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Sample records for ap-1 endosomal coat

  1. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.

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    Rajendra Kumar Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1. The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1 as if it contained a Yxxphimotif.Here, we show that a direct interaction between the MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 plays a primary role in the down-regulation of MHC-I: GST pulldown assays using recombinant proteins indicated that most of the MHC-I CD and Nef residues that are required for the down-regulation in human cells contribute to direct interactions with a truncated version of micro1. Specifically, the tyrosine residue of the YSQA sequence in the MHC-I CD as well as Nef residues E62-65 and P78 each contributed to the interaction between MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 in vitro, whereas Nef M20 had little to no role. Conversely, residues F172/D174 and V392/L395 of the binding pocket on micro1 for Yxxphi motifs were required for a robust interaction.These data indicate that the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, Nef, and the C-terminal two thirds of the mu subunit of AP-1 are sufficient to constitute a biologically relevant interaction. The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef.

  2. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

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    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  3. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

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    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification

  4. Mimicking cellular transport mechanism in stem cells through endosomal escape of new peptide-coated quantum dots.

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    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Yen, Swee Kuan; Dou, Qingqing; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Ying, Jackie Y; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil

    2013-01-01

    Protein transport is an important phenomenon in biological systems. Proteins are transported via several mechanisms to reach their destined compartment of cell for its complete function. One such mechanism is the microtubule mediated protein transport. Up to now, there are no reports on synthetic systems mimicking the biological protein transport mechanism. Here we report a highly efficient method of mimicking the microtubule mediated protein transport using newly designed biotinylated peptides encompassing a microtubule-associated sequence (MTAS) and a nuclear localization signaling (NLS) sequence, and their final conjugation with streptavidin-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Our results demonstrate that these novel bio-conjugated QDs enhance the endosomal escape and promote targeted delivery into the nucleus of human mesenchymal stem cells via microtubules. Mimicking the cellular transport mechanism in stem cells is highly desirable for diagnostics, targeting and therapeutic applications, opening up new avenues in the area of drug delivery.

  5. Spatiotemporal Control of Lipid Conversion, Actin-Based Mechanical Forces, and Curvature Sensors during Clathrin/AP-1-Coated Vesicle Biogenesis

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    Mihaela Anitei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clathrin/adaptor protein-1-coated carriers connect the secretory and the endocytic pathways. Carrier biogenesis relies on distinct protein networks changing membrane shape at the trans-Golgi network, each regulating coat assembly, F-actin-based mechanical forces, or the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers. How these different hubs are spatiotemporally coordinated remains largely unknown. Using in vitro reconstitution systems, quantitative proteomics, and lipidomics, as well as in vivo cell-based assays, we characterize the protein networks controlling membrane lipid composition, membrane shape, and carrier scission. These include PIP5K1A and phospholipase C-beta 3 controlling the conversion of PI[4]P into diacylglycerol. PIP5K1A binding to RAC1 provides a link to F-actin-based mechanical forces needed to tubulate membranes. Tubular membranes then recruit the BAR-domain-containing arfaptin-1/2 guiding carrier scission. These findings provide a framework for synchronizing the chemical/biophysical properties of lipid bilayers, F-actin-based mechanical forces, and the activity of proteins sensing membrane shape during clathrin/adaptor protein-1-coated carrier biogenesis.

  6. AP-1/KIF13A Blocking Peptides Impair Melanosome Maturation and Melanin Synthesis.

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    Campagne, Cécile; Ripoll, Léa; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Raposo, Graça; Delevoye, Cédric

    2018-02-14

    Melanocytes are specialized cells that generate unique organelles called melanosomes in which melanin is synthesized and stored. Melanosome biogenesis and melanocyte pigmentation require the transport and delivery of melanin synthesizing enzymes, such as tyrosinase and related proteins (e.g., TYRP1), from endosomes to maturing melanosomes. Among the proteins controlling endosome-melanosome transport, AP-1 together with KIF13A coordinates the endosomal sorting and trafficking of TYRP1 to melanosomes. We identify here β1-adaptin AP-1 subunit-derived peptides of 5 amino acids that block the interaction of KIF13A with AP-1 in cells. Incubating these peptides with human MNT-1 cells or 3D-reconstructed pigmented epidermis decreases pigmentation by impacting the maturation of melanosomes in fully pigmented organelles. This study highlights that peptides targeting the intracellular trafficking of melanocytes are candidate molecules to tune pigmentation in health and disease.

  7. AP-1/KIF13A Blocking Peptides Impair Melanosome Maturation and Melanin Synthesis

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    Cécile Campagne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytes are specialized cells that generate unique organelles called melanosomes in which melanin is synthesized and stored. Melanosome biogenesis and melanocyte pigmentation require the transport and delivery of melanin synthesizing enzymes, such as tyrosinase and related proteins (e.g., TYRP1, from endosomes to maturing melanosomes. Among the proteins controlling endosome-melanosome transport, AP-1 together with KIF13A coordinates the endosomal sorting and trafficking of TYRP1 to melanosomes. We identify here β1-adaptin AP-1 subunit-derived peptides of 5 amino acids that block the interaction of KIF13A with AP-1 in cells. Incubating these peptides with human MNT-1 cells or 3D-reconstructed pigmented epidermis decreases pigmentation by impacting the maturation of melanosomes in fully pigmented organelles. This study highlights that peptides targeting the intracellular trafficking of melanocytes are candidate molecules to tune pigmentation in health and disease.

  8. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

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    Fubito Nakatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  9. Role of the epithelial cell-specific clathrin adaptor complex AP-1B in cell polarity

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    Fölsch, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells are important for organ development and function. To this end, they polarize their plasma membrane into biochemically and physically distinct membrane domains. The apical membrane faces the luminal site of an organ and the basolateral domain is in contact with the basement membrane and neighboring cells. To establish and maintain this polarity it is important that newly synthesized and endocytic cargos are correctly sorted according to their final destinations at either membrane. Sorting takes place at one of 2 major sorting stations in the cells, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes (REs). Polarized sorting may involve epithelial cell-specific sorting adaptors like the AP-1B clathrin adaptor complex. AP-1B facilitates basolateral sorting from REs. This review will discuss various aspects of basolateral sorting in epithelial cells with a special emphasis on AP-1B. PMID:27057418

  10. In vivo monitoring of the recruitment and activation of AP-1 by Arf1.

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    Sauvageau, Etienne; McCormick, Peter J; Lefrancois, Stephane

    2017-08-02

    AP-1 is a clathrin adaptor recruited to the trans-Golgi Network where it can interact with specific signals found in the cytosolic tail of cargo proteins to incorporate them into clathrin-coated vesicles for trafficking. The small G protein Arf1 regulates the spatiotemporal recruitment of AP-1 and also drives a conformational change favoring an interaction with cargo proteins. A recent crystal structure and in vitro experiments highlighted potential residues mediating the AP-1/Arf1 interaction and the unlocking of the complex. We have used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to study the Arf1/AP-1 interaction and AP-1 conformational changes in vivo. We identified novel residues required for this interaction in addition to those predicted in the crystal structure. We also studied the conformational changes in AP-1 driven by Arf1 in live cells and found that opening of the complex is prerequisite for oligomerization. Using Arf1 knockout cells generated by CRISPR/Cas9, we demonstrated that residue 172 in Arf1 is necessary for AP-1 activation and is required for the efficient sorting of the lysosomal protein prosaposin. We have used BRET to study the in vivo activation of AP-1. The advantages of BRET include expressing full-length proteins in their native environment that have been fully post-translationally modified.

  11. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

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    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  12. Hyperoxia increases AP-1 DNA binding in rat brain.

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    Tong, LiQi; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Rassin, David; Werrbach-Perez, Karin; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative stress appears to contribute to neurodegenerative outcomes after ischemia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. The AP-1 transcription factor is made up of a family of regulatory proteins that can be activated by oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined AP-1 DNA binding activity in terms of specific participating AP-1 proteins in rat brain after hyperoxia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen under isobaric conditions over time. The AP-1 DNA binding activity present in the rat hippocampus and basal forebrain was characterized by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA) and the participating AP-1 proteins identified by immunodepletion/supershift and Western blotting analyses. The Fos and Jun proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry to hippocampus. There were significant increases in AP-1 DNA binding in both hippocampus and basal forebrain after hyperoxia. There was also a significant increase in c-Jun protein levels and the proportion of c-Jun present in AP-1 DNA binding complexes in hippocampal nuclei after hyperoxia. These results suggest that AP-1 activation via c-Jun binding to DNA is an important component of brain responses to oxidative stress.

  13. Tead and AP1 Coordinate Transcription and Motility.

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    Liu, Xiangfan; Li, Huapeng; Rajurkar, Mihir; Li, Qi; Cotton, Jennifer L; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Lihua J; Goel, Hira L; Mercurio, Arthur M; Park, Joo-Seop; Davis, Roger J; Mao, Junhao

    2016-02-09

    The Tead family transcription factors are the major intracellular mediators of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Despite the importance of Hippo signaling in tumorigenesis, Tead-dependent downstream oncogenic programs and target genes in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize Tead4-mediated transcriptional networks in a diverse range of cancer cells, including neuroblastoma, colorectal, lung, and endometrial carcinomas. By intersecting genome-wide chromatin occupancy analyses of Tead4, JunD, and Fra1/2, we find that Tead4 cooperates with AP1 transcription factors to coordinate target gene transcription. We find that Tead-AP1 interaction is JNK independent but engages the SRC1-3 co-activators to promote downstream transcription. Furthermore, we show that Tead-AP1 cooperation regulates the activity of the Dock-Rac/CDC42 module and drives the expression of a unique core set of target genes, thereby directing cell migration and invasion. Together, our data unveil a critical regulatory mechanism underlying Tead- and AP1-controlled transcriptional and functional outputs in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tead and AP1 Coordinate Transcription and Motility

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    Xiangfan Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tead family transcription factors are the major intracellular mediators of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Despite the importance of Hippo signaling in tumorigenesis, Tead-dependent downstream oncogenic programs and target genes in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize Tead4-mediated transcriptional networks in a diverse range of cancer cells, including neuroblastoma, colorectal, lung, and endometrial carcinomas. By intersecting genome-wide chromatin occupancy analyses of Tead4, JunD, and Fra1/2, we find that Tead4 cooperates with AP1 transcription factors to coordinate target gene transcription. We find that Tead-AP1 interaction is JNK independent but engages the SRC1–3 co-activators to promote downstream transcription. Furthermore, we show that Tead-AP1 cooperation regulates the activity of the Dock-Rac/CDC42 module and drives the expression of a unique core set of target genes, thereby directing cell migration and invasion. Together, our data unveil a critical regulatory mechanism underlying Tead- and AP1-controlled transcriptional and functional outputs in cancer cells.

  15. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

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    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  16. Cocaine and the AP-1 transcription factor complex.

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    Hope, B T

    1998-05-30

    Cocaine addition in humans develops gradually with repeated administrations and persists long after cocaine has cleared the body. The mechanisms underlying this persistent form of neuroplasticity are not understood and can involve both structural and biochemical mechanisms. The long time course for cocaine addiction in humans and for development of cocaine self-administration in animal models suggest the involvement of alterations in gene expression leading to altered signaling in the brain. In the striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Pretreatment with repeated cocaine administrations downregulates the induction of various immediate early genes (IEGs) by a subsequent acute challenge with cocaine. Some of these downregulated IEGs encode Fos-related components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which is likely re regulate a number of genes important for neuronal function. Interestingly, repeated cocaine administration induces novel delta FosB-related proteins (called chronic Fos-related antigens (Fras)) in the NAc and Str that replace the downregulated isoforms of Fos. Unlike the acutely induced, short-lasting isoforms of Fos and FosB, the chronic Fras persist long after the last cocaine administration. The known form of delta FosB per se lacks the domain required to activate transcription. If the chronic Fras are similar in structure to delta FosB, then the induction of chronic Fras likely leads to a blockade of AP-1-dependent transcription resulting in altered gene expression. We presently purifying the chronic Fras to obtain amino acid sequence in order to directly examine our hypothesis about the effects of repeated cocaine administration on AP-1 dependent transcription and gene expression in the brain

  17. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

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    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  18. Endosome-mediated autophagy

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    Kondylis, Vangelis; van Nispen tot Pannerden, Hezder E.; van Dijk, Suzanne; ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Geerts, Willie J.; Seinen, Cor; Mutis, Tuna; Heijnen, Harry F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4BC74A mutant and atg4b−/− bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival. PMID:23481895

  19. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes.

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    Rivière, C; Wilhelm, C; Cousin, F; Dupuis, V; Gazeau, F; Perzynski, R

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  20. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes

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    Rivière, C.; Wilhelm, C.; Cousin, F.; Dupuis, V.; Gazeau, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  1. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

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    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  2. Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins and in parasite division.

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    Kannan Venugopal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL. Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also participates in the post-Golgi maturation process of preROP compartments into apically anchored club-shaped mature organelles. For this latter activity, our data indicate a specific functional relationship between TgAP1 and the Rab5A-positive endosome-like compartment. In addition, we unraveled an original role for TgAP1 in the regulation of parasite division. APμ1-depleted parasites undergo normal daughter cell budding and basal complex assembly but fail to segregate at the end of cytokinesis.

  3. Rabaptin-5 alpha/rabaptin-4 serves as a linker between rab4 and gamma(1)-adaptin in membrane recycling from endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deneka, M; Neeft, M; Popa, [No Value; van Oort, M; Sprong, H; Oorschot, [No Value; Klumperman, J; Schu, P; van der Sluijs, P

    2003-01-01

    Rab4 regulates recycling from early endosomes. We investigated the role of the rab4 effector rabaptin-5alpha and its putative partner gamma(1)-adaptin in membrane recycling. We found that rabaptin-5alpha forms a ternary complex with the gamma(1)-sigma(1) subcomplex of AP-1, via a direct interaction

  4. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

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    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  5. Recycling Endosome Tubule Morphogenesis from Sorting Endosomes Requires the Kinesin Motor KIF13A

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    Cédric Delevoye

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early endosomes consist of vacuolar sorting and tubular recycling domains that segregate components fated for degradation in lysosomes or reuse by recycling to the plasma membrane or Golgi. The tubular transport intermediates that constitute recycling endosomes function in cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Endosomal tubulation and fission require both actin and intact microtubules, but although factors that stabilize recycling endosomal tubules have been identified, those required for tubule generation from vacuolar sorting endosomes (SEs remain unknown. We show that the microtubule motor KIF13A associates with recycling endosome tubules and controls their morphogenesis. Interfering with KIF13A function impairs the formation of endosomal tubules from SEs with consequent defects in endosome homeostasis and cargo recycling. Moreover, KIF13A interacts and cooperates with RAB11 to generate endosomal tubules. Our data illustrate how a microtubule motor couples early endosome morphogenesis to its motility and function.

  6. Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) trans-Activation of Inflammatory AP-1 Signaling

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    Dougherty, Edward J.; Elinoff, Jason M.; Ferreyra, Gabriela A.; Hou, Angela; Cai, Rongman; Sun, Junfeng; Blaine, Kevin P.; Wang, Shuibang; Danner, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used to treat inflammatory disorders. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can tether to inflammatory transcription factor complexes, such as NFκB and AP-1, and trans-repress the transcription of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. In contrast, aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) primarily promote cardiovascular inflammation by incompletely understood mechanisms. Although MR has been shown to weakly repress NFκB, its role in modulating AP-1 has not been established. Here, the effects of GR and MR on NFκB and AP-1 signaling were directly compared using a variety of ligands, two different AP-1 consensus sequences, GR and MR DNA-binding domain mutants, and siRNA knockdown or overexpression of core AP-1 family members. Both GR and MR repressed an NFκB reporter without influencing p65 or p50 binding to DNA. Likewise, neither GR nor MR affected AP-1 binding, but repression or activation of AP-1 reporters occurred in a ligand-, AP-1 consensus sequence-, and AP-1 family member-specific manner. Notably, aldosterone interactions with both GR and MR demonstrated a potential to activate AP-1. DNA-binding domain mutations that eliminated the ability of GR and MR to cis-activate a hormone response element-driven reporter variably affected the strength and polarity of these responses. Importantly, MR modulation of NFκB and AP-1 signaling was consistent with a trans-mechanism, and AP-1 effects were confirmed for specific gene targets in primary human cells. Steroid nuclear receptor trans-effects on inflammatory signaling are context-dependent and influenced by nuclear receptor conformation, DNA sequence, and the expression of heterologous binding partners. Aldosterone activation of AP-1 may contribute to its proinflammatory effects in the vasculature. PMID:27650495

  7. Veratramine modulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription by directly binding to programmable DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fang; Liu, Kangdong; Li, Huiliang; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Junsheng; Hao, Pei; Zhu, Lili; Zhang, Shoude; Shan, Lei; Ma, Weiya; Bode, Ann M; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Honglin; Dong, Zigang

    2018-01-25

    Because the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) regulates a variety of protein-encoding genes, it is a participant in many cellular functions, including proliferation, transformation, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis. Inhibitors targeting AP-1 have potential use in the treatment of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we identify veratramine as a potent natural modulator of AP-1, which selectively binds to a specific site (TRE 5'-TGACTCA-3') of the AP-1 target DNA sequence and regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription without interfering with cystosolic signaling cascades that might lead to AP-1 activation. Moreover, RNA-seq experiments demonstrate that veratramine does not act on the Hedgehog signaling pathway in contrast to its analogue, cyclopamine, and likely does not harbor the same teratogenicity and toxicity. Additionally, veratramine effectively suppresses EGF-induced AP-1 transactivation and transformation of JB6 P+ cells. Finally, we demonstrate that veratramine inhibits solar-ultraviolet-induced AP-1 activation in mice. The identification of veratramine and new findings in its specific regulation of AP-1 down stream genes pave ways to discovering and designing regulators to regulate transcription factor. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Membrane tethering complexes in the endosomal system

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    Anne eSpang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the CORVET complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the HOPS complex. Recycling through the TGN and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the GARP and EARP complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, complexes that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic.

  9. Evidence for cell autonomous AP1 function in regulation of Drosophila motor-neuron plasticity

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    Consoulas Christos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor AP1 mediates long-term plasticity in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. Recent studies of activity-induced synaptic change indicate that AP1 can function upstream of CREB to regulate both CREB-dependent enhancement of synaptic strength as well as CREB-independent increase in bouton number at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. However, it is not clear from this study if AP1 functions autonomously in motor neurons to directly modulate plasticity. Results Here, we show that Fos and Jun, the two components of AP1, are abundantly expressed in motor neurons. We further combine immunohistochemical and electrophysiological analyses with use of a collection of enhancers that tightly restrict AP1 transgene expression within the nervous system to show that AP1 induction or inhibition in, but not outside of, motor neurons is necessary and sufficient for its modulation of NMJ size and strength. Conclusion By arguing against the possibility that AP1 effects at the NMJ occur via a polysynaptic mechanism, these observations support a model in which AP1 directly modulates NMJ plasticity processes through a cell autonomous pathway in the motor neuron. The approach described here may serve as a useful experimental paradigm for analyzing cell autonomy of genes found to influence structure and function of Drosophila motor neurons.

  10. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

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    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  11. Local sequence features that influence AP-1cis-regulatory activity.

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    Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Cohen, Barak A

    2018-02-01

    In the genome, most occurrences of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) have no cis -regulatory activity, which suggests that flanking sequences contain information that distinguishes functional from nonfunctional TFBS. We interrogated the role of flanking sequences near Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) binding sites that reside in DNase I Hypersensitive Sites (DHS) and regions annotated as Enhancers. In these regions, we found that sequence features directly adjacent to the core motif distinguish high from low activity AP-1 sites. Some nearby features are motifs for other TFs that genetically interact with the AP-1 site. Other features are extensions of the AP-1 core motif, which cause the extended sites to match motifs of multiple AP-1 binding proteins. Computational models trained on these data distinguish between sequences with high and low activity AP-1 sites and also predict changes in cis -regulatory activity due to mutations in AP-1 core sites and their flanking sequences. Our results suggest that extended AP-1 binding sites, together with adjacent binding sites for additional TFs, encode part of the information that governs TFBS activity in the genome. © 2018 Chaudhari and Cohen; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. The immunobiology and clinical features of type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1).

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    Guo, Can-Jie; Leung, Patrick S C; Zhang, Weici; Ma, Xiong; Gershwin, M Eric

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a subtype of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome characterized by the simultaneous or sequential dysfunction of multiple endocrine or non-endocrine glands. A clinical diagnosis of APS-1 is typically based on the presence of at least two of three following criteria: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The first identified causative mutated gene for APS-1 is autoimmune regulator (AIRE) encoding a critical transcription factor, which is primarily expressed in the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) for generating central immune tolerance. A wide range of chronic, debilitating complications, with no obvious correlation with genetics, makes a diagnosis of APS-1 challenging early in the disease course. Managing APS-1 is difficult due to its complexity, especially the intricate relationships within manifestations and genetic mutations. The past decades have witnessed dramatic progress in elucidating the function of AIRE and conducting large-scale cohort studies in APS-1. However, no clear evidence-based guidelines have been established in APS-1. In this review, we provide a detailed critical overview of the study history, epidemiology, clinical features, and related mechanisms of autoimmunity in APS-1, as well as currently available therapies for this autoimmune disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GPCR sorting at multivesicular endosomes.

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    Dores, Michael Robert; Trejo, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal degradation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for receptor signaling and down regulation. Once internalized, GPCRs are sorted within the endocytic pathway and packaged into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that bud inward to form the multivesicular endosome (MVE). The mechanisms that control GPCR sorting and ILV formation are poorly understood. Quantitative strategies are important for evaluating the function of adaptor and scaffold proteins that regulate sorting of GPCRs at MVEs. In this chapter, we outline two strategies for the quantification and visualization of GPCR sorting into the lumen of MVEs. The first protocol utilizes a biochemical approach to assay the sorting of GPCRs in a population of cells, whereas the second strategy examines GPCR sorting in individual cells using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Combined, these assays can be used to establish the kinetics of activated GPCR lysosomal trafficking in response to specific ligands, as well as evaluate the contribution of endosomal adaptors to GPCR sorting at MVEs. The protocols presented in this chapter can be adapted to analyze GPCR sorting in a myriad of cell types and tissues, and expanded to analyze the mechanisms that regulate MVE sorting of other cargoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts induces p53 dependent senescence.

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    Khaled N Alsayegh

    Full Text Available Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1 is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited γ-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1

  15. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

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    Jähne, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.jaehne1@stud.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rizzoli, Silvio O. [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Helm, Martin S., E-mail: martin.helm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures.

  16. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes

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    White, Judith M.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH, and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion triggering mechanisms. A key take home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors, and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion. PMID:26935856

  17. [Effect of AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuang-lun; Wang, Jing-feng; Nie, Ru-qiong; Yuan, Wo-liang; Li, Fei; Lin, Mao-huan

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). The CFs of neonatal SD rats were cultured in serum-free medium for 24 h and stimulated with 10(-7) mol/L AngII in the presence of AP-1 decoy ODNs or mutational AP-1 decoy ODNs at varied concentrations. MTT assay was employed for quantitative evaluation of the CF proliferation. Collagen synthesis in the CFs was assessed with hydroxyproline, and the cell cycle distribution determined with flow cytometry (FCM). With the increase of the concentration of AP-1 decoy ODNs, the absorbance at 490 nm (OD490) of the CFs decreased gradually as shown by MTT assay. Treatment with 100 or 200 nmol/L AP-1 decoy ODNs resulted in significantly lowered OD490 of the CFs as compared with that of AngII group. The concentration of hydroxyproline increased significantly after treatment with 10(-7) mol/L AngII in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). Hydroxyproline concentration in cells treated with 100 or 200 nmol/L AP-1 decoy ODNs was significantly lower than that in the 10(-7) mol/L AngII-treated cells. AP-1 decoy ODNs decreased the cell percentage in S phase and increased hydroxyproline concentration, but increased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase. AP-1 decoy ODNs at 100 and 200 nmol/L did not obviously affect AngII-induced CF proliferation and collagen synthesis (P<0.01). AP-1 decoy can inhibit AngII-induced rat CF proliferation and collagen synthesis possibly by affecting the cell cycle distribution.

  18. Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXXPhi motif with the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Gravotta, Diego; Mattera, Rafael; Diaz, Fernando; Perez Bay, Andres; Roman, Angel C; Schreiner, Ryan P; Thuenauer, Roland; Bonifacino, Juan S; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-03-06

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) plays key roles in epithelial barrier function at the tight junction, a localization guided in part by a tyrosine-based basolateral sorting signal, (318)YNQV(321). Sorting motifs of this type are known to route surface receptors into clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with the medium subunit (μ2) of the clathrin adaptor AP-2, but how they guide new and recycling membrane proteins basolaterally is unknown. Here, we show that YNQV functions as a canonical YxxΦ motif, with both Y318 and V321 required for the correct basolateral localization and biosynthetic sorting of CAR, and for interaction with a highly conserved pocket in the medium subunits (μ1A and μ1B) of the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B. Knock-down experiments demonstrate that AP-1A plays a role in the biosynthetic sorting of CAR, complementary to the role of AP-1B in basolateral recycling of this receptor. Our study illustrates how two clathrin adaptors direct basolateral trafficking of a plasma membrane protein through interaction with a canonical YxxΦ motif.

