtxR in patho-physiology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Result Positional Shannon relative entropy method was used to build the DtxR-binding site recognition profile and the later was used to identify putative regulatory sites of DtxR within C. diphtheriae genome. In addition, DtxR-regulated operons were also identified taking into account the predicted DtxR regulatory sites and genome annotation. Few of the predicted motifs were experimentally validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The analysis identifies motifs upstream to the novel iron-regulated genes that code for Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FpG, an enzyme involved in DNA-repair and starvation inducible DNA-binding protein (Dps which is involved in iron storage and oxidative stress defense. In addition, we have found the DtxR motifs upstream to the genes that code for sortase which catalyzes anchoring of host-interacting proteins to the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and the proteins of secretory system which could be involved in translocation of various iron-regulated virulence factors including diphtheria toxin. Conclusions We have used an in silico approach to identify the putative binding sites and genes controlled by DtxR in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Our analysis shows that DtxR could provide a molecular link between Fe+2-induced Fenton's reaction and protection of DNA from oxidative damage. DtxR-regulated Dps prevents lethal combination of Fe+2 and H2O2 and also protects DNA by nonspecific DNA-binding. In addition DtxR could play an important role in host interaction and virulence by regulating the levels of sortase

  19. THAP5 is a DNA binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla; Goto, Yamafumi; Takata, Minoru; Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn; Zervos, Antonis S.

    2011-01-01

    THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death. PMID:21110952

  20. GLI3 repressor controls nephron number via regulation of Wnt11 and Ret in ureteric tip cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Cain

    Full Text Available Truncating GLI3 mutations in Pallister-Hall Syndrome with renal malformation suggests a requirement for Hedgehog signaling during renal development. HH-dependent signaling increases levels of GLI transcriptional activators and decreases processing of GLI3 to a shorter transcriptional repressor. Previously, we showed that Shh-deficiency interrupts early inductive events during renal development in a manner dependent on GLI3 repressor. Here we identify a novel function for GLI3 repressor in controlling nephron number. During renal morphogenesis, HH signaling activity, assayed by expression of Ptc1-lacZ, is localized to ureteric cells of the medulla, but is undetectable in the cortex. Targeted inactivation of Smo, the HH effector, in the ureteric cell lineage causes no detectable abnormality in renal morphogenesis. The functional significance of absent HH signaling activity in cortical ureteric cells was determined by targeted deletion of Ptc1, the SMO inhibitor, in the ureteric cell lineage. Ptc1(-/-UB mice demonstrate ectopic Ptc1-lacZ expression in ureteric branch tips and renal hypoplasia characterized by reduced kidney size and a paucity of mature and intermediate nephrogenic structures. Ureteric tip cells are remarkable for abnormal morphology and impaired expression of Ret and Wnt11, markers of tip cell differentiation. A finding of renal hypoplasia in Gli3(-/- mice suggests a pathogenic role for reduced GLI3 repressor in the Ptc1(-/-UB mice. Indeed, constitutive expression of GLI3 repressor via the Gli3(Delta699 allele in Ptc1(-/-UB mice restores the normal pattern of HH signaling, and expression of Ret and Wnt11 and rescued the renal phenotype. Thus, GLI3 repressor controls nephron number by regulating ureteric tip cell expression of Wnt11 and Ret.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor from the chicken (Gallus gallus): interspecies similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young; Nomaru, Koji; Iwata, Hisato

    2011-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) repressor (AHRR) has been recognized as a negative feedback modulator of AHR-mediated responses in fish and mammals. However, the repressive mechanism by the AHRR has not been investigated in other animals. To understand the molecular mechanism of dioxin toxicity and the evolutionary history of the AHR signaling pathway in avian species, the present study addresses chicken AHRR (ckAHRR). The complementary DNA sequence of ckAHRR encodes an 84-kDa protein sharing 29-52% identities with other AHRRs. High levels of ckAHRR messenger RNA were recorded in the kidney and intestine of nontreated chicks. In hepatoma LMH cells, the 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 50% effective concentration value for ckAHRR induction (0.0016nM) was the same as that for chicken cytochrome P450 1A5 (ckCYP1A5), implying a shared transcriptional regulation of ckAHRR and ckCYP1A5 by chicken AHR (ckAHR). In ckAHRR transient transfection assays, ckAHRR repressed both ckAHR1- and ckAHR2-mediated transcriptional activities. Deletion and mutation assays revealed that basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim A domains of ckAHRR, particularly 217-402 amino acid residues, are indispensable for the repression, but the AHR nuclear translocator sequestration by ckAHRR and SUMOylation of ckAHRR are not involved in its repressive mechanism. Additionally, subcellular localization assay of ckAHR1-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that ckAHRR did not affect nuclear translocation of the ckAHR1. Furthermore, ckAHRR inhibited the TCDD- and 17β estradiol-enhanced ckCYP1A5 transcription through AHR-estrogen receptor α (ERα) cross talk. Taken together, the function of AHRR is conserved in chicken in terms of the negative regulation of AHR and ERα activities, but its functional mechanism is likely distinct from those of the mammalian and fish homologues. PMID:21047992

  2. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  3. Change of cholinergic transmission and memory deficiency induced by injection of b-amyloid protein into NBM of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓峰; 叶惟泠; 梅镇彤

    2001-01-01

    The change of cholinergic transmission of b-amyloid protein (b-AP) treated rats was studied by intracerebral microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC analysis. b-AP1-40 was injected into nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Passive avoidance response test (step-down test) and delayed alternation task were used for memory testing. The impairment of memory after injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM exhibited mainly the deficiency of short-term working memory. One week after injection of b-AP1-40 the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from frontal cortex of freely-moving rats decreased significantly, and the response of cholinergic nerve ending to the action of high [K+] solution was rather weak. In control animals the percentage of increase of ACh- release during behavioral performance was 57%, while in b-AP1-40 - treated rats it was 34%. The temporary in-crease of the ACh-release of the rat put into a new place was also significantly diminished in b-AP1-40 -treated rats. The results show that the injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM impairs the cholinergic transmission in frontal cortex, and the impairment of cholinergic transmission may be the main cause of the deficit of working memory.

  4. Specific binding sites in the alcR and alcA promoters of the ethanol regulon for the CREA repressor mediating carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmburg, P; Mathieu, M; Dowzer, C; Kelly, J; Felenbok, B

    1993-03-01

    The CREA repressor responsible for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans represses the transcription of the ethanol regulon. The N-terminal part of the CREA protein encompassing the two zinc fingers (C2H2 class family) and an alanine-rich region was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. Our results show that CREA is a DNA-binding protein able to bind to the promoters of both the specific trans-acting gene, alcR, and of the structural gene, alcA, encoding the alcohol dehydrogenase I. DNase I protection footprinting experiments revealed several specific binding sites in the alcR and in the alcA promoters having the consensus sequence 5'-G/CPyGGGG-3'. The disruption of one of these CREA-binding sites in the alcR promoter overlapping the induction target for the trans-activator ALCR results in a partially derepressed alc phenotype and derepressed alcR transcription, showing that this binding site is functional in vivo. Our data suggest that CREA represses the ethanol regulon by a double lock mechanism repressing both the trans-acting gene, alcR, and the structural gene, alcA.

  5. Physical interaction of the activator protein-1 factors c-Fos and c-Jun with Cbfa1 for collagenase-3 promoter activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Karsenty, Gerard; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we determined that the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site and the runt domain (RD)-binding site and their binding proteins, c-Fos.c-Jun and Cbfa, regulate the collagenase-3 promoter in parathyroid hormone-treated and differentiating osteoblasts. Here we show that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun appear to cooperatively bind the RD- and AP-1-binding sites and form ternary structures in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies further demonstrate interaction between Cbfa1 with c-Fos and c-Jun in the absence of phosphorylation and without binding to DNA. Additionally, only the runt domain of Cbfa1 was required for interaction with c-Jun and c-Fos. In mammalian cells, overexpression of Cbfa1 enhanced c-Jun activation of AP-1-binding site promoter activity, demonstrating functional interaction. Finally, insertion of base pairs that disrupted the helical phasing between the AP-1- and RD-binding sites also inhibited collagenase-3 promoter activation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun physically interact and cooperatively bind the AP-1- and RD-binding sites in the collagenase-3 promoter. Moreover, the AP-1- and RD-binding sites appear to be organized in a specific required helical arrangement that facilitates transcription factor interaction and enables promoter activation.

  6. The β-Lactamase Gene Regulator AmpR Is a Tetramer That Recognizes and Binds the d-Ala-d-Ala Motif of Its Repressor UDP-N-acetylmuramic Acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, Grishma; Thomas, Misty D.; Patel, Trushar R.; Donald, Lynda J.; Reeve, Thomas M.; Stetefeld, Jörg; Standing, Kenneth G.; Vocadlo, David J.; Mark, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Inducible expression of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase is a major cause of β-lactam antibiotic resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. AmpC expression is induced by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR, which activates ampC expression in response to changes in peptidoglycan (PG) metabolite levels that occur during exposure to β-lactams. Under normal conditions, AmpR represses ampC transcription by binding the PG precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide. When exposed to β-lactams, however, PG catabolites (1,6-anhydroMurNAc-peptides) accumulate in the cytosol, which have been proposed to competitively displace UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide from AmpR and convert it into an activator of ampC transcription. Here we describe the molecular interactions between AmpR (from Citrobacter freundii), its DNA operator, and repressor UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry revealed AmpR to be a homotetramer that is stabilized by DNA containing the T-N11-A LTTR binding motif and revealed that it can bind four repressor molecules in an apparently stepwise manner. A crystal structure of the AmpR effector-binding domain bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide revealed that the terminal d-Ala-d-Ala motif of the repressor forms the primary contacts with the protein. This observation suggests that 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-pentapeptide may convert AmpR into an activator of ampC transcription more effectively than 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-tripeptide (which lacks the d-Ala-d-Ala motif). Finally, small angle x-ray scattering demonstrates that the AmpR·DNA complex adopts a flat conformation similar to the LTTR protein AphB and undergoes only a slight conformational change when binding UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Modeling the AmpR·DNA tetramer bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide predicts that the UDP-MurNAc moiety of the repressor participates in modulating AmpR function. PMID:25480792

  7. The β-lactamase gene regulator AmpR is a tetramer that recognizes and binds the D-Ala-D-Ala motif of its repressor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, Grishma; Thomas, Misty D; Patel, Trushar R; Donald, Lynda J; Reeve, Thomas M; Stetefeld, Jörg; Standing, Kenneth G; Vocadlo, David J; Mark, Brian L

    2015-01-30

    Inducible expression of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase is a major cause of β-lactam antibiotic resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. AmpC expression is induced by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR, which activates ampC expression in response to changes in peptidoglycan (PG) metabolite levels that occur during exposure to β-lactams. Under normal conditions, AmpR represses ampC transcription by binding the PG precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-pentapeptide. When exposed to β-lactams, however, PG catabolites (1,6-anhydroMurNAc-peptides) accumulate in the cytosol, which have been proposed to competitively displace UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide from AmpR and convert it into an activator of ampC transcription. Here we describe the molecular interactions between AmpR (from Citrobacter freundii), its DNA operator, and repressor UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry revealed AmpR to be a homotetramer that is stabilized by DNA containing the T-N11-A LTTR binding motif and revealed that it can bind four repressor molecules in an apparently stepwise manner. A crystal structure of the AmpR effector-binding domain bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide revealed that the terminal D-Ala-D-Ala motif of the repressor forms the primary contacts with the protein. This observation suggests that 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-pentapeptide may convert AmpR into an activator of ampC transcription more effectively than 1,6-anhydroMurNAc-tripeptide (which lacks the D-Ala-D-Ala motif). Finally, small angle x-ray scattering demonstrates that the AmpR·DNA complex adopts a flat conformation similar to the LTTR protein AphB and undergoes only a slight conformational change when binding UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. Modeling the AmpR·DNA tetramer bound to UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide predicts that the UDP-MurNAc moiety of the repressor participates in modulating AmpR function. PMID:25480792

  8. The homeobox genes vox and vent are redundant repressors of dorsal fates in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Gates, M A; Melby, A E; Kimelman, D; Schier, A F; Talbot, W S

    2001-06-01

    Ventralizing transcriptional repressors in the Vox/Vent family have been proposed to be important regulators of dorsoventral patterning in the early embryo. While the zebrafish genes vox (vega1) and vent (vega2) both have ventralizing activity in overexpression assays, loss-of-function studies are needed to determine whether these genes have distinct or redundant functions in dorsoventral patterning and to provide critical tests of the proposed regulatory interactions among vox, vent and other genes that act to establish the dorsoventral axis. We show that vox and vent are redundant repressors of dorsal fates in zebrafish. Mutants that lack vox function have little or no dorsoventral patterning defect, and inactivation of either vox or vent by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides has little or no effect on the embryo. In contrast, embryos that lack both vox and vent function have a dorsalized phenotype. Expression of dorsal mesodermal genes, including chordin, goosecoid and bozozok, is strongly expanded in embryos that lack vox and vent function, indicating that the redundant action of vox and vent is required to restrict dorsal genes to their appropriate territories. Our genetic analysis indicates that the dorsalizing transcription factor Bozozok promotes dorsal fates indirectly, by antagonizing the expression of vox and vent. In turn, vox and vent repress chordin expression, restricting its function as an antagonist of ventral fates to the dorsal side of the embryo. Our results support a model in which BMP signaling induces the expression of ventral genes, while vox and vent act redundantly to prevent the expression of chordin, goosecoid and other dorsal genes in the lateral and ventral mesendoderm. PMID:11493559

  9. Changing a conserved amino acid in R2R3-MYB transcription repressors results in cytoplasmic accumulation and abolishes their repressive activity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Sun, Zhanmin; Wang, Chenglong; Zhang, Xinquan; Tang, Yixiong; Zhu, Xuemei; Shao, Jirong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-10-01

    Sub-group 4 R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, including MYB3, MYB4, MYB7 and MYB32, act as repressors in phenylpropanoid metabolism. These proteins contain the conserved MYB domain and the ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) repression domain. Additionally, MYB4, MYB7 and MYB32 possess a putative zinc-finger domain and a conserved GY/FDFLGL motif in their C-termini. The protein 'sensitive to ABA and drought 2' (SAD2) recognizes the nuclear pore complex, which then transports the SAD2-MYB4 complex into the nucleus. Here, we show that the conserved GY/FDFLGL motif contributes to the interaction between MYB factors and SAD2. The Asp → Asn mutation in the GY/FDFLGL motif abolishes the interaction between MYB transcription factors and SAD2, and therefore they cannot be transported into the nucleus and cannot repress their target genes. We found that MYB4(D261N) loses the capacity to repress expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) gene and biosynthesis of sinapoyl malate. Our results indicate conservation among MYB transcription factors in terms of their interaction with SAD2. Therefore, the Asp → Asn mutation may be used to engineer transcription factors. PMID:26332741