  19. Synaptic and genomic responses to JNK and AP-1 signaling in Drosophila neurons

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    Bohmann Dirk

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor AP-1 positively controls synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Although in motor neurons, JNK has been shown to activate AP-1, a positive regulator of growth and strength at the larval NMJ, the consequences of JNK activation are poorly studied. In addition, the downstream transcriptional targets of JNK and AP-1 signaling in the Drosophila nervous system have yet to be identified. Here, we further investigated the role of JNK signaling at this model synapse employing an activated form of JNK-kinase; and using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression and oligonucleotide microarrays, searched for candidate early targets of JNK or AP-1 dependent transcription in neurons. Results Temporally-controlled JNK induction in postembryonic motor neurons triggers synaptic growth at the NMJ indicating a role in developmental plasticity rather than synaptogenesis. An unexpected observation that JNK activation also causes a reduction in transmitter release is inconsistent with JNK functioning solely through AP-1 and suggests an additional, yet-unidentified pathway for JNK signaling in motor neurons. SAGE profiling of mRNA expression helps define the neural transcriptome in Drosophila. Though many putative AP-1 and JNK target genes arose from the genomic screens, few were confirmed in subsequent validation experiments. One potentially important neuronal AP-1 target discovered, CG6044, was previously implicated in olfactory associative memory. In addition, 5 mRNAs regulated by RU486, a steroid used to trigger conditional gene expression were identified. Conclusion This study demonstrates a novel role for JNK signaling at the larval neuromuscular junction and provides a quantitative profile of gene transcription in Drosophila neurons. While identifying potential JNK/AP-1 targets it reveals the limitations of genome-wide analyses using complex tissues like the whole brain.

  20. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

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    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  1. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

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    Daniel Pérez-Núñez

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  2. AP-1 Expression and its Clinical Relevance in Immune Disorders and Cancer.

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    Trop-Steinberg, Shivtia; Azar, Yehudit

    2017-05-01

    The inflammatory response is known to have a significant role in certain autoimmune diseases and malignancies. We review current knowledge regarding the functions of activator protein 1 (AP-1) as an important modulator in several immune disorders and carcinomas. AP-1 is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis and in long-term allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivors; however, decreased expression of AP-1 has been observed in psoriasis, systematic lupus erythematosus and in patients who do not survive after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. AP-1 also is implicated in the control of various cancer cells. Higher levels of AP-1 components are present in breast and endometrial carcinomas, colorectal cancer and in acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin׳s lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, with downregulation in ovarian and gastric carcinomas and in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. AP-1 may enable the development of helpful markers to identify early-stage disease or to predict severity. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AP-1 Oligodeoxynucleotides Reduce Aortic Elastolysis in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

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    Arif, Rawa; Zaradzki, Marcin; Remes, Anca; Seppelt, Philipp; Kunze, Reiner; Schröder, Hannes; Schwill, Simon; Ensminger, Stephan M; Robinson, Peter N; Karck, Matthias; Müller, Oliver J; Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H; Kallenbach, Klaus

    2017-12-15

    Marfan syndrome is characterized by high expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) associated with medial elastolysis and aortic root aneurysm. We aimed to reduce aortic elastolysis through decrease of MMP expression with decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs) neutralizing the transcription factor activating factor-1 (AP-1). AP-1 abundance in nuclear extracts as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased in isolated mAoSMC of mgR/mgR Marfan mice compared to wild-type cells. Exposure to AP-1 neutralizing dODNs resulted in a significant reduction of basal and interleukin-1β-stimulated MMP expression and activity in mAoSMCs. Moreover, increased migration and formation of superoxide radical anions was substantially decreased in mAoSMCs by AP-1 dODN treatment. Aortic grafts from donor Marfan mice were treated with AP-1- dODN ex vivo and implanted as infrarenal aortic interposition grafts in mgR/mgR mice. Pretreatment of aortic grafts with AP-1 dODN led to reduced elastolysis, macrophage infiltration, and MMP activity. Permeability of the endothelial monolayer was increased for dODN in mgR/mgR aortae with observed loss of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, enabling dODN to reach the tunica media. Targeting AP-1 activity offers a new potential strategy to treat the vascular phenotype associated with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharman-Biz, Amirhossein; Gao, Hui; Ghiasvand, Reza; Zhao, Chunyan; Zendehdel, Kazem; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for statistical analyses. We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01). Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer

  5. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels activates the AP-1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Tobias M; Rössler, Oliver G; Hui, Xin; Grötzinger, Carsten; Lipp, Peter; Thiel, Gerald

    2018-02-13

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels were originally described as the receptors of capsaicin, the main constituent of hot chili pepper. The biological functions of TRPV1 channels include pain sensation and inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. Here, we show that stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1 channels (H2C1 cells) with capsaicin or the TRPV1 ligand resiniferatoxin activated transcription mediated by the transcription factor AP-1. No cell death was occurring under these experimental conditions. The AP-1 activity was not altered in capsaicin or resiniferatoxin-stimulated HEK293 cells lacking TRPV1. We identified the AP-1 DNA binding site as the capsaicin/resiniferatoxin-responsive element. Stimulation with the TRPV1 ligand N-arachidonoyldopamine increased AP-1 activity in a TRPV1-dependent and TRPV1-independent manner. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels induced an influx of Ca 2+ into the cells and this rise in intracellular Ca 2+ was essential for activating AP-1 in capsaicin or resiniferatoxin-stimulated cells. N-arachidonoyldopamine stimulation induced a rise in intracellular Ca 2+ in a TRPV-1 dependent and independent manner. AP-1 is a dimeric transcription factor, composed of proteins of the c-Jun, c-Fos and ATF families. Stimulation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin increased c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis in H2C1 cells. The signal transduction of capsaicin, leading to enhanced AP-1-mediated transcription, required extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1/2 as a signal transducer and the activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and ternary complex factor. Together, these data suggest that the intracellular functions of TRPV1 stimulation may rely on the activation of a stimulus-regulated protein kinase and stimulus-responsive transcription factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cervical cancer stem cells manifest radioresistance: Association with upregulated AP-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Kaur, Harsimrut; Srivastava, Yogesh; Roy, Bal Gangadhar; Das, Bhudev C; Bharti, Alok C

    2017-07-06

    Transcription factor AP-1 plays a central role in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. AP-1 has also been implicated in chemo-radio-resistance but the mechanism(s) remained unexplored. In the present study, cervical cancer stem-like cells (CaCxSLCs) isolated and enriched from cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and C33a demonstrated an elevated AP-1 DNA-binding activity in comparison to non-stem cervical cancer cells. Upon UV-irradiation, CaCxSLCs showed a UV exposure duration-dependent higher proliferation and highly increased AP-1 activity whereas it was completely abolished in non-stem cancer cells. CaCxSLCs also showed differential overexpression of c-Fos and c-Jun at transcript as well as in protein level. The loss of AP-1 activity and expression was accompanied by decrease in cell viability and proliferation in UV-irradiated non-stem cancer cells. Interestingly, CaCxSLCs treated with curcumin prior to UV-irradiation abolished AP-1 activity and a concomitant reduction in SP cells leading to abrogation of sphere forming ability, loss of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and the cells were poorly tumorigenic. The curcumin pre-treatment abolished the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun but upregulated Fra-1 expression in UV-irradiated CaCxSLCs. Thus, the study suggests a critical role of AP-1 protein in the manifestation of radioresistance but targeting with curcumin helps in radiosensitizing CaCxSLCs through upregulation of Fra-1.

  7. Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Raiborg, Camilla; Grønvold Bache, Kristi; Mehlum, Anja; Stang, Espen; Stenmark, Harald

    2001-01-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs, has been implicated in intracellular trafficking and signal transduction. Hrs contains a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding FYVE domain that contributes to its endosomal targeting. Here we show that Hrs and EEA1, a FYVE domain protein involved in endocytic membrane fusion, are localized to different regions of early endosomes. We demonstrate that Hrs co-localizes with clathrin, and that the C-terminus of Hrs contains...

  8. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Dan H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Methods Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341, alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108, each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Results Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases

  9. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    OpenAIRE

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lac...

  10. Late endosomal cholesterol accumulation leads to impaired intra-endosomal trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Sobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2-3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.

  11. Energy expenditure and bone formation share a common sensitivity to AP-1 transcription in the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, Glenn C; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa

    2012-01-01

    ) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ¿FosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass...

  12. AP-1 Transcription Factors Mediate BDNF-Positive Feedback Loop in Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvikene, Jürgen; Pruunsild, Priit; Orav, Ester; Esvald, Eli-Eelika; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2016-01-27

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, regulates both survival and differentiation of several neuronal populations in the nervous system during development, as well as synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. BDNF exerts its biological functions through its receptor TrkB. Although the regulation of BDNF transcription by neuronal activity has been widely studied, little is known about TrkB signaling-dependent expression of BDNF. Using rat primary cortical neuron cultures, we show that the BDNF gene is a subject to an extensive autoregulatory loop, where TrkB signaling upregulates the expression of all major BDNF transcripts, mainly through activating MAPK pathways. Investigating the mechanisms behind this autoregulation, we found that AP-1 transcription factors, comprising Jun and Fos family members, participate in the induction of BDNF exon I, III, and VI transcripts. AP-1 transcription factors directly upregulate the expression of exon I transcripts by binding two novel AP-1 cis-elements in promoter I. Moreover, our results show that the effect of AP-1 proteins on the activity of rat BDNF promoters III and VI is indirect, because AP-1 proteins were not detected to bind the respective promoter regions by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Collectively, we describe an extensive positive feedback system in BDNF regulation, adding a new layer to the elaborate control of BDNF gene expression. Here, we show for the first time that in rat primary cortical neurons the expression of all major BDNF transcripts (exon I, II, III, IV, VI, and IXa transcripts) is upregulated in response to TrkB signaling, and that AP-1 transcription factors participate in the induction of exon I, III, and VI transcripts. Moreover, we have described two novel functional AP-1 cis-elements in BDNF promoter I, responsible for the activation of the promoter in response to TrkB signaling. Our results indicate the existence of a positive feedback loop for

  13. Degradation of parathyroid hormone in macrophage endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diment, S.; Martin, K.J.; Stahl, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted as an 84 amino acid protein that is rapidly cleaved between amino acids 34 and 35 by Kupffer cells in liver. The resulting amino terminal peptide (1-34) is active at PTH target organs (kidney and bone). Cathepsin D can process PTH to 1-34 in vitro, and a cathepsin D-like protease, which may rapidly process proteins, is present in endosomes of alveolar macrophages. The authors set out to determine whether PTH is degraded to 1-34 in endosomes, and to elucidate the mechanism of hormone processing in vivo. Intracellular transport of 125 I-PTH was assessed by binding to alveolar macrophages at 4 0 C, followed by internalization at 37 0 C. Distribution of PTH among plasma membranes, endosomes and lysosomes was determined by subcellular fractionation. Degradation of the ligand to TCA-soluble fragments in each compartment was assayed at neutral and acid pH. 1-34 in supernatants was separated from undergraded PTH by gel filtration and detected by bioassay on kidney membranes. The authors data suggest that: 1) macrophages rapidly degrade PTH to TCA-soluble fragments. 2) macrophages do not secrete proteases that degrade extracellular PTH. 3) PTH is internalized into endocytic vesicles after 5 mins, but not delivered to lysosomes within 30 mins. 4) A bioactive peptide is released into the extracellular medium after 20 mins. 5) PTH is degraded in endosomes at acid pH by a pepstatin-sensitive protease

  14. Energy Expenditure and Bone Formation Share a Common Sensitivity to AP-1 Transcription in the Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Glenn C.; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa; Saito, Hiroaki; Yin, Min; Green, Thomas A.; Lotinun, Sutada; Kveiborg, Marie; Horne, William C.; Nestler, Eric J.; Baron, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of bone and fat homeostasis and its relationship to energy expenditure has recently been the focus of increased attention due to its potential relevance to osteoporosis, obesity and diabetes. Although central effectors within the hypothalamus have been shown to contribute to the regulation of both energy balance and bone homeostasis, little is known of the underlying mechanisms, including the possible involvement of transcriptional factors within the hypothalamus. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB, a splice variant of the AP1 transcription factor FosB with mixed agonist-antagonistic properties, have increased energy expenditure and bone mass. Since these mice express ΔFosB in bone, fat and hypothalamus, we sought to determine 1) whether overexpression of ΔFosB within the hypothalamus was sufficient to regulate energy expenditure and whether it would also regulate bone mass, and 2) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ΔFosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass. This effect was phenocopied, at an even stronger level, by overexpressiong of a dominant-negative DNJunD, a pure AP1 antagonist. Taken together these results suggest that downregulation of AP1 activity in the hypothalamus profoundly increases energy expenditure and bone formation, leading to both a decrease in adipose mass and an increase in bone mass. These findings may have physiological implications since ΔFosB is expressed and regulated in the hypothalamus. PMID:22461201

  15. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP- 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN- induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.

  16. Identification and characterization of the Mustang promoter: regulation by AP-1 during myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Hadjiargyrou, Michael

    2006-10-01

    We previously identified Mustang (musculoskeletal temporally activated novel gene) with expression exclusively in the musculoskeletal system. Although its expression is almost undetectable in intact bone, it is robustly upregulated during bone regeneration. It is also abundantly expressed in adult skeletal muscle and tendon. As such, Mustang represents a marker for these cells and thus identifying its promoter would enable us to characterize its transcriptional regulation. To this end, we have isolated and characterized a 1512-bp mouse genomic clone representing the Mustang 5'-flanking region and identified a transcription start site, a TATA box, and multiple putative transcription factor binding sites (including AP-1 and AP-2). The activity of this promoter was detected in musculoskeletal cells and embryonic fibroblasts, even exceeding levels (145%) of the control SV40 promoter (in C2C12 cells). Further, the contribution of specific AP-1 and AP-2 sites was determined with serially deleted and mutated promoter constructs. Results indicate that one of the four AP-1 sites is required for substantial transcriptional activation, as its specific deletion or mutation decreases promoter activity by 32% and 40%, respectively. In contrast, deletion of both identified AP-2 sites results in only a 12% decrease in promoter activity. We further characterized the key AP-1 site by EMSA and determined that in both proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells, only c-Fos, Fra-2 and JunD were required for transcriptional activation. Mustang's restricted tissue specificity and strong promoter makes this gene an ideal candidate for utilization in cell lineage studies that could unveil cellular/molecular mechanisms responsible for musculoskeletal development and regeneration.

  17. Transcription factor AP-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Alterations in activity and expression during Human Papillomavirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Showket; Bharti, Alok C; Salam, Irfana; Bhat, Mohammad Akbar; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Hedau, Suresh; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of India. A substantial proportion of esophageal carcinoma is associated with infection of high-risk HPV type 16 and HPV18, the oncogenic expression of which is controlled by host cell transcription factor Activator Protein-1 (AP-1). We, therefore, have investigated the role of DNA binding and expression pattern of AP-1 in esophageal cancer with or without HPV infection. Seventy five histopathologically-confirmed esophageal cancer and an equal number of corresponding adjacent normal tissue biopsies from Kashmir were analyzed for HPV infection, DNA binding activity and expression of AP-1 family of proteins by PCR, gel shift assay and immunoblotting respectively. A high DNA binding activity and elevated expression of AP-1 proteins were observed in esophageal cancer, which differed between HPV positive (19%) and HPV negative (81%) carcinomas. While JunB, c-Fos and Fra-1 were the major contributors to AP-1 binding activity in HPV negative cases, Fra-1 was completely absent in HPV16 positive cancers. Comparison of AP-1 family proteins demonstrated high expression of JunD and c-Fos in HPV positive tumors, but interestingly, Fra-1 expression was extremely low or nil in these tumor tissues. Differential AP-1 binding activity and expression of its specific proteins between HPV - positive and HPV - negative cases indicate that AP-1 may play an important role during HPV-induced esophageal carcinogenesis

  18. c-Jun/AP-1 overexpression reprograms ERα signaling related to tamoxifen response in ERα-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Sinha, Indranil; Fan, Rongrong; Haldosen, Lars-Arne; Yan, Feifei; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2018-02-22

    A critical mechanism that has been proposed for transcription regulation by estrogen receptor α (ER) is the tethering of ER to DNA via other transcription factors, such as AP-1. However, genome-wide assessment of the overlap in chromatin binding repertoires of these two transcription factors has not been reported. Here, we show that the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun interacts with ER and that c-Jun chromatin binding shows extensive overlap with ER binding at the global level. Further, we show that c-Jun overexpression reprograms ER chromatin binding and modulates ER-mediated gene regulation. Our data are consistent with a mechanism where estrogen/ER-dependent crosstalk with AP-1 at the transcriptional level is mediated through the tethering of ER to DNA bound AP-1. Additionally, in our system c-Jun overexpression causes reduced sensitivity to tamoxifen in ER+ breast cancer cells. Integrated cistrome, transcriptome, and clinical data reveal TGFBI as a candidate gene which may confer tamoxifen resistance by ER and AP-1 crosstalk. Further, we show that TGFBI expression is elevated in breast cancer compared to normal breast. Together, our data provide a novel genome-wide footprint of ER and AP-1 crosstalk and suggest AP-1 and TGFBI signaling as potential therapeutic targets in AP-1-overexpressing ER-positive breast tumors.

  19. Mutations in ap1b1 cause mistargeting of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump in sensory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Clemens Grisham

    Full Text Available The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1 gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump (NKA was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na(+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) promoter conferring preferential expression in inflorescence buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-Bin; He, Liang-Liang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas is predominantly active in the inflorescence buds of transgenic plants, in which the -1313/-1057 region is essential for maintaining the activity. Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1) is a MADS-domain transcription factor gene that functions primarily in flower development. We isolated a homolog of AP1 from Jatropha curcas (designated JcAP1), which was shown to exhibit flower-specific expression in Jatropha. JcAP1 is first expressed in inflorescence buds and continues to be primarily expressed in the sepals. We isolated a 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter and evaluated its activity in transgenic Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In transgenic Arabidopsis and Jatropha, the inflorescence buds exhibited notable GUS activity, whereas the sepals did not. Against expectations, the JcAP1 promoter was active in the anthers of Arabidopsis and Jatropha and was highly expressed in Jatropha seeds. An analysis of promoter deletions in transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that deletion of the -1313/-1057 region resulted in loss of JcAP1 promoter activity in the inflorescence buds and increased activity in the anthers. These results suggested that some regulatory sequences in the -1313/-1057 region are essential for maintaining promoter activity in inflorescence buds and can partly suppress activity in the anthers. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that other elements located upstream of the 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter may be required for flower-specific activation. The JcAP1 promoter characterized in this study can be used to drive transgene expression in both the inflorescence buds and seeds of Jatropha.

  1. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde, tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative

  2. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  3. c-fos/c-jun expression and AP-1 activation in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, E; Bellesia, E; Salomoni, P; Croce, M A; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Latorraca, S; Barbieri, D; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Sorbi, S; Franceschi, C

    1996-09-13

    In vitro replicative senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest due to the inability of the cell to induce some key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as c-fos and AP-1, in response to mitogenic stimuli. In vitro replicative senescence and in vivo aging have been assumed to be two related phenomena, likely controlled by overlapping or interacting genes. As a corollary, fibroblasts from centenarians, which have undergone a long process of senescence in vivo should have very limited proliferative capability. On the contrary, in a previous work we found that fibroblasts from centenarians exhibited the same capacity to respond to different mitogenic stimuli as fibroblasts from young donors. Here we provide evidences that the well preserved proliferative response is likely due to the fact that some pivotal regulators- c-fos, c-jun and AP-1-are still fully inducible, despite a long process of in vivo senescence. Our data therefore suggest that in vivo and in vitro aging are separate phenomena whose possible relationships, if any, have to be ascertained very carefully.

  4. Inhibiting AP-1 activity alters cocaine induced gene expression and potentiates sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletzki, Ronald F.; Myakishev, Max V.; Polesskaya, Oksana; Orosz, Andras; Hyman, Steven E.; Vinson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We have expressed A-FOS, an inhibitor of AP-1 DNA binding, in adult mouse striatal neurons. We observe normal behavior including locomotion and exploratory activities. Following a single injection of cocaine, locomotion increased similarly in both the A-FOS expressing and littermate controls. However, following repeated injections of cocaine, the A-FOS expressing mice showed increased locomotion relative to littermate controls, an increase that persisted following a week of withdrawal and subsequent cocaine administration. These results indicate that AP-1 suppresses this behavioral responses to cocaine. We analyzed mRNA from the striatum before and 4 and 24 hours after a single cocaine injection in both A-FOS and control striata using Affymetrix microarrays (430 2.0 Array) to identify genes mis-regulated by A-FOS that may mediate the increased locomotor sensitization to cocaine. A-FOS expression did not change gene expression in the basal state or 4 hours following cocaine treatment relative to controls. However, 24 hours after an acute cocaine treatment, 84 genes were identified that were differentially expressed between the A-FOS and control mice. 56 gene are down regulated while 28 genes are up regulated including previously identified candidates for addiction including BDNF and Per1. Using a random sample of identified genes, quantitative PCR was used to verify the microarray studies. The chromosomal location of these 84 genes was compared to human genome scans of addiction to identify potential genes in humans that are involved in addiction. PMID:18355967

  5. Studying endosomes in cultured neurons by live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiecka, Zofia M; Winckler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Endosomes play critical roles on regulating surface receptor levels as well as signaling cascades in all cell types, including neurons. Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking is routinely studied after fixation, but live imaging is increasingly being used to capture the dynamic nature of endosomes and is allowing increasingly sophisticated glimpses into trafficking processes in live neurons. In this chapter, we describe the basics of neuronal primary cultures, methods for expressing fluorescent proteins, and live imaging of cargos and endosomal regulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2012-01-01

    The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

  7. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  8. Andrographolide suppresses high glucose-induced fibronectin expression in mesangial cells via inhibiting the AP-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wu, Teng; Gou, Hongju; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jiangchao; Qi, Cuiling; He, Xiaodong; Wu, Pingxiang; Wang, Lijing

    2013-11-01

    Mesangial cells (MCs) proliferation and accumulation of glomerular matrix proteins such as fibronectin (FN) are the early features of diabetic nephropathy, with MCs known to upregulate matrix protein synthesis in response to high glucose. Recently, it has been found that andrographolide has renoprotective effects on diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Cell viability and proliferation was evaluated by MTT. FN expression was examined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was assessed by immunoblotting, luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Andrographolide significantly decreased high glucose-induced cell proliferation and FN expression in MCs. Exposure of MCs to high glucose markedly stimulated the expression of phosphorylated c-jun, whereas the stimulation was inhibited by andrographolide. Plasmid pAP-1-Luc luciferase reporter assay showed that andrographolide blocked high glucose-induced AP-1 transcriptional activity. EMSA assay demonstrated that increased AP-1 binding to an AP-1 binding site at -1,029 in the FN gene promoter upon high glucose stimulation, and the binding were disrupted by andrographolide treatment. These data indicate that andrographolide suppresses high glucose-induced FN expression by inhibiting AP-1-mediated pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. TLR4 signaling mediates AP-1 activation in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Fa-Xiang; Cao, Wen-Fu; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Li, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling on the activation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The following groups were evaluated: normal saline (NS)-treated WT mice, NS-treated TLR4-knockout (KO) mice, MPTP-treated WT mice, and MPTP-treated TLR4-KO mice. After establishing the mouse model, behavioral changes were evaluated. AP-1 expression was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Compared to MPTP-treated WT mice, significantly reduced dyskinesia was observed in MPTP-treated TLR4-KO mice. AP-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated in the substantia nigras (SNs) of MPTP-treated WT mice relative to NS-treated mice (PAP-1 was distributed throughout the SN in MPTP-treated mice, and immunofluorescence further showed that AP-1 was expressed in TH-positive neuronal cells and GFAP-positive astrocytes. In addition, immunofluorescence revealed that AP-1 expression was lower in TH-positive neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes in the SNs of MPTP-treated TLR4-KO mice relative to MPTP-treated WT mice. The TLR4 pathway may play an important role in regulating AP-1 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of the Small GTPase Rho3 in Golgi/Endosome trafficking through functional interaction with adaptin in Fission Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1(+ that encodes a homolog of the mammalian µ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1 complex, and we demonstrated the role of Apm1 in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we isolated rho3(+, which encodes a Rho-family small GTPase, an important regulator of exocystosis, as a multicopy-suppressor of the temperature-sensitive growth of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 suppressed the Cl(- sensitivity and immunosuppressant sensitivity of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 also suppressed the fragmentation of vacuoles, and the accumulation of v-SNARE Syb1 in Golgi/endosomes and partially suppressed the defective secretion associated with apm1-deletion cells. Notably, electron microscopic observation of the rho3-deletion cells revealed the accumulation of abnormal Golgi-like structures, vacuole fragmentation, and accumulation of secretory vesicles; these phenotypes were very similar to those of the apm1-deletion cells. Furthermore, the rho3-deletion cells and apm1-deletion cells showed very similar phenotypic characteristics, including the sensitivity to the immunosuppressant FK506, the cell wall-damaging agent micafungin, Cl(-, and valproic acid. Green fluorescent protein (GFP-Rho3 was localized at Golgi/endosomes as well as the plasma membrane and division site. Finally, Rho3 was shown to form a complex with Apm1 as well as with other subunits of the clathrin-associated AP-1 complex in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of Rho3 in the regulation of Golgi/endosome trafficking and suggest that clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 and Rho3 co-ordinate in intracellular transport in fission yeast. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence

  11. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan D. Teasdale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP's plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport.

  12. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally ...

  13. TAK1 regulates NF-ΚB and AP-1 activation in airway epithelial cells following RSV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Nilay; Liu Tianshuang; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of epidemic respiratory diseases in infants and young children. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces the expression of immune/inflammatory genes through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and AP-1. In this study, we have investigated the signaling pathway leading to activation of these two transcription factors in response to RSV infection. Our results show that IKKβ plays a key role in viral-induced NF-κB activation, while JNK regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription, as demonstrated by using kinase inactive proteins and chemical inhibitors of the two kinases. Inhibition of TAK1 activation, by overexpression of kinase inactive TAK1 or using cells lacking TAK1 expression, significantly reduced RSV-induced NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity, as well as NF-κB-dependent gene expression, identifying TAK1 as an important upstream signaling molecule regulating RSV-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation. - Highlights: → IKKβ is a major kinase involved in RSV-induced NF-κB activation. → JNK regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription in RSV infection. → TAK1 is a critical upstream signaling molecule for both pathways in infected cells.

  14. Genome-wide association between YAP/TAZ/TEAD and AP-1 at enhancers drives oncogenic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanconato, Francesca; Forcato, Mattia; Battilana, Giusy; Azzolin, Luca; Quaranta, Erika; Bodega, Beatrice; Rosato, Antonio; Bicciato, Silvio; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Piccolo, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    YAP/TAZ are nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway regulating organ growth and tumorigenesis. Yet, their function as transcriptional regulators remains underinvestigated. By ChIP-seq analyses in breast cancer cells, we discovered that the YAP/TAZ transcriptional response is pervasively mediated by a dual element: TEAD factors, through which YAP/TAZ bind to DNA, co-occupying chromatin with activator protein-1 (AP-1, dimer of JUN and FOS proteins) at composite cis-regulatory elements harbouring both TEAD and AP-1 motifs. YAP/TAZ/TEAD and AP-1 form a complex that synergistically activates target genes directly involved in the control of S-phase entry and mitosis. This control occurs almost exclusively from distal enhancers that contact target promoters through chromatin looping. YAP/TAZ-induced oncogenic growth is strongly enhanced by gain of AP-1 and severely blunted by its loss. Conversely, AP-1-promoted skin tumorigenesis is prevented in YAP/TAZ conditional knockout mice. This work highlights a new layer of signalling integration, feeding on YAP/TAZ function at the chromatin level.

  15. Rabaptin5 is recruited to endosomes by Rab4 and Rabex5 to regulate endosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälin, Simone; Hirschmann, David T; Buser, Dominik P; Spiess, Martin

    2015-11-15

    Rab GTPases control membrane identity, fusion and transport by interaction with effector proteins. Effectors that influence the activation-inactivation cycle of their own or other Rab proteins contribute to the timely conversion of Rab membrane identities. Rab5 and its effector rabaptin5 (Rbpt5, also known as RABEP1) are generally considered the prime example for a positive-feedback loop in which Rab5-GTP recruits Rbpt5 in complex with Rabex5 (also known as RABGEF1), the GDP/GTP exchange factor of Rab5, to early endosomes, thus maintaining the Rab5 membrane identity. By deletion analysis, we found that the membrane recruitment of Rabaptin5 required binding to Rab4 and Rabex5, but not Rab5. Deletion of either one of the two Rab5-binding domains or silencing of Rab5 expression did not affect Rabaptin5 recruitment, but produced giant endosomes with early and late endosomal characteristics. The results contradict the model of feedback activation of Rab5 and instead indicate that Rbpt5 is recruited by both Rabex5 recognizing ubiquitylated cargo and by Rab4 to activate Rab5 in a feed-forward manner. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. IL12A, MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 and RGS1 are novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    and the same direction of effect observed in the discovery phase. Three loci exceeded genome-wide significance in the joint analysis: RGS1 (P value=3.55 x 10(-9)), IL12A (P=3.08 x 10(-8)) and MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 (P=3.96 x 10(-8)). The RGS1 risk allele is shared with celiac disease (CD), and the IL12A risk allele...... seems to be protective for celiac disease. Within the MPHOSPH9/CDK2AP1 locus, the risk allele correlates with diminished RNA expression of the cell cycle regulator CDK2AP1; this effect is seen in both lymphoblastic cell lines (P=1.18 x 10(-5)) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects...

  17. Human TMEM174 that is highly expressed in kidney tissue activates AP-1 and promotes cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pingzhang; Sun, Bo; Hao, Dongxia; Zhang, Xiujun; Shi, Taiping; Ma, Dalong

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in regulation of AP-1 activity through the phosphorylation of distinct substrates. In the present study, we identified a novel protein, TMEM174, whose RNA transcripts are highly expressed in human kidney tissue. TMEM174 is comprised of 243 amino acids, and contains two predicted transmembrane helices which determine its subcellular localization in endoplasmic reticulum and influences its functions. Over-expression of TMME174 enhanced the transcriptional activity of AP-1 and promoted cell proliferation, whereas the truncated mutant TMEM174ΔTM without the transmembrane regions did not retain these functions. The possible mechanism of activation of AP-1 by TMEM174 was further examined. Our results suggest the potential role of TMEM174 in renal development and physiological function.

  18. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Static and Dynamic DNA Loops form AP-1-Bound Activation Hubs during Macrophage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanstiel, Douglas H; Van Bortle, Kevin; Spacek, Damek; Hess, Gaelen T; Shamim, Muhammad Saad; Machol, Ido; Love, Michael I; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Bassik, Michael C; Snyder, Michael P

    2017-09-21

    The three-dimensional arrangement of the human genome comprises a complex network of structural and regulatory chromatin loops important for coordinating changes in transcription during human development. To better understand the mechanisms underlying context-specific 3D chromatin structure and transcription during cellular differentiation, we generated comprehensive in situ Hi-C maps of DNA loops in human monocytes and differentiated macrophages. We demonstrate that dynamic looping events are regulatory rather than structural in nature and uncover widespread coordination of dynamic enhancer activity at preformed and acquired DNA loops. Enhancer-bound loop formation and enhancer activation of preformed loops together form multi-loop activation hubs at key macrophage genes. Activation hubs connect 3.4 enhancers per promoter and exhibit a strong enrichment for activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding events, suggesting that multi-loop activation hubs involving cell-type-specific transcription factors represent an important class of regulatory chromatin structures for the spatiotemporal control of transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  1. Arsenic Directly Binds to and Activates the Yeast AP-1-Like Transcription Factor Yap8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nallani Vijay; Yang, Jianbo; Pillai, Jitesh K.; Rawat, Swati; Solano, Carlos; Kumar, Abhay; Grøtli, Morten; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosen, Barry P.; Tamás, Markus J.

    2015-12-28

    The AP-1-like transcription factor Yap8 is critical for arsenic tolerance in the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the mechanism by which Yap8 senses the presence of arsenic and activates transcription of detoxification genes is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Yap8 directly binds to trivalent arsenite [As(III)]in vitroandin vivoand that approximately one As(III) molecule is bound per molecule of Yap8. As(III) is coordinated by three sulfur atoms in purified Yap8, and our genetic and biochemical data identify the cysteine residues that form the binding site as Cys132, Cys137, and Cys274. As(III) binding by Yap8 does not require an additional yeast protein, and Yap8 is regulated neither at the level of localization nor at the level of DNA binding. Instead, our data are consistent with a model in which a DNA-bound form of Yap8 acts directly as an As(III) sensor. Binding of As(III) to Yap8 triggers a conformational change that in turn brings about a transcriptional response. Thus, As(III) binding to Yap8 acts as a molecular switch that converts inactive Yap8 into an active transcriptional regulator. This is the first report to demonstrate how a eukaryotic protein couples arsenic sensing to transcriptional activation.

  2. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sahdev, Sudhir [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, Gurgaon, New Delhi (India); Hasnain, Seyed E., E-mail: seh@bioschool.iitd.ac.in [Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); ILBS, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi (India); King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  3. Interplay between the HTLV-2 Tax and APH-2 proteins in the regulation of the AP-1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marban Céline

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 that causes ATL (adult T-cell leukemia, HTLV-2 has not been causally linked to malignant disease. The minus strand of the HTLV genomes encode the regulatory proteins HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ for HTLV-1 and antisense protein of HTLV-2 (APH-2 for HTLV-2. Unlike the viral proteins Tax1 and Tax2, both HBZ and APH-2 are constitutively expressed in infected cells suggesting that they may play important roles in the pathogenesis of these viruses. To date, very little is known about the function of APH-2 except that it inhibits Tax2-mediated transcription of HTLV-2 genes. In the present study, we investigated the role of APH-2 in basal and Tax2B-mediated activation of the AP-1 pathway. Results We demonstrate that, unlike HBZ, APH-2 stimulates basal AP-1 transcription by interacting with c-Jun and JunB through its non-conventional bZIP domain. In addition, when Tax2 and APH-2 are co-expressed, they physically interact in vivo and in vitro and APH-2 acts as an inhibitor of Tax2-mediated activation of AP-1 transcription. Conclusions This report is the first to document that HTLV-2 can modulate the AP-1 pathway. Altogether our results reveal that, in contrast with HBZ, APH-2 regulates AP-1 activity in a Tax2-dependant manner. As the AP-1 pathway is involved in numerous cellular functions susceptible to affect the life cycle of the virus, these distinct biological properties between HBZ and APH-2 may contribute to the differential pathogenic potential of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2.

  4. Dexamethasone inhibits inflammatory response via down regulation of AP-1 transcription factor in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Kavya, K; Babu, R L; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Chidananda Sharma, S

    2018-03-01

    The production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells in inflammatory lung diseases may represent an important target for the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Activator protein-1 is a major activator of inflammatory genes and has been proposed as a target for inhibition by glucocorticoids. We have used human pulmonary type-II A549 cells to examine the effect of dexamethasone on the phorbol ester (PMA)/Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors. A549 cells were treated with and without PMA or LPS or dexamethasone and the cell viability and nitric oxide production was measured by MTT assay and Griess reagent respectively. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors mRNA were measured using semi quantitative RT-PCR. The PMA/LPS treated cells show significant 2-3 fold increase in the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), cyclo‑oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and specific AP-1 factors (c-Jun, c-Fos and Jun-D). Whereas, pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone significantly inhibited the LPS induced nitric oxide production and PMA/LPS induced mRNAs expression of above pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and AP-1 factors. Cells treated with dexamethasone alone at both the concentrations inhibit the mRNAs expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to control. Our study reveals that dexamethasone decreased the mRNAs expression of c-Jun and c-Fos available for AP-1 formation suggested that AP-1 is the probable key transcription factor involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone. This may be an important molecular mechanism of steroid action in asthma and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases which may be useful for treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of histone demethylase KDM3A-dependent AP-1 transactivity on hepatotumorigenesis induced by PI3K activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, T; Tateishi, K; Kudo, Y; Yamamoto, K; Nakagawa, H; Fujiwara, H; Takahashi, R; Miyabayashi, K; Asaoka, Y; Tanaka, Y; Ijichi, H; Hirata, Y; Otsuka, M; Kato, M; Sakai, J; Tachibana, M; Aburatani, H; Shinkai, Y; Koike, K

    2017-11-09

    Epigenetic gene regulation linked to oncogenic pathways is an important focus of cancer research. KDM3A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase, is known to have a pro-tumorigenic function. Here, we showed that KDM3A contributes to liver tumor formation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is often activated in hepatocellular carcinoma. Loss of Kdm3a attenuated tumor formation in Pik3ca transgenic (Tg) mouse livers. Transcriptome analysis of pre-cancerous liver tissues revealed that the expression of activator protein 1 (AP-1) target genes was induced by PI3K activation, but blunted upon Kdm3a ablation. Particularly, the expression of Cd44, a liver cancer stem marker, was regulated by AP-1 in a Kdm3a-dependent manner. We identified Cd44-positive hepatocytes with epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related expression profiles in the Pik3ca Tg liver and confirmed their in vivo tumorigenic capacity. Notably, the number and tumor-initiating capacity of Cd44-positive hepatocytes were governed by Kdm3a. As a mechanism in Kdm3a-dependent AP-1 transcription, Kdm3a recruited c-Jun to the AP-1 binding sites of Cd44, Mmp7 and Pdgfrb without affecting c-Jun expression. Moreover, Brg1, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, interacted with c-Jun in a Kdm3a-dependent manner and was bound to the AP-1 binding site of these genes. Finally, KDM3A and c-JUN were co-expressed in 33% of human premalignant lesions with PI3K activation. Our data suggest a critical role for KDM3A in the PI3K/AP-1 oncogenic axis and propose a novel strategy for inhibition of KDM3A against liver tumor development under PI3K pathway activation.

  6. Positioning of AMPA Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Esteves da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to recruit kinesin (KIF1C or myosin (MyosinV/VI motors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, we controlled their trafficking and found that induced removal of recycling endosomes from spines decreases surface AMPAR expression and PSD-95 clusters at synapses. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between endosome positioning and postsynaptic structure and composition.

  7. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  8. Hrs regulates multivesicular body formation via ESCRT recruitment to endosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bache, Kristi G.; Brech, Andreas; Mehlum, Anja; Stenmark, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Hrs and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are involved in the endosomal sorting of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies and lysosomes or vacuoles. The ESCRT complexes are also required for formation of intraluminal endosomal vesicles and for budding of certain enveloped RNA viruses such as HIV. Here, we show that Hrs binds to the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via a PSAP motif that is conserved in Tsg101-binding viral proteins. Depletion of Hrs ca...

  9. TXRF versus conventional EDXRF using 150 nm AP1 sample support films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Buzanich, G.; Marosi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF ) is a powerful analytical tool for trace element analysis in the ng/g concentration or pg absolute region for medium Z elements using commercial or own designed TXRF equipment. One of the goals of TXRF is the extreme small penetration depth of the primary radiation into the reflector - substrate of 3-4 run if an incidence angle of about 1 mrad is adjusted. Among others, this effect results in a drastically reduced background in the measured spectra. This is caused by the reduction of elastic and inelastic scattered primary radiation from the substrate. Since there are now thin film supports commercially available having a thickness of 150 nm it is interesting to compare experimental results using TXRF and sample support films in 45 o incident beam and 45 o fluorescence emission geometry. As this film is only about 50 times more in thickness than the penetration depth in a quartz reflector, tests were performed to compare the analytical results and detection limits achievable from the same samples analyzed in total reflection geometry on a quartz reflector and conventional EDRXS geometry on the AP1 film with a dimple in the center for easy placing of the droplet. A volume of 3-5 μl of a liquid sample were used in both cases, pipetted and vacuum dried to prepare the sample. A high power 3 kW Mo-anode X-ray tube was used, for TXRF the line focus and for the conventional geometry the point focus was chosen. As additional results measurements from the TRACOR TN 5000 spectrometer will be presented using an air cooled low power tube with Rh - anode in a compact commercially available unit. A comparison of the results will be given in terms of sensitivity and detection limits, and future aspects for improvements and applications will be discussed. (author)

  10. In vivo characterization of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Baudendistel (Nina); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); T. Weidemann (Thomas); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of these studies is the quantitative investigation of protein-protein interactions in the AP1 system in vivo. First results of FCS measurements show an exchange in the nucleus of the proteins Fos-CFP and Jun-YFP in the stably mono-transfected HeLa-Cells. This is also shown by

  11. Expression of the Robo4 receptor in endothelial cells is regulated by two AP-1 protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiaki; Naruse, Hiroki; Tanaka, Toru; Funahashi, Nobuaki; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Hino, Nobumasa; Ishimoto, Kenji; Doi, Takefumi; Aird, William C

    2015-11-27

    Roundabout4 (Robo4) is an endothelial cell-specific gene that plays an important role in endothelial cell stability. We previously identified a 3-kb Robo4 promoter and demonstrated the importance of its proximal region in regulating Robo4 gene expression. To investigate the role of the upstream promoter in Robo4 gene regulation, we searched evolutionarily conserved promoter regions by phylogenetic footprinting and identified three conserved promoter regions. The most upstream region included a conserved AP-1 binding motif at position -2875. A mutation in the AP-1 motif significantly decreased Robo4 promoter activity in a transient reporter assay. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated binding of a c-Jun/c-Jun complex and a c-Jun/Fra-1 complex to the AP-1 motif. Knockdown experiments using siRNA revealed that both c-Jun/c-Jun and c-Jun/Fra-1 complexes regulate Robo4 gene expression, and that the c-Jun/c-Jun complex is essential for maximum promoter activation. Collectively, these results indicate that AP-1 complexes regulate Robo4 gene expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rab GTPases and kinesin motors in endosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevoye, Cédric; Goud, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The endocytic pathway is composed of distinct types of endosomes that vary in shape, function, and molecular composition. In addition, endosomes are highly dynamic structures that continuously receive, sort, and deliver molecules to other organelles. Among organizing machineries that contribute to endosomal functions, Rab GTPases and kinesin motors play critical roles. Rab proteins define the identity of endosomal subdomains by recruiting set of effectors among which kinesins shape and transport membranous carriers along the microtubule network. In this review, we provide detailed protocols from live cell imaging to electron microscopy and biochemical approaches to address how Rab and kinesin proteins cooperate molecularly and functionally within the endocytic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Substance P dependence of endosomal fusion during bladder inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T G; Saban, R; Bost, K L; Harris, H W; Kaysen, J H; Goda, F O; Wang, X C; Lewis, F C; Navar, G L; Campbell, W C; Bjorling, D E; Saban, M; Zeidel, M L

    2000-03-01

    Urinary bladder instillation of ovalbumin into presensitized guinea pigs stimulates rapid development of local bladder inflammation. Substance P is an important mediator of this inflammatory response, as substance P antagonists largely reverse the process. Vacuolization of the subapical endosomal compartment of the transitional epithelial cells lining the bladder suggests that changes in endosomal trafficking and fusion are also part of the inflammatory response. To test directly for substance P mediation of changes in endosomal fusion, we reconstituted fusion of transitional cell endosomes in vitro using both cuvette-based and flow cytometry energy transfer assays. Bladders were loaded with fluorescent dyes by a hypotonic withdrawal protocol before endosomal isolation by gradient centrifugation. Endosomal fusion assayed by energy transfer during in vitro reconstitution was both cytosol and ATP dependent. Fusion was confirmed by the increase in vesicle size on electron micrographs of fused endosomal preparations compared with controls. In inflamed bladders, dye uptake was inhibited 20% and endosomal fusion was inhibited 50%. These changes are partly mediated by the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor (NK1R), as 4 mg/kg of CP-96,345, a highly selective NK1 antagonist, increased fusion in inflamed bladders but had no effect on control bladders. The receptor-mediated nature of this effect was demonstrated by the expression of substance P receptor mRNA in rat bladder lumen scrapings and by the detection of the NK1R message in guinea pig subapical endosomes by Western blot analysis. The NK1Rs were significantly upregulated following induction of an inflammatory response in the bladder. These results demonstrate that 1) in ovalbumin-induced inflammation in the guinea pig bladder, in vitro fusion of apical endosomes is inhibited, showing endocytotic processes are altered in inflammation; 2) pretreatment in vivo with an NK1R antagonist blocks this inhibition of in vitro fusion

  14. The bZIP Transcription Factor MoAP1 Mediates the Oxidative Stress Response and Is Critical for Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Min; Chen, Yue; Du, Yan; Dong, Yanhan; Guo, Wang; Zhai, Su; Zhang, Haifeng; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mut...

  15. Activator protein-1 (AP-1): a bridge between life and death in lung epithelial (A549) cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema; Kalra, Namita; Ganju, Lilly; Singh, Mrinalini

    2017-12-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor plays a central role in hypoxia to modulate the expression of genes that decides the fate of the cell. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of AP-1 subunits in lung epithelial (A549) cells under hypoxia. Cell cycle studies by flow cytometry indicated that cell viability was unaffected by the initial hypoxia exposure (0.5% O 2 at 37 °C) for 6 and 12 h. However, both transient cell cycle arrest and cell death was detected at 24 and 48 h. Flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry data confirmed the increase in ROS levels. Elevated ROS and calcium levels activated the stress-related MAPK signaling cascade. ERK and JNK were activated in early hypoxic exposure (within 6 h), whereas p38 were activated in 48 h of hypoxia. These subtypes further stimulated the subunits of AP-1 at different times of hypoxia exposure to orchestrate different genes responsible for cell proliferation (6 and 12 h) and apoptosis (24 and 48 h). Our results clearly depict the role of AP-1 heterodimer, i.e., p-c-jun/c-fos, p-c-jun/fosB, junD/c-fos, and junD/fosB in cell proliferation/survival by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclins (D1 and B1) at 6 h and 12 h of hypoxia, whereas junB/Fra-1 heterodimer have important role in apoptosis by regulating the expression of p53, Bax, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16, p21, p27) at 24 h and 48 h of hypoxia. Also, the cell survival signaling pathway NO-AKT interrupted at 24 h and 48 h of hypoxia indicating cell death. In conclusion, hypoxia for different time points activated different subunits of AP-1 that combined to form different heterodimers. These dimers regulated the expression of genes responsible for cell proliferation and apoptosis. Since, AP-1 plays a role in the decisive phenomenon of the cell to choose between proliferation and apoptosis; thus, its subunits or dimers could be a good therapeutic target for many diseases.

  16. The reconstruction of condition-specific transcriptional modules provides new insights in the evolution of yeast AP-1 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Goudot

    Full Text Available AP-1 proteins are transcription factors (TFs that belong to the basic leucine zipper family, one of the largest families of TFs in eukaryotic cells. Despite high homology between their DNA binding domains, these proteins are able to recognize diverse DNA motifs. In yeasts, these motifs are referred as YRE (Yap Response Element and are either seven (YRE-Overlap or eight (YRE-Adjacent base pair long. It has been proposed that the AP-1 DNA binding motif preference relies on a single change in the amino acid sequence of the yeast AP-1 TFs (an arginine in the YRE-O binding factors being replaced by a lysine in the YRE-A binding Yaps. We developed a computational approach to infer condition-specific transcriptional modules associated to the orthologous AP-1 protein Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p, in three yeast species: the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two pathogenic species Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Exploitation of these modules in terms of predictions of the protein/DNA regulatory interactions changed our vision of AP-1 protein evolution. Cis-regulatory motif analyses revealed the presence of a conserved adenine in 5' position of the canonical YRE sites. While Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p shared a remarkably low number of target genes, an impressive conservation was observed in the YRE sequences identified by Yap1p and Cap1p. In Candida glabrata, we found that Cgap1p, unlike Yap1p and Cap1p, recognizes YRE-O and YRE-A motifs. These findings were supported by structural data available for the transcription factor Pap1p (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Thus, whereas arginine and lysine substitutions in Cgap1p and Yap1p proteins were reported as responsible for a specific YRE-O or YRE-A preference, our analyses rather suggest that the ancestral yeast AP-1 protein could recognize both YRE-O and YRE-A motifs and that the arginine/lysine exchange is not the only determinant of the specialization of modern Yaps for one motif or another.

  17. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated

  18. ACHT4-driven oxidation of APS1 attenuates starch synthesis under low light intensity in Arabidopsis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Erez; Rog, Ido; Inbal, Dangoor; Danon, Avihai

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms that use signals of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be obscured by ROS produced under stress and thus are better investigated under homeostatic conditions. Previous studies showed that the chloroplastic atypical thioredoxin ACHT1 is oxidized by 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) in Arabidopsis plants illuminated with growth light and in turn transmits a disulfide-based signal via yet unknown target proteins in a feedback regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we studied the role of a second chloroplastic paralog, ACHT4, in plants subjected to low light conditions. Likewise, ACHT4 reacted in planta with 2-Cys Prx, indicating that it is oxidized by a similar disulfide exchange reaction. ACHT4 further reacted uniquely with the small subunit (APS1) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the first committed enzyme of the starch synthesis pathway, suggesting that it transfers the disulfides it receives from 2-Cys Prx to APS1 and turns off AGPase. In accordance, ACHT4 participated in an oxidative signal that quenched AGPase activity during the diurnal transition from day to night, and also in an attenuating oxidative signal of AGPase in a dynamic response to small fluctuations in light intensity during the day. Increasing the level of expressed ACHT4 or of ACHT4ΔC, a C terminus-deleted form that does not react with APS1, correspondingly decreased or increased the level of reduced APS1 and decreased or increased transitory starch content. These findings imply that oxidative control mechanisms act in concert with reductive signals to fine tune starch synthesis during daily homeostatic conditions. PMID:26424450

  19. Role of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway in the protection of CEES-induced lung injury by antioxidant liposome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Stone, William L.; Smith, Milton; Das, Salil K.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported that antioxidant liposomes can be used as antidotes for mustard gas induced lung injury in guinea pigs. The maximum protection was achieved with a liposome composed of tocopherols (α, γ, δ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when administered after 5 min of exposure of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a half sulfur mustard gas. We also reported an association of mustard gas-induced lung injury with an activation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway and cell proliferation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether CEES-induced MAPKs/AP-1 signaling pathway is influenced by antioxidant liposome therapy. A single dose (200 μl) of the antioxidant liposome was administered intratracheally after 5 min of exposure of CEES (0.5 mg/kg). The animals were sacrificed after 1 h and 30 days of CEES exposure. Although the liposome treatment did not have any significant effect on the activation of the MAPKs family (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2), it significantly counteracted the CEES-induced activation of AP-1 transcription factors and corresponding increase in the protein levels of Fos, ATF and Jun family members. The liposome treatment significantly blocked the CEES-induced increase in the protein levels of cyclin D1, a cell cycle protein and PCNA, a cell differentiation marker. Furthermore, it protected lung against CEES-induced inflammation and infiltration of neutrophils, eosinophils and erythrocytes in the alveolar space. This suggests that the protective effect of antioxidant liposome against CEES-induced lung damage is mediated via control of AP-1 signaling.