  10. Hes-1, a known transcriptional repressor, acts as a transcriptional activator for the human acid alpha-glucosidase gene in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Raben, Nina; Plotz, Paul H

    2002-03-01

    Hes-1, the mammalian homologue 1 of Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split proteins, belongs to a family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins that are essential to neurogenesis, myogenesis, hematopoiesis, and sex determination. Hes-1 is a transcriptional repressor for a number of known genes including the human acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) gene as we have previously shown in Hep G2 cells. The human GAA gene encodes the enzyme for glycogen breakdown in lysosomes, deficiency of which results in Glycogen Storage Disease type II (Pompe syndrome). Using constructs containing the DNA element that demonstrates repressive activity in Hep G2 cells and conditions in which the same transcription factors, Hes-1 and YY1, bind, we have shown that this element functions as an enhancer in human fibroblasts. Site-directed mutagenesis and overexpression of Hes-1 showed that Hes-1 functions as a transcriptional activator. The dual function of Hes-1 we have found is likely to contribute to the subtle tissue-specific control of this housekeeping gene.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiations on DNA-protein complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-induced destruction of DNA-protein complexes may have serious consequences for systems implicated in important cellular functions. The first system which has been studied is the lactose operon system, that regulates gene expression in Escherichia coli. First of all, the repressor-operator complex is destroyed after irradiation of the complex or of the protein alone. The damaging of the domain of repressor binding to DNA (headpiece) has been demonstrated and studied from the point of view of peptide chain integrity, conformation and amino acids damages. Secondly, dysfunctions of the in vitro induction of an irradiated repressor-unirradiated DNA complex have been observed. These perturbations, due to a decrease of the number of inducer binding sites, are correlated to the damaging of tryptophan residues. Moreover, the inducer protects the repressor when they are irradiated together, both by acting as a scavenger in the bulk, and by the masking of its binding site on the protein. The second studied system is formed by Fpg (for Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase), a DNA repair protein and a DNA with an oxidative lesion. The results show that irradiation disturbs the repair both by decreasing its efficiency of DNA lesion recognition and binding, and by altering its enzymatic activity. (author)

  12. The B-subdomain of the Xenopus laevis XFIN KRAB-AB domain is responsible for its weaker transcriptional repressor activity compared to human ZNF10/Kox1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Born

    Full Text Available The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB domain interacts with the nuclear hub protein TRIM28 to initiate or mediate chromatin-dependent processes like transcriptional repression, imprinting or suppression of endogenous retroviruses. The prototype KRAB domain initially identified in ZNF10/KOX1 encompasses two subdomains A and B that are found in hundreds of zinc finger transcription factors studied in human and murine genomes. Here we demonstrate for the first time transcriptional repressor activity of an amphibian KRAB domain. After sequence correction, the updated KRAB-AB domain of zinc finger protein XFIN from the frog Xenopus laevis was found to confer transcriptional repression in reporter assays in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney cells as well as in human HeLa, but not in the minnow Pimephales promelas fish cell line EPC. Binding of the XFIN KRAB-AB domain to human TRIM28 was demonstrated in a classical co-immunoprecipitation approach and visualized in a single-cell compartmentalization assay. XFIN-AB displayed reduced potency in repression as well as lower strength of interaction with TRIM28 compared to ZNF10 KRAB-AB. KRAB-B subdomain swapping between the two KRAB domains indicated that it was mainly the KRAB-B subdomain of XFIN that was responsible for its lower capacity in repression and binding to human TRIM28. In EPC fish cells, ZNF10 and XFIN KRAB repressor activity could be partially restored to low levels by adding exogenous human TRIM28. In contrast to XFIN, we did not find any transcriptional repression activity for the KRAB-like domain of human PRDM9 in HeLa cells. PRDM9 is thought to harbor an evolutionary older domain related to KRAB whose homologs even occur in invertebrates. Our results support the notion that functional bona fide KRAB domains which confer transcriptional repression and interact with TRIM28 most likely co-evolved together with TRIM28 at the beginning of tetrapode evolution.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiations on DNA-protein complexes; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur des complexes ADN-proteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, N

    2005-11-15

    The radio-induced destruction of DNA-protein complexes may have serious consequences for systems implicated in important cellular functions. The first system which has been studied is the lactose operon system, that regulates gene expression in Escherichia coli. First of all, the repressor-operator complex is destroyed after irradiation of the complex or of the protein alone. The damaging of the domain of repressor binding to DNA (headpiece) has been demonstrated and studied from the point of view of peptide chain integrity, conformation and amino acids damages. Secondly, dysfunctions of the in vitro induction of an irradiated repressor-unirradiated DNA complex have been observed. These perturbations, due to a decrease of the number of inducer binding sites, are correlated to the damaging of tryptophan residues. Moreover, the inducer protects the repressor when they are irradiated together, both by acting as a scavenger in the bulk, and by the masking of its binding site on the protein. The second studied system is formed by Fpg (for Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase), a DNA repair protein and a DNA with an oxidative lesion. The results show that irradiation disturbs the repair both by decreasing its efficiency of DNA lesion recognition and binding, and by altering its enzymatic activity. (author)

  14. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. ...

  15. Changes underlying arrhythmia in the transgenic heart overexpressing Refsum disease gene-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jeong Tae; Jeong, Byung Chul; Kim, Jae Ha; Ahn, Young Keun; Lee, Hyang Sim; Baik, Yung Hong; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we identified a novel neuron-specific protein (PAHX-AP1) that binds to Refsum disease gene product (PAHX), and we developed transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress heart-targeted PAHX-AP1. These mice have atrial tachycardia and increased susceptibility to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. This study was undertaken to elucidate the possible changes in ion channels underlying the susceptibility to arrhythmia in these mice. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the cardiac expression of adrenergic beta(1)-receptor (ADRB1) was markedly lower, whereas voltage-gated potassium channel expression (Kv2.1) was higher in PAHX-AP1 TG mice compared with non-TG mice. However, the expression of voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium channels, and muscarinic receptor was not significantly different. Propranolol pretreatment, a non-specific beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, blocked aconitine-induced arrhythmia in non-TG mice, but not in PAHX-AP1 TG mice. Our results indicate that, in the PAHX-AP1 TG heart, the modulation of voltage-gated potassium channel and ADRB1 expression seem to be important in the electrophysiological changes associated with altered ion channel functions, but ADRB1 is not involved in the greater susceptibility to aconitine-induced arrhythmia.

  16. FISH to meiotic pachytene chromosomes of tomato locates the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi-1 and the acid phosphatase gene Aps-1 near the junction of euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome arms 6S and 6L, respectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, X.B.; Bodeau, J.; Fransz, P.F.; Williamson, V.M.; Kammen, van A.; Jong, de J.H.; Zabel, P.

    1999-01-01

    The root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi-1 in tomato has long been thought to be located in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region of the long arm of chromosome 6 because of its very tight genetic linkage (approx. 1 cM) to the markers Aps-1 (Acid phosphatase 1) and yv (yellow virescent). Using

  17. A Comprehensive Catalog of Human KRAB-associated Zinc Finger Genes: Insights into the Evolutionary History of a Large Family of Transcriptional Repressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D M; Hamilton, A T; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Yang, S; Kim, J; Gordon, L; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-30

    Krueppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotic species. In mammals, most ZNF proteins comprise a single class of transcriptional repressors in which a chromatin interaction domain, called the Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs. KRAB-ZNF loci are specific to tetrapod vertebrates, but have expanded dramatically in numbers through repeated rounds of segmental duplication to create a gene family with hundreds of members in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the human genome for key motifs and used them to construct and manually curate gene models. The resulting KRAB-ZNF gene catalog includes 326 known genes, 243 of which were structurally corrected by manual annotation, and 97 novel KRAB-ZNF genes; this single family therefore comprises 20% of all predicted human transcription factor genes. Many of the genes are alternatively spliced, yielding a total of 743 distinct predicted proteins. Although many human KRAB-ZNF genes are conserved in mammals, at least 136 and potentially more than 200 genes of this type are primate-specific including many recent segmental duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are active in a wide variety of human tissues suggesting roles in many key biological processes, but most member genes remain completely uncharacterized. Because of their sheer numbers, wide-ranging tissue-specific expression patterns, and remarkable evolutionary divergence we predict that KRAB-ZNF transcription factors have played critical roles in crafting many aspects of human biology, including both deeply conserved and primate-specific traits.

  18. The autoregulatory role of EsaR, a quorum-sensing regulator in Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii: evidence for a repressor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Timothy D; Wehland-von Trebra, Markus; Bernhard, Frank; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2002-06-01

    Capsular polysaccharide synthesis and virulence in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii requires the quorum-sensing regulatory proteins, EsaR and EsaI, and the diffusible inducer N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. Prior mutational studies suggested that EsaR might function as a repressor of quorum sensing in the control of capsular polysaccharide synthesis. Further, a lux box-like palindromic sequence coinciding with the putative -10 element of the esaR promoter suggested a possible negative autoregulatory role for EsaR. This report presents genetic evidence that EsaR represses the esaR gene under inducer-limiting conditions, and that addition of inducer promotes rapid, dose-dependent derepression. DNA mobility-shift assays and analyses by surface plasmon resonance refractometry show that EsaR binds target DNAs in a ligand-free state, and that inducer alters the binding characteristics of EsaR. Physical measurements indicate that the EsaR protein binds N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, in a 1:1 protein:ligand ratio, and that inducer binding enhances the thermal stability of the EsaR protein. These combined genetic and biochemical data establish that EsaR regulates its own expression by signal-independent repression and signal-dependent derepression. Additionally, we provide evidence that EsaR does not govern the expression of the linked esaI gene, thus EsaR has no role in controlling coinducer synthesis. PMID:12067349

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of RBP1 and pRb promotes their dissociation to mediate release of the SAP30·mSin3·HDAC transcriptional repressor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadinata, Randy; Sadowski, Martin; Steel, Rohan; Sarcevic, Boris

    2011-02-18

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is mediated by phosphorylation of protein substrates by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A critical substrate of CDKs is the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, pRb, which inhibits G(1)-S phase cell cycle progression by binding and repressing E2F transcription factors. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb alleviates this inhibitory effect to promote G(1)-S phase cell cycle progression. pRb represses transcription by binding to the E2F transactivation domain and recruiting the mSin3·histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repressor complex via the retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBP1). RBP1 binds to the pocket region of pRb via an LXCXE motif and to the SAP30 subunit of the mSin3·HDAC complex and, thus, acts as a bridging protein in this multisubunit complex. In the present study we identified RBP1 as a novel CDK substrate. RBP1 is phosphorylated by CDK2 on serines 864 and 1007, which are N- and C-terminal to the LXCXE motif, respectively. CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of RBP1 or pRb destabilizes their interaction in vitro, with concurrent phosphorylation of both proteins leading to their dissociation. Consistent with these findings, RBP1 phosphorylation is increased during progression from G(1) into S-phase, with a concurrent decrease in its association with pRb in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into CDK-mediated regulation of the pRb tumor suppressor during cell cycle progression, demonstrating that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of both RBP1 and pRb induces their dissociation to mediate release of the mSin3·HDAC transcriptional repressor complex from pRb to alleviate transcriptional repression of E2F.

  20. On the association of glycoprotein Ib and actin-binding protein in human platelets

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib was purified from lysates of human platelets prepared in the presence or absence of inhibitors of the endogenous calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) by immunoaffinity chromatography, employing the GPIb-specific murine monoclonal antibody, AP1, coupled to Sepharose CL4B. When derived from lysates prepared in the presence of EDTA or leupeptin, the eluate from the AP1-affinity column contained a 240,000-260,000-mol-wt protein in addition to GPIb. In SDS PAGE, this prot...

  1. UVB exposure enhanced benzanthrone-induced inflammatory responses in SKH-1 mouse skin by activating the expression of COX-2 and iNOS through MAP kinases/NF-κB/AP-1 signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Sabiya; Alam, Shamshad; Pal, Anu; Kumar, Mahadeo; Singh, Dhirendra; Ansari, Kausar Mahmood

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to explore the role of UVB on benzanthrone (BA)-induced skin inflammation and its mechanism/s. SKH-1 hairless mice were topically exposed with BA (25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt) either alone or along with UVB (50 mJ/cm(2)) for 24 h and estimation of ROS, histopathological analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mast cell staining, immunohistochemistry for COX-2 and iNOS as well as western blotting for MAPKs, p-NF-κB, c-jun, c-fos COX-2 and iNOS were carried out. Enhanced ROS generation, increased epidermal thickness, mast cell number, MPO activity, enhanced expression of COX-2 and iNOS, MAPKs, c-jun, c-fos, NF-κB were found in BA either alone or when followed by UVB treatment, compared to the control groups. Expression of COX-2, iNOS and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were found to be more enhanced in BA and UVB- exposed group compared to BA and UVB only group, while phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38, NF-κB and expression of c-jun and c-fos were comparable with BA and UVB only groups. In summary, we suggest that UVB exposure enhanced BA-induced SKH-1 skin inflammation possibly via oxidative stress-mediated activation of MAPKs-NF-κB/AP-1 signalling, which subsequently increased the expression of COX-2 and iNOS and led to inflammation in SKH-1 mouse skin.

  2. The mucin MUC4 is a transcriptional and post-transcriptional target of K-ras oncogene in pancreatic cancer. Implication of MAPK/AP-1, NF-κB and RalB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Romain; Skrypek, Nicolas; Duchêne, Belinda; Renaud, Florence; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Vincent, Audrey; Porchet, Nicole; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Jonckheere, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The membrane-bound mucinMUC4 is a high molecularweight glycoprotein frequently deregulated in cancer. In pancreatic cancer, one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, MUC4 is neo-expressed in the preneoplastic stages and thereafter is involved in cancer cell properties leading to cancer progression and chemoresistance. K-ras oncogene is a small GTPase of the RAS superfamily, highly implicated in cancer. K-ras mutations are considered as an initiating event of pancreatic carcinogenesis and K-ras oncogenic activities are necessary components of cancer progression. However, K-ras remains clinically undruggable. Targeting early downstream K-ras signaling in cancer may thus appear as an interesting strategy and MUC4 regulation by K-ras in pancreatic carcinogenesis remains unknown. Using the Pdx1-Cre; LStopL-K-rasG12D mouse model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, we show that the in vivo early neo-expression of the mucin Muc4 in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions (PanINs) induced by mutated K-ras is correlated with the activation of ERK, JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In vitro, transfection of constitutively activated K-rasG12V in pancreatic cancer cells led to the transcriptional upregulation of MUC4. This activation was found to be mediated at the transcriptional level by AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors via MAPK, JNK and NF-κB pathways and at the posttranscriptional level by a mechanism involving the RalB GTPase. Altogether, these results identify MUC4 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional target of K-ras in pancreatic cancer. This opens avenues in developing new approaches to target the early steps of this deadly cancer.

  3. A homozygous mutation in HESX1 is associated with evolving hypopituitarism due to impaired repressor-corepressor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Luciani R; Woods, Kathryn S; Mendonca, Berenice B;

    2003-01-01

    The paired-like homeobox gene expressed in embryonic stem cells Hesx1/HESX1 encodes a developmental repressor and is expressed in early development in a region fated to form the forebrain, with subsequent localization to Rathke's pouch, the primordium of the anterior pituitary gland. Mutations...... repressor domain (eh1) of HESX1, the first, to our knowledge, to be described in humans, in a girl with evolving combined pituitary hormone deficiency born to consanguineous parents. Neuroimaging revealed a thin pituitary stalk with anterior pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary......, but no midline or optic nerve abnormalities. This I26T mutation did not affect the DNA-binding ability of HESX1 but led to an impaired ability to recruit the mammalian Groucho homolog/Transducin-like enhancer of split-1 (Gro/TLE1), a crucial corepressor for HESX1, thereby leading to partial loss of repression...

  4. Acetylation regulates Jun protein turnover in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyong; Suganuma, Tamaki; Workman, Jerry L

    2013-11-01

    C-Jun is a major transcription factor belonging to the activating protein 1 (AP-1) family. Phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for c-Jun activation and stability. Here, we report that Jra, the Drosophila Jun protein, is acetylated in vivo. We demonstrate that the acetylation of Jra leads to its rapid degradation in response to osmotic stress. Intriguingly, we also found that Jra phosphorylation antagonized its acetylation, indicating the opposite roles of acetylation and phosphorylation in Jra degradation process under osmotic stress. Our results provide new insights into how c-Jun proteins are precisely regulated by the interplay of different posttranslational modifications.

  5. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2-thiophen-5-yl-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogues as inhibitors of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation: Their possible utilization as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajan S; Thaker, Hardik M; Giordano, Tony; Williams, Jill; Rogers, Donna; Vasu, Kamala K; Sudarsanam, Vasudevan

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to discover novel inhibitors of NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation utilizing the concept of chemical lead based medicinal chemistry and bioisosterism a series of 2-(2,3-disubstituted-thiophen-5-yl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed. A facile and simple route for the synthesis of the designed molecules was developed. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their activity as inhibitors towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation in a cell line report-based assay. This series provides us with a substantial number of compounds inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB and/or AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. These compounds also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity in in vivo models of inflammation and cancer. The 4-pyridyl group is found to be the most important pharmacophore on the third position of thiophene ring for inhibiting NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. The relationships between the activities shown by these compounds in the in vivo and in vitro models have been established by using FVB transgenic mice model. These results suggest the suitability of the designed molecular framework as a potential scaffold for the design of molecules with inhibitory activity towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation, which may also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. This series of molecules warrants further study to explore their potential as therapies for use in chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. Development of the synthetic protocol for the synthesis of this series of molecules, biological activities and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) have been discussed herein.

  6. A computational system for modelling flexible protein-protein and protein-DNA docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, M J; Aloy, P; Gabb, H A; Jackson, R M; Moont, G; Querol, E; Aviles, F X

    1998-01-01

    A computational system is described that predicts the structure of protein/protein and protein/DNA complexes starting from unbound coordinate sets. The approach is (i) a global search with rigid-body docking for complexes with shape complementarity and favourable electrostatics; (ii) use of distance constraints from experimental (or predicted) knowledge of critical residues; (iii) use of pair potential to screen docked complexes and (iv) refinement and further screening by protein-side chain optimisation and interfacial energy minimisation. The system has been applied to model ten protein/protein and eight protein-repressor/DNA (steps i to iii only) complexes. In general a few complexes, one of which is close to the true structure, can be generated. PMID:9783224

  7. Enhanced generation of myeloid lineages in hematopoietic differentiation from embryonic stem cells by silencing transcriptional repressor Twist-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Andrew B; Lee, Sung-Hyung; Goodell, Margaret A; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi

    2009-12-01

    The self-renewal and multilineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) is largely governed by transcription factors or repressors. Extensive efforts have focused on elucidating critical factors that control the differentiation of specific cell lineages, for instance, myeloid lineages in hematopoietic development. In this study, we found that Twist-2, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays a critical role in inhibiting the differentiation of ESC. Murine ES cells, in which Twist-2 expression is silenced by lentivirally delivered shRNA, exhibit an enhanced formation of primary embryoid bodies (EB) and enhanced differentiation into mesodermally derived hematopoietic colonies. Furthermore, Twist-2 silenced (LV-siTwist-2) ESC display significantly increased generation of myeloid lineages (Gr-1(+) and F4/80(+) cells) during in vitro hematopoietic differentiation. Treatment with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand synergistically stimulates the generation of primary EB formation as well as of hematopoietic progenitors differentiated from LV-siTwist-2 ES cells. Thus, this study reveals the critical role of the transcriptional repressor Twist-2 in regulating the development of myeloid lineage in hematopoietic differentiation from ESC. This study also suggests a potential strategy for directional differentiation of ESC by inhibiting a transcriptional repressor.

  8. Recognition of AT-Rich DNA Binding Sites by the MogR Repressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Aimee; Higgins, Darren E.; Panne, Daniel; (Harvard-Med); (EMBL)

    2009-07-22

    The MogR transcriptional repressor of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes recognizes AT-rich binding sites in promoters of flagellar genes to downregulate flagellar gene expression during infection. We describe here the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of MogR bound to the recognition sequence 5' ATTTTTTAAAAAAAT 3' present within the flaA promoter region. Our structure shows that MogR binds as a dimer. Each half-site is recognized in the major groove by a helix-turn-helix motif and in the minor groove by a loop from the symmetry-related molecule, resulting in a 'crossover' binding mode. This oversampling through minor groove interactions is important for specificity. The MogR binding site has structural features of A-tract DNA and is bent by approximately 52 degrees away from the dimer. The structure explains how MogR achieves binding specificity in the AT-rich genome of L. monocytogenes and explains the evolutionary conservation of A-tract sequence elements within promoter regions of MogR-regulated flagellar genes.

  9. The Ets dominant repressor En/Erm enhances intestinal epithelial tumorigenesis in ApcMin mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Xiaomei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ets transcription factors have been widely implicated in the control of tumorigenesis, with most studies suggesting tumor-promoting roles. However, few studies have examined Ets tumorigenesis-modifying functions in vivo using model genetic systems. Methods Using mice expressing a previously characterized Ets dominant repressor transgene in the intestinal epithelium (Villin-En/Erm, we examined the consequences of blocking endogenous Ets-mediated transcriptional activation on tumorigenesis in the ApcMin model of intestinal carcinoma. Results En/Erm expression in the intestine, at levels not associated with overt crypt-villus dysmorphogenesis, results in a marked increase in tumor number in ApcMin animals. Moreover, when examined histologically, tumors from En/Erm-expressing animals show a trend toward greater stromal invasiveness. Detailed analysis of crypt-villus homeostasis in these En/Erm transgenic animals suggests increased epithelial turnover as one possible mechanism for the enhanced tumorigenesis. Conclusion Our findings provide in vivo evidence for a tumor-restricting function of endogenous Ets factors in the intestinal epithelium.

  10. Acidic pH promotes oligomerization and membrane insertion of the BclXL apoptotic repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Olenick, Max B; McDonald, Caleb B; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2012-12-01

    Solution pH is believed to serve as an intricate regulatory switch in the induction of apoptosis central to embryonic development and cellular homeostasis. Herein, using an array of biophysical techniques, we provide evidence that acidic pH promotes the assembly of BclXL apoptotic repressor into a megadalton oligomer with a plume-like appearance and harboring structural features characteristic of a molten globule. Strikingly, our data reveal that pH tightly modulates not only oligomerization but also ligand binding and membrane insertion of BclXL in a highly subtle manner. Thus, while oligomerization and the accompanying molten globular content of BclXL is least favorable at pH 6, both of these structural features become more pronounced under acidic and alkaline conditions. However, membrane insertion of BclXL appears to be predominantly favored under acidic conditions. In a remarkable contrast, while ligand binding to BclXL optimally occurs at pH 6, it is diminished by an order of magnitude at lower and higher pH. This reciprocal relationship between BclXL oligomerization and ligand binding lends new insights into how pH modulates functional versatility of a key apoptotic regulator and strongly argues that the molten globule may serve as an intermediate primed for membrane insertion in response to apoptotic cues. PMID:22960132

  11. PRMT4 Blocks Myeloid Differentiation by Assembling a Methyl-RUNX1-Dependent Repressor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly P. Vu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the role of epigenetic regulators in hematopoiesis has become critically important, because recurrent mutations or aberrant expression of these genes has been identified in both myeloid and lymphoid hematological malignancies. We found that PRMT4, a type I arginine methyltransferase whose function in normal and malignant hematopoiesis is unknown, is overexpressed in acute myelogenous leukemia patient samples. Overexpression of PRMT4 blocks the myeloid differentiation of human stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, whereas its knockdown is sufficient to induce myeloid differentiation of HSPCs. We demonstrated that PRMT4 represses the expression of miR-223 in HSPCs via the methylation of RUNX1, which triggers the assembly of a multiprotein repressor complex that includes DPF2. As part of the feedback loop, PRMT4 expression is repressed posttranscriptionally by miR-223. Depletion of PRMT4 results in differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells in vitro and their decreased proliferation in vivo. Thus, targeting PRMT4 holds potential as a novel therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.

  12. Highly specific epigenome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 repressors for silencing of distal regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; D'Ippolito, Anthony M; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Shivakumar, Nishkala K; Kabadi, Ami M; Reddy, Timothy E; Crawford, Gregory E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Epigenome editing with the CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 platform is a promising technology for modulating gene expression to direct cell phenotype and to dissect the causal epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Fusions of nuclease-inactive dCas9 to the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) repressor (dCas9-KRAB) can silence target gene expression, but the genome-wide specificity and the extent of heterochromatin formation catalyzed by dCas9-KRAB are not known. We targeted dCas9-KRAB to the HS2 enhancer, a distal regulatory element that orchestrates the expression of multiple globin genes, and observed highly specific induction of H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) at the enhancer and decreased chromatin accessibility of both the enhancer and its promoter targets. Targeted epigenetic modification of HS2 silenced the expression of multiple globin genes, with minimal off-target changes in global gene expression. These results demonstrate that repression mediated by dCas9-KRAB is sufficiently specific to disrupt the activity of individual enhancers via local modification of the epigenome.

  13. Loss of the RNA polymerase III repressor MAF1 confers obesity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoure, Nicolas; Byrnes, Ashlee; Moir, Robyn D; Hodroj, Wassim; Preitner, Frédéric; Praz, Viviane; Marcelin, Genevieve; Chua, Streamson C; Martinez-Lopez, Nuria; Singh, Rajat; Moullan, Norman; Auwerx, Johan; Willemin, Gilles; Shah, Hardik; Hartil, Kirsten; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Kurland, Irwin; Hernandez, Nouria; Willis, Ian M

    2015-05-01

    MAF1 is a global repressor of RNA polymerase III transcription that regulates the expression of highly abundant noncoding RNAs in response to nutrient availability and cellular stress. Thus, MAF1 function is thought to be important for metabolic economy. Here we show that a whole-body knockout of Maf1 in mice confers resistance to diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing food intake and increasing metabolic inefficiency. Energy expenditure in Maf1(-/-) mice is increased by several mechanisms. Precursor tRNA synthesis was increased in multiple tissues without significant effects on mature tRNA levels, implying increased turnover in a futile tRNA cycle. Elevated futile cycling of hepatic lipids was also observed. Metabolite profiling of the liver and skeletal muscle revealed elevated levels of many amino acids and spermidine, which links the induction of autophagy in Maf1(-/-) mice with their extended life span. The increase in spermidine was accompanied by reduced levels of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, which promotes polyamine synthesis, enables nicotinamide salvage to regenerate NAD(+), and is associated with obesity resistance. Consistent with this, NAD(+) levels were increased in muscle. The importance of MAF1 for metabolic economy reveals the potential for MAF1 modulators to protect against obesity and its harmful consequences. PMID:25934505

  14. Differential signal transduction via TrmB, a sugar sensing transcriptional repressor of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Surma, Melanie; Seitz, Sabine; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2007-06-01

    TrmB is a transcriptional repressor of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus serving at least two operons. TrmB represses genes encoding an ABC transporter for trehalose and maltose (the TM system) with trehalose and maltose as inducers. TrmB also represses genes encoding another ABC transporter for maltodextrins (the MD system) with maltotriose and sucrose as inducers. Here we report that glucose which was also bound by TrmB acted as a corepressor (causing stronger repression) for both the TM and the MD system. Binding of glucose by TrmB was increased in the presence of TM promoter DNA. Maltose which acted as inducer for the TM system acted as a corepressor for the MD system intensifying repression. We propose that the differential conformational changes of TrmB in response to binding the different sugars governs the ability of TrmB to interact with the promoter region and represents a simple mechanism for selecting the usage of one carbon source over the other, reminiscent of catabolite repression in bacteria.

  15. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ohbayashi, Iwai; Takahashi, Hiro; Kojima, Shoko; Ishibashi, Nanako; Keta, Sumie; Nakagawa, Ayami; Hayashi, Rika; Saéz-Vásquez, Julio; Echeverria, Manuel; Sugiyama, Munetaka; Nakamura, Kenzo; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 (AS1-AS2) is critical to repress abaxial (ventral) genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal) development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1) synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP) that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4 These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development. PMID:27334696

  16. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1 and AS2 (AS1-AS2 is critical to repress abaxial (ventral genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1 synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4. These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development.