  20. Induction of the mammalian stress response gene GADD153 by oxidative stress: role of AP-1 element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, K Z; Xu, Q; Holbrook, N J

    1996-01-01

    GADD153 is a CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-related gene that may function to control cellular growth in response to stress signals. In this study, a variety of oxidant treatments were shown to stimulate endogenous GADD153 mRNA expression and to transcriptionally activate a GADD153 promoter-reporter gene construct in transfected HeLa cells. Both commonalities and distinctions in the induction of GADD153 by H2O2 and the thiol-reactive compound arsenite were demonstrated. GADD153 mRNA induction by both H2O2 and arsenite was potentiated by GSH depletion, and completely inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine. o-Phenanthroline and mannitol blocked GADD153 induction by H2O2, indicating that iron-generated hydroxyl radical mediates this induction. Concordantly, GSH peroxidase overexpression in WI38 cells attenuated GADD153 mRNA induction by H2O2. However, GADD153 induction by arsenite was only modestly reduced in the same cells, suggesting a lesser contribution of peroxides to gene activation by arsenite. We also demonstrated that oxidative stress participates in the induction of GADD153 by UVC (254 nm) irradiation. Finally, both promoter-deletion analysis and point mutation of the AP-1 site in an otherwise intact promoter support a significant role for AP-1 in transcriptional activation of GADD153 by UVC or oxidant treatment. Indeed, exposure of cells to oxidants or UVC stimulated binding of Fos and Jun to the GADD153 AP-1 element. Together, these results demonstrate that both free-radical generation and thiol modification can transcriptionally activate GADD153, and that AP-1 is critical to oxidative regulation of this gene. This study further supports a role for the GADD153 gene product in the cellular response to oxidant injury. PMID:8670069

  1. Expression of Death Receptor 4 Is Positively Regulated by MEK/ERK/AP-1 Signaling and Suppressed upon MEK Inhibition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weilong; Oh, You-Take; Deng, Jiusheng; Yue, Ping; Deng, Liang; Huang, Henry; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor 4 (DR4) is a cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and triggers apoptosis upon ligation with TRAIL or aggregation. MEK/ERK signaling is a well known and the best-studied effector pathway downstream of Ras and Raf. This study focuses on determining the impact of pharmacological MEK inhibition on DR4 expression and elucidating the underlying mechanism. We found that several MEK inhibitors including MEK162, AZD6244, and PD0325901 effectively decreased DR4 protein levels including cell surface DR4 in different cancer cell lines. Accordingly, pre-treatment of TRAIL-sensitive cancer cell lines with a MEK inhibitor desensitized them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that MEK inhibition negatively regulates DR4 expression and cell response to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MEK inhibitors did not alter DR4 protein stability, rather decreased its mRNA levels, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. In contrast, enforced activation of MEK/ERK signaling by expressing ectopic B-Raf (V600E) or constitutively activated MEK1 (MEK1-CA) or MEK2 (MEK2-CA) activated ERK and increased DR4 expression; these effects were inhibited when a MEK inhibitor was present. Promoter analysis through deletion and mutation identified the AP-1 binding site as an essential response element for enhancing DR4 transactivation by MEK1-CA. Furthermore, inhibition of AP-1 by c-Jun knockdown abrogated the ability of MEK1-CA to increase DR4 promoter activity and DR4 expression. These results suggest an essential role of AP-1 in mediating MEK/ERK activation-induced DR4 expression. Our findings together highlight a previously undiscovered mechanism that positively regulates DR4 expression through activation of the MEK/ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27576686

  2. Redistribution of Endosomal Membranes to the African Swine Fever Virus Replication Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site. Virus replication also depends on endosomal membrane phosphoinositides (PtdIns synthesized by PIKfyve. Endosomes could act as platforms providing membranes and PtdIns, necessary for ASFV replication. Our study has revealed that ASFV reorganizes endosome dynamics, in order to ensure a productive infection.

  3. One-step affinity tag purification of full-length recombinant human AP-1 complexes from bacterial inclusion bodies using a polycistronic expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, A-Young; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2008-05-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is a dimeric protein complex formed primarily between Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) family members. These distinct AP-1 complexes are expressed in many cell types and modulate target gene expression implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. Although the importance of AP-1 has long been recognized, the biochemical characterization of AP-1 remains limited in part due to the difficulty in purifying full-length, reconstituted dimers with active DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. Using a combination of bacterial coexpression and epitope-tagging methods, we successfully purified all 12 heterodimers (3 Junx4 Fos) of full-length human AP-1 complexes as well as c-Jun/c-Jun, JunD/JunD, and c-Jun/JunD dimers from bacterial inclusion bodies using one-step nickel-NTA affinity tag purification following denaturation and renaturation of coexpressed AP-1 subunits. Coexpression of two constitutive components in a dimeric AP-1 complex helps stabilize the proteins when compared with individual protein expression in bacteria. Purified dimeric AP-1 complexes are functional in sequence-specific DNA binding, as illustrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting, and are also active in transcription with in vitro-reconstituted human papillomavirus (HPV) chromatin containing AP-1-binding sites in the native configuration of HPV nucleosomes. The availability of these recombinant full-length human AP-1 complexes has greatly facilitated mechanistic studies of AP-1-regulated gene transcription in many biological systems.

  4. SSa ameliorates the Glu uptaking capacity of astrocytes in epilepsy via AP-1/miR-155/GLAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Bi, Yongfeng; Ding, Li; Zhu, Weiwei; Ye, Ming

    2017-11-25

    Neuronal glutamate (Glu) release has been reported to mediate the neuronal injury of epilepsy, while Saikosaponin a (Ssa) was shown to ameliorate the epilepsy that induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, potential interactions between glutamate release and Ssa has not been fully identified. Herein, PTZ-induced rat model were established to evaluate the neuron injury, while Ssa was used to treat the model rat. Rat astrocytes were isolated and induced by PTZ to construct cell models of epilepsy, real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine genes' expression. Luciferase reporter assay were performed to validate the relationship between miR-155-5p and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). The level of Glu was sampled for HPLC measurement. Ssa treatment could decrease the level of Glu in hippocampus of rat. PTZ-induced astrocytes pretreated with Ssa significantly decreased the expression of AP-1 and miR-155, but increased the expression of GLAST, furthermore, PTZ stimulation enables astrocytes to uptake large amount of extracellular Glu. AP-1 could bind with the promoter of miR-155 to promote its transcription. MiR-155 tragets GLAST to govern its expression. Ssa treatment played pivotal roles in PTZ-induced epilepsy by promoting the expression of GLAT1 and uptaking of Glu, which was mediated by the expression of AP-1 and miR-155. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  6. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  7. Biomechanics and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticle Interactions with Plasma and Endosomal Membrane Lipids in Cellular Uptake and Endosomal Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To be effective for cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) taken up via endocytic pathways must efficiently transport across the cell membrane and subsequently escape from the secondary endosomes. We hypothesized that the biomechanical and thermodynamic interactions of NPs with plasma and endosomal membrane lipids are involved in these processes. Using model plasma and endosomal lipid membranes, we compared the interactions of cationic NPs composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) modified with the dichain surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) or the single-chain surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) vs anionic unmodified NPs of similar size. We validated our hypothesis in doxorubicin-sensitive (MCF-7, with relatively fluid membranes) and resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR, with rigid membranes). Despite their cationic surface charges, DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs showed different patterns of biophysical interaction: DMAB-modified NPs induced bending of the model plasma membrane, whereas CTAB-modified NPs condensed the membrane, thereby resisted bending. Unmodified NPs showed no effects on bending. DMAB-modified NPs also induced thermodynamic instability of the model endosomal membrane, whereas CTAB-modified and unmodified NPs had no effect. Since bending of the plasma membrane and destabilization of the endosomal membrane are critical biophysical processes in NP cellular uptake and endosomal escape, respectively, we tested these NPs for cellular uptake and drug efficacy. Confocal imaging showed that in both sensitive and resistant cells DMAB-modified NPs exhibited greater cellular uptake and escape from endosomes than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs. Further, paclitaxel-loaded DMAB-modified NPs induced greater cytotoxicity even in resistant cells than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs or drug in solution, demonstrating the potential of DMAB-modified NPs to overcome the transport barrier in resistant cells. In

  8. Endosomal Trafficking of HIV-1 Gag and Genomic RNAs Regulates Viral Egress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molle, Dorothée; Segura-Morales, Carollna; Camus, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    with the plasma membrane. Inhibition of endosomal traffic did not prevent viral release. However, inhibiting lysosomal degradation induced an accumulation of Gag in endosomes and increased viral production 7-fold, indicating that transport of Gag to lysosomes negatively regulates budding. This also suggested...... pathways, either directly from the plasma membrane or through an endosome-dependent route. Endosomal Gag-RNA complexes may be delivered at specific sites to facilitate cell-to-cell viral transmission....

  9. Structural Basis for Endosomal Targeting by the Bro1 Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Sitaraman, Sujatha; Hierro, Aitor; Beach, Bridgette M.; Odorizzi, Greg; Hurley, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Proteins delivered to the lysosome or the yeast vacuole via late endosomes are sorted by the ESCRT complexes and by associated proteins, including Alix and its yeast homolog Bro1. Alix, Bro1, and several other late endosomal proteins share a conserved 160 residue Bro1 domain whose boundaries, structure, and function have not been characterized. The crystal structure of the Bro1 domain of Bro1 reveals a folded core of 367 residues. The extended Bro1 domain is necessary and sufficient for binding to the ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 and for the recruitment of Bro1 to late endosomes. The structure resembles a boomerang with its concave face filled in and contains a triple tetratricopeptide repeat domain as a substructure. Snf7 binds to a conserved hydrophobic patch on Bro1 that is required for protein complex formation and for the protein-sorting function of Bro1. These results define a conserved mechanism whereby Bro1 domain-containing proteins are targeted to endosomes by Snf7 and its orthologs. PMID:15935782

  10. Endosomes: multipurpose designs for integrating housekeeping and specialized tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachse, M.; Ramm, G.; Strous, G.J.; Klumperman, J.

    2002-01-01

    In most cells the endocytic system is organized following a common concept that allows for the integrative handling of a variety of housekeeping functions. In addition, variations on the general scheme provide for specialized endosome-based pathways that occur only in specific cell types. The

  11. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    STAM2 specifically suppressed Akt activation, and a phosphorylation-deficient STAM2 mutant displayed prolonged localization on endosomes following EGF stimulation. These results reveal a novel link between the dephosphorylation and endocytic machinery and suggest that PTP1B can affect RTK signaling...

  12. Trisomy for synaptojanin1 in Down syndrome is functionally linked to the enlargement of early endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cossec, J.C.; Lavaur, J.; Berman, D.E.; Rivals, I.; Hoischen, A.; Stora, S.; Ripoll, C.; Mircher, C.; Grattau, Y.; Olivomarin, J.C.; de Chaumont, F.; Lecourtois, M.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Veltman, J.A.; Delabar, J.M.; Duyckaerts, C.; Di Paolo, G.; Potier, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Enlarged early endosomes have been observed in neurons and fibroblasts in Down syndrome (DS). These endosome abnormalities have been implicated in the early development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in these subjects. Here, we show the presence of enlarged endosomes in blood mononuclear

  13. Characterization of the Mammalian CORVET and HOPS Complexes and Their Modular Restructuring for Endosome Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kant, Rik; Jonker, Caspar T. H.; Wijdeven, Ruud H.; Bakker, Jeroen; Janssen, Lennert; Klumperman, Judith; Neefjes, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking of cargo through the endosomal system depends on endosomal fusion events mediated by SNARE proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes. The CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes, respectively, regulate early and late endosomal tethering and have been characterized in detail

  14. Ebi/AP-1 suppresses pro-apoptotic genes expression and permits long-term survival of Drosophila sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mi Lim

    Full Text Available Sensory organs are constantly exposed to physical and chemical stresses that collectively threaten the survival of sensory neurons. Failure to protect stressed neurons leads to age-related loss of neurons and sensory dysfunction in organs in which the supply of new sensory neurons is limited, such as the human auditory system. Transducin β-like protein 1 (TBL1 is a candidate gene for ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness, a form of X-linked age-related hearing loss. TBL1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved F-box-like and WD40 repeats-containing subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor/silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and other transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Here we report that a Drosophila homologue of TBL1, Ebi, is required for maintenance of photoreceptor neurons. Loss of ebi function caused late-onset neuronal apoptosis in the retina and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Ebi formed a complex with activator protein 1 (AP-1 and was required for repression of Drosophila pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expression. These results suggest that Ebi/AP-1 suppresses basal transcription levels of apoptotic genes and thereby protects sensory neurons from degeneration.

  15. Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Nanoparticles Induce Reactive Oxygen Species, AKT, ERK, AP-1, NF-κB, VEGF, and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Zhi; Ding, Min; Zheng, Jenny Z; Zhu, Yingxue; Fenderson, Bruce A; Li, Bingyun; Yu, Jing J; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt (WC-Co) are widely used in various products. Nanoparticles are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or smaller. WC-Co is known to be associated with lung injury and diseases. Angiogenesis is a key process during vasculature, carcinogenesis, recovery of injury, and inflammatory diseases. However, the cellular effects of WC-Co nanoparticles on angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated angiogenic response and relative mechanisms after exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles. Our results showed that WC-Co nanoparticles at 5 μg/cm(2) induced ROS production which activated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in lung epithelial cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) staining and immunoblotting; WC-Co treatment also increased transcriptional activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF by reporter assay. Further studies demonstrated that ROS are upstream molecules of AKT and ERK signaling pathways; the activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF was through ROS generation, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. In addition, WC-Co nanoparticles affected the cells to induce angiogenesis by chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results illustrate that exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles induces angiogenic response by activating ROS, AKT, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and the downstream molecules and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms during this process. This information may be useful for preventing potential damage from nanoparticle exposure in the future.

  16. Steroids do not prevent photoreceptor degeneration in the light-exposed T4R rhodopsin mutant dog retina irrespective of AP-1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danian; Beltran, William A; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Li, Zexiao; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2009-07-01

    AP-1 has been proposed as a key intermediate linking exposure to light and photoreceptor cell death in rodent light-damage models. Inhibition of AP-1 associated with steroid administration also prevents light damage. In this study the role of steroids in inhibiting AP-1 activation and/or in preventing photoreceptor degeneration was examined in the rhodopsin mutant dog model. The dogs were dark adapted overnight, eyes dilated with mydriatics; the right eye was light occluded and the fundus of the left eye photographed ( approximately 15-17 overlapping frames) with a fundus camera. For biochemical studies, the dogs remained in the dark for 1 to 3 hours after exposure. Twenty-four hours before exposure to light, some dogs were treated with systemic dexamethasone or intravitreal/subconjunctival triamcinolone. AP-1 DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and phosphorylation of c-Fos and activation of ERK1/2 were determined by immunoblot analyses. The eyes were collected 1 hour and 2 weeks after exposure to light, for histopathology and immunocytochemistry. Inhibition of AP-1 activation, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Fos were found after dexamethasone treatment in light-exposed T4R RHO mutant dog retinas. In contrast, increased AP-1 activity and phosphorylation of c-Fos and ERK1/2 were found in triamcinolone-treated mutant retinas. Similar extensive rod degeneration was found after exposure to light with or without treatment, and areas with surviving photoreceptor nuclei consisted primarily of cones. Only with systemic dexamethasone did the RPE cell layer remain. Intraocular or systemic steroids fail to prevent light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in the T4R RHO dog retina. Finding that systemic dexamethasone prevents AP-1 activation, yet does not prevent retinal light damage, further supports the hypothesis that AP-1 is not the critical player in the cell-death signal that occurs in rods.

  17. The bZIP transcription factor MoAP1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H₂O₂, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH and MGG_15157 (MoACT showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

  18. The bZIP transcription factor MoAP1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Chen, Yue; Du, Yan; Dong, Yanhan; Guo, Wang; Zhai, Su; Zhang, Haifeng; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2011-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H₂O₂, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT) and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein) genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH) and MGG_15157 (MoACT) showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

  19. Stimulation of B-Raf increases c-Jun and c-Fos expression and upregulates AP-1-regulated gene transcription in insulinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfermann, Daniel S; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2017-12-08

    Stimulation of pancreatic β-cells with glucose activates the protein kinases B-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase that participate in glucose sensing. Inhibition of both kinases results in impairment of glucose-regulated gene transcription. To analyze the signaling pathway controlled by B-Raf, we expressed a conditionally active form of B-Raf in INS-1 insulinoma cells. Here, we show that stimulation of B-Raf strongly activated the transcription factor AP-1 which is accompanied by increased c-Jun and c-Fos promoter activities, an upregulation of c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis, and elevated transcriptional activation potentials of c-Jun and c-Fos. Mutational analysis identified the AP-1 sites within the c-Jun promoter and the serum response element (SRE) within the c-Fos promoter as the essential genetic elements connecting B-Raf stimulation with AP-1 activation. In line with this, the transcriptional activation potential of the SRE-binding protein Elk-1 was increased following B-Raf activation. The signal pathway from B-Raf to AP-1 required the activation of c-Jun. We identified the cyclin D1 gene as a delayed response gene for AP-1 following stimulation of B-Raf in insulinoma cells. Moreover, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 and the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin were identified to function as shut-off-devices for the signaling cascade connecting B-Raf stimulation with the activation of AP-1. The fact that stimulation with glucose, activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels, and stimulation of B-Raf all trigger an activation of AP-1 indicates that AP-1 is a point of convergence of signaling pathways in β-cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unconventional secretion of tissue transglutaminase involves phospholipid-dependent delivery into recycling endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Zemskov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although endosomal compartments have been suggested to play a role in unconventional protein secretion, there is scarce experimental evidence for such involvement. Here we report that recycling endosomes are essential for externalization of cytoplasmic secretory protein tissue transglutaminase (tTG. The de novo synthesized cytoplasmic tTG does not follow the classical ER/Golgi-dependent secretion pathway, but is targeted to perinuclear recycling endosomes, and is delivered inside these vesicles prior to externalization. On its route to the cell surface tTG interacts with internalized β1 integrins inside the recycling endosomes and is secreted as a complex with recycled β1 integrins. Inactivation of recycling endosomes, blocking endosome fusion with the plasma membrane, or downregulation of Rab11 GTPase that controls outbound trafficking of perinuclear recycling endosomes, all abrogate tTG secretion. The initial recruitment of cytoplasmic tTG to recycling endosomes and subsequent externalization depend on its binding to phosphoinositides on endosomal membranes. These findings begin to unravel the unconventional mechanism of tTG secretion which utilizes the long loop of endosomal recycling pathway and indicate involvement of endosomal trafficking in non-classical protein secretion.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Replication Depends on Endosomal Cholesterol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Ina Karen; Lee, Ji-Young; Tabata, Keisuke; Romero-Brey, Inés; Paul, David; Schult, Philipp; Lohmann, Volker; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane contact sites. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown identified several hitherto unknown HCV dependency factors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer domain protein 3 (STARD3), oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1A and -B (OSBPL1A and -B), and Niemann-Pick-type C1 (NPC1), all residing at late endosome and lysosome membranes and required for efficient HCV RNA replication but not for replication of the closely related dengue virus. Focusing on NPC1, we found that knockdown or pharmacological inhibition caused cholesterol entrapment in lysosomal vesicles concomitant with decreased cholesterol abundance at sites containing the viral replicase factor NS5A. In untreated HCV-infected cells, unesterified cholesterol accumulated at the perinuclear region, partially colocalizing with NS5A at DMVs, arguing for NPC1-mediated endosomal cholesterol transport to the viral replication organelle. Consistent with cholesterol being an important structural component of DMVs, reducing NPC1-dependent endosomal cholesterol transport impaired MW integrity. This suggests that HCV usurps lipid transfer proteins, such as NPC1, at ER-late endosome/lysosome membrane contact sites to recruit cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, where it contributes to MW functionality. IMPORTANCE A key feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of the host cell

  2. Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor define distinct populations of recycling endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2013-09-01

    Recycling endosomes are key platforms for endocytic recycling that return internalized molecules back to the plasma membrane. To determine how recycling endosomes perform their functions, searching for proteins and lipids that specifically localized at recycling endosomes has often been performed by colocalization analyses between candidate molecules and conventional recycling endosome markers. However, it remains unclear whether all the conventional markers have identical localizations. Here we report finding that three well-known recycling endosome markers, i.e., Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor (TfR), have different intracellular localizations in PC12 cells. The results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that the signals of endogenous Arf6, Rab11 and TfR in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells generally differed, although there was some overlapping. Our findings provide new information about recycling endosome markers, and they highlight the heterogeneity of recycling endosomes.

  3. Multi-layered nanoparticles for penetrating the endosome and nuclear membrane via a step-wise membrane fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Hidetaka; Kudo, Asako; Minoura, Arisa; Yamaguti, Masaya; Khalil, Ikramy A; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Masuda, Tomoya; Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2009-05-01

    Efficient targeting of DNA to the nucleus is a prerequisite for effective gene therapy. The gene-delivery vehicle must penetrate through the plasma membrane, and the DNA-impermeable double-membraned nuclear envelope, and deposit its DNA cargo in a form ready for transcription. Here we introduce a concept for overcoming intracellular membrane barriers that involves step-wise membrane fusion. To achieve this, a nanotechnology was developed that creates a multi-layered nanoparticle, which we refer to as a Tetra-lamellar Multi-functional Envelope-type Nano Device (T-MEND). The critical structural elements of the T-MEND are a DNA-polycation condensed core coated with two nuclear membrane-fusogenic inner envelopes and two endosome-fusogenic outer envelopes, which are shed in stepwise fashion. A double-lamellar membrane structure is required for nuclear delivery via the stepwise fusion of double layered nuclear membrane structure. Intracellular membrane fusions to endosomes and nuclear membranes were verified by spectral imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that had been dually labeled on the liposome surface. Coating the core with the minimum number of nucleus-fusogenic lipid envelopes (i.e., 2) is essential to facilitate transcription. As a result, the T-MEND achieves dramatic levels of transgene expression in non-dividing cells.

  4. ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncogene initiates breast cancer from committed mammary progenitors via activation of AP1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Tognon, Cristina E; Godinho, Frank J; Yasaitis, Laura; Hock, Hanno; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Lannon, Chris L; Cho, Eunah; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bronson, Roderick T; Perou, Charles M; Sorensen, Poul H; Orkin, Stuart H

    2007-12-01

    To better understand the cellular origin of breast cancer, we developed a mouse model that recapitulates expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion oncoprotein, the product of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation characteristic of human secretory breast carcinoma. Activation of EN expression in mammary tissues by Wap-Cre leads to fully penetrant, multifocal malignant breast cancer with short latency. We provide genetic evidence that, in nulliparous Wap-Cre;EN females, committed alveolar bipotent or CD61(+) luminal progenitors are targets of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, EN transforms these otherwise transient progenitors through activation of the AP1 complex. Given the increasing relevance of chromosomal translocations in epithelial cancers, such mice serve as a paradigm for the study of their genetic pathogenesis and cellular origins, and generation of preclinical models.

  5. JNK/ERK-AP-1/Runx2 induction "paves the way" to cartilage load-ignited chondroblastic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2005-09-01

    Chondro-osteogenesis and subsequently skeletal morphology are greatly influenced by mechanical loads. The exact mechanism(s) by which mechanical stimuli are transduced in chondrocytes remains obscure and appears to be equally complex with similar signal transducing systems. Here we investigated whether and to what extent the MAPK (JNK/ERK)-AP-1/Runx2 signaling pathways are engaged in this phenomenon, and assessed their involvement in the functional biology of articular cartilage. For this purpose, 14-day-old female Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the first group was fed hard diet (simulating physiologic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loading), while the second group was fed soft diet (reduced TMJ loading). On day 21 (experiment initiation day - weaning day), biopsies from condyles of both groups were obtained after 6, 12 and 48 h of functional TMJ loading. Immunohistochemical methodology was employed to evaluate the expression levels of pc-Jun, c-Fos, JNK2, p-JNK, p-ERK and Runx2 due to alteration in functional load. Our data demsonstrate that the protein levels of all the aforementioned molecules were markedly increased in animals fed with the hard diet, throughout the experimental procedure. These results indicate that functional cartilage loading induces the AP-1 and Runx2 transcription factors through the JNK and ERK MAPK cascades. In as much as the above signaling mediators/effectors are considered to be crucial in the differentiation/maturation process of cartilage tissue, we pose that functional mechanical loading of condylar cartilage serves to "fine tune" chondroblastic differentiation/maturation.