  17. Regulation of MntH by a dual Mn(II- and Fe(II-dependent transcriptional repressor (DR2539 in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Sun

    Full Text Available The high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio observed within the bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans may contribute to its remarkable resistance to environmental stresses. We isolated DR2539, a novel regulator of intracellular Mn/Fe homeostasis in D. radiodurans. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays (EMSAs revealed that DR2539 binds specifically to the promoter of the manganese acquisition transporter (MntH gene, and that DR0865, the only Fur homologue in D. radiodurans, cannot bind to the promoter of mntH, but it can bind to the promoter of another manganese acquisition transporter, MntABC. β-galactosidase expression analysis indicated that DR2539 acts as a manganese- and iron-dependent transcriptional repressor. Further sequence alignment analysis revealed that DR2539 has evolved some special characteristics. Site-directed mutagenesis suggested that His98 plays an important role in the activities of DR2539, and further protein-DNA binding activity assays showed that the activity of H98Y mutants decreased dramatically relative to wild type DR2539. Our study suggests that D. radiodurans has evolved a very efficient manganese regulation mechanism that involves its high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio and permits resistance to extreme conditions.

  18. Topology independent protein structural alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasGupta Bhaskar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying structurally similar proteins with different chain topologies can aid studies in homology modeling, protein folding, protein design, and protein evolution. These include circular permuted protein structures, and the more general cases of non-cyclic permutations between similar structures, which are related by non-topological rearrangement beyond circular permutation. We present a method based on an approximation algorithm that finds sequence-order independent structural alignments that are close to optimal. We formulate the structural alignment problem as a special case of the maximum-weight independent set problem, and solve this computationally intensive problem approximately by iteratively solving relaxations of a corresponding integer programming problem. The resulting structural alignment is sequence order independent. Our method is also insensitive to insertions, deletions, and gaps. Results Using a novel similarity score and a statistical model for significance p-value, we are able to discover previously unknown circular permuted proteins between nucleoplasmin-core protein and auxin binding protein, between aspartate rasemase and 3-dehydrogenate dehydralase, as well as between migration inhibition factor and arginine repressor which involves an additional strand-swapping. We also report the finding of non-cyclic permuted protein structures existing in nature between AML1/core binding factor and ribofalvin synthase. Our method can be used for large scale alignment of protein structures regardless of the topology. Conclusion The approximation algorithm introduced in this work can find good solutions for the problem of protein structure alignment. Furthermore, this algorithm can detect topological differences between two spatially similar protein structures. The alignment between MIF and the arginine repressor demonstrates our algorithm's ability to detect structural similarities even when spatial

  19. Identification of a brain specific protein that associates with a refsum disease gene product, phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z H; Kim, H; Ahn, K Y; Seo, K H; Kim, J K; Bae, C S; Kim, K K

    2000-02-22

    Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder of the lipid metabolism. Major diagnostic clinical findings include retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, increased cerebrospinal fluid protein without pleocytosis, nerve deafness, and cardiac involvement. We have identified a novel protein (PAHX-AP #1) associated with phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase (PAHX), a Refsum disease gene product, using the yeast-based two-hybrid assay. The middle portion (amino acids 83-264) of PAHX was used as a bait and a mouse brain cDNA library was searched. The ability of PAHX-AP #1 to interact with PAHX was confirmed using immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies in NIH3T3 cells which stably expressed both PAHX and PAHX-AP #1. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated a unique pattern of developmental PAHX-AP #1 expression which was targeted to the adult brain, but ubiquitous expressions of PAHX were observed in all examined tissues. In situ hybridization analyses of the brain showed specific localization of PAHX-AP #1 to the supragranular layer in the cerebral cortex, dentate gyrus, hippocampus, Purkinje cell layer, deep cerebellar nucleus, trigeminal nucleus, abducent nucleus, facial nucleus, cochlear and vestibular nucleus, ganglion cell and nuclear layer of the retina. These data indicate that localization of PAHX-AP #1 in the brain is correlated with central neurologic symptoms of Refsum disease such as retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia, nerve deafness and suggest that PAHX-AP #1 may be involved in the development of the central neurologic deficits of Refsum disease.

  20. Postnatal expression and distribution of Refsum disease gene associated protein in the rat retina and visual cortex: effect of binocular visual deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyu Youn; Nam, Kwang Il; Kim, Baik Yoon; Cho, Chul Woong; Jeong, Sang Ki; Yang, Kun Jin; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2002-04-01

    Previously, phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase-associated protein 1 (PAHX-AP1) was isolated as a novel neuron-specific protein to interact with Refsum disease (RfD) gene PAHX. Its expression in the brain increased after eyelid opening, and the elevated level was maintained through adulthood. In this report, to verify the hypothesis that light could trigger this increase, we have examined the developmental distribution pattern of PAHX-AP1 in rat retina and visual cortex, and changes of its expression by binocular deprivation. Northern blot analyses demonstrated PAHX-AP1 expression reached its highest level in the visual cortex and eyeball at 4 weeks after birth, and these levels were maintained through adult life. Two weeks after visual deprivation, its expression in the eyeball and visual cortex decreased compared with the control. In situ hybridization analyses of the retina showed that PAHX-AP1 expression was limited to the ganglionic cell layer at 10 days after birth, but expressed in the inner nuclear cell layer and extended to the outer nuclear cell layer at 2 and 3 weeks after birth, respectively. Two weeks after visual deprivation, however, it decreased in the ganglionic and inner nuclear cell layer, and disappeared in the rod and cone cell layers. In the visual cortex, strong signals of PAHX-AP1 were detected in layers IV and VI, and II-VI at 10 days and 2 weeks after birth, respectively. Its expression decreased after 2 weeks of visual deprivation. These results indicate that visual stimulation is essential for the maintenance of PAHX-AP1 expressions in the retina, especially in the rod and cone cell layers, and visual cortex, and suggest that PAHX-AP1 may be involved in the developmental regulation of the photoreceptor's function.

  1. Heterodimer formation between c-Jun and Jun B proteins mediated by Epstein Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Xin; TAO; Yongguang; TAN; Yunnian; Leo; M.; Lee; DENG

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) may trigger the transcription factor AP-1 including c-Jun and c-fos. In this report, using a Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by the Tet-on system, we show that Jun B can efficiently form a new heterodimeric complex with the c-Jun protein under the regulation of LMP1, phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser 63, ser 73) and Jun B is involved in the process of the new heterodimeric formation. We also find that this heterodimeric form can bind to the AP-1 consensus sequence. Transfection studies suggest that JNK interaction protein (JIP) could inhibit the heterodimer formation of c-Jun and Jun B through blocking the AP-1 signaling pathway triggered by LMP1. The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  2. Decreased expression of Freud-1/CC2D1A, a transcriptional repressor of the 5-HT1A receptor, in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Fitzgibbon, Heidi; May, Warren L; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Stockmeier, Craig A; Woolverton, William L; Kyle, Patrick B; Wang, Zhixia; Austin, Mark C

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors are reported altered in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have identified transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor and have documented gender-specific alterations in 5-HT(1A) transcription factor and 5-HT(1A) receptors in female MDD subjects. The 5' repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1) is a calcium-regulated repressor that negatively regulates the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene. This study documented the cellular expression of Freud-1 in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) and quantified Freud-1 protein in the PFC of MDD and control subjects as well as in the PFC of rhesus monkeys chronically treated with fluoxetine. Freud-1 immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia and was co-localized with 5-HT(1A) receptors. Freud-1 protein level was significantly decreased in the PFC of male MDD subjects (37%, p=0.02) relative to gender-matched control subjects. Freud-1 protein was also reduced in the PFC of female MDD subjects (36%, p=0.18) but was not statistically significant. When the data was combined across genders and analysed by age, the decrease in Freud-1 protein level was greater in the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls as opposed to older depressed subjects. Similarly, 5-HT(1A) receptor protein was significantly reduced in the PFC of the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls. Adult male rhesus monkeys administered fluoxetine daily for 39 wk revealed no significant change in cortical Freud-1 or 5-HT(1A) receptor proteins compared to vehicle-treated control monkeys. Reduced protein expression of Freud-1 in MDD subjects may reflect dysregulation of this transcription factor, which may contribute to the altered regulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors observed in subjects with MDD. These data may also suggest that reductions in Freud-1 protein expression in the PFC may be associated with early onset of

  3. The expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) is altered in prostate cancer cells and reverses the transformed phenotype of the LNCaP prostate tumor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, G; Razavi, R; Memin, E; Schlotter, F; Molina, C A

    2001-08-15

    Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) has been shown to be an important mediator of cAMP antiproliferative activity. In this report, it was found that cAMP retards LNCaP cell growth; in contrast, cAMP inhibits the growth of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. ICER protein levels were markedly reduced in prostate cancer epithelial cells and undetectable and uninducible by cAMP in LNCaP and DU 145 cells. Forced expression of ICER in LNCaP cells caused inhibition of cell growth and thymidine incorporation and halted cells at the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. These ICER-bearing LNCaP cells were rendered unable to grow in soft agar and unable to form tumors in nude mice. These results suggest that deregulation of ICER expression may be related to carcinogenesis of the prostate gland. PMID:11507053

  4. Differential Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor Noncoding RNA Repressor Gas5 in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, T; Marr, A K; Kino, T

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids have strong regulatory actions on the immune system and act as potent therapeutic compounds for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that the long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), which accumulates inside the cells in response to cellular starvation/growth arrest, functions as a potent repressor of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through its RNA "glucocorticoid response element (GRE)". To evaluate potential roles of Gas5 in immune-related disorders, we examined Gas5 RNA levels in various autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases using the microarray data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus. We found that Gas5 levels were altered in whole blood or leukocytes of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and sarcoidosis. Gas5 levels were also altered in infectious diseases, such as by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and influenza virus, and bacterial sepsis. In our experimental analysis using mice, Gas5 levels were kept at high basal levels and did not respond to fasting in immune organs, such as spleen and thymus, while its levels in metabolic organs, including liver, fat, and skeletal muscles, were low at baseline and were highly elevated upon this treatment, possibly through suppression of the mTOR pathway. These results suggest that Gas5 plays a role in the regulation of immune functions and pathogenesis/pathophysiology of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases in part through modulation of the GR transcriptional activity via its decoy RNA "GRE". Changes in the Gas5 levels may also influence disease response to immunosuppressive glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:27214311

  5. p21 as a transcriptional co-repressor of S-phase and mitotic control genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Ferrándiz

    Full Text Available It has been previously described that p21 functions not only as a CDK inhibitor but also as a transcriptional co-repressor in some systems. To investigate the roles of p21 in transcriptional control, we studied the gene expression changes in two human cell systems. Using a human leukemia cell line (K562 with inducible p21 expression and human primary keratinocytes with adenoviral-mediated p21 expression, we carried out microarray-based gene expression profiling. We found that p21 rapidly and strongly repressed the mRNA levels of a number of genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. One of the most strongly down-regulated genes was CCNE2 (cyclin E2 gene. Mutational analysis in K562 cells showed that the N-terminal region of p21 is required for repression of gene expression of CCNE2 and other genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that p21 was bound to human CCNE2 and other p21-repressed genes gene in the vicinity of the transcription start site. Moreover, p21 repressed human CCNE2 promoter-luciferase constructs in K562 cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDE motif is present in most of the promoters of the p21-regulated genes. Altogether, the results suggest that p21 exerts a repressive effect on a relevant number of genes controlling S phase and mitosis. Thus, p21 activity as inhibitor of cell cycle progression would be mediated not only by the inhibition of CDKs but also by the transcriptional down-regulation of key genes.

  6. Association between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene and disseminated testicular germ cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J. S. Brokken

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Western world, testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC is the most common malignancy of young men. The malignant transformation of germ cells is thought to be caused by developmental and hormonal disturbances, probably related to environmental and lifestyle factors because of rapidly increasing incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. AHR signalling pathway is known to interfere with reproductive hormone signalling, which is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis and invasive progression of TGCC. The aim of the present study was to identify whether AHR-related polymorphisms were associated with risk as well as histological and clinical features of TGCC in 367 patients and 537 controls. Haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in genes encoding AHR and AHR repressor (AHRR. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of TGCC, nonseminoma versus seminoma, and metastasis versus localised disease.Four SNPs in AHRR demonstrated a significant allele association with risk to develop metastases (rs2466287: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.90; rs2672725: OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94; rs6879758: OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08-0.92; rs6896163: OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98.This finding supports the hypothesis that compounds acting through AHR may play a role in the invasive progression of TGCC, either directly or through modification of reproductive hormone action.

  7. Functional analysis of three amino acid residues of purR re-pressor, Trp147, Gln-218 and Gln-292 in Salmonella typhi-murium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hesheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Zalkin, H., Nygaard, P., Escherichia coli and Salmmella typhimurium Cellular and Molecular Biology, Washington D.C: American Society for Microbiology, 1996, 561-579.[2]Maria, A. S., Choi, K. Y., Lu, F. et al., Mechanism of co-repressor mediated specific DNA binding by the purine repressor, Cell, 1995, 83: 147.[3]Choi, K. Y., Fu, L., Zalkin, H., Mutagenesis of amino acid residues required for binding of co-repressors to the purine repressor, J. Biol. Chem., 1993, 269: 24066.[4]Lu, F., Brennan, R. G., Zalkin, H., Escherichia coli purine repressor: key residues for the allsteic transition between active and inactive conformation and for inter domain signaling, Biochemistry, 1998, 37: 15680.[5]Tang Hua, Qin Junchuan, Wang Aoquan, Regulation of purine biosynthetic genes expression in Salmonella typhimurium (VI)-- Isolation and characterization of superrepressor mutants, Chinese Journal of Genetics (in Chinese), 1998, 25(2): 181.[6]Zhang Hesheng, Wang Aoquan, Regulation of purine biosynthetic genes expression in Salmonella typhimurium (X)--Isola-tion of purR(am) mutant and preliminary study of amino acid substitution, Chinese Journal of Genetics (in Chinese), 2000, 27(2): 170.[7]Davis, R. W., Roth, J. R., Advanced Bacteria Genetics, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1984.[8]Miller, J. H., Experiments in Molecular Genetics, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1972.[9]Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, NY: Cold Spring Harbor laboratory Press, 1989.[10] Katzif, S. D., Lu, C. D., Abdelal, A.T., Salmonela typhimurium purine nucleotide synthesis repressor (purR), GenBank, Ac-cession AF040636, 1998.[11] Weicket,M.J.,Adhya,S., A family of bacteria regulators homologous to Gal and Lac repressors,J.Biol.Chem.,1992,267:15869.

  8. NF-Y recruits both transcription activator and repressor to modulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of human γ-globin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhu

    Full Text Available The human embryonic, fetal and adult β-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal γ-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal γ-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal γ-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed γ-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of γ-globin gene.

  9. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Delcuratolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis.

  10. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcuratolo, Maria; Fertey, Jasmin; Schneider, Markus; Schuetz, Johanna; Leiprecht, Natalie; Hudjetz, Benjamin; Brodbeck, Stephan; Corall, Silke; Dreer, Marcel; Schwab, Roxana Michaela; Grimm, Martin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Stubenrauch, Frank; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS) in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:26727473

  11. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  12. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  13. Patterns of nucleosomal organization in the alc regulon of Aspergillus nidulans: roles of the AlcR transcriptional activator and the CreA global repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Martine; Nikolaev, Igor; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Felenbok, Béatrice

    2005-04-01

    We have studied the chromatin organization of three promoters of the alc regulon of Aspergillus nidulans. No positioned nucleosomes are seen in the aldA (aldehyde dehydrogenase) promoter under any physiological condition tested by us. In the alcA (alcohol dehydrogenase I) and alcR (coding for the pathway-specific transcription factor) promoters, a pattern of positioned nucleosomes is seen under non-induced and non-induced repressed conditions. While each of these promoters shows a specific pattern of chromatin restructuring, in both cases induction results in loss of nucleosome positioning. Glucose repression in the presence of inducer results in a specific pattern of partial positioning in the alcA and alcR promoters. Loss of nucleosome positioning depends absolutely on the AlcR protein and it is very unlikely to be a passive result of the induction of transcription. In an alcR loss-of-function background and in strains carrying mutations of the respective AlcR binding sites of the alcA and alcR promoters, nucleosomes are fully positioned under all growth conditions. Analysis of mutant AlcR proteins establishes that all domains needed for transcriptional activation and chromatin restructuring are included within the first 241 residues. The results suggest a two-step process, one step resulting in chromatin restructuring, a second one in transcriptional activation. Partial positioning upon glucose repression shows a specific pattern that depends on the CreA global repressor. An alcR loss-of-function mutation is epistatic to a creA loss-of-function mutation, showing that AlcR does not act by negating a nucleosome positioning activity of CreA.

  14. Balancing intestinal and systemic inflammation through cell type-specific expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Brandstätter; Oliver Schanz; Julia Vorac; Jessica König; Tetsushi Mori; Toru Maruyama; Markus Korkowski; Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann; Dorthe von Smolinski; Schultze, Joachim L.; Josef Abel; Charlotte Esser; Haruko Takeyama; Heike Weighardt; Irmgard Förster

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of polyaromatic chemicals the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exerts an important role in immune regulation besides its requirement for xenobiotic metabolism. Transcriptional activation of AhR target genes is counterregulated by the AhR repressor (AhRR) but the exact function of the AhRR in vivo is currently unknown. We here show that the AhRR is predominantly expressed in immune cells of the skin and intestine, different from other AhR target genes. Whereas AhRR antagonizes the a...

  15. Transcriptional activation of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 by nuclear receptor TLX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Naotoshi [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Hisahara, Shin; Hayashi, Takashi [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Horio, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: horio@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2009-09-04

    An orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a transcriptional repressor that promotes the proliferation and self-renewal of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SIRT1, an NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase, is highly expressed in the NPCs and participates in neurogenesis. Here, we found that TLX colocalized with SIRT1 and knockdown of TLX by small interfering RNAs decreased SIRT1 levels in NPCs. TLX increased the SIRT1 expression by binding to the newly identified TLX-activating element in the SIRT1 gene promoter in HEK293 cells. Thus, TLX is an inducer of SIRT1 and may contribute to neurogenesis both as a transactivator and as a repressor.

  16. Extensive alternative splicing of the repressor element silencing transcription factor linked to cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Lin Chen

    Full Text Available The repressor element silencing transcription factor (REST is a coordinate transcriptional and epigenetic regulator which functions as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on cellular context, and a truncated splice variant REST4 has been linked to various types of cancer. We performed a comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing (AS of REST by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR amplification of cDNAs from various tissues and cell lines with specific primers. We identified 8 novel alternative exons including an alternate last exon which doubles the REST gene boundary, along with numerous 5'/3' splice sites and ends in the constitutive exons. With the combination of various splicing patterns (e.g. exon skipping and alternative usage of the first and last exons that are predictive of altered REST activity, at least 45 alternatively spliced variants of coding and non-coding mRNA were expressed in a species- and cell-type/tissue-specific manner with individual differences. By examining the repertoire of REST pre-mRNA splicing in 27 patients with kidney, liver and lung cancer, we found that all patients without exception showed differential expression of various REST splice variants between paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues, with striking cell-type/tissue and individual differences. Moreover, we revealed that exon 3 skipping, which causes no frame shift but loss of a domain essential for nuclear translocation, was affected by pioglitazone, a highly selective activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ which contributes to cell differentiation and tumorigenesis besides its metabolic actions. Accordingly, this study demonstrates an extensive AS of REST pre-mRNA which redefines REST gene boundary and structure, along with a general but differential link between REST pre-mRNA splicing and various types of cancer. These findings advance our understanding of the complex, context-dependent regulation of

  17. Study of the glucoamylase promoter in Aspergillus niger using green fluorescent protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santerre Henriksen, A.L.; Even, S.; Müller, C.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Nielsen, J.

    1999-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger strain expressing a red-shifted green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cytoplasm under the control of the glucoamylase promoter (PglaA) was characterized with respect to its physiology and morphology. Although xylose acted as a repressor carbon source during batch cultivations,

  18. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.; Fuller, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. T...

  19. Characterization of human UTF1, a chromatin-associated protein with repressor activity expressed in pluripotent cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Susanne M.; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Eggen, Bart J. L.

    2009-01-01

    In mice, during early embryonic development UTF1 (undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) is expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and in adult animals expression is restricted to the gonads. (Embryonic) Cells expressing UTF1 are generally considered pluripotent, meaning th

  20. Characterization of human UTF1, a chromatin-associated protein with repressor activity expressed in pluripotent cells

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne M Kooistra; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Eggen, Bart J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In mice, during early embryonic development UTF1 (undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) is expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and in adult animals expression is restricted to the gonads. (Embryonic) Cells expressing UTF1 are generally considered pluripotent, meaning they can differentiate into all cell types of the adult body. In mouse it was shown that UTF1 is tightly associated with chromatin and that it is required for proper differentiation of embryonic carc...

  1. The CsoR-like sulfurtransferase repressor (CstR) is a persulfide sensor in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Justin L; Shen, Jiangchuan; Bruce, Kevin E; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Peng, Hui; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2014-12-01

    How cells regulate the bioavailability of utilizable sulfur while mitigating the effects of hydrogen sulfide toxicity is poorly understood. CstR [Copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR)-like sulfurtransferase repressor] represses the expression of the cst operon encoding a putative sulfide oxidation system in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we show that the cst operon is strongly and transiently induced by cellular sulfide stress in an acute phase and specific response and that cst-encoded genes are necessary to mitigate the effects of sulfide toxicity. Growth defects are most pronounced when S. aureus is cultured in chemically defined media with thiosulfate (TS) as a sole sulfur source, but are also apparent when cystine is used or in rich media. Under TS growth conditions, cells fail to grow as a result of either unregulated expression of the cst operon in a ΔcstR strain or transformation with a non-inducible C31A/C60A CstR that blocks cst induction. This suggests that the cst operon contributes to cellular sulfide homeostasis. Tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals derivatization of CstR by both inorganic tetrasulfide and an organic persulfide, glutathione persulfide, to yield a mixture of Cys31-Cys60' interprotomer cross-links, including di-, tri- and tetrasulfide bonds, which allosterically inhibit cst operator DNA binding by CstR.

  2. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Fu, Chang-Chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Ye, Yu-Jie; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-Wu; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:27462342

  3. Silencing the Transcriptional Repressor, ZCT1, Illustrates the Tight Regulation of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Noreen F; Weaver, Jessica D; Cram, Erin J; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T

    2016-01-01

    The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ), while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1. To silence ZCT1, we developed transgenic hairy root cultures of C. roseus that expressed an estrogen-inducible Zct1 hairpin for activating RNA interference. The presence of 17β-estradiol (5μM) effectively depleted Zct1 in hairy root cultures elicited with MJ dosages that either optimize or inhibit TIA production (250 or 1000μM). However, silencing Zct1 was not sufficient to increase TIA production or the expression of the TIA biosynthetic genes (G10h, Tdc, and Str), illustrating the tight regulation of TIA biosynthesis. The repression of the TIA biosynthetic genes at the inhibitory MJ dosage does not appear to be solely regulated by ZCT1. For instance, while Zct1 and Zct2 levels decreased through activating the Zct1 hairpin, Zct3 levels remained elevated. Since ZCT repressors have redundant yet distinct functions, silencing all three ZCTs may be necessary to relieve their repression of alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:27467510

  4. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-qi; Kuang, Jian-fei; Fu, Chang-chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-chao; Xiao, Yun-yi; Ye, Yu-jie; Lu, Wang-jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-wu; Chen, Jian-ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening. PMID:27462342

  5. The Role of the CoREST/REST Repressor Complex in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Productive Infection and in Latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Roizman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available REST is a key component of the HDAC1 or 2, CoREST, LSD1, REST (HCLR repressor complex. The primary function of the HCLR complex is to silence neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. HCLR plays a role in regulating the expression of viral genes in productive infections as a donor of LDS1 for expression of α genes and as a repressor of genes expressed later in infection. In sensory neurons the HCLR complex is involved in the silencing of viral genome in the course of establishment of latency. The thesis of this article is that (a sensory neurons evolved a mechanism to respond to the presence and suppress the transmission of infectious agents from the periphery to the CNS and (b HSV evolved subservience to the HCLR with at least two objectives: to maintain a level of replication consistent with maximal person-to-person spread and to enable it to take advantage of neuronal innate immune responses to survive and be available for reactivation shielded from adaptive immune responses of the host.

  6. Anxiety symptom interpretation in high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Richard; Lane, Andrew; Hanton, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    For the first time in a sport setting this study examined the intensity and direction of the competitive state anxiety response in collegiate athletes as a function of four different coping styles: high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressors. Specifically, the study predicted that repressors would interpret competitive state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative compared to high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, and low-anxious performers. Separate Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVA) were performed on the intensity and direction subscales of the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). A significant main effect was identified for trait worry revealing that low trait anxious athletes reported lower intensities of cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher self-confidence and interpreted these as more facilitative than high trait anxious athletes. The prediction that performers with a repressive coping style would interpret state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative than performers with non-repressive coping styles was not supported. PMID:18791904

  7. Hippo Component TAZ Functions as a Co-repressor and Negatively Regulates ΔNp63 Transcription through TEA Domain (TEAD) Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Sama, Ivette; Zhao, Yulei; Lai, Dulcie; Janse van Rensburg, Helena J; Hao, Yawei; Yang, Xiaolong

    2015-07-01

    Transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ binding domain (TAZ) is a WW domain-containing transcriptional co-activator and a core component of an emerging Hippo signaling pathway that regulates organ size, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. TAZ regulates these biological functions by up-regulating downstream cellular genes through transactivation of transcription factors such as TEAD and TTF1. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ-induced tumorigenesis, we have recently performed a gene expression profile analysis by overexpressing TAZ in mammary cells. In addition to the TAZ-up-regulated genes that were confirmed in our previous studies, we identified a large number of cellular genes that were down-regulated by TAZ. In this study, we have confirmed these down-regulated genes (including cytokines, chemokines, and p53 gene family members) as bona fide downstream transcriptional targets of TAZ. By using human breast and lung epithelial cells, we have further characterized ΔNp63, a p53 gene family member, and shown that TAZ suppresses ΔNp63 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity through interaction with the transcription factor TEAD. We also show that TEAD can inhibit ΔNp63 promoter activity and that TAZ can directly interact with ΔNp63 promoter-containing TEAD binding sites. Finally, we provide functional evidence that down-regulation of ΔNp63 by TAZ may play a role in regulating cell migration. Altogether, this study provides novel evidence that the Hippo component TAZ can function as a co-repressor and regulate biological functions by negatively regulating downstream cellular genes.

  8. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Stevens

    Full Text Available Gene transcription is constrained by the nucleosomal nature of chromosomal DNA. This nucleosomal barrier is modulated by FACT, a conserved histone-binding heterodimer. FACT mediates transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly and also nucleosome reassembly in the wake of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex, and in this way maintains the repression of 'cryptic' promoters found within some genes. Here we focus on a novel mutant version of the yeast FACT subunit Spt16 that supplies essential Spt16 activities but impairs transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly in dominant fashion. This Spt16 mutant protein also has genetic effects that are recessive, which we used to show that certain Spt16 activities collaborate with histone acetylation and the activities of a Bur-kinase/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway that facilitate transcription elongation. These collaborating activities were opposed by the actions of Rpd3S, a histone deacetylase that restores a repressive chromatin environment in a transcription-linked manner. Spt16 activity paralleling that of HirC, a co-repressor of histone gene expression, was also found to be opposed by Rpd3S. Our findings suggest that Spt16, the Bur/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway, and normal histone abundance and/or stoichiometry, in mutually cooperative fashion, facilitate nucleosome disassembly during transcription elongation. The recessive nature of these effects of the mutant Spt16 protein on transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, contrasted to its dominant negative effect on transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly, indicate that mutant FACT harbouring the mutant Spt16 protein competes poorly with normal FACT at the stage of transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, but effectively with normal FACT for transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly. This functional difference is consistent with the idea that FACT association with the transcription elongation complex depends on nucleosome disassembly, and that the

  9. Cardiac Characteristics of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Refsum Disease Gene-Associated Protein within the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J T; Choi, H H; Ahn, K Y; Kim, J U; Kim, J H; Chun, J Y; Baik, Y H; Kim, K K

    2001-09-01

    Arrhythmia is a common cardiac symptom of Refsum disease. Recently, we identified a novel neuron-specific PAHX-associated protein (PAHX-AP1), which binds to the Refsum disease gene (PAHX). In this report, we developed heart-targeted transgenic (TG) mice under the control of alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter to determine whether cardiac overexpression of PAHX-AP1 provokes cardiac involvement symptoms. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed PAHX-AP1 transcript was overexpressed in TG atrium, especially in the sinoatrial node. TG mice showed tachycardia, and tachyarrhythmia was observed in 20% of TG mice. Isolated TG atria showed higher frequency beating and were more sensitive to aconitine-induced tachyarrhythmia than the wild-type, and 40% of the TG atria showed irregular beating. Action potential duration in TG atrial fiber was shortened much more than the wild-type. Systemic administration of arrhythmogenic agents induced arrhythmia in TG mice, while no arrhythmia with the same dose in nonTG mice. Our results indicate that the chronic atrial tachycardia by overexpressed neuron-specific PAHX-AP1 transgene in atrium may be responsible for the increased susceptibility to arrhythmia.