  6. Endosomal generation of cAMP in GPCR signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic G.; Gardella, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that the production of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic AMP, which is mediated by cell surface G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its termination take place exclusively at the plasma membrane. Recent studies reveal that diverse GPCRs do not always follow this conventional paradigm. In the new model, GPCRs mediate G-protein signaling not only from the plasma membrane but also from endosomal membranes. This model proposes that following ligand binding and activation, cell surface GPCRs internalize and redistribute into early endosomes, where trimeric G protein signaling can be maintained for an extended period of time. This Perspective discusses the molecular and cellular mechanistic subtleties as well as the physiological consequences of this unexpected process, which is considerably changing how we think about GPCR signaling and regulation and how we study drugs that target this receptor family. PMID:25271346

  7. Promyelocytic leukemia bodies tether to early endosomes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palibrk, Vuk; Lång, Emma; Lång, Anna; Schink, Kay Oliver; Rowe, Alexander D; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2014-01-01

    During mitosis the nuclear envelope breaks down, leading to potential interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear components. PML bodies are nuclear structures with tumor suppressor and antiviral functions. Early endosomes, on the other hand, are cytoplasmic vesicles involved in transport and growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that PML bodies form stable interactions with early endosomes immediately following entry into mitosis. The 2 compartments remain stably associated throughout mitosis and dissociate in the cytoplasm of newly divided daughter cells. We also show that a minor subset of PML bodies becomes anchored to the mitotic spindle poles during cell division. The study demonstrates a stable mitosis-specific interaction between a cytoplasmic and a nuclear compartment.

  8. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Mellert

    Full Text Available Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  9. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellert, Kevin; Lamla, Markus; Scheffzek, Klaus; Wittig, Rainer; Kaufmann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin) into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI) treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP) mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  10. Protein complexes and cholesterol in the control of late endosomal dynamicsCholesterol and multi-protein complexes in the control of late endosomal dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Rik Henricus Nicolaas van der

    2013-01-01

    Late endosomal transport is disrupted in several diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C, ARC syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the regulation of late endosomal dynamics by cholesterol and multi-protein complexes. We find that cholesterol acts as a cellular tomtom that steers the

  11. Clinical light exposure, photoreceptor degeneration, and AP-1 activation: a cell death or cell survival signal in the rhodopsin mutant retina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danian; Beltran, William A; Li, Zexiao; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-11-01

    The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling. Exposure to light of mutant retinas significantly increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity by 1 hour after exposure, and levels remained elevated for 6 hours. Shielded mutant retinas had similar AP-1 levels to shielded or exposed wild-type retinas. The parallel phosphorylation of c-Fos and activation of ERK1/2 was detected only in exposed mutant retinas. Exposure to light changed the composition of the AP-1 protein complex in the mutant retina from c-Jun/Fra-1/c-Fos to JunB/c-Fos. Immunohistochemistry showed that the components of activated AP-1 (JunB, and phosphorylated c-Fos, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 isoforms) were localized in Müller cells. The inner nuclear layer/Müller cell localization of the key proteins induced by light exposure raises the question of the direct involvement of AP-1 in mediating photoreceptor cell death in this model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

  12. The elevated activation of NFκB and AP-1 is correlated with differential regulation of Bcl-2 and associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma progression and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Manzar; Kashyap, Tanushree; Pramanik, Kamdeo K; Singh, Abhay K; Nagini, Siddavaram; Mishra, Rajakishore

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Failure of chemoradiation therapy is a major concern for treating oral cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the B cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) expression and its regulation by nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in oral cancer progression and chemoradiation resistance. In the present study, a total of 123 (n = 123) human samples were included. Briefly, 64 fresh samples were from adjacent normal (AN), primary oral tumors without treatment (PT), and tumors with resistance to chemoradiation therapy with local recurrence (RCRT). Fifty-nine samples were human tongue cancers and normal samples (TMA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of bcl-2 and protein levels of bcl-2, NFκB, AP-1, and inactive GSK3α/β were measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and ChIP analysis. Increased bcl-2 expression was observed in PT compared to AN. The RCRT tumors showed maximum expression of bcl-2 mRNA and protein over the PT and AN groups. Bcl-2 protein and mRNA expression were positively correlated with NFκB and AP-1 expression. AP-1 expression was strongly correlated with bcl-2 in the RCRT group of tumors. Further, inactive GSK3α/β showed a positive trend with bcl-2 expression in oral tongue cancer specimens. Collectively, our results demonstrated cumulative effect of AP-1 and NFĸB for bcl-2 gene regulation in overall PT progression and chemoradiation resistance. The study provides evidence of increased bcl-2 mRNA/protein fueled by NFĸB in PT and AP-1 in RCRT. These regulations of bcl-2 by NFκB and AP-1 are important in OSCC progression and chemoradiation resistance.

  13. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  14. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. → Adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. → The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. → AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. → AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells.

  15. Liver AP-1 activation due to carbon tetrachloride is potentiated by 1,2-dibromoethane but is inhibited by alpha-tocopherol or gadolinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, S; Aragno, M; Cutrin, J C; Tamagno, E; Danni, O; Chiarpotto, E; Parola, M; Leonarduzzi, G; Biasi, F; Poli, G

    1999-05-01

    Experimental acute intoxication by prooxidant haloalkanes produces marked stimulation of hepatic lipid peroxidation and cytolysis, which is followed by tissue regeneration. Our aim was to clarify the role of oxidative imbalance in the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is involved in tissue repair. Rats were poisoned with a very low concentration of carbon tetrachloride, given alone or in combination with another hepatotoxin, 1,2-dibromoethane, to provide varying extents of oxidative damage. The level of AP-1-DNA binding was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on liver extracts, obtained from rats killed 6 h after poisoning. Stimulation of lipid peroxidation and AP-1 upregulation were already established when the hepatic damage due to carbon tetrachloride +/-1,2-dibromoethane was beginning to appear. Rat supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E completely inhibited AP-1 upregulation, thus supporting a causative role of membrane lipid oxidation in the observed modulation of the transcription factor. Moreover, activation of Kupffer cells appears to be a crucial step in the increased AP-1 binding to DNA, the latter being largely prevented by gadolinium chloride, a macrophage-specific inhibitor.

  16. The AP-1 binding sites located in the pol gene intragenic regulatory region of HIV-1 are important for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Colin

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105 both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity.

  17. Curcumin reverses benzidine-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via suppression of ERK5/AP-1 in SV-40 immortalized human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqi; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Li; Geng, Hao; Ma, Jiaxing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Dexin; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-04-01

    Overexposure to benzidine has been manifested as an important cause of bladder cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of benzidine-induced malignancy is still insufficiently interpreted. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathophysiological process in embryonic development as well as initiation and development of epithelium-originated malignant tumors. The role of extracellular regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) in benzidine-meditated bladder cancer development has not been explored. In the present study, we explored the role of ERK5/AP-1 pathway in benzidine-induced EMT in human normal urothelial cells and the intervention effect of curcumin on bezidine-induced EMT. We found that benzidine-induced EMT in SV-40 immortalized human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) at low concentrations. We detected that ERK5/AP-1 pathway was notably activated. Specific ERK5 inhibitor, XMD8-92 was applied to determine the role of ERK5 in benzidine-induced EMT. Results indicated that XMD8-92 reversed the EMT process. Furthermore, curcumin effectively attenuated benzidine-induced urocystic EMT by suppressing ERK5/AP-1 pathway. In conclusion, the present study revealed the positive role of ERK5/AP-1 in benzidine-provoked urocystic EMT and the curcumin promising use in bladder cancer prevention and intervention via ERK5/AP-1 pathway.

  18. Tiron Inhibits UVB-Induced AP-1 Binding Sites Transcriptional Activation on MMP-1 and MMP-3 Promoters by MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Guo, Jia-Hui; Tu, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Quan-Wu; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research found that Tiron was an effective antioxidant that could act as the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger or alleviate the acute toxic metal overload in vivo. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Tiron on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expression in human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot and ELISA analysis revealed that Tiron inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced protein expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that Tiron could inhibit UVB-induced mRNA expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Furthermore, Tiron significantly blocked UVB-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and activator protein (AP)-1 in the downstream of this transduction pathway in fibroblasts. Through the AP-1 binding site mutation, it was found that Tiron could inhibit AP-1-induced upregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression through blocking AP-1 binding to the AP-1 binding sites in the MMP-1 and MMP-3 promoter region. In conclusion, Tiron may be a novel antioxidant for preventing and treating skin photoaging UV-induced.

  19. The AP-1 Binding Sites Located in the pol Gene Intragenic Regulatory Region of HIV-1 Are Important for Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Laurence; Vandenhoudt, Nathalie; de Walque, Stéphane; Van Driessche, Benoît; Bergamaschi, Anna; Martinelli, Valérie; Cherrier, Thomas; Vanhulle, Caroline; Guiguen, Allan; David, Annie; Burny, Arsène; Herbein, Georges; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105) both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:21526160

  20. Induction of a long-lasting AP-1 complex composed of altered Fos-like proteins in brain by chronic cocaine and other chronic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, B T; Nye, H E; Kelz, M B; Self, D W; Iadarola, M J; Nakabeppu, Y; Duman, R S; Nestler, E J

    1994-11-01

    Following chronic cocaine treatment, we have found a long-lasting increase in AP-1 binding in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum, two important targets of the behavioral effects of cocaine. This increase develops gradually over several days and remains at 50% of maximal levels 7 days after the last cocaine exposure. Supershift experiments, along with one- and two-dimensional Western blots, indicate that this chronic AP-1 complex contains at least four Fos-related antigens (FRAs), some of which display delta FosB-like immunoreactivity, that are induced selectively by chronic, but not acute, cocaine treatment. The same chronic FRAs were also induced by several different types of chronic treatments in a region-specific manner in the brain. Thus, the chronic FRAs and associated chronic AP-1 complex could mediate some of the long-term changes in gene expression unique to the chronic-treated state as opposed to the acute-treated and normal states.

  1. TRIM45, a novel human RBCC/TRIM protein, inhibits transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuequn; Li Yongqing; Qi Xinzhu; Yuan Wuzhou; Ai Jianping; Zhu Chuanbing; Cao Lei; Yang Hong; Liu Fang; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2004-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis, and apoptosis. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human tripartite motif-containing protein 45 (TRIM45), a novel member of the TRIM family, from a human embryonic heart cDNA library. TRIM45 has a predicted 580 amino acid open reading frame, encoding a putative 64-kDa protein. The N-terminal region harbors a RING finger, two B-boxes, and a predicted α-helical coiled-coil domain, which together form the RBCC/TRIM motif found in a large family of proteins, whereas the C-terminal region contains a filamin-type immunoglobulin (IG-FLMN) domain. Northern blot analysis indicates that TRIM45 is expressed in a variety of human adult and embryonic tissues. In the cell, TRIM45 protein is expressed both in cytoplasm and in cell nucleus. Overexpression of TRIM45 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1. These results suggest that TRIM45 may act as a new transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

  2. Alpha-catulin contributes to drug-resistance of melanoma by activating NF-κB and AP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Kreiseder

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer accounting for 48,000 deaths worldwide each year and an average survival rate of about 6-10 months with conventional treatment. Tumor metastasis and chemoresistance of melanoma cells are reported as the main reasons for the insufficiency of currently available treatments for late stage melanoma. The cytoskeletal linker protein α-catulin (CTNNAL1 has been shown to be important in inflammation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal reorganization. Recently, we found an elevated expression of α-catulin in melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of α-catulin promoted melanoma progression and occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of mesenchymal genes such as N-cadherin, Snail/Slug and the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. In the current study we showed that α-catulin knockdown reduced NF-κB and AP-1 activity in malignant melanoma cells. Further, downregulation of α-catulin diminished ERK phosphorylation in malignant melanoma cells and sensitized them to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. In particular, cisplatin treatment led to decreased ERK-, JNK- and c-Jun phosphorylation in α-catulin knockdown melanoma cells, which was accompanied by enhanced apoptosis compared to control cells. Altogether, these results suggest that targeted inhibition of α-catulin may be used as a viable therapeutic strategy to chemosensitize melanoma cells to cisplatin by down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  3. Penta-acetyl geniposide-induced apoptosis involving transcription of NGF/p75 via MAPK-mediated AP-1 activation in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Hsu, S.-P.; Wang, C.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated the herbal derivative penta-acetyl geniposide ((Ac) 5 GP) induces C6 glioma cell apoptosis through the critical sphingomyelinase (SMase)/nerve growth factor (NGF)/p75 and its downstream signals. It has been reported mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediates NGF synthesis induced by SMase activation. In this study, ERK, p38 and JNK are shown to mediate (Ac) 5 GP-induced glioma cell apoptosis and elevation of NGF and p75. Treatment of PD98059 (ERK-specific inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) decreases the elevation of NGF and p75 mRNA induced by (Ac) 5 GP, indicating possible transcription regulation via MAPKs. The results of nuclear extract blotting and EMSA further confirm (Ac) 5 GP maximally increases AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding at 6 h. Inhibition of ERK, p38 and JNK block the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, suggesting these MAPKs are involved in (Ac) 5 GP-induced transcription regulation. We thereby used RT-PCR to analyze cells treated with (Ac) 5 GP, with or without AP-1 or NF-κB inhibitors. AP-1 inhibitor NDGA decreases NGF/p75 and expression of FasL and caspase 3 induced by (Ac) 5 GP, suggesting the importance of AP-1 in mediating NGF/p75 and their downstream apoptotic signals. However, FasL and caspase 3 do not change with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC; NF-κB might be linked to other cellular events. Overall, we demonstrate that MAPK mediates (Ac) 5 GP-induced activation of AP-1, promoting the transcription of NGF/p75 and downstream apoptotic signals. These results further highlight the potential therapeutic effects of (Ac) 5 GP in chemoprevention or as an anti-tumor agent

  4. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases sequence-specific AP-1 DNA-binding activity and Fos-related antigens in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcella, A; Gessa, G L; Pani, L

    1998-05-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the psychoactive principle of marijuana, has been shown to upregulate the mRNA levels of immediate-early genes in the rat brain. Using electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and one-dimensional Western blot, we here report that delta9-THC increases Activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding and Fos-related antigen activity in discrete areas of the rat brain. One hour after the intraperitoneal administration of delta9-THC at a dose of 10 or 15 mg/kg, AP-1 DNA-binding activity in the nucleus accumbens increased by 33 and 49%, respectively, while Western blot showed an increase in both c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen) and Fra-2. In the cingulate cortex and caudate-putamen, delta9-THC significantly increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity only at the highest dose used (57 and 71%, respectively). While in the caudate-putamen the increase in AP-1 DNA binding was mainly due to an elevation of the c-Fos and FosB proteins, the same phenomenon depended on the FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2 peptides in the cingulate cortex. The effect of delta9-THC on the AP-1 DNA binding and the Fos-related antigens in the nucleus accumbens was blocked by the specific cannabinoid antagonist SR141716 A (3 mg/kg i.p.). delta9-THC failed to modify Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) DNA-binding activity. The results indicate that delta9-THC activates gene coding for AP-1 DNA-binding proteins by acting on cannabinoid receptors, and induces a different transcriptional program on the early-immediate gene of the Fos family, in different areas in the rat brain, suggesting that this mechanism might be involved in the central actions of cannabinoids.

  5. Assessment of costimulation and coinhibition in a triple parameter T cell reporter line: Simultaneous measurement of NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutz, Sabrina; Leitner, Judith; Schmetterer, Klaus; Doel-Perez, Iago; Majdic, Otto; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Paster, Wolfgang; Huppa, Johannes B; Steinberger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Engagement of the T cell receptor complex reprograms T cells for proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation towards effector cells. This process depends on activating costimulatory signals and is counteracted by coinhibitory molecules. Three transcription factors, namely NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1, have a major role in inducing the transcriptional program that is required for T cell activation and differentiation. Here we describe the generation of a triple parameter reporter based on the human Jurkat T cell line, where response elements for NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 drive the expression of the fluorescent proteins CFP, eGFP and mCherry, respectively. The emission spectra of these proteins allow simultaneous assessment of NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 activity in response to stimulation. Ligation of the TCR complex induced moderate reporter activity, which was strongly enhanced upon coengagement of the costimulatory receptors CD2 or CD28. Moreover, we have generated and tested triple parameter reporter cells that harbor costimulatory and inhibitory receptors not endogenously expressed in the Jurkat cells. In these experiments we could show that engagement of the costimulatory molecule 4-1BB enhances NF-κB and AP-1 activity, whereas coinhibition via PD-1 or BTLA strongly reduced the activation of NF-κB and NFAT. Engagement of BTLA significantly inhibited AP-1, whereas PD-1 had little effect on the activation of this transcription factor. Our triple parameter reporter T cell line is an excellent tool to assess the effect of costimulatory and coinhibitory receptors on NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 activity and has a wide range of applications beyond the evaluation of costimulatory pathways. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  7. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  8. Effect of diphtheria toxin T-domain on endosomal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Labyntsev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A key step in the mode of cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin (DT is the transfer of its catalytic domain (Cd from endosomes into the cytosol. The main activity in this process is performed by the transport domain (Td, but the molecular mechanism of its action remains unknown. We have previously shown that Td can have some influence on the endosomal transport of DT. The aim of this work was to study the effect of diphtheria toxin on the toxin compartmentalization in the intracellular transporting pathway and endosomal pH. We used recombinant fragments of DT, which differed only by the presence of Td in their structure, fused with fluorescent proteins. It was shown that the toxin fragment with Td moved slower by the pathway early-late endosomes-lysosomes, and had a slightly different pattern of colocalization with endosomal markers than DT fragment without Td. In addition, endosomes containing DT fragments with Td had a constant pH of about 6.5 from the 10th to 50th minute of observation, for the same time endosomes containing DT fragments without Td demons­trated a decrease in pH from 6.3 to 5.5. These results indicate that Td inhibits acidification of endosomal medium. One of possible explanations for this may be the effect of the ion channel formed by the T-domain on the process of the endosomal acidification. This property of Td may not only inhibit maturation of endosomes but also inhibit activation of endosomal pH-dependent proteases, and this promotes successful transport of Cd into the cell cytosol.

  9. The adeno-associated virus major regulatory protein Rep78-c-Jun-DNA motif complex modulates AP-1 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, C. Krishna; Meyers, Craig; Zhan Dejin; You Hong; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Liu Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) is negatively associated with cervical cancer (CX CA), a cancer which is positively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Mechanisms for this correlation may be by Rep78's (AAV's major regulatory protein) ability to bind the HPV-16 p97 promoter DNA and inhibit transcription, to bind and interfere with the functions of the E7 oncoprotein of HPV-16, and to bind a variety of HPV-important cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and TBP. c-Jun is another important cellular factor intimately linked to the HPV life cycle, as well as keratinocyte differentiation and skin development. Skin is the natural host tissue for both HPV and AAV. In this article it is demonstrated that Rep78 directly interacts with c-Jun, both in vitro and in vivo, as analyzed by Western blot, yeast two-hybrid cDNA, and electrophoretic mobility shift-supershift assay (EMSA supershift). Addition of anti-Rep78 antibodies inhibited the EMSA supershift. Investigating the biological implications of this interaction, Rep78 inhibited the c-Jun-dependent c-jun promoter in transient and stable chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays. Rep78 also inhibited c-Jun-augmented c-jun promoter as well as the HPV-16 p97 promoter activity (also c-Jun regulated) in in vitro transcription assays in T47D nuclear extracts. Finally, the Rep78-c-Jun interaction mapped to the amino-half of Rep78. The ability of Rep78 to interact with c-Jun and down-regulate AP-1-dependent transcription suggests one more mechanism by which AAV may modulate the HPV life cycle and the carcinogenesis process

  10. Endosomal Rab cycles regulate Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Koji; Wang, Chunxin; Sarraf, Shireen A; Münch, Christian; Kikuchi, Reika; Noda, Nobuo N; Hizukuri, Yohei; Kanemaki, Masato T; Harper, Wade; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Youle, Richard J

    2018-01-23

    Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles. © 2018, Yamano et al.

  11. A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus dissemination in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corey L.; Lehmann, Christopher J.; Gill, Sargeet S.; Dunn, W. A.; James, Anthony A.; Foy, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about endosomal pathway proteins involved in arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) assembly and cell-to-cell spread in vector mosquitoes. UNC93A and Synaptic vesicle-2 (SV2) proteins are involved in intracellular transport in mammals. They show amino acid sequence conservation from mosquitoes to humans, and their transcripts are highly-enriched in Aedes aegypti during arbovirus infection. Transient gene silencing of SV2 or UNC93A in mosquitoes infected with the recombinant alphavirus Sindbis MRE16-eGFP (SINV; family Togaviridae) resulted in the accumulation of viral positive- and negative-strand RNA, congregation of virus envelope antigen in intracellular networks, and reduced virus dissemination outside of the midgut. Further, UNC93A silencing, but not SV2 silencing, resulted in a 10-fold reduction in viral titers at 4 days post-infection. Together, these data support a role for UNC93A and SV2 in virus assembly or budding. Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were identified at the 5′-ends of genes from the original dataset in which SV2 and UNC93A were identified. Common CREs at the 5′-end genomic regions of a subset of enriched transcripts support the hypothesis that UNC93A transcription may be co-regulated with that of other ion transport and endosomal trafficking proteins. PMID:21496127

  12. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion by perturbation of endosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučin, Pero; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Blagojević Zagorac, Gordana; Ilić Tomaš, Maja

    2015-03-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the herpesvirus family, have evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune response to survive in infected hosts and to establish latent infection. They effectively hide infected cells from the effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity by eliminating cellular proteins (major histocompatibility Class I and Class II molecules) from the cell surface that display viral antigens to CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes. CMVs also successfully escape recognition and elimination of infected cells by natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells of innate immunity, either by mimicking NK cell inhibitory ligands or by downregulating NK cell-activating ligands. To accomplish these immunoevasion functions, CMVs encode several proteins that function in the biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the assembly and trafficking of cellular proteins that participate in immune recognition and thereby, block their appearance at the cell surface. However, elimination of these proteins from the cell surface can also be achieved by perturbation of their endosomal route and subsequent relocation from the cell surface into intracellular compartments. Namely, the physiological route of every cellular protein, including immune recognition molecules, is characterized by specific features that determine its residence time at the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of endocytic trafficking of immune recognition molecules and perturbations of the endosomal system during infection with CMVs and other members of the herpesvirus family that contribute to their immune evasion mechanisms.

  13. Ethanol extract of Lycoris radiata induces cell death in B16F10 melanoma via p38-mediated AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minsik; Kim, Aeyung; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Chul-Hong; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-08-01

    Some active alkaloids isolated from Lycoris, a bulbous perennial herb, was shown to possess various anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro apoptotic effect of ethanol extract from Lycoris radiata (LRE) and further probed the underlying molecular mechanisms of LRE effects. The survival rate of B16F10 melanoma cells exposed to LRE was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, cell growth was retarded by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase and apoptotic appearance such as caspase-3 activation as well as DNA fragmentation was observed by LRE treatment. In addition, LRE induced p38 and c-Jun phosphorylation, followed by activation of transcription factor AP-1. Pretreatment with the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) blocked LRE-induced AP-1 transcriptional activity, and curcumin, AP-1 inhibitor, dramatically inhibited LRE-induced apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Our results collectively indicate that LRE-mediated apoptosis occurs through the activation of p38 and AP-1 pathway and potentially LRE exhibits anti-cancer activity against B16F10 melanoma cells.

  14. Inhibitory effects of curcumin and capsaicin on phorbol ester-induced activation of eukaryotic transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Y J; Han, S S; Keum, Y S; Seo, H J; Lee, S S

    2000-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that can inhibit, retard or reverse the multi-stage carcinogenesis. Spices and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties. Curcumin, a yellow colouring agent from turmeric and capsaicin, a pungent principle of red pepper exhibit profound anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Two well-defined eukaryotic transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) have been implicated in pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. These transcription factors are known to be activated by a wide array of external stimuli, such as tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), tumor necrosis factor, reactive oxygen species, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and ultraviolet. In the present study, we found that topical application of TPA onto dorsal skin of female ICR mice resulted in marked activation of epidermal NF-kappaB and AP-1. Curcumin and capsaicin, when topically applied prior to TPA, significantly attenuated TPA-induced activation of each transcription factor in mouse skin. Likewise, both compounds inhibited NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells stimulated with TPA. Based on these findings, it is likely that curcumin and capsaicin exert anti-tumor promotional effects through suppression of the tumor promoter-induced activation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  15. Identification of GATA2 and AP-1 activator elements within the enhancer VNTR occurring in intron 5 of the human SIRT3 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human SIRT3 gene contains an intronic VNTR enhancer. A T > C transition occurring in the second repeat of each VNTR allele implies the presence/absence of a putative GATA binding motif. A partially overlapping AP-1 site, not affected by the transition, was also identified. Aims of the present study ...

  16. AP-1-mediated chromatin looping regulates ZEB2 transcription: new insights into TNFα-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yichun; Shiue, Chiou-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Jonsson, Philip; Wright, Anthony P H; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2015-04-10

    The molecular determinants of malignant cell behaviour in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrate that the inflammatory cytokine TNFα induces EMT in TNBC cells via activation of AP-1 signaling and subsequently induces expression of the EMT regulator ZEB2. We also show that TNFα activates both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, which act upstream of AP-1. We further investigated in detail AP-1 regulation of ZEB2 expression. We show that two ZEB2 transcripts derived from distinct promoters are both expressed in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Using the chromosome conformation capture assay, we demonstrate that AP-1, when activated by TNFα, binds to a site in promoter 1b of the ZEB2 gene where it regulates the expression of both promoter 1b and 1a, the latter via mediating long range chromatin interactions. Overall, this work provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastatic potential in TNBC, involving a novel regulatory mechanism governing ZEB2 isoform expression.

  17. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  18. Interactions between SIRT1 and AP-1 reveal a mechanistic insight into the growth promoting properties of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles in mouse skin epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Tseng, Michael T; Wu, Peng; Florence, Rebecca L; Grulke, Eric A; Yokel, Robert A; Dhar, Sanjit Kumar; Yang, Hsin-Sheng; Chen, Yumin; St Clair, Daret K

    2008-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials differ from those of the bulk material of the same composition. However, little is known about the underlying effects of these particles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic properties of nanoparticles using aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)/alumina) nanoparticles as the prototype. Well-established mouse epithelial JB6 cells, sensitive to neoplastic transformation, were used as the experimental model. We demonstrate that alumina was internalized and maintained its physicochemical composition inside the cells. Alumina increased cell proliferation (53%), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels, cell viability and growth in soft agar. The level of manganese superoxide dismutase, a key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, was elevated, suggesting a redox signaling event. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species and the activities of the redox sensitive transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and a longevity-related protein, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), were increased. SIRT1 knockdown reduces DNA synthesis, cell viability, PCNA levels, AP-1 transcriptional activity and protein levels of its targets, JunD, c-Jun and BcL-xl, more than controls do. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SIRT1 interacts with the AP-1 components c-Jun and JunD but not with c-Fos. The results identify SIRT1 as an AP-1 modulator and suggest a novel mechanism by which alumina nanoparticles may function as a potential carcinogen.

  19. The coordinating role of IQGAP1 in the regulation of local, endosome-specific actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Edward B; Tsao, David S; Zimak, Jan; McLaughlin, R Tyler; Trenton, Nicholaus J; Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S; Schweikhard, Volker; Diehl, Michael R

    2017-06-15

    IQGAP1 is a large, multi-domain scaffold that helps orchestrate cell signaling and cytoskeletal mechanics by controlling interactions among a spectrum of receptors, signaling intermediates, and cytoskeletal proteins. While this coordination is known to impact cell morphology, motility, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic, among other functions, the spatiotemporal properties and regulatory mechanisms of IQGAP1 have not been fully resolved. Herein, we describe a series of super-resolution and live-cell imaging analyses that identified a role for IQGAP1 in the regulation of an actin cytoskeletal shell surrounding a novel membranous compartment that localizes selectively to the basal cortex of polarized epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We also show that IQGAP1 appears to both stabilize the actin coating and constrain its growth. Loss of compartmental IQGAP1 initiates a disassembly mechanism involving rapid and unconstrained actin polymerization around the compartment and dispersal of its vesicle contents. Together, these findings suggest IQGAP1 achieves this control by harnessing both stabilizing and antagonistic interactions with actin. They also demonstrate the utility of these compartments for image-based investigations of the spatial and temporal dynamics of IQGAP1 within endosome-specific actin networks. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The coordinating role of IQGAP1 in the regulation of local, endosome-specific actin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Samson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IQGAP1 is a large, multi-domain scaffold that helps orchestrate cell signaling and cytoskeletal mechanics by controlling interactions among a spectrum of receptors, signaling intermediates, and cytoskeletal proteins. While this coordination is known to impact cell morphology, motility, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic, among other functions, the spatiotemporal properties and regulatory mechanisms of IQGAP1 have not been fully resolved. Herein, we describe a series of super-resolution and live-cell imaging analyses that identified a role for IQGAP1 in the regulation of an actin cytoskeletal shell surrounding a novel membranous compartment that localizes selectively to the basal cortex of polarized epithelial cells (MCF-10A. We also show that IQGAP1 appears to both stabilize the actin coating and constrain its growth. Loss of compartmental IQGAP1 initiates a disassembly mechanism involving rapid and unconstrained actin polymerization around the compartment and dispersal of its vesicle contents. Together, these findings suggest IQGAP1 achieves this control by harnessing both stabilizing and antagonistic interactions with actin. They also demonstrate the utility of these compartments for image-based investigations of the spatial and temporal dynamics of IQGAP1 within endosome-specific actin networks.

  1. Niclosamide is a proton carrier and targets acidic endosomes with broad antiviral effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jurgeit

    Full Text Available Viruses use a limited set of host pathways for infection. These pathways represent bona fide antiviral targets with low likelihood of viral resistance. We identified the salicylanilide niclosamide as a broad range antiviral agent targeting acidified endosomes. Niclosamide is approved for human use against helminthic infections, and has anti-neoplastic and antiviral effects. Its mode of action is unknown. Here, we show that niclosamide, which is a weak lipophilic acid inhibited infection with pH-dependent human rhinoviruses (HRV and influenza virus. Structure-activity studies showed that antiviral efficacy and endolysosomal pH neutralization co-tracked, and acidification of the extracellular medium bypassed the virus entry block. Niclosamide did not affect the vacuolar H(+-ATPase, but neutralized coated vesicles or synthetic liposomes, indicating a proton carrier mode-of-action independent of any protein target. This report demonstrates that physico-chemical interference with host pathways has broad range antiviral effects, and provides a proof of concept for the development of host-directed antivirals.

  2. Methyl-dependent and spatial-specific DNA recognition by the orthologous transcription factors human AP-1 and Epstein-Barr virus Zta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samuel; Wang, Dongxue; Horton, John R; Zhang, Xing; Speck, Samuel H; Blumenthal, Robert M; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2017-03-17

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that recognizes two versions of a 7-base pair response element, either 5΄- GAG CA-3΄ or 5΄- GAG CA-3΄ (where M = 5-methylcytosine). These two elements share the feature that 5-methylcytosine and thymine both have a methyl group in the same position, 5-carbon of the pyrimidine, so each of them has two methyl groups at nucleotide positions 1 and 5 from the 5΄ end, resulting in four methyl groups symmetrically positioned in duplex DNA. Epstein-Barr Virus Zta is a key transcriptional regulator of the viral lytic cycle that is homologous to AP-1. Zta recognizes several methylated Zta-response elements, including meZRE1 (5΄- GAG C A-3΄) and meZRE2 (5΄- GAG G A-3΄), where a methylated cytosine occupies one of the inner thymine residues corresponding to the AP-1 element, resulting in the four spatially equivalent methyl groups. Here, we study how AP-1 and Zta recognize these methyl groups within their cognate response elements. These methyl groups are in van der Waals contact with a conserved di-alanine in AP-1 dimer (Ala265 and Ala266 in Jun), or with the corresponding Zta residues Ala185 and Ser186 (via its side chain carbon Cβ atom). Furthermore, the two ZRE elements differ at base pair 6 (C:G versus G:C), forming a pseudo-symmetric sequence (meZRE1) or an asymmetric sequence (meZRE2). In vitro DNA binding assays suggest that Zta has high affinity for all four sequences examined, whereas AP-1 has considerably reduced affinity for the asymmetric sequence (meZRE2). We ascribe this difference to Zta Ser186 (a unique residue for Zta) whose side chain hydroxyl oxygen atom interacts with the two half sites differently, whereas the corresponding Ala266 of AP-1 Jun protein lacks such flexibility. Our analyses demonstrate a novel mechanism of 5mC/T recognition in a methylation-dependent, spatial and sequence-specific approach by basic leucine-zipper transcriptional factors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford

  3. Mouse polyomavirus enters early endosomes, requires their acidic pH for productive infection, and meets transferrin cargo in rab11-positive endosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liebl, D.; Difato, F.; Horníková, L.; Mannová, P.; Štokrová, Jitka; Forstová, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 9 (2006), s. 4610-4622 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0593; GA MŠk(CZ) LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Polyomavirus internalization and trafficking * Early endosomes * Dependence of infection on endosomal pH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.341, year: 2006

  4. Membrane-associated cargo recycling by tubule-based endosomal sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weering, J.R.T.; Cullen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The endosome system is a collection of organelles that sort membrane-associated proteins and lipids for lysosomal degradation or recycling back to their target organelle. Recycling cargo is captured in a network of membrane tubules emanating from endosomes where tubular carriers pinch off. These

  5. Loss of p12CDK2-AP1 Expression in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor-β-Smad Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined correlations between TGF-β1, TβR-I and TβR-II, p12CDK2-AP1 p21WAF1 p27KIP1 Smad2, and p-Smad2 in 125 cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to test the hypothesis that resistance to TGF-β1-induced growth suppression is due to the disruption of its signaling pathway as a consequence of reduced or lost p12CDK2-AP1. Immunoreactivity for TβR-II decreased in OSCC with increasing disease aggressiveness; however, no differences were observed for TβR-I and TGF-β1. The expression of TβR-II significantly correlated with p12CDK2-AP1 and p27KIP1 (P<.001 and P<.01, respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between TβR-II expression and p-Smad2 (P < .001. The in vivo correlation of the levels of TβR-II, p12CDK2-AP1 and p27 KIP1 was confirmed in normal and OSCC cell lines. Additionally, in vitro analysis of TGF-β-treated cells showed that TGF-β1 treatment of normal keratinocytes suppressed cell growth with upregulation of p-Smad2, p12CDK2-API and p21WAF1 expression, whereas there was no effect on OSCC cell lines. These results provide evidence of a link between a disrupted TGF-β-Smad signaling pathway and loss of induction of cell cycle-inhibitory proteins, especially p12CDK2-AP1 in OSCC, which may lead to the resistance of TGF-β1 growth-inhibitory effect on OSCC.

  6. A CRE/AP-1-like motif is essential for induced syncytin-2 expression and fusion in human trophoblast-like model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirine Toufaily

    Full Text Available Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1 and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.

  7. Constitutive AP-1 activity and EBV infection induce PD-L1 in Hodgkin lymphomas and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: implications for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael R; Rodig, Scott; Juszczynski, Przemyslaw; Ouyang, Jing; Sinha, Papiya; O'Donnell, Evan; Neuberg, Donna; Shipp, Margaret A

    2012-03-15

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule expressed on antigen-presenting cells that engages the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits T-cell receptor signaling. The PD-1 axis can be exploited by tumor cells to dampen host antitumor immune responses and foster tumor cell survival. PD-1 blockade has shown promise in multiple malignancies but should be directed toward patients in whom it will be most effective. In recent studies, we found that the chromosome 9p24.1 amplification increased the gene dosage of PD-L1 and its induction by JAK2 in a subset of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, cHLs with normal 9p24.1 copy numbers also expressed detectable PD-L1, prompting analyses of additional PD-L1 regulatory mechanisms. Herein, we utilized immunohistochemical, genomic, and functional analyses to define alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 activation in cHL and additional EBV(+) lymphoproliferative disorders. We identified an AP-1-responsive enhancer in the PD-L1 gene. In cHL Reed-Sternberg cells, which exhibit constitutive AP-1 activation, the PD-L1 enhancer binds AP-1 components and increases PD-L1 promoter activity. In addition, we defined Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection as an alternative mechanism for PD-L1 induction in cHLs with diploid 9p24.1. PD-L1 was also expressed by EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as a result of latent membrane protein 1-mediated, JAK/STAT-dependent promoter and AP-1-associated enhancer activity. In addition, more than 70% of EBV(+) posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders expressed detectable PD-L1. AP-1 signaling and EBV infection represent alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 induction and extend the spectrum of tumors in which to consider PD-1 blockade.

  8. An Essential Role of Hrs/Vps27 in Endosomal Cholesterol Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT plays a crucial role in the degradation of ubiquitinated endosomal membrane proteins. Here, we report that Hrs, a key protein of the ESCRT-0 complex, is required for the transport of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. This function of Hrs in cholesterol transport is distinct from its previously defined role in lysosomal sorting and downregulation of membrane receptors via the ESCRT pathway. In line with this, knocking down other ESCRT proteins does not cause prominent endosomal cholesterol accumulation. Importantly, the localization and biochemical properties of key cholesterol-sorting proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, appear to be unchanged upon Hrs knockdown. Our data identify Hrs as a regulator of endosomal cholesterol trafficking and provide additional insights into the budding of intralumenal vesicles.

  9. Dengue virus ensures its fusion in late endosomes using compartment-specific lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zaitseva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many enveloped viruses invade cells via endocytosis and use different environmental factors as triggers for virus-endosome fusion that delivers viral genome into cytosol. Intriguingly, dengue virus (DEN, the most prevalent mosquito-borne virus that infects up to 100 million people each year, fuses only in late endosomes, while activation of DEN protein fusogen glycoprotein E is triggered already at pH characteristic for early endosomes. Are there any cofactors that time DEN fusion to virion entry into late endosomes? Here we show that DEN utilizes bis(monoacylglycerophosphate, a lipid specific to late endosomes, as a co-factor for its endosomal acidification-dependent fusion machinery. Effective virus fusion to plasma- and intracellular- membranes, as well as to protein-free liposomes, requires the target membrane to contain anionic lipids such as bis(monoacylglycerophosphate and phosphatidylserine. Anionic lipids act downstream of low-pH-dependent fusion stages and promote the advance from the earliest hemifusion intermediates to the fusion pore opening. To reach anionic lipid-enriched late endosomes, DEN travels through acidified early endosomes, but we found that low pH-dependent loss of fusogenic properties of DEN is relatively slow in the presence of anionic lipid-free target membranes. We propose that anionic lipid-dependence of DEN fusion machinery protects it against premature irreversible restructuring and inactivation and ensures viral fusion in late endosomes, where the virus encounters anionic lipids for the first time during entry. Currently there are neither vaccines nor effective therapies for DEN, and the essential role of the newly identified DEN-bis(monoacylglycerophosphate interactions in viral genome escape from the endosome suggests a novel target for drug design.

  10. Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Bacri, J.-C.

    2003-06-01

    The previously developed technique of magnetic rotational microrheology [Phys. Rev. E 67, 011504 (2003)] is proposed to investigate the rheological properties of the cell interior. An endogeneous magnetic probe is obtained inside living cells by labeling intracellular compartments with magnetic nanoparticles, following the endocytosis mechanism, the most general pathway used by eucaryotic cells to internalize substances from an extracellular medium. Primarily adsorbed on the plasma membrane, the magnetic nanoparticles are first internalized within submicronic membrane vesicles (100 nm diameter) to finally concentrate inside endocytotic intracellular compartments (0.6 μm diameter). These magnetic endosomes attract each other and form chains within the living cell when submitted to an external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that these chains of magnetic endosomes are valuable tools to probe the intracellular dynamics at very local scales. The viscoelasticity of the chain microenvironment is quantified in terms of a viscosity η and a relaxation time τ by analyzing the rotational dynamics of each tested chain in response to a rotation of the external magnetic field. The viscosity η governs the long time flow of the medium surrounding the chains and the relaxation time τ reflects the proportion of solidlike versus liquidlike behavior (τ=η/G, where G is the high-frequency shear modulus). Measurements in HeLa cells show that the cell interior is a highly heterogeneous structure, with regions where chains are embedded inside a dense viscoelastic matrix and other domains where chains are surrounded by a less rigid viscoelastic material. When one compound of the cell cytoskeleton is disrupted (microfilaments or microtubules), the intracellular viscoelasticity becomes less heterogeneous and more fluidlike, in the sense of both a lower viscosity and a lower relaxation time.

  11. Berberine modulates AP-1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Syed A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Specific types of high risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs particularly, HPV types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer and while the two recently developed vaccines against these HPV types are prophylactic in nature, therapeutic options for treatment and management of already existing HPV infection are not available as yet. Because transcription factor, Activator Protein-1 (AP-1 plays a central role in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis, we explored the possibility of its therapeutic targeting by berberine, a natural alkaloid derived from a medicinal plant species, Berberis which has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties with no known toxicity; however, the effect of berberine against HPV has not been elucidated. Results- We studied the effect of berberine on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell line, SiHa and HPV18-positive cervical cancer cell line, HeLa using electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays, western and northern blotting which showed that berberine could selectively inhibit constitutively activated AP-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and downregulates HPV oncogenes expression. Inhibition of AP-1 was also accompanied by changes in the composition of their DNA-binding complex. Berberine specifically downregulated expression of oncogenic c-Fos which was also absent in the AP-1 binding complex. Treatment with berberine resulted in repression of E6 and E7 levels and concomitant increase in p53 and Rb expression in both cell types. Berberine also suppressed expression of telomerase protein, hTERT, which translated into growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, a higher concentration of berberine was found to reduce the cell viability through mitochondria-mediated pathway and induce apoptosis by activating caspase-3. Conclusion- These results indicate that berberine can effectively target both the host and viral factors responsible for development of cervical cancer

  12. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER–endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER–endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network. PMID:27462431

  13. ESCRT-I mediates FLS2 endosomal sorting and plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spallek

    Full Text Available The plant immune receptor FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2 is present at the plasma membrane and is internalized following activation of its ligand flagellin (flg22. We show that ENDOSOMAL SORTING COMPLEX REQUIRED FOR TRANSPORT (ESCRT-I subunits play roles in FLS2 endocytosis in Arabidopsis. VPS37-1 co-localizes with FLS2 at endosomes and immunoprecipitates with the receptor upon flg22 elicitation. Vps37-1 mutants are reduced in flg22-induced FLS2 endosomes but not in endosomes labeled by Rab5 GTPases suggesting a defect in FLS2 trafficking rather than formation of endosomes. FLS2 localizes to the lumen of multivesicular bodies, but this is altered in vps37-1 mutants indicating compromised endosomal sorting of FLS2 by ESCRT-I loss-of-function. VPS37-1 and VPS28-2 are critical for immunity against bacterial infection through a role in stomatal closure. Our findings identify that VPS37-1, and likewise VPS28-2, regulate late FLS2 endosomal sorting and reveals that ESCRT-I is critical for flg22-activated stomatal defenses involved in plant immunity.

  14. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  15. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Looby, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The progression from Barrett\\'s metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA) has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. RESULTS: DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1\\/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1\\/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK\\/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. CONCLUSION: DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate.

  16. Sargahydroquinoic acid inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells through PPARα activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Youngsic; Jung, Yujung; Kim, Min Cheol; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Yong Kee; Kim, Su-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SHQA increases PPARα/γ transactivation and inhibits MMP-2/-9 expression. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and MAPK signaling. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced p65 translocation and IκBα phosphorylation. • SHQA inhibits TNFα-induced AP-1 and NF-κB signaling via PPARα. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and expressed in various cell types in the skin, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, their ligands are targets for the treatment of various skin disorders, such as photo-aging and chronological aging of skin. Intensive studies have revealed that PPARα/γ functions in photo-aging and age-related inflammation by regulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, the detailed mechanism of PPARα/γ’s role in skin aging has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed that sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA) as a PPARα/γ ligand significantly decreased Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced MMP-2/-9 expression by downregulating TNFα-induced transcription factors, subsequently reducing IκBα degradation and blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocyte cells. Treatment of cells with SHQA and GW6471 (PPARα antagonist) not bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (PPARγ antagonists), reversed the effect on TNFα-induced inflammatory signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our data suggest that SHQA inhibit TNFα-induced MMP-2/-9 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing AP-1 and NF-κB pathway via PPARα

  17. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Aideen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression from Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the acquirement of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The bile acid deoxycholate (DCA has been proposed to play an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Following exposure of SKGT-4 cells to DCA, protein levels of COX-2, MAPK and PARP were examined by immunoblotting. AP-1 activity was assessed by mobility shift assay. DCA-induced toxicity was assessed by DNA fragmentation and MTT assay. Results DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. DCA activated Fra-1 via the Erk1/2- and p38 MAPK while Erk1/2 is upstream of JunB. Moreover, DCA stimulation mediated inhibition of proliferation with concomitant low levels of caspase-3-dependent PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Induction of the anti-apoptotic protein COX-2 by DCA, via MAPK/AP-1 pathway appeared to balance the DCA mediated activation of pro-apoptotic markers such as PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Both of these markers were increased upon COX-2 suppression by aspirin pretreatment prior to DCA exposure. Conclusion DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate.

  18. EGF-R is Expressed and AP-1 and NF-κ:B Are Activated in Stromal Myofibroblasts Surrounding Colon Adenocarcinomas Paralleling Expression of COX-2 and VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: COX-2 and VEGF are important triggers of colon cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Cox-2 promoter contains transcriptional regulatory elements for AP-1 and NF-κ:B transcription factors whilst vegf is a known AP-1 downstream target gene. We investigated whether stromal myofibroblasts surrounding colon adenocarcinomas express COX-2 and VEGF and whether activation of AP-1 and NF-κ:B, as well as expression of EGF-R parallel expression of COX-2 and VEGF in these cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical methodology was performed on archival sections from 40 patients with colon adenocarcinomas. We evaluated c-FOS, p-c-JUN (phosphorylated c-JUN, p-Iκ:B-α (phosphorylated Iκ:B-α, EGF-R, COX-2, NF-κ:B and VEGF expression in stromal myofibroblasts surrounding colon adenocarcinomas. Double immunostaining with a-smooth muscle actin and each antibody was done to verify the expression of these molecules in stromal myofibroblasts. Results: VEGF, p-Iκ:B-α, NF-κ:B, c-FOS, p-c-JUN, EGF-R and COX-2 were expressed in stromal myofibroblasts surrounding colon adenocarcinomas in the majority of cases. EGF-R, p-Iκ:B-α, NF-κ:B, c-FOS and p-c-JUN correlated positively with COX-2 and VEGF expression. Conclusion: Stromal myofibroblasts surrounding colon adenocarcinomas are an important source of VEGF and COX-2 production, while AP-1 and NF-κ:B transcription factors are activated and EGF-R is expressed in these cells and associated with COX-2 and VEGF production.

  19. Chrysin inhibits tumor promoter-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking AP-1 via suppression of ERK and JNK pathways in gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xia

    Full Text Available Cell invasion is a crucial mechanism of cancer metastasis and malignancy. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the cancer cell invasion process. High expression levels of MMP-9 in gastric cancer positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness and have a significant negative correlation with patients' survival times. Recently, mechanisms suppressing MMP-9 by phytochemicals have become increasingly investigated. Chrysin, a naturally occurring chemical in plants, has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer have not been well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer cells, and determined its underlying mechanism. We examined the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression and activity via RT-PCR, zymography, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin inhibited phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, we confirmed that AP-1 was the crucial transcriptional factor for MMP-9 expression. Chrysin blocked AP-1 via suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos through blocking the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, AGS cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by chrysin and MMP-9 antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling MMP-9 expression through suppression of AP-1 activity via a block of the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in gastric cancer AGS cells.

  20. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NF?B-Dependent Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was anal...

  1. CXCL12 gene silencing down-regulates metastatic potential via blockage of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 signaling pathway in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Su, H; Yu, B; Guo, T; Gong, Z; Qi, J; Zhao, X; Du, J

    2018-01-05

    To investigate the effect of CXCL12 gene silencing on proliferation,invasion, angiogenesis and the relationship of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression of CXCL12 mRNA and protein in four colon cancer cell lines. Human colon cancer cells were transfected with CXCL12 siRNA carrying by Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of CXCL12 protein was confirmed by immunoblotting. WST-1, invasion and angiogenesis assay were used to examine the effect on proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in colon cancer cells after CXCL12 siRNA silence, respectively. The phosphorylation of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 protein levels was detected by Western blotting in CXCL12 siRNA suppression DLD-1 cell. CXCL12 mRNA and proteins were only expressed in DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines. CXCL12 siRNA were transfected into DLD-1 cells, the expression CXCL12 proteins was significantly inhibited (P colon cancer cell. The silencing CXCL12 gene significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis ability of some types colon carcinoma cells through down-regulation of MAPK/PI3K/AP-1 signaling pathway.

  2. Opposing roles of C/EBPbeta and AP-1 in the control of fibroblast proliferation and growth arrest-specific gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagliardi, Mark; Maynard, Scott; Miyake, Tetsuaki

    2003-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) express several growth arrest-specific (GAS) gene products in G0. In contact-inhibited cells, the expression of the most abundant of these proteins, the p20K lipocalin, is activated at the transcriptional level by C/EBPbeta. In this report, we describe the role of C....../EBPbeta in CEF proliferation. We show that the expression of a dominant negative mutant of C/EBPbeta (designated Delta184-C/EBPbeta) completely inhibited p20K expression at confluence and stimulated the proliferation of CEF without inducing transformation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts nullizygous for C/EBPbeta had...... in the levels of AP-1 proteins. Therefore, C/EBPbeta is a negative regulator of AP-1 expression and activity in CEF. The expression of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation were stimulated by the dominant negative mutant of C/EBPbeta but not in the presence of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of c-Jun and AP-1. CEF...