  10. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Josefine S.; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Dombroski, Thais C. D.; van Bakel, Nick H. M.; Nillesen, Willy M.; van Hulten, Josephus A.; Jansen, Eric J. R.; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S. Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M.; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A.; Visser, Jasper E.; Brunner, Han G.; Martens, Gerard J. M.; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder ( ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor swit

  11. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, van Conny; Klein Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S.; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switc

  12. Yeast Gga Coat Proteins Function with Clathrin in Golgi to Endosome Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Costaguta, G; Stefan, C. J.; Bensen, E. S.; Emr, S D; Payne, G S

    2001-01-01

    Gga proteins represent a newly recognized, evolutionarily conserved protein family with homology to the “ear” domain of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 γ subunit. Yeast cells contain two Gga proteins, Gga1p and Gga2p, that have been proposed to act in transport between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Here we provide genetic and physical evidence that yeast Gga proteins function in trans-Golgi network clathrin coats. Deletion of Gga2p (gga2Δ), the major Gga protein...

  13. Coincident light and clock regulation of pseudoresponse regulator protein 37 (PRR37) controls photoperiodic flowering in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in flowering time was essential during widespread crop domestication and optimal timing of reproduction remains critical to modern agriculture. Ma1, the major repressor of flowering in sorghum in long days, was identified as the pseudo-response regulator protein PRR37. Three prr37 allele...

  14. Systems genetics analyses predict a transcription role for P2P-R: Molecular confirmation that P2P-R is a transcriptional co-repressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakouros Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 250 kDa P2P-R protein (also known as PACT and Rbbp6 was cloned over a decade ago and was found to bind both the p53 and Rb1 tumor suppressor proteins. In addition, P2P-R has been associated with multiple biological functions, such as mitosis, mRNA processing, translation and ubiquitination. In the current studies, the online GeneNetwork system was employed to further probe P2P-R biological functions. Molecular studies were then performed to confirm the GeneNetwork evaluations. Results GeneNetwork and associated gene ontology links were used to investigate the coexpression of P2P-R with distinct functional sets of genes in an adipocyte genetic reference panel of HXB/BXH recombinant strains of rats and an eye genetic reference panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice. The results establish that biological networks of 75 and 135 transcription-associated gene products that include P2P-R are co-expressed in a genetically-defined manner in rat adipocytes and in the mouse eye, respectively. Of this large set of transcription-associated genes, >10% are associated with hormone-mediated transcription. Since it has been previously reported that P2P-R can bind the SRC-1 transcription co-regulatory factor (steroid receptor co-activator 1, [Ncoa1], the possible effects of P2P-R on estrogen-induced transcription were evaluated. Estrogen-induced transcription was repressed 50-70% by the transient transfection of P2P-R plasmid constructs into four different cell types. In addition, knockdown of P2P-R expression using an antisense oligonucleotide increased estrogen-mediated transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that P2P-R interacts with SRC-1 and also demonstrated that P2P-R interacts with estrogen receptor α. Conclusions The findings presented in this study provide strong support for the value of systems genetics, especially GeneNetwork, in discovering new functions of genes that can be confirmed by molecular

  15. Overexpression of cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis via NF-{kappa}B in mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Cheng-Fei [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Han, Ya-Ling, E-mail: hanyaling53@gmail.com [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Jie-Deng,; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Jian-Kang,; Bo-Luan,; Jie-Li [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} CREG protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis. {yields} CREG inhibits the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevents the activation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} CREG inhibits NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and pro-apoptosis protein transcription. {yields} CREG anti-apoptotic effect involves inhibition of the death receptor pathway. {yields} p53 is downregulated by CREG via NF-{kappa}B pathway under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. -- Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for therapeutic repair after myocardial infarction. However, poor viability of transplanted MSCs in the ischemic heart has limited their use. Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been identified as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. This study therefore aimed to determine if rat bone marrow MSCs transfected with CREG-were able to effectively resist apoptosis induced by inflammatory mediators, and to demonstrate the mechanism of CREG action. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assays. The pathways mediating these apoptotic effects were investigated by Western blotting. Overexpression of CREG markedly protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis by 50% after 10 h, through inhibition of the death-receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to attenuation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Moreover, CREG resisted the serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevented the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. Treatment of cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly increased the transcription of pro-apoptosis proteins (p53 and Fas) by NF-{kappa}B, and attenuated the anti-apoptotic effects of CREG on MSCs. The results of this study

  16. Identification of NR0B1 as a novel androgen receptor co-repressor in mouse Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chi; Luo, Man-Ling; Guo, Huan; Wang, Tian-Tian; Lin, Shou-Ren; Chen, Jian-Bo; Ma, Qian; Gu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Zhi-Mao; Gui, Yao-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1 (Nr0b1) is an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family that is predominantly expressed in mouse Sertoli cells (SCs). Mutations of NR0B1 in humans cause adrenal failure and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The targeted mutagenesis of Nr0b1 in mice has revealed a primary gonadal defect characterized by the overexpression of aromatase and cellular obstruction of the seminiferous tubules and efferent ductules, leading to germ cell death and infertility. The transgenic expression of Nr0b1 under the control of the Müllerian-inhibiting substance promoter (MIS-Nr0b1), which is selectively expressed in SCs, improves fertility. Testicular androgen receptor (AR) was also expressed in SCs. Many genes are directly regulated by androgen and its AR, which are involved in spermatogenesis and male infertility. As the association between NR0B1 and AR remains unclear in mouse SCs, we decided to further explore the relationship between them. In the present study, we have identified NR0B1 as a novel AR co-repressor in mouse SCs. Using RT‑qPCR and immunofluorescence, we determined that NR0B1 was mainly expressed in mouse SCs in an age-dependent manner from 2-8 weeks of age postnatally. The inhibition of the effects of AR on AR target genes by NR0B1, in an androgen‑dependent manner, was further demonstrated by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Finally, in vitro luciferase and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated that NR0B1, as an AR co-repressor, significantly inhibited the transcriptional activation of its target genes. These results suggest that novel inhibitory mechanisms underlie the effects of NR0B1 in modulating androgen-dependent gene transcription in mouse SCs. PMID:27431683

  17. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for dimorphism and virulence in a fungal plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the life cycle of many fungal pathogens is the transition between yeast-like growth and the formation of filamentous structures, a process known as dimorphism. This morphological shift, typically triggered by multiple environmental signals, is tightly controlled by complex genetic pathways to ensure successful pathogenic development. In animal pathogenic fungi, one of the best known regulators of dimorphism is the general transcriptional repressor, Tup1. However, the role of Tup1 in fungal dimorphism is completely unknown in plant pathogens. Here we show that Tup1 plays a key role in orchestrating the yeast to hypha transition in the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. Deletion of the tup1 gene causes a drastic reduction in the mating and filamentation capacity of the fungus, in turn leading to a reduced virulence phenotype. In U. maydis, these processes are controlled by the a and b mating-type loci, whose expression depends on the Prf1 transcription factor. Interestingly, Δtup1 strains show a critical reduction in the expression of prf1 and that of Prf1 target genes at both loci. Moreover, we observed that Tup1 appears to regulate Prf1 activity by controlling the expression of the prf1 transcriptional activators, rop1 and hap2. Additionally, we describe a putative novel prf1 repressor, named Pac2, which seems to be an important target of Tup1 in the control of dimorphism and virulence. Furthermore, we show that Tup1 is required for full pathogenic development since tup1 deletion mutants are unable to complete the sexual cycle. Our findings establish Tup1 as a key factor coordinating dimorphism in the phytopathogen U. maydis and support a conserved role for Tup1 in the control of hypha-specific genes among animal and plant fungal pathogens.

  18. Alteration of light-dependent gene regulation by the absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex in the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ruger-Herreros

    Full Text Available The activation of transcription by light in the fungus Neurospora crassa requires the White Collar Complex (WCC, a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex. After light reception two WCCs interact and bind the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. This process is regulated by VVD, a small photoreceptor that disrupts the interaction between WCCs and leads to a reduction in transcription after long exposures to light. The N. crassa RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex is the homolog of the Tup1-Ssn6 repressor complex in yeast, and its absence modifies photoadaptation. We show that the absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex leads to several alterations in transcription that are gene-specific: an increase in the accumulation of mRNAs in the dark, a repression of transcription, and a derepression of transcription after long exposures to light. The absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex leads to lower VVD levels that are available for the regulation of the activity of the WCC. The reduction in the amount of VVD results in increased WCC binding to the promoters of light-regulated genes in the dark and after long exposures to light, leading to the modification of photoadaptation that has been observed in rco-1 and rcm-1 mutants. Our results show that the photoadaptation phenotype of mutants in the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex is, at least in part, an indirect consequence of the reduction of vvd transcription, and the resulting modification in the regulation of transcription by the WCC.

  19. Elk3 from hamster--a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud Malene; Weilguny, Dietmar; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    Elk3 belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors, which are regulated by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway. In the absence of Ras, this protein is a strong inhibitor of transcription and may be directly involved in regulation of growth by downregulating the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3 is a target of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, and cotransfections with constitutively active H-ras relieves its negative transcriptional activity. No cells stably expressing exogenous Elk3 could be obtained, possibly due to an unspecified toxic or growth retarding effect. These findings support a possible role for Elk3 in growth regulation and reveal a high degree of homology for this protein across species. PMID:15684718

  20. The Transcriptional Repressive Activity of KRAB Zinc Finger Proteins Does Not Correlate with Their Ability to Recruit TRIM28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kristin E.; Shylo, Natalia A.; Alexander, Katherine A.; Churchill, Angela J.; Copperman, Cecilia; García-García, María J.

    2016-01-01

    KRAB domain Zinc finger proteins are one of the most abundant families of transcriptional regulators in higher vertebrates. The prevailing view is that KRAB domain proteins function as potent transcriptional repressors by recruiting TRIM28 and promoting heterochromatin spreading. However, the extent to which all KRAB domain proteins are TRIM28-dependent transcriptional repressors is currently unclear. Our studies on mouse ZFP568 revealed that TRIM28 recruitment by KRAB domain proteins is not sufficient to warrant transcriptional repressive activity. By using luciferase reporter assays and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we tested the ability of ZFP568 and other mouse KRAB domain proteins to repress transcription and bind TRIM28. We found that some mouse KRAB domain proteins are poor transcriptional repressors despite their ability to recruit TRIM28, while others showed strong KRAB-dependent transcriptional repression, but no TRIM28 binding. Together, our results show that the transcriptional repressive activity of KRAB-ZNF proteins does not correlate with their ability to recruit TRIM28, and provide evidence that KRAB domains can regulate transcription in a TRIM28-independent fashion. Our findings challenge the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by KRAB domain proteins to control gene expression and highlight that a high percentage of KRAB domain proteins in the mouse genome differ from the consensus KRAB sequence at amino acid residues that are critical for TRIM28 binding and/or repressive activity. PMID:27658112

  1. Research Progress on Epigenetic Regulation of Flowering Repressor FLC%抽薹开花抑制因子FLC表观遗传调控研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖旭峰; 范淑英

    2013-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS C(FLC)是植物抽薹开花调控网络中关键的开花决定因子。随着表观遗传学的发展,人们发现组蛋白修饰等表观调控FLC的表达在植物抽薹开花时间调控中起着非常重要的作用。FLC的抑制因子或促进因子通过改变组蛋白氨基酸的共价修饰(如乙酰化、甲基化等),影响FLC基因所在区域的染色质重塑,调控FLC转录表达水平,从而调节植物抽薹开花。本文就近年来国内外对植物抽薹开花关键调控基因FLC及表观遗传调控其表达研究现状进行了综述,并针对目前研究中存在的问题提出了今后的研究方向和重点。%FLOWERING LOCUS C(FLC)is a key deciding factor in regulating plant bolting and flowering network.Along with the development of epigenetics,scientists found that histone modi-fication and other epigenetic regulation of FLC expression played very important role in regulating plant bolting and flowering.Chromatin covalent modification included acetylation and methylation of lysine and arginine.The recent characterization of FLC repressors and activators has shown that some of these regulatory proteins are involved in the covalent modification of FLC chromatin and controlling the flow-ering time.This paper reviewed the present internal and external status on studying the regulating gene FLC for plant bolting and flowering,and epigenetic regulation and its expression.The paper also pro-vided direction and focus for future studies according the problems existing in present research.

  2. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  3. The transcriptional co-repressor myeloid translocation gene 16 inhibits glycolysis and stimulates mitochondrial respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    Full Text Available The myeloid translocation gene 16 product MTG16 is found in multiple transcription factor-containing complexes as a regulator of gene expression implicated in development and tumorigenesis. A stable Tet-On system for doxycycline-dependent expression of MTG16 was established in B-lymphoblastoid Raji cells to unravel its molecular functions in transformed cells. A noticeable finding was that expression of certain genes involved in tumor cell metabolism including 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK1 was rapidly diminished when MTG16 was expressed. Furthermore, hypoxia-stimulated production of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 was inhibited by MTG16 expression. The genes in question encode key regulators of glycolysis and its coupling to mitochondrial metabolism and are commonly found to be overexpressed in transformed cells. The MTG16 Nervy Homology Region 2 (NHR2 oligomerization domain and the NHR3 protein-protein interaction domain were required intact for inhibition of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 expression to occur. Expression of MTG16 reduced glycolytic metabolism while mitochondrial respiration and formation of reactive oxygen species increased. The metabolic changes were paralleled by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, reduced levels of amino acids and inhibition of proliferation with a decreased fraction of cells in S-phase. Overall, our findings show that MTG16 can serve as a brake on glycolysis, a stimulator of mitochondrial respiration and an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Hence, elevation of MTG16 might have anti-tumor effect.

  4. Design, Assembly, and Characterization of TALE-Based Transcriptional Activators and Repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are modular DNA-binding proteins that can be fused to a variety of effector domains to regulate the epigenome. Nucleotide recognition by TALE monomers follows a simple cipher, making this a powerful and versatile method to activate or repress gene expression. Described here are methods to design, assemble, and test TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs) for control of endogenous gene expression. In this protocol, TALE arrays are constructed by Golden Gate cloning and tested for activity by transfection and quantitative RT-PCR. These methods for engineering TALE-TFs are useful for studies in reverse genetics and genomics, synthetic biology, and gene therapy.

  5. Identification of the subunit of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) that functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-mediated transcriptional repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, K L; Kallipolitis, B H; Ebright, R H;

    2000-01-01

    At promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the repressor CytR to form transcriptionally inactive CRP-CytR-promoter or (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Here, using "oriented heterodimer" analysis, we show that only one subunit of the CRP dimer...