  3. IL-1β and IL-6 activate inflammatory responses of astrocytes against Naegleria fowleri infection via the modulation of MAPKs and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Song, A-R; Sohn, H-J; Lee, J; Yoo, J-K; Kwon, D; Shin, H-J

    2013-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, has been found in diverse habitats throughout the world. It causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in children and young adults. The amoeba attaches to nasal mucosa, migrates along olfactory nerves and enters the brain. Astrocytes are involved in the defence against infection and produce inflammatory responses. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of immune responses in astrocytes. We showed, using RNase protection assay, RT-PCR and ELISA in an in vitro culture system, that N. fowleri lysates induce interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 expression of astrocytes. In addition, cytokine levels of astrocytes gradually decreased due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 inhibitors. To determine the transcription factor, we used transcription inhibitor (AP-1 inhibitor), which downregulated IL-1β and IL-6 expression. These results show that AP-1 is related to IL-1β and IL-6 production. N. fowleri-mediated IL-1β and IL-6 expression requires ERK, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in astrocytes. These findings show that N. fowleri-stimulated astrocytes in an in vitro culture system lead to AP-1 activation and the subsequent expressions of IL-1β and IL-6, which are dependent on ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs activation. These results may imply that proinflammatory cytokines have important roles in inflammatory responses to N. fowleri infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) up-regulates IL-8 expression through TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Du, Yinping; Wang, Honglei; Du, Li; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2017-06-01

    The acute phase of respiratory distress caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is likely a consequence of the release of inflammatory cytokines in the lung. IL-8, the main chemokine and activator of neutrophils, might be related to the lung injury upon PRRSV infection. In this study, we showed that PRRSV induced IL-8 expression in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB pathways were activated upon PRRSV infection and required for the enhancement of IL-8 expression. We further verified that PRRSV-activated TAK-1 was essential for the activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways and IL-8 expression. Moreover, we revealed an AP-1 binding motif in the cloned porcine IL-8 (pIL-8) promoter, and deletion of this motif abolished the pIL-8 promoter activity. Finally, we found that the JNK-activated AP-1 subunit c-Jun was critical for the up-regulation of IL-8 expression by PRRSV. These data suggest that PRRSV-induced IL-8 production is likely through the TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular histones induce tissue factor expression in vascular endothelial cells via TLR and activation of NF-κB and AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Li, Lin; Liu, Jin; Lv, Ben; Chen, Fangping

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular histones have been recognized recently as proinflammatory mediators; they are released from dying cells in response to inflammatory challenge, contributing to endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombin formation, organ failure, and death during sepsis. Clinical studies suggest that the plasma concentration of the histone-DNA complex is correlated with the severity of DIC and is a poor independent prognostic marker in sepsis. In addition, platelet activation stimulates thrombus formation. Whether histones contribute to procoagulant activity in other ways remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that histones induce tissue factor (TF) expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages. However, histones did not affect TF pathway inhibitor expression. Moreover, blocking the cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2 with specific neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced histone-induced TF expression. Furthermore, histones enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (c-Rel/p65) and AP-1 expression in a time-dependent manner in ECs. Mutating NF-κB and AP-1 significantly reduced histone-induced TF expression. Altogether, our experiments suggest that histone induces TF expression in ECs via cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2, simultaneously depending on the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhizoma coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFB-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Remppis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine.

  7. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFκB-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFκB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFκB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine. PMID:20652055

  8. NFκB- and AP-1-mediated DNA looping regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 transcription in TNF-α-treated human leukemia U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the spatial association of critical genomic elements in the effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in human leukemia U937 cells. TNF-α up-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA level in U937 cells, and Akt-mediated-NFκB/p65 activation and JNK-mediated c-Jun activation were proven to be involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Promoter luciferase activity assay revealed that NFκB (nt-600) and AP-1 (nt-79) binding sites were crucial for TNF-α-induced transcription of MMP-9 gene. The results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that TNF-α reduced histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) recruitment but increased p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) recruitment to MMP-9 promoter regions surrounding NFκB and AP-1 binding sites. Consistently, TNF-α increased enrichment of the acetylated histone H3 mark on MMP-9 promoter regions. DNA affinity purification assay revealed that p300 and HDAC1 could bind oligonucleotides containing AP-1/c-Jun and NFκB/p65 binding sites. Chromosome conformation capture assay showed that TNF-α stimulated chromosomal loops in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun. The p300-associated acetyltransferase activity was crucial for p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping, and inhibition of HDAC activity increased the level of DNA looping. Reduction in the level of DNA looping eliminated all TNF-α-stimulated MMP-9 up-regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping is involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation and that the recruitment of p300 or HDAC1 to NFκB and AP-1 binding sites modifies the level of DNA looping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR, NF-kB, and AP-1 pathways in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Sen; Xia, Yong; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Ung, Trong Thuan; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cadmium induces MMP-9 expression through NADPH oxidase-derived ROS. • Cadmium induces MMP-9 through EGFR-mediated Akt, Erk1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways. • Akt, MAPKs (Erk1/2 and JNK1/2) functioned as upstream signals of NF-kB and AP-1 respectively, in cadmium-induced MMP-9 in endothelial cells. • ROS production by NADPH oxidase is the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression in ECV304 cells. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), a widespread cumulative pollutant, is a known human carcinogen, associated with inflammation and tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in tumor metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying the MMP-9 expression induced by Cd remain obscure in human endothelial cells. Here, Cd elevated MMP-9 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in human endothelial cells. Cd increased ROS production and the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase. Cd translocates p47 phox , a key subunit of NADPH oxidase, to the cell membrane. Cd also activated the phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 in addition to promoting NF-kB and AP-1 binding activities. Specific inhibitor and mutagenesis studies showed that EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2 and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 were related to Cd-induced MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells. Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 functioned as upstream signals in the activation of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cystein (NAC), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin (APO) inhibited the Cd-induced activation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK, indicating that ROS production by NADPH oxidase is the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression. At present, it states that Cd displayed marked invasiveness in ECV304 cells, which was partially abrogated by MMP-9 neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrated that Cd induces MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR- > Erk1/2, JNK1/2- > AP-1 and EGFR- > Akt- > NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn

  10. Constitutive AP-1 Activity and EBV Infection Induce PD-L1 in Hodgkin Lymphomas and Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Implications for Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael R.; Rodig, Scott; Juszczynski, Przemyslaw; Ouyang, Jing; Sinha, Papiya; O’Donnell, Evan; Neuberg, Donna; Shipp, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule expressed on antigen-presenting cells that engages the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits T-cell receptor signaling. The PD-1 axis can be exploited by tumor cells to dampen host anti-tumor immune responses and foster tumor cell survival. PD-1 blockade has shown promise in multiple malignancies but should be directed towards patients in whom it will be most effective. In recent studies, we found that the chromosome 9p24.1 amplification increased the gene dosage of PD-L1 and its induction by JAK2 in a subset of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, cHLs with normal 9p24.1 copy numbers also expressed detectable PD-L1, prompting analyses of additional PD-L1 regulatory mechanisms. Experimental Design Herein, we utilized immunohistochemical, genomic and functional analyses to define alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 activation in cHL and additional EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Results We identified an AP-1-responsive enhancer in the PD-L1 gene. In cHL Reed Sternberg cells, which exhibit constitutive AP-1 activation, the PD-L1 enhancer binds AP-1 components and increases PD-L1 promoter activity. In addition, we defined EBV infection as an alternative mechanism for PD-L1 induction in cHLs with diploid 9p24.1. PD-L1 was also expressed by EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as a result of latent membrane protein 1-mediated, JAK/STAT-dependent promoter and AP-1-associated enhancer activity. In addition, over 70% of EBV+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders expressed detectable PD-L1. Conclusions AP-1 signaling and EBV infection represent alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 induction and extend the spectrum of tumors in which to consider PD-1 blockade. PMID:22271878

  11. JunD/AP-1 Antagonizes the Induction of DAPK1 To Promote the Survival of v-Src-Transformed Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślikowski, Bart M; Wang, Lizhen; Wu, Ying; Fielding, Ben; Bédard, Pierre-André

    2017-01-01

    The increase in AP-1 activity is a hallmark of cell transformation by tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that blocking AP-1 using the c-Jun dominant negative mutant TAM67 induced senescence, adipogenesis, or apoptosis in v-Src-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) whereas inhibition of JunD by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically induced apoptosis. To investigate the role of AP-1 in Src-mediated transformation, we undertook a gene profiling study to characterize the transcriptomes of v-Src-transformed CEFs expressing either TAM67 or the JunD shRNA. Our study revealed a cluster of 18 probe sets upregulated exclusively in response to AP-1/JunD impairment and v-Src transformation. Four of these probe sets correspond to genes involved in the interferon pathway. One gene in particular, death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), is a C/EBPβ-regulated mediator of apoptosis in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced cell death. Here, we show that inhibition of DAPK1 abrogates cell death in v-Src-transformed cells expressing the JunD shRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data indicated that C/EBPβ was recruited to the DAPK1 promoter while the expression of a dominant negative mutant of C/EBPβ abrogated the induction of DAPK1 in response to the inhibition of AP-1. In contrast, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, JunD was not detected on the DAPK1 promoter under any conditions, suggesting that JunD promotes survival by indirectly antagonizing the expression of DAPK1 in v-Src transformed cells. Transformation by the v-Src oncoprotein causes extensive changes in gene expression in primary cells such as chicken embryo fibroblasts. These changes, determining the properties of transformed cells, are controlled in part at the transcriptional level. Much attention has been devoted to transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-κB and the control of genes associated with a more aggressive phenotype. In this report, we describe a novel mechanism

  12. Latex beads internalization and quantitative proteomics join forces to decipher the endosomal proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães de Araújo, Mariana Eça; Huber, Lukas Alfons; Stasyk, Taras

    2011-06-01

    The proteome analysis of endocytic compartments has been constrained by the limited purity of the organelle fractions obtained by current biochemical methods. Duclos and coworkers have developed a novel method to isolate highly purified endosomal organelles based on small latex beads internalization followed by gradient centrifugation and successfully combined it with a redundant peptide counting method to compare the relative abundance of proteins in organelles. The presence of bona fide markers in their respective subcellular organelles and the identification of several new endosomal-associated proteins, attested the applicability of their combinatory approach. Future applications of this strategy may deliver a comprehensive endosomal proteome chart: from the identification of the key players to the determination of time and signaling-dependent proteome changes. As a long-term perspective, such an approach may unveil new clues to the molecular mechanisms underlining human diseases associated with endosomal biogenesis defects.

  13. Facilitation of Endosomal Recycling by an IRG Protein Homolog Maintains Apical Tubule Structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussendorf, Kelly A.; Trezza, Christopher J.; Salem, Alexander T.; Al-Hashimi, Hikmat; Mattingly, Brendan C.; Kampmeyer, Drew E.; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Göbel, Verena; Ackley, Brian D.; Buechner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Determination of luminal diameter is critical to the function of small single-celled tubes. A series of EXC proteins, including EXC-1, prevent swelling of the tubular excretory canals in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, cloning of exc-1 reveals it to encode a homolog of mammalian IRG proteins, which play roles in immune response and autophagy and are associated with Crohn’s disease. Mutants in exc-1 accumulate early endosomes, lack recycling endosomes, and exhibit abnormal apical cytoskeletal structure in regions of enlarged tubules. EXC-1 interacts genetically with two other EXC proteins that also affect endosomal trafficking. In yeast two-hybrid assays, wild-type and putative constitutively active EXC-1 binds to the LIM-domain protein EXC-9, whose homolog, cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is enriched in mammalian intestine. These results suggest a model for IRG function in forming and maintaining apical tubule structure via regulation of endosomal recycling. PMID:27334269

  14. An ER-Associated Pathway Defines Endosomal Architecture for Controlled Cargo Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marlieke L. M.; Berlin, Ilana; Wijdeven, Ruud H. M.; Janssen, Lennert; Janssen, George M. C.; Garstka, Malgorzata A.; Janssen, Hans; Mensink, Mark; van Veelen, Peter A.; Spaapen, Robbert M.; Neefjes, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Through a network of progressively maturing vesicles, the endosomal system connects the cell's interior with extracellular space. Intriguingly, this network exhibits a bilateral architecture, comprised of a relatively immobile perinuclear vesicle "cloud" and a highly dynamic peripheral contingent.

  15. Erythroid cell mitochondria receive endosomal iron by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Amel; Roshan, Tariq M; Kahawita, Tanya M; Mason, Anne B; Sheftel, Alex D; Ponka, Prem

    2016-12-01

    In erythroid cells, more than 90% of transferrin-derived iron enters mitochondria where ferrochelatase inserts Fe 2+ into protoporphyrin IX. However, the path of iron from endosomes to mitochondrial ferrochelatase remains elusive. The prevailing opinion is that, after its export from endosomes, the redox-active metal spreads into the cytosol and mysteriously finds its way into mitochondria through passive diffusion. In contrast, this study supports the hypothesis that the highly efficient transport of iron toward ferrochelatase in erythroid cells requires a direct interaction between transferrin-endosomes and mitochondria (the "kiss-and-run" hypothesis). Using a novel method (flow sub-cytometry), we analyze lysates of reticulocytes after labeling these organelles with different fluorophores. We have identified a double-labeled population definitively representing endosomes interacting with mitochondria, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Moreover, we conclude that this endosome-mitochondrion association is reversible, since a "chase" with unlabeled holotransferrin causes a time-dependent decrease in the size of the double-labeled population. Importantly, the dissociation of endosomes from mitochondria does not occur in the absence of holotransferrin. Additionally, mutated recombinant holotransferrin, that cannot release iron, significantly decreases the uptake of 59 Fe by reticulocytes and diminishes 59 Fe incorporation into heme. This suggests that endosomes, which are unable to provide iron to mitochondria, cause a "traffic jam" leading to decreased endocytosis of holotransferrin. Altogether, our results suggest that a molecular mechanism exists to coordinate the iron status of endosomal transferrin with its trafficking. Besides its contribution to the field of iron metabolism, this study provides evidence for a new intracellular trafficking pathway of organelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional and evolutionary analysis of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of MADS-box genes in the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Wenjun; Li, Zhineng; Song, Chi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yongliang; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    MADS-box transcriptional regulators play important roles during plant development. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction, the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of floral MADS-box genes underwent one or two duplication events in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. However, the functional evolution of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade in basal eudicots remains uncharacterized. Epimedium sagittatum is a basal eudicot species valued for its medicinal properties and showing unique floral morphology. In this study, structural and functional variation of FUL-like (AP1 subfamily), SEP-like and AGL6-like genes in this species was investigated to further our understanding of flower evolution in angiosperms. Detailed investigations into the microsynteny and evolutionary history of the floral A and E class MADS-box genes in eudicots were undertaken and used to trace their genomic rearrangements. One AP1-like gene, two SEP-like genes and one AGL6-like gene were cloned from E. sagittatum. Their expression patterns were examined using quantitative RT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive organs at two developmental stages. Yeast two-hybrid assays were carried out among AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade, AP3/PI and AGAMOUS subfamily members for elucidation of dimerization patterns. In addition, possible formation of a ternary complex involving B class proteins with the A class protein EsFUL-like, the E class SEP-like protein EsAGL2-1 or the AGL6-class protein EsAGL6 were detected using yeast three-hybrid assays. Transgenic Arabidopsis or tobacco plants expressing EsFUL-like, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL6-like under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter were generated and analysed. Genomic studies of AP1 syntenic regions in arabidopsis, columbine, strawberry, papaya, peach, grapevine and tomato were conducted for microsyntenic analyses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that EsFUL-like is a member of the AP1 (A class) subfamily, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL2-2 belong to the SEP-like (E class

  17. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  18. Aggregation of endosomal-vacuolar compartments in the Aovps24-deleted strain in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Akinori; Shoji, Jun-ya; Kikuma, Takashi; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we found that deletion of Aovps24, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS24, that encodes an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III component required for late endosomal function results in fragmented and aggregated vacuoles. Although defective late endosomal function is likely responsible for this phenotype, critical lack of our knowledge on late endosomes in filamentous fungi prevented us from further characterization. In this study, we identified late endosomes of Aspergillus oryzae, by expressing a series of fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with orthologs of late endosomal proteins. Using these fusion proteins as markers, we observed late endosomes in the wild type strain and the Aovps24 disruptant and demonstrated that late endosomes are aberrantly aggregated in the Aovps24 disruptant. Moreover, we revealed that the aggregated late endosomes have features of vacuoles as well. As deletion of another ESCRT-III component-encoding gene, Aovps2, resulted in similar phenotypes to that in the Aovps24 disruptant, phenotypes of the Aovps24 disruptant are probably due to defective late endosomal function

  19. The ESCRT regulator Did2 maintains the balance between long-distance endosomal transport and endocytic trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Haag

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes. Importantly, the late endosomal protein Rab7 and vacuolar protease Prc1 exhibit increased shuttling on these aberrant endosomes suggesting defects in endosomal maturation and identity. Consistently, molecular motors fail to attach efficiently explaining the disturbed processive movement. Furthermore, the endosomal mRNP linker protein Upa1 is hardly present on endosomes resulting in defects in long-distance mRNA transport. In conclusion, the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates precise maturation of endosomes and thus provides the correct membrane identity for efficient endosomal long-distance transport.

  20. Loss of epidermal AP1 transcription factor function reduces filaggrin level, alters chemokine expression and produces an ichthyosis-related phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina A; Rorke, Ellen A; Adhikary, Gautam; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L

    2017-06-01

    AP1 transcription factors are important controllers of epidermal differentiation. Multiple family members are expressed in the epidermis in a differentiation-dependent manner, where they function to regulate gene expression. To study the role of AP1 factor signaling, TAM67 (dominant-negative c-jun) was inducibly expressed in the suprabasal epidermis. The TAM67-positive epidermis displays keratinocyte hyperproliferation, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, delayed differentiation, extensive subdermal vasodilation, nuclear loricrin localization, tail and digit pseudoainhum and reduced filaggrin level. These changes are associated with increased levels of IFNγ, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 (Th1-associated chemokines), and CCL1, CCL2, CCL5 and CCL11 (Th2-associated chemokines) in the epidermis and serum. S100A8 and S100A9 protein levels are also markedly elevated. These changes in epidermal chemokine level are associated with increased levels of the corresponding chemokine mRNA. The largest increases were observed for CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and S100A8 and S100A9. To assess the role of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, which bind to CXCR3, on phenotype development, we expressed TAM67 in CXCR3 knockout mice. Using a similar strategy, we examine the role of S100A8 and S100A9. Surprisingly, loss of CXCR3 or S100A8/A9 did not attenuate phenotype development. These studies suggest that interfering with epidermal AP1 factor signaling initiates a loss of barrier function leading to enhanced epidermal chemokine production, but that CXCR3 and S100A8/A9 do not mediate the phenotypic response.

  1. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Bae, Yong Soo; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction

  2. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  3. Long-range enhancer associated with chromatin looping allows AP-1 regulation of the peptidylarginine deiminase 3 gene in differentiated keratinocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chavanas

    Full Text Available Transcription control at a distance is a critical mechanism, particularly for contiguous genes. The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs catalyse the conversion of protein-bound arginine into citrulline (deimination, a critical reaction in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and in the metabolism of the major epidermal barrier protein filaggrin, a strong predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. PADs are encoded by 5 clustered PADI genes (1p35-6. Unclear are the mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene PADI3 encoding the PAD3 isoform, a strong candidate for the deimination of filaggrin in the terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocyte. We describe the first PAD Intergenic Enhancer (PIE, an evolutionary conserved non coding segment located 86-kb from the PADI3 promoter. PIE is a strong enhancer of the PADI3 promoter in Ca2+-differentiated epidermal keratinocytes, and requires bound AP-1 factors, namely c-Jun and c-Fos. As compared to proliferative keratinocytes, calcium stimulation specifically associates with increased local DNase I hypersensitivity around PIE, and increased physical proximity of PIE and PADI3 as assessed by Chromosome Conformation Capture. The specific AP-1 inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid suppresses the calcium-induced increase of PADI3 mRNA levels in keratinocytes. Our findings pave the way to the exploration of deimination control during tumorigenesis and wound healing, two conditions for which AP-1 factors are critical, and disclose that long-range transcription control has a role in the regulation of the gene PADI3. Since invalidation of distant regulators causes a variety of human diseases, PIE results to be a plausible candidate in association studies on deimination-related disorders or atopic disease.

  4. Long-range enhancer associated with chromatin looping allows AP-1 regulation of the peptidylarginine deiminase 3 gene in differentiated keratinocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanas, Stéphane; Adoue, Véronique; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Ying, Shibo; Dong, Sijun; Duplan, Hélène; Charveron, Marie; Takahara, Hidenari; Serre, Guy; Simon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Transcription control at a distance is a critical mechanism, particularly for contiguous genes. The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyse the conversion of protein-bound arginine into citrulline (deimination), a critical reaction in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and in the metabolism of the major epidermal barrier protein filaggrin, a strong predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. PADs are encoded by 5 clustered PADI genes (1p35-6). Unclear are the mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene PADI3 encoding the PAD3 isoform, a strong candidate for the deimination of filaggrin in the terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocyte. We describe the first PAD Intergenic Enhancer (PIE), an evolutionary conserved non coding segment located 86-kb from the PADI3 promoter. PIE is a strong enhancer of the PADI3 promoter in Ca2+-differentiated epidermal keratinocytes, and requires bound AP-1 factors, namely c-Jun and c-Fos. As compared to proliferative keratinocytes, calcium stimulation specifically associates with increased local DNase I hypersensitivity around PIE, and increased physical proximity of PIE and PADI3 as assessed by Chromosome Conformation Capture. The specific AP-1 inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid suppresses the calcium-induced increase of PADI3 mRNA levels in keratinocytes. Our findings pave the way to the exploration of deimination control during tumorigenesis and wound healing, two conditions for which AP-1 factors are critical, and disclose that long-range transcription control has a role in the regulation of the gene PADI3. Since invalidation of distant regulators causes a variety of human diseases, PIE results to be a plausible candidate in association studies on deimination-related disorders or atopic disease.

  5. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  6. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of ursolic acid, a triterpenoid antioxidant, is mediated through suppression of NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Checker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA, a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, is the major component of many plants including apples, basil, cranberries, peppermint, rosemary, oregano and prunes and has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. These properties of UA have been attributed to its ability to suppress NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B activation. Since NF-κB, in co-ordination with NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells and AP-1(activator protein-1, is known to regulate inflammatory genes, we hypothesized that UA might exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The anti-inflammatory effects of UA were assessed in activated T cells, B cells and macrophages. Effects of UA on ERK, JNK, NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT were studied to elucidate its mechanism of action. In vivo efficacy of UA was studied using mouse model of graft-versus-host disease. UA inhibited activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion in T cells, B cells and macrophages. UA inhibited mitogen-induced up-regulation of activation markers and co-stimulatory molecules in T and B cells. It inhibited mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and suppressed the activation of immunoregulatory transcription factors NF-κB, NF-AT and AP-1 in lymphocytes. Treatment of cells with UA prior to allogenic transplantation significantly delayed induction of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice and also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. UA treatment inhibited T cell activation even when added post-mitogenic stimulation demonstrating its therapeutic utility as an anti-inflammatory agent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study describes the detailed mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of UA. Further, UA may find application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  7. MCP-1 Upregulates Amylin Expression in Murine Pancreatic β Cells through ERK/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB Related Signaling Pathways Independent of CCR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kun; Qi, Dongfei; Hou, Xinwei; Wang, Oumei; Chen, Juan; Deng, Bo; Qian, Lihua; Liu, Xiaolong; Le, Yingying

    2011-01-01

    Background Amylin is the most abundant component of islet amyloid implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Plasma amylin levels are elevated in individuals with obesity and insulin resistance. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) is involved in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of MCP-1 on amylin expression and the underlying mechanisms with murine pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 and pancreatic islets. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that MCP-1 induced amylin expression at transcriptional level and increased proamylin and intermediate forms of amylin at protein level in MIN6 cells and islets. However, MCP-1 had no effect on the expressions of proinsulin 1 and 2, as well as prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2, suggesting that MCP-1 specifically induces amylin expression in β-cells. Mechanistic studies showed that although there is no detectable CCR2 mRNA in MIN6 cells and islets, pretreatment of MIN6 cells with pertussis toxin inhibited MCP-1 induced amylin expression, suggesting that alternative Gi-coupled receptor(s) mediates the inductive effect of MCP-1. MCP-1 rapidly induced ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibitors for MEK1/2 (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) or AP1 (curcumin) significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin mRNA expression. MCP-1 failed to induce amylin expression in pancreatic islets isolated from Fos knockout mice. EMSA showed that JNK and ERK1/2 were involved in MCP-1-induced AP1 activation. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces murine amylin expression through AP1 activation mediated by ERK1/2 or JNK. Further studies showed that treatment of MIN6 cells with NF-κB inhibitor or overexpression of IκBα dominant-negative construct in MIN6 cells significantly inhibited MCP-1-induced amylin expression, suggesting that NF-κB related signaling also participates in MCP-1-induced murine amylin expression. Conclusions/Significance MCP-1 induces amylin expression through ERK1/2/JNK-AP

  8. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Rai

    Full Text Available CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  9. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shinya; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Mai; Ogoh, Honami; Taniguchi, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yasuyoshi; Shimada, Takahiro; Tanimura, Akira; Matsui, Keiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Oritani, Kenji; Tanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Matsumura, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK) cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT) MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  10. Sulforaphane controls TPA-induced MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, but not AP-1, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rae Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl-butane] is anisothiocyanate found in some cruciferous vegetables, especiallybroccoli. Sulforaphane has been shown to displayanti-cancer properties against various cancer cell lines. Matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, which degrades the extracellularmatrix (ECM, plays an important role in cancer cell invasion.In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced MMP-9expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 cells. TPA-inducedMMP-9 expression and cell invasion were decreased bysulforaphane treatment. TPA substantially increased NF-κB andAP-1 DNA binding activity. Pre-treatment with sulforaphaneinhibited TPA-stimulated NF-κB binding activity, but not AP-1binding activity. In addition, we found that sulforaphanesuppressed NF-κB activation, by inhibiting phosphorylation ofIκB in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. In this study, we demonstratedthat the inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cellinvasion by sulforaphane was mediated by the suppression ofthe NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4:201-206

  11. [6]-Gingerol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and prevents PMA-induced proliferation in colon cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK/AP-1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E K Radhakrishnan

    Full Text Available We report mechanism-based evidence for the anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol, the major active principle of the medicinal plant, Ginger (Zingiber officinale, in colon cancer cells. The compound was evaluated in two human colon cancer cell lines for its cytotoxic effect and the most sensitive cell line, SW-480, was selected for the mechanistic evaluation of its anticancer and chemopreventive efficacy. The non-toxic nature of [6]-gingerol was confirmed by viability assays on rapidly dividing normal mouse colon cells. [6]-gingerol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidyl serine in SW-480, while the normal colon cells were unaffected. Sensitivity to [6]-gingerol in SW-480 cells was associated with activation of caspases 8, 9, 3 &7 and cleavage of PARP, which attests induction of apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, [6]-gingerol down-regulated Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAP kinases and activation of AP-1 transcription factor, but had only little effects on phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and activation of NF-kappa B. Additionally, it complemented the inhibitors of either ERK1/2 or JNK MAP kinase in bringing down the PMA-induced cell proliferation in SW-480 cells. We report the inhibition of ERK1/2/JNK/AP-1 pathway as a possible mechanism behind the anticancer as well as chemopreventive efficacy of [6]-gingerol against colon cancer.

  12. Bee Venom Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines through Suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Hae Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS, is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced activation of the signaling pathways of inflammatory cytokines-related transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1. BV effectively inhibited those pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. These results suggest that administration of BV attenuates PgLPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, BV may be a useful treatment to anti-inflammatory therapy for periodontitis.

  13. Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao-Bin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Pen-Yuan; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2012-01-01

    High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE) exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

  14. Sulforaphane controls TPA-induced MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, but not AP-1, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Hwang, Bo-Mi; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Sung-Ho; Jung, Sung Hoo; Youn, Hyun Jo; Chung, Eun Yong; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2013-04-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] is an isothiocyanate found in some cruciferous vegetables, especially broccoli. Sulforaphane has been shown to display anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell lines. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays an important role in cancer cell invasion. In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 cells. TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion were decreased by sulforaphane treatment. TPA substantially increased NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. Pre-treatment with sulforaphane inhibited TPA-stimulated NF-κB binding activity, but not AP-1 binding activity. In addition, we found that sulforaphane suppressed NF-κB activation, by inhibiting phosphorylation of IκB in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion by sulforaphane was mediated by the suppression of the NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells.

  15. Bee Venom Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines through Suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Park, Jae-Bok; Sung, Woo Jung; Kwon, Yong-Chul; Park, Kyung-Duck; Han, Sang Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-11-10

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced activation of the signaling pathways of inflammatory cytokines-related transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). BV effectively inhibited those pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. These results suggest that administration of BV attenuates PgLPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, BV may be a useful treatment to anti-inflammatory therapy for periodontitis.

  16. Transcription of the transforming genes of the oncogenic human papillomavirus-16 is stimulated by tumor promotors through AP1 binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Woonkhiong; Chong, T.; Bernard, H.U.; Klock, G. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore))

    1990-02-25

    The promoter P97 of human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) gives rise to transcripts that encode the principal transforming genes of the virus, E6 and E7. The activity of P97 is regulated by a cell-type-specific enhancer as well as by glucocorticoids and progesterone. The authors show here, that in CaSki cells, which contain HPV-16 genomes, P97 is also inducible by phorbol esters. Functional analysis of restriction fragments and oligonucleotides of the viral enhancer localizes two phorbol ester response elements on two transcription factor binding sites termed fp4e and fp9e. Sequence comparison, footprint analysis and bandshift competition of the cloned motifs suggest that both fp4e and fp9e are bound by the transcription factor AP1. These AP1 binding sites in HPV-16 and other papillomaviruses may provide a link between cellular oncogenes like jun, fos and possibly ras, whose transcription stimulating activity may lead to an elevated expression of the viral transforming genes E6 and E7.

  17. Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bin Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and morbidity rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Taiwan primarily result from uncontrolled tumor metastasis. Previous studies have identified that Terminalia catappa leaf extracts (TCE exert hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antimetastatic activities. However, the effects of TCE on HCC and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its activities have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study's findings demonstrate that TCE concentration dependently inhibits human HCC migration/invasion. Zymographic and western blot analyses revealed that TCE inhibited the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Assessment of mRNA levels, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR, and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 expression in HCC cells. The inhibitory effects of TCE on MMP-9 proceeded by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and activating protein-1 (AP-1 on the MMP-9 promoter in Huh7 cells. In conclusion, TCE inhibits MMP-9 expression and HCC cell metastasis and, thus, has potential use as a chemopreventive agent. Its inhibitory effects are associated with downregulation of the binding activities of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse CD11c promoter by AP-1 complex with JunD and Fra2 in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Mutsuko; Yokoyama, Hokuto; Fukuyama, Kanako; Kitamura, Nao; Shimokawa, Naomi; Maeda, Keiko; Kanada, Shunsuke; Ito, Tomonobu; Usui, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Nishiyama, Makoto; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2013-03-01

    CD11c, a member of the β(2) integrin family of adhesion molecule, is expressed on the surface of myeloid lineages and activated lymphoid cells and forms a heterodimeric receptor with CD18. We analyzed the mouse CD11c promoter structure to elucidate the transcriptional regulation in dendritic cells (DCs). By reporter assay, the -84/-65 region was identified to be essential for activity of the mouse CD11c promoter in the mouse bone marrow-derived (BM) DCs and monocyte cell line RAW264.7. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using a number of antibodies against transcription factors revealed that the target region was recognized by a complex including JunD and Fra2, which are transcription factors belonging to the AP-1 family. The direct interaction of JunD and Fra2 with the CD11c promoter was further confirmed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using CD11c-positive cells purified from BMDCs. Finally, mouse JunD and/or Fra2 siRNA was introduced into BMDCs to evaluate the involvement of these factors against CD11c transcription and found that Fra2 siRNA reduced cell surface expression level of CD11c. These results indicate that AP-1 composed with JunD and Fra2 protein plays a primary role in enhancing the transcription level of the CD11c gene in DC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radical Scavenging Activity-Based and AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lutein in Macrophage-Like and Skin Keratinocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueun Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL- 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX- 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF- α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP- 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.

  20. Neuropilin-2 Regulates Endosome Maturation and EGFR Trafficking to Support Cancer Cell Pathobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Samikshan; Roy, Sohini; Polavaram, Navatha S; Stanton, Marissa J; Zhang, Heyu; Bhola, Tanvi; Hönscheid, Pia; Donohue, Terrence M; Band, Hamid; Batra, Surinder K; Muders, Michael H; Datta, Kaustubh

    2016-01-15

    Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a non-tyrosine kinase receptor frequently overexpressed in various malignancies, where it has been implicated in promoting many protumorigenic behaviors, such as imparting therapeutic resistance to metastatic cancer cells. Here, we report a novel function of NRP2 as a regulator of endocytosis, which is enhanced in cancer cells and is often associated with increased metastatic potential and drug resistance. We found that NRP2 depletion in human prostate and pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the accumulation of EEA1/Rab5-positive early endosomes concomitant with a decrease in Rab7-positive late endosomes, suggesting a delay in early-to-late endosome maturation. NRP2 depletion also impaired the endocytic transport of cell surface EGFR, arresting functionally active EGFR in endocytic vesicles that consequently led to aberrant ERK activation and cell death. Mechanistic investigations revealed that WD-repeat- and FYVE-domain-containing protein 1 (WDFY1) functioned downstream of NRP2 to promote endosome maturation, thereby influencing the endosomal trafficking of EGFR and the formation of autolysosomes responsible for the degradation of internalized cargo. Overall, our results indicate that the NRP2/WDFY1 axis is required for maintaining endocytic activity in cancer cells, which supports their oncogenic activities and confers drug resistance. Therefore, therapeutically targeting endocytosis may represent an attractive strategy to selectively target cancer cells in multiple malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. RACK-1 Directs Dynactin-dependent RAB-11 Endosomal Recycling during Mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Erkang; Poole, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane trafficking pathways are necessary for the addition and removal of membrane during cytokinesis. In animal cells, recycling endosomes act as a major source of the additional membranes during furrow progression and abscission. However, the mechanisms and factors that regulate recycling endosomes during the cell cycle remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Receptor of Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK-1) is required for cytokinesis, germline membrane organization, and the recruitment of RAB-11–labeled recycling endosomes to the pericentrosomal region and spindle. RACK-1 is also required for proper chromosome separation and astral microtubule length. RACK-1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores, the midbody, and nuclear envelopes during the cell cycle. We found that RACK-1 directly binds to DNC-2, the C. elegans p50/dynamitin subunit of the dynactin complex. Last, RACK-1 may facilitate the sequestration of recycling endosomes by targeting DNC-2 to centrosomes and the spindle. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which RACK-1 directs the dynactin-dependent redistribution of recycling endosomes during the cell cycle, thus ensuring proper membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis. PMID:19158384

  2. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  3. Diffusional mechanisms augment the fluorine MR relaxation in paramagnetic perfluorocarbon nanoparticles that provides a "relaxation switch" for detecting cellular endosomal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingzhi; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Junjie; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2011-09-01

    To develop a physical model for the (19)F relaxation enhancement in paramagnetic perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) and demonstrate its application in monitoring cellular endosomal functionality through a "(19)F relaxation switch" phenomenon. An explicit expression for (19)F longitudinal relaxation enhancement was derived analytically. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to confirm the gadolinium-induced magnetic field inhomogeneity inside the PFC NP. Field-dependent T(1) measurements for three types of paramagnetic PFC NPs were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Based on the physical model, (19)F and (1)H relaxation properties of macrophage internalized paramagnetic PFC NPs were measured to evaluate the intracellular process of NPs by macrophages in vitro. The theoretical description was confirmed experimentally by field-dependent T(1) measurements. The shortening of (19)F T(1) was found to be attributed to the Brownian motion of PFC molecules inside the NP in conjunction with their ability to permeate into the lipid surfactant coating. A dramatic change of (19)F T(1) was observed upon endocytosis, revealing the transition from intact bound PFC NP to processed constituents. The proposed first-principle analysis of (19)F spins in paramagnetic PFC NP relates their structural parameters to the special MR relaxation features. The demonstrated "(19)F relaxation switch" phenomenon is potentially useful for monitoring cellular endosomal functionality. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Tethering of the conserved piggyBac transposase fusion protein CSB-PGBD3 to chromosomal AP-1 proteins regulates expression of nearby genes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lucas T; Fong, Kimberly K; Pavelitz, Thomas; Weiner, Alan M

    2012-09-01

    The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein arose more than 43 million years ago when a 2.5-kb piggyBac 3 (PGBD3) transposon inserted into intron 5 of the Cockayne syndrome Group B (CSB) gene in the common ancestor of all higher primates. As a result, full-length CSB is now coexpressed with an abundant CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein by alternative splicing of CSB exons 1-5 to the PGBD3 transposase. An internal deletion of the piggyBac transposase ORF also gave rise to 889 dispersed, 140-bp MER85 elements that were mobilized in trans by PGBD3 transposase. The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein binds MER85s in vitro and induces a strong interferon-like innate antiviral immune response when expressed in CSB-null UVSS1KO cells. To explore the connection between DNA binding and gene expression changes induced by CSB-PGBD3, we investigated the genome-wide DNA binding profile of the fusion protein. CSB-PGBD3 binds to 363 MER85 elements in vivo, but these sites do not correlate with gene expression changes induced by the fusion protein. Instead, CSB-PGBD3 is enriched at AP-1, TEAD1, and CTCF motifs, presumably through protein-protein interactions with the cognate transcription factors; moreover, recruitment of CSB-PGBD3 to AP-1 and TEAD1 motifs correlates with nearby genes regulated by CSB-PGBD3 expression in UVSS1KO cells and downregulated by CSB rescue of mutant CS1AN cells. Consistent with these data, the N-terminal CSB domain of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein interacts with the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun and with RNA polymerase II, and a chimeric CSB-LacI construct containing only the N-terminus of CSB upregulates many of the genes induced by CSB-PGBD3. We conclude that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein substantially reshapes the transcriptome in CS patient CS1AN and that continued expression of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein in the absence of functional CSB may affect the clinical presentation of CS patients by directly altering the transcriptional program.

  5. Tethering of the conserved piggyBac transposase fusion protein CSB-PGBD3 to chromosomal AP-1 proteins regulates expression of nearby genes in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T Gray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein arose more than 43 million years ago when a 2.5-kb piggyBac 3 (PGBD3 transposon inserted into intron 5 of the Cockayne syndrome Group B (CSB gene in the common ancestor of all higher primates. As a result, full-length CSB is now coexpressed with an abundant CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein by alternative splicing of CSB exons 1-5 to the PGBD3 transposase. An internal deletion of the piggyBac transposase ORF also gave rise to 889 dispersed, 140-bp MER85 elements that were mobilized in trans by PGBD3 transposase. The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein binds MER85s in vitro and induces a strong interferon-like innate antiviral immune response when expressed in CSB-null UVSS1KO cells. To explore the connection between DNA binding and gene expression changes induced by CSB-PGBD3, we investigated the genome-wide DNA binding profile of the fusion protein. CSB-PGBD3 binds to 363 MER85 elements in vivo, but these sites do not correlate with gene expression changes induced by the fusion protein. Instead, CSB-PGBD3 is enriched at AP-1, TEAD1, and CTCF motifs, presumably through protein-protein interactions with the cognate transcription factors; moreover, recruitment of CSB-PGBD3 to AP-1 and TEAD1 motifs correlates with nearby genes regulated by CSB-PGBD3 expression in UVSS1KO cells and downregulated by CSB rescue of mutant CS1AN cells. Consistent with these data, the N-terminal CSB domain of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein interacts with the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun and with RNA polymerase II, and a chimeric CSB-LacI construct containing only the N-terminus of CSB upregulates many of the genes induced by CSB-PGBD3. We conclude that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein substantially reshapes the transcriptome in CS patient CS1AN and that continued expression of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein in the absence of functional CSB may affect the clinical presentation of CS patients by directly altering the transcriptional program.

  6. TNF-alpha promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of gallbladder cancer through the ERK1/2/AP-1/VEGF-D pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, HaiJie; Jiang, Lei; Lin, YanFei; He, CaiLong; Zhu, GuangWei; Du, Qiang; Wang, XiaoQian; She, FeiFei; Chen, YanLing

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a key player in cancer-related inflammation, was recently demonstrated to be involved in the lymphatic metastasis of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a key lymphangiogenic factor that is associated with lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in GBC. However, whether VEGF-D is involved in TNF-α-induced lymphatic metastasis of GBC remains undetermined. The expression of VEGF-D in patient specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry and the relationship between VEGF-D in the tissue and TNF-α in the bile of the matching patients was analyzed. The VEGF-D mRNA and protein levels after treatment with exogenous TNF-α in NOZ, GBC-SD and SGC-996 cell lines were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA. The promoter activity and transcriptional regulation of VEGF-D were analyzed with the relative luciferase reporter assay, mutant constructs, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, RNA interference and Western blotting. Inhibitors of JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were used to explore the upstream signaling effector of AP-1. We used lentiviral vector expressing a VEGF-D shRNA construct to knockdown VEGF-D gene in NOZ and GBC-SD cells. The role of the TNF-α-VEGF-D axis in the tube formation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) was determined using a three-dimensional coculture system. The role of the TNF-α - VEGF-D axis in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis was studied via animal experiment. TNF-α levels in the bile of GBC patients were positively correlated with VEGF-D expression in the clinical specimens. TNF-α can upregulate the protein expression and promoter activity of VEGF-D through the ERK1/2 - AP-1 pathway. Moreover, TNF-α can promote tube formation of HDLECs, lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of GBC by upregulation of VEGF-D in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that TNF-α can promote

  7. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-05-19

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  8. Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Sessions, Richard B.; Traer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) are regulators of endosomal sorting. For the SNX-BAR subgroup, a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain is vital for formation/stabilization of tubular subdomains that mediate cargo recycling. Here, by analysing the in vitro membrane remodelling properties of all 12 human SNX......-loop' interactions. Overall, the restricted and selective nature of these interactions provide a molecular explanation for how distinct SNX-BAR-decorated tubules are nucleated from the same endosomal vacuole, as observed in living cells. Our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism that generates...

  9. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins from endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G; Irannejad, Roshanak; von Zastrow, Mark

    2015-03-13

    Some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in addition to activating heterotrimeric G proteins in the plasma membrane, appear to elicit a "second wave" of G protein activation after ligand-induced internalization. We briefly summarize evidence supporting this view and then discuss what is presently known about the functional significance of GPCR-G protein activation in endosomes. Endosomal activation can shape the cellular response temporally by prolonging its overall duration, and may shape the response spatially by moving the location of intracellular second messenger production relative to effectors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  11. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-κB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-01-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-κB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-κB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-κB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements

  12. The Connecdenn DENN domain: a GEF for Rab35 mediating cargo-specific exit from early endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Patrick D; Marat, Andrea L; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; McPherson, Peter S; Ritter, Brigitte

    2010-02-12

    The DENN domain is an evolutionarily ancient protein module. Mutations in the DENN domain cause developmental defects in plants and human diseases, yet the function of this common module is unknown. We now demonstrate that the connecdenn/DENND1A DENN domain functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab35 to regulate endosomal membrane trafficking. Loss of Rab35 activity causes an enlargement of early endosomes and inhibits MHC class I recycling. Moreover, it prevents early endosomal recruitment of EHD1, a common component of tubules involved in endosomal cargo recycling. Our data reveal an enzymatic activity for a DENN domain and demonstrate that distinct Rab GTPases can recruit a common protein machinery to various sites within the endosomal network to establish cargo-selective recycling pathways.

  13. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase, c-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase, and Calcineurin Regulate Transient Receptor Potential M3 (TRPM3) Induced Activation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Andrea; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2017-08-01

    Stimulation of transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) cation channels with pregnenolone sulfate induces an influx of Ca 2+ ions into the cells and a rise in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, leading to the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active mutant of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin attenuated pregnenolone sulfate-induced AP-1 activation in TRPM3-expressing cells. Likewise, expression of the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin reduced AP-1 activity in the cells following stimulation of TRPM3 channels. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 has been shown to attenuate TRPM3-mediated AP-1 activation. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate-induced stimulation of TRPM3 triggers the phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2). Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that stimulation of ERK1/2 is essential for the activation of AP-1 in cells expressing stimulated TRPM3 channels. ERK1/2 is required for the activation of the transcription factor c-Jun, a key component of the AP-1 transcription factor, and regulates c-Fos promoter activity. In addition, we identified c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) as a second signal transducer of activated TRPM3 channels. Together, the data show that calcineurin and the protein kinases ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 are important regulators within the signaling cascade connecting TRPM3 channel stimulation with increased AP-1-regulated transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2409-2419, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A fresh look at the function of Rabaptin5 on endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälin, Simone; Buser, Dominik P.; Spiess, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rab GTPases act as organizers of protein networks defining identities and functions of organelles of the endocytic and secretory pathways. Various modes of coordination between different Rabs drive the timely maturation and conversion of membranes. Endosomal Rab5 has been known as the prime example for self-activation via a feedback loop recruiting Rabaptin5, which is complexed with the Rab5 exchange factor Rabex5, and couples to Rab4-GTP. Among other effectors, Rab5 also recruits the Mon1/SAND1-Ccz1 complex that both activates Rab7 and dissociates Rabex5 for Rab5-to-Rab7 conversion of early-to-late endosomes. A detailed deletion analysis now revealed 2 separate binding sites each for Rab4-GTP and Rab5-GTP and indicates a feedforward mechanism of Rab5 activation. Rabaptin5/Rabex5 is recruited to endosomal membranes positive for Rab4-GTP and ubiquitinated cargo (binding to the ubiquitin binding site of Rabex5). This mechanism also suggests additional criteria for Rab5 inactivation concomitant with increasing Rab7-GTP levels. The disappearance of ubiquitinated cargo upon ESCRT-mediated formation of intraluminal vesicles and inactivation of Rab4 may also contribute to loss of Rab5 activation. Rabaptin5/Rabex5 thus may integrate several cues of maturation to perform Rab conversion. Furthermore Rab5 binding to Rabaptin5 appears to prevent uncontrolled progression to late endosomes. PMID:26940354

  15. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus uses a novel endocytic pathway for infectious entry via late endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirin, Katharina; Eschli, Bruno; Scheu, Isabella; Poort, Linda; Kartenbeck, Juergen; Helenius, Ari

    2008-01-01

    The endocytic entry of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) into host cells was compared to the entry of viruses known to exploit clathrin or caveolae/raft-dependent pathways. Pharmacological inhibitors, expression of pathway-specific dominant-negative constructs, and siRNA silencing of clathrin together with electron and light microscopy provided evidence that although a minority population followed a classical clathrin-mediated mechanism of entry, the majority of these enveloped RNA viruses used a novel endocytic route to late endosomes. The pathway was clathrin, dynamin-2, actin, Arf6, flotillin-1, caveolae, and lipid raft independent but required membrane cholesterol. Unaffected by perturbation of Rab5 or Rab7 and apparently without passing through Rab5/EEA1-positive early endosomes, the viruses reached late endosomes and underwent acid-induced penetration. This membrane trafficking route between the plasma membrane and late endosomes may function in the turnover of a select group of surface glycoproteins such as the dystroglycan complex, which serves as the receptor of LCMV

  16. Endosomal gene expression: a new indicator for prostate cancer patient prognosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Ian R D

    2015-11-10

    Prostate cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men, but a method for accurate prognosis in these patients is yet to be developed. The recent discovery of altered endosomal biogenesis in prostate cancer has identified a fundamental change in the cell biology of this cancer, which holds great promise for the identification of novel biomarkers that can predict disease outcomes. Here we have identified significantly altered expression of endosomal genes in prostate cancer compared to non-malignant tissue in mRNA microarrays and confirmed these findings by qRT-PCR on fresh-frozen tissue. Importantly, we identified endosomal gene expression patterns that were predictive of patient outcomes. Two endosomal tri-gene signatures were identified from a previously published microarray cohort and had a significant capacity to stratify patient outcomes. The expression of APPL1, RAB5A, EEA1, PDCD6IP, NOX4 and SORT1 were altered in malignant patient tissue, when compared to indolent and normal prostate tissue. These findings support the initiation of a case-control study using larger cohorts of prostate tissue, with documented patient outcomes, to determine if different combinations of these new biomarkers can accurately predict disease status and clinical progression in prostate cancer patients.

  17. Natural Modulators of Endosomal Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Psoriatic Skin Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yang Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can be initiated by excessive activation of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs, particularly TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. Therefore, inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation are being investigated for their ability to treat this disease. The currently approved biological drugs adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, ixekizumab, and secukizumab are antibodies against effector cytokines that participate in the initiation and development of psoriasis. Several immune modulatory oligonucleotides and small molecular weight compounds, including IMO-3100, IMO-8400, and CPG-52364, that block the interaction between endosomal TLRs and their ligands are under clinical investigation for their effectiveness in the treatment of psoriasis. In addition, several chemical compounds, including AS-2444697, PF-05387252, PF-05388169, PF-06650833, ML120B, and PHA-408, can inhibit TLR signaling. Although these compounds have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, their therapeutic potential for the treatment of psoriasis has not yet been tested. Recent studies demonstrated that natural compounds derived from plants, fungi, and bacteria, including mustard seed, Antrodia cinnamomea extract, curcumin, resveratrol, thiostrepton, azithromycin, and andrographolide, inhibited psoriasis-like inflammation induced by the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in animal models. These natural modulators employ different mechanisms to inhibit endosomal TLR activation and are administered via different routes. Therefore, they represent candidate psoriasis drugs and might lead to the development of new treatment options.

  18. Disrupting Vesicular Trafficking at the Endosome Attenuates Transcriptional Activation by Gcn4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, F.; Gaur, N. A.; Hašek, Jiří; Kim, S.-j.; Qiu, H.; Swanson, M. J.; Hinnebusch, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 22 (2008), s. 6796-6818 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk ME 939 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : endosome * vesicular * gcn4 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.942, year: 2008

  19. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  20. Investigation of endosome and lysosome biology by ultra pH-sensitive nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chensu; Zhao, Tian; Li, Yang; Huang, Gang; White, Michael A; Gao, Jinming

    2017-04-01

    Endosomes and lysosomes play a critical role in various aspects of cell physiology such as nutrient sensing, receptor recycling, protein/lipid catabolism, and cell death. In drug delivery, endosomal release of therapeutic payloads from nanocarriers is also important in achieving efficient delivery of drugs to reach their intracellular targets. Recently, we invented a library of ultra pH-sensitive (UPS) nanoprobes with exquisite fluorescence response to subtle pH changes. The UPS nanoprobes also displayed strong pH-specific buffer effect over small molecular bases with broad pH responses (e.g., chloroquine and NH 4 Cl). Tunable pH transitions from 7.4 to 4.0 of UPS nanoprobes cover the entire physiological pH of endocytic organelles (e.g., early and late endosomes) and lysosomes. These unique physico-chemical properties of UPS nanoprobes allowed a 'detection and perturbation' strategy for the investigation of luminal pH in cell signaling and metabolism, which introduces a nanotechnology-enabled paradigm for the biological studies of endosomes and lysosomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Tatiana; Merlen, Clémence; Fabrega, Sylvie; Authier, François

    2007-05-01

    Using the in situ liver model system, we have recently shown that, after