  6. The E-cadherin repressor slug and progression of human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study explored the expression and function of Slug in human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (EHC to identify its role in tumor progression. Methods The expression of Snail and Slug mRNA in 52 human tissue samples of EHC was investigated. The mRNA of Snail and Slug were quantified using reverse transcriptase-PCR, and correlations with E-cadherin expression and clinicopathological factors were investigated. We then investigated transfection of Slug cDNA in endogenous E-cadherin-positive human EHC FRH0201 cells, selectively induced the loss of E-cadherin protein expression, and then small interfering RNA (siRNA for inhibition of Slug expression in endogenous Slug-positive human EHC QBC939 cells, selectively induced the loss of Slug protein expression. A Boyden chamber transwell assay was used for invasion. Results Slug mRNA was overexpressed in 18 cases (34.6% of EHC compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue. E-Cadherin protein expression determined in the same 52 cases by immunohistochemistry was significantly down-regulated in those cases with Slug mRNA overexpression (P = 0.0001. The tumor and nontumor ratio of Slug mRNA was correlated with nodal metastasis(p = 0.0102, distant metastasis (p = 0.0001and Survival time(p = 0.0443. However, Snail mRNA correlated with neither E-cadherin expression nor tumor invasiveness. By inhibiting Slug expression by RNA interference, we found that reduced Slug levels upregulated E-cadherin and decreased invasion in QBC939 cell. When the QBC939 cells was infected with Slug cDNA,, significant E-cadherin was downregulated and increased invasion in QBC939 cell. Conclusions The results suggested that Slug expression plays an important role in both the regulation of E-cadherin expression and in the acquisition of invasive potential in human EHC. Slug is possibly a potential target for an antitumor therapy blocking the functions of invasion and metastasis in human EHCs.

  7. Sorghum phytochrome B inhibits flowering in long days by activating expression of SbPRR37 and SbGHD7, repressors of SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1 and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R genotype, flowered ∼60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3 in long days and ∼11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6 and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6 varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3, Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6. PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1 these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT, is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1 regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner.

  8. Design, Assembly, and Characterization of TALE-Based Transcriptional Activators and Repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are modular DNA-binding proteins that can be fused to a variety of effector domains to regulate the epigenome. Nucleotide recognition by TALE monomers follows a simple cipher, making this a powerful and versatile method to activate or repress gene expression. Described here are methods to design, assemble, and test TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs) for control of endogenous gene expression. In this protocol, TALE arrays are constructed by Golden Gate cloning and tested for activity by transfection and quantitative RT-PCR. These methods for engineering TALE-TFs are useful for studies in reverse genetics and genomics, synthetic biology, and gene therapy. PMID:26443215

  9. Activation of pur Gene Expression by a Homologue of the Bacillus subtilis PurR repressor:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Martinussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    . We have identified a PurBox sequence overlapping the -35 region of the L. lactis purR promoter and found, by studies of a purR-lacLM fusion plasmid, that purR is autoregulated. Because of the high similarity of the PurR proteins from B. subtilis and L. lactis, we looked for PurBox sequences...... in the promoter regions of the PurR regulated genes in B. subtilis, and identified a perfectly matching PurBox in the purA promoter region, and slightly degenerate PurBox like sequences in the promoter regions for the pur operon and the purR gene....

  10. The early gene product EUO is a transcriptional repressor that selectively regulates promoters of Chlamydia late genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Christopher J; Tan, Ming

    2012-06-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia has an unusual developmental cycle in which there is conversion between two forms that are specialized for either intracellular replication or propagation of the infection to a new host cell. Expression of late chlamydial genes is upregulated during conversion from the replicating to the infectious form, but the mechanism for this temporal regulation is unknown. We found that EUO, which is expressed from an early gene, binds to two sites upstream of the late operon omcAB, but only the downstream site was necessary for transcriptional repression. Using gel shift and in vitro transcription assays we showed that EUO specifically bound and repressed promoters of Chlamydia trachomatis late genes, but not early or mid genes. These findings support a role for EUO as a temporal repressor that negatively regulates late chlamydial genes and prevents their premature expression. The basis of this specificity is the ability of EUO to selectively bind promoter regions of late genes, which would prevent their transcription by RNA polymerase. Thus, we propose that EUO is a master regulator that prevents the terminal differentiation of the replicating form of chlamydiae into the infectious form until sufficient rounds of replication have occurred.

  11. Regulation of gene expression through a transcriptional repressor that senses acyl-chain length in membrane phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Harald F; Schopf, Florian H; Schleifer, Hannes; Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Pieber, Bartholomäus; Rechberger, Gerald N; Wolinski, Heimo; Gaspar, Maria L; Kappe, C Oliver; Stadlmann, Johannes; Mechtler, Karl; Zenz, Alexandra; Lohner, Karl; Tehlivets, Oksana; Henry, Susan A; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2014-06-23

    Membrane phospholipids typically contain fatty acids (FAs) of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. This particular chain length is evolutionarily highly conserved and presumably provides maximum stability and dynamic properties to biological membranes in response to nutritional or environmental cues. Here, we show that the relative proportion of C16 versus C18 FAs is regulated by the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of FA de novo synthesis. Acc1 activity is attenuated by AMPK/Snf1-dependent phosphorylation, which is required to maintain an appropriate acyl-chain length distribution. Moreover, we find that the transcriptional repressor Opi1 preferentially binds to C16 over C18 phosphatidic acid (PA) species: thus, C16-chain containing PA sequesters Opi1 more effectively to the ER, enabling AMPK/Snf1 control of PA acyl-chain length to determine the degree of derepression of Opi1 target genes. These findings reveal an unexpected regulatory link between the major energy-sensing kinase, membrane lipid composition, and transcription. PMID:24960695

  12. Regulatory T cells with reduced repressor capacities are extensively amplified in pulmonary sarcoid lesions and sustain granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappl, Gunter; Pabst, Stefan; Riemann, Dagmar; Schmidt, Annette; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Schütte, Wolfgang; Hombach, Andreas A; Seliger, Barbara; Grohé, Christian; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-07-01

    Sarcoidosis can evolve into a chronic disease with persistent granulomas accompanied by progressive fibrosis. While an unlimited inflammatory response suggests an impaired immune control in sarcoid lesions, it stands in contrast to the massive infiltration with CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. We here revealed that those Treg cells in affected lung lesions were mainly derived from activated natural Treg cells with GARP (LRRC32)-positive phenotype but exhibited reduced repressor capacities despite high IL-10 and TGF-beta 1 levels. The repressive capacity of blood Treg cells, in contrast, was not impaired compared to age-matched healthy donors. Treg derived cells in granuloma lesions have undergone extensive rounds of amplifications indicated by shortened telomeres compared to blood Treg cells of the same patient. Lesional Treg derived cells moreover secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 which sustains granuloma formation through fibroblast amplification and the activation of mast cells, the latter indicated by the expression of membrane-bound oncostatin M. PMID:21482483

  13. The Arabidopsis Floral Repressor BFT DelaysFlowering by Competing with FT for FD Bindingunder High Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems that significantly reduce crop yields in the aridand semi-arid regions. It influences various phases of plant growth and developmental processes, such as seed germina-tion, leaf and stem growth, and reproductive propagation. Salt stress delays the onset of flowering in many plant spe-cies. We have previously reported that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) acts as a floral repressor undersalt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the BFT function in the salt regulation of flowering inductionis unknown. In this work, we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor. The flowering time of FD-deficient fd-2 mutant was insensitive to highsalinity. BFT interacts with FD in the nucleus via the C-terminal domain of FD, which is also required for the interactionof FD with FT, and interferes with the FT-FD interaction. These observations indicate that BFT constitutes a distinct saltstress signaling pathway that modulates the function of the FT-FD module and possibly provides an adaptation strategythat fine-tunes photoperiodic flowering under high salinity.

  14. Inducible cyclic AMP early repressor produces reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 in neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgin, M A; Smith, R L; Wilcox, C L

    2001-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. During latent HSV-1 infection, viral gene expression is limited to latency-associated transcripts (LAT). HSV-1 remains latent until an unknown mechanism induces reactivation. The ability of the latent virus to periodically reactivate and be shed is essential to the transmission of disease. In vivo, the stimuli that induce reactivation of latent HSV-1 include stress, fever, and UV damage to the skin at the site of initial infection. In vitro, in primary neurons harboring latent HSV-1, nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation or forskolin treatment induces reactivation. However, the mechanism involved in the induction of reactivation remains poorly understood. An in vitro neuronal model of HSV-1 latency was used to investigate potential mechanisms involved in the induction of reactivation of latent HSV-1. In situ hybridization analysis of neuronal cultures harboring latent HSV-1 showed a marked, rapid decrease in the percentage of LAT-positive neurons following induction of reactivation by NGF deprivation or forskolin treatment. Western blot analysis showed a corresponding increase in expression of the cellular transcription factor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER) during reactivation. In transient-transfection assays, ICER downregulated LAT promoter activity. Expression of ICER from a recombinant adenoviral vector induced reactivation and decreased the percentage of LAT-positive neurons in neuronal cultures harboring latent HSV-1. These results indicate that ICER represses LAT expression and induces reactivation of latent HSV-1. PMID:11222716

  15. Balancing intestinal and systemic inflammation through cell type-specific expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Olga; Schanz, Oliver; Vorac, Julia; König, Jessica; Mori, Tetsushi; Maruyama, Toru; Korkowski, Markus; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; von Smolinski, Dorthe; Schultze, Joachim L; Abel, Josef; Esser, Charlotte; Takeyama, Haruko; Weighardt, Heike; Förster, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    As a sensor of polyaromatic chemicals the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exerts an important role in immune regulation besides its requirement for xenobiotic metabolism. Transcriptional activation of AhR target genes is counterregulated by the AhR repressor (AhRR) but the exact function of the AhRR in vivo is currently unknown. We here show that the AhRR is predominantly expressed in immune cells of the skin and intestine, different from other AhR target genes. Whereas AhRR antagonizes the anti-inflammatory function of the AhR in the context of systemic endotoxin shock, AhR and AhRR act in concert to dampen intestinal inflammation. Specifically, AhRR contributes to the maintenance of colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes and prevents excessive IL-1β production and Th17/Tc17 differentiation. In contrast, the AhRR enhances IFN-γ-production by effector T cells in the inflamed gut. Our findings highlight the physiologic importance of cell-type specific balancing of AhR/AhRR expression in response to microbial, nutritional and other environmental stimuli. PMID:27184933

  16. Octamerization of lambda CI repressor is needed for effective repression of P(RM) and efficient switching from lysogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, I B; Perkins, A J; Tsemitsidis, D; Egan, J B

    2001-11-15

    The CI repressor of bacteriophage lambda is a model for the role of cooperativity in the efficient functioning of genetic switches. Pairs of CI dimers interact to cooperatively occupy adjacent operator sites at O(R) and at O(L). These CI tetramers repress the lytic promoters and activate transcription of the cI gene from P(RM). CI is also able to octamerize, forming a large DNA loop between O(R) and O(L), but the physiological role of this is unclear. Another puzzle is that, although a dimer of CI is able to repress P(RM) by binding to the third operator at O(R), O(R)3, this binding seems too weak to affect CI production in the lysogenic state. Here we show that repression of P(RM) at lysogenic CI concentrations is absolutely dependent on O(L), in this case 3.8 kb away. A mutant defective in this CI negative autoregulation forms a lysogen with elevated CI levels that cannot efficiently switch from lysogeny to lytic development. Our results invalidate previous evidence that Cro binding to O(R)3 is important in prophage induction. We propose the octameric CI:O(R)-O(L) complex increases the affinity of CI for O(R)3 by allowing a CI tetramer to link O(R)3 and the third operator at O(L), O(L)3. PMID:11711436

  17. DNA binding of the p21 repressor ZBTB2 is inhibited by cytosine hydroxymethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaye, Céline; Barbier, Ewa; Miscioscia, Audrey; Saint-Pierre, Christine [Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, UMR E_3 CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38054 (France); Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohann [Etude de la Dynamique des Protéomes, Biologie à Grande Echelle, UMR S_1038 CEA/INSERM/UJF-Grenoble 1, iRTSV, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38054 (France); Plo, Isabelle [INSERM, U1009, Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris 11, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, Villejuif F-94805 (France); Gasparutto, Didier; Ravanat, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, UMR E_3 CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38054 (France); Breton, Jean, E-mail: jean.breton@cea.fr [Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, UMR E_3 CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • 5-hmC epigenetic modification is measurable in HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL cell lines. • ZBTB2 binds to DNA probes containing 5-mC but not to sequences containing 5-hmC. • This differential binding is verified with DNA sequences involved in p21 regulation. - Abstract: Recent studies have demonstrated that the modified base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is detectable at various rates in DNA extracted from human tissues. This oxidative product of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) constitutes a new and important actor of epigenetic mechanisms. We designed a DNA pull down assay to trap and identify nuclear proteins bound to 5-hmC and/or 5-mC. We applied this strategy to three cancerous cell lines (HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL) in which we also measured 5-mC and 5-hmC levels by HPLC-MS/MS. We found that the putative oncoprotein Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 2 (ZBTB2) is associated with methylated DNA sequences and that this interaction is inhibited by the presence of 5-hmC replacing 5-mC. As published data mention ZBTB2 recognition of p21 regulating sequences, we verified that this sequence specific binding was also alleviated by 5-hmC. ZBTB2 being considered as a multifunctional cell proliferation activator, notably through p21 repression, this work points out new epigenetic processes potentially involved in carcinogenesis.

  18. Hypoxia-induced protein binding to O2-responsive sequences on the tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M L; Millhorn, D E

    1995-10-01

    We reported recently that the gene that encodes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, is regulated by hypoxia in the dopaminergic cells of the mammalian carotid body (Czyzyk-Krzeska, M. F., Bayliss, D. A., Lawson, E. E. & Millhorn, D. E. (1992) J. Neurochem. 58, 1538-1546) and in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells (Czyzyk-Krzeska, M. F., Furnari, B. A., Lawson, E. E. & Millhorn, D. E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 760-764). Regulation of this gene during low O2 conditions occurs at both the level of transcription and RNA stability. Increased transcription during hypoxia is regulated by a region of the proximal promoter that extends from -284 to + 27 bases, relative to transcription start site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the sequences that confer O2 responsiveness of the TH gene and to identify hypoxia-induced protein interactions with these sequences. Results from chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays identified a region between bases -284 and -150 that contains the essential sequences for O2 regulation. This region contains a number of regulatory elements including AP1, AP2, and HIF-1. Gel shift assays revealed enhanced protein interactions at the AP1 and HIF-1 elements of the native gene. Further investigations using supershift and shift-Western analysis showed that c-Fos and JunB bind to the AP1 element during hypoxia and that these protein levels are stimulated by hypoxia. Mutation of the AP1 sequence prevented stimulation of transcription of the TH-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene by hypoxia. PMID:7559551

  19. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) represses transcription of the tumor suppressor Rb gene via binding competition with Sp1 and recruitment of co-repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-11-28

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  20. The PecT repressor coregulates synthesis of exopolysaccharides and virulence factors in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemine, G; Castillo, A; Passeri, F; Enard, C

    1999-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 synthesizes an exopolysaccharide (EPS) composed of rhamnose, galactose, and galacturonic acid. Fourteen transcriptional fusions in genes required for EPS synthesis, named eps, were obtained by Tn5-B21 mutagenesis. Eleven of them are clustered on the chromosome and are repressed by PecT, a regulator of pectate lyase synthesis. In addition, expression of these fusions is repressed by the catabolite regulatory protein, CRP, and induced in low osmolarity medium. The three other mutations are located in genes that are not regulated by pecT. A 13-kb DNA fragment containing pecT-regulated eps genes has been cloned. All the genes identified on this fragment are transcribed in the same orientation and could form a large operon. The promoter region of this operon has been sequenced. It contains a JUMP-start sequence, a sequence required for the expression of polysaccharide-associated operons. E. chrysanthemi 3937 produces a systemic soft rot on its host Saintpaulia ionantha. An eps mutant was less efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating a maceration symptom, suggesting that production of EPS is required for the full expression of the E. chrysanthemi virulence. PMID:9885192

  1. Sorting by the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein binding receptor SorLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten S; Gustafsen, Camilla; Madsen, Peder;

    2007-01-01

    -formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Abeta-peptide. The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its...... established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged...

  2. Yeast Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins are but adaptor protein-1 is not required for cell-free transport of membrane proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the prevacuolar compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazeed, Mohamed E; Fuller, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN-PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the beta subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Delta membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Delta mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  3. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  4. Structure-based functional characterization of repressor of toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killikelly, April; Benson, Meredith A; Ohneck, Elizabeth A; Sampson, Jared M; Jakoncic, Jean; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victor J; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R(91), at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y(66), predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  5. Regulation of nif expression in Methanococcus maripaludis: roles of the euryarchaeal repressor NrpR, 2-oxoglutarate, and two operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Thomas J; Wood, Gwendolyn E; Leigh, John A

    2005-02-18

    The methanogenic archaean Methanococcus maripaludis can use ammonia, alanine, or dinitrogen as a nitrogen source for growth. The euryarchaeal nitrogen repressor NrpR controls the expression of the nif (nitrogen fixation) operon, resulting in full repression with ammonia, intermediate repression with alanine, and derepression with dinitrogen. NrpR binds to two tandem operators in the nif promoter region, nifOR(1) and nifOR(2). Here we have undertaken both in vivo and in vitro approaches to study the way in which NrpR, nifOR(1), nifOR(2), and the effector 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) combine to regulate nif expression, leading to a comprehensive understanding of this archaeal regulatory system. We show that NrpR binds as a dimer to nifOR(1) and cooperatively as two dimers to both operators. Cooperative binding occurs only with both operators present. nifOR(1) has stronger binding and by itself can mediate the repression of nif transcription during growth on ammonia, unlike the weakly binding nifOR(2). However, nifOR(2) in combination with nifOR(1) is critical for intermediate repression during growth on alanine. Accordingly, NrpR binds to both operators together with higher affinity than to nifOR(1) alone. NrpR responds directly to 2OG, which weakens its binding to the operators. Hence, 2OG is an intracellular indicator of nitrogen deficiency and acts as an inducer of nif transcription via NrpR. This model is upheld by the recent finding (J. A. Dodsworth and J. A. Leigh, submitted for publication) in our laboratory that 2OG levels in M. maripaludis vary with growth on different nitrogen sources.

  6. Yeast Gga coat proteins function with clathrin in Golgi to endosome transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costaguta, G; Stefan, C J; Bensen, E S; Emr, S D; Payne, G S

    2001-06-01

    Gga proteins represent a newly recognized, evolutionarily conserved protein family with homology to the "ear" domain of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 gamma subunit. Yeast cells contain two Gga proteins, Gga1p and Gga2p, that have been proposed to act in transport between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Here we provide genetic and physical evidence that yeast Gga proteins function in trans-Golgi network clathrin coats. Deletion of Gga2p (gga2Delta), the major Gga protein, accentuates growth and alpha-factor maturation defects in cells carrying a temperature-sensitive allele of the clathrin heavy chain gene. Cells carrying either gga2Delta or a deletion of the AP-1 beta subunit gene (apl2Delta) alone are phenotypically normal, but cells carrying both gga2Delta and apl2Delta are defective in growth, alpha-factor maturation, and transport of carboxypeptidase S to the vacuole. Disruption of both GGA genes and APL2 results in cells so severely compromised in growth that they form only microcolonies. Gga proteins can bind clathrin in vitro and cofractionate with clathrin-coated vesicles. Our results indicate that yeast Gga proteins play an important role in cargo-selective clathrin-mediated protein traffic from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes. PMID:11408593

  7. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  8. Divergence of the mRNA targets for the Ssb proteins of bacteriophages T4 and RB69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Vasiliy M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The single-strand binding (Ssb protein of phage T4 (T4 gp32, product of gene 32 is a mRNA-specific autogenous translational repressor, in addition to being a sequence-independent ssDNA-binding protein that participates in phage DNA replication, repair and recombination. It is not clear how this physiologically essential protein distinguishes between specific RNA and nonspecific nucleic acid targets. Here, we present phylogenetic evidence suggesting that ssDNA and specific RNA bind the same gp32 domain and that plasticity of this domain underlies its ability to configure certain RNA structures for specific binding. We have cloned and characterized gene 32 of phage RB69, a relative of T4 We observed that RB69 gp32 and T4 gp32 have nearly identical ssDNA binding domains, but diverge in their C-terminal domains. In T4 gp32, it is known that the C-terminal domain interacts with the ssDNA-binding domain and with other phage-induced proteins. In translation assays, we show that RB69 gp32 is, like T4 gp32, an autogenous translational repressor. We also show that the natural mRNA targets (translational operators for the 2 proteins are diverged in sequence from each other and yet can be repressed by either gp32. Results of chemical and RNase sensitivity assays indicate that the gp32 mRNA targets from the 2 related phages have similar structures, but differ in their patterns of contact with the 2 repressors. These and other observations suggest that a range of gp32-RNA binding specificities may evolve in nature due to plasticity of the protein-nucleic acid interaction and its response to modulation by the C-terminal domain of this translational repressor.

  9. The TGF-β/Smad repressor TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury independently of a Smad signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hneino

    Full Text Available Despite advances in radiation delivery protocols, exposure of normal tissues during the course of radiation therapy remains a limiting factor of cancer treatment. If the canonical TGF-β/Smad pathway has been extensively studied and implicated in the development of radiation damage in various organs, the precise modalities of its activation following radiation exposure remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 signaling and target genes expression may depend on radiation-induced modifications in Smad transcriptional co-repressors/inhibitors expressions (TGIF1, SnoN, Ski and Smad7. In endothelial cells (HUVECs and in a model of experimental radiation enteropathy in mice, radiation exposure increases expression of TGF-β/Smad pathway and of its target gene PAI-1, together with the overexpression of Smad co-repressor TGIF1. In mice, TGIF1 deficiency is not associated with changes in the expression of radiation-induced TGF-β pathway-related transcripts following localized small intestinal irradiation. In HUVECs, TGIF1 overexpression or silencing has no influence either on the radiation-induced Smad activation or the Smad3-dependent PAI-1 overexpression. However, TGIF1 genetic deficiency sensitizes mice to radiation-induced intestinal damage after total body or localized small intestinal radiation exposure, demonstrating that TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, the TGF-β/Smad co-repressor TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced normal tissue damage by a Smad-independent mechanism.

  10. The Transcriptional Repressor ID2 Can Interact with the Canonical Clock Components CLOCK and BMAL1 and Mediate Inhibitory Effects on mPer1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Sarah M.; Fernando, Shanik J.; Hou, Tim Y.; Duffield, Giles E.

    2010-01-01

    ID2 is a rhythmically expressed HLH transcriptional repressor. Deletion of Id2 in mice results in circadian phenotypes, highlighted by disrupted locomotor activity rhythms and an enhanced photoentrainment response. ID2 can suppress the transactivation potential of the positive elements of the clock, CLOCK-BMAL1, on mPer1 and clock-controlled gene (CCG) activity. Misregulation of CCGs is observed in Id2−/− liver, and mutant mice exhibit associated alterations in lipid homeostasis. These data s...

  11. The activation function 2 domain of hepatic nuclear factor 4 is regulated by a short C-terminal proline-rich repressor domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyemere, V P; Davies, N H; Brownlee, G G

    1998-01-01

    Hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) is a transcription factor whose expression is crucial for mouse embryonic development, for liver-specific gene expression and for the prevention of one form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Its domain structure has been defined previously and is similar to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. A repressor domain has now been localised to a region of 14 amino acids (residues 428-441) near the C-terminus of HNF4 and is sufficient by itself to...

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of the Vanillate Utilization Genes (vanABK Operon) of Corynebacterium glutamicum by VanR, a PadR-Like Repressor

    OpenAIRE

    Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Lange, Julian; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Kalinowski, Jörn; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to utilize vanillate, the product of lignin degradation, as the sole carbon source. The vanillate utilization components are encoded by the vanABK operon. The vanA and vanB genes encode the subunits of vanillate O-demethylase, converting vanillate to protocatechuate, while VanK is the specific vanillate transporter. The vanABK operon is regulated by a PadR-type repressor, VanR. Heterologous gene expression and variations of the vanR open reading frame reveal...

  13. Characterization of Interactions between the Transcriptional Repressor PhlF and Its Binding Site at the phlA Promoter in Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Abdelhamid; John P. Morrissey; Marquez, Pilar Carnicero; Sheehan, Michelle M.; Delany, Isabel R.; O'Gara, Fergal

    2002-01-01

    The phlACBD genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL) by the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 are regulated at the transcriptional level by the pathway-specific repressor PhlF. Strong evidence suggests that this regulation occurs mainly in the early logarithmic phase of growth. First, the expression of the phlF gene is relatively high between 3 and 13 h of growth and relatively low thereafter, with the phlACBD operon fol...

  14. A positive feedback loop of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Bo; Abe, Jun-ichi; Wei, Heng; Xu, Haodong; Che, Wenyi; Aizawa, Toru; Liu, Weimin; Molina, Carlos A.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Blaxall, Burns C.; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen

    2005-01-01

    cAMP plays crucial roles in cardiac remodeling and the progression of heart failure. Recently, we found that expression of cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) was significantly reduced in human failing hearts, accompanied by up-regulation of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) expression. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) also induced persistent PDE3A down-regulation and concomitant ICER up-regulation in vitro, which is important in ...

  15. Interleukin-32α downregulates the activity of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 protein by inhibiting protein kinase Cε-dependent SUMO-2 modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Sun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Yang, Young; Lee, Hee Gu; Hong, JinTae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2014-09-30

    A proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 acts as an intracellular mediator. IL-32α interacts with many intracellular molecules, but there are no reports of interaction with a transcriptional repressor BCL6. In this study, we showed that PMA induces an interaction between IL-32α, PKCε, and BCL6, forming a trimer. To identify the mechanism of the interaction, we treated cells with various inhibitors. In HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines, treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor, PKCε inhibitor, and PKCδ inhibitor decreased BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. MAPK inhibitors and classical PKC inhibitor did not decrease PMA-induced BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. Further, the pan-PKC inhibitor and PKCε inhibitor disrupted PMA-induced interaction between IL-32α and BCL6. These data demonstrate that the intracellular interaction between IL-32α and BCL6 is induced by PMA-activated PKCε. PMA induces post-translational modification of BCL6 by conjugation to SUMO-2, while IL-32α inhibits. PKCε inhibition eliminated PMA-induced SUMOylation of BCL6. Inhibition of BCL6 SUMOylation by IL-32α affected the cellular function and activity of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 in THP-1 cells. Thus, we showed that IL-32α is a negative regulator of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. IL-32α inhibits BCL6 SUMOylation by activating PKCε, resulting in the modulation of BCL6 target genes and cellular functions of BCL6.

  16. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进平; 叶林柏

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  17. Methyl-CpG binding proteins in the nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping FAN; Leah HUTNICK

    2005-01-01

    Classical methyl-CpG binding proteins contain the conserved DNA binding motif methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD), which preferentially binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides. These proteins serve as transcriptional repressors,mediating gene silencing via DNA cytosine methylation. Mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) have been linked to the human mental retardation disorder Rett syndrome, suggesting an important role for methyl-CpG binding proteins in brain development and function. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in studying the diverse functions of MeCP2 as a prototype for other methyl-CpG binding proteins in the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system.

  18. Promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Newcomb, Michael

    2012-11-13

    The present invention relates to an inducible and a high expression nucleic acid promoter isolated from Clostridium thermocellum. These promoters are useful for directing expression of a protein or polypeptide encoded by a nucleic acid molecule operably associated with the nucleic acid promoters. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs including the C. thermocellum promoters, and expression vectors and hosts containing such nucleic acid constructs. The present invention also relates to protein isolated from Clostridium thermocellum, including a repressor protein. The present invention also provides methods of using the isolated promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum, including methods for directing inducible in vitro and in vivo expression of a protein or polypeptide in a host, and methods of producing ethanol from a cellulosic biomass.

  19. The chimeric repressor version of an Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family member, Sl-ERF.B3, shows contrasting effects on tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Diretto, Gianfranco; Pirrello, Julien; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Giuliano, Giovanni; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening involves a complex interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated transcriptional regulators. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of ethylene signaling, known to regulate the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Although fruit ripening is an ethylene-regulated process, the role of ERFs remains poorly understood. The role of Sl-ERF.B3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit maturation and ripening is addressed here using a chimeric dominant repressor version (ERF.B3-SRDX). Over-expression of ERF.B3-SRDX results in a dramatic delay of the onset of ripening, enhanced climacteric ethylene production and fruit softening, and reduced pigment accumulation. Consistently, genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and in softening are up-regulated and those of carotenoid biosynthesis are down-regulated. Moreover, the expression of ripening regulators, such as RIN, NOR, CNR and HB-1, is stimulated in ERF.B3-SRDX dominant repressor fruits and the expression pattern of a number of ERFs is severely altered. The data suggest the existence of a complex network enabling interconnection between ERF genes which may account for the pleiotropic alterations in fruit maturation and ripening. Overall, the study sheds new light on the role of Sl-ERF.B3 in the transcriptional network controlling the ripening process and uncovers a means towards uncoupling some of the main ripening-associated processes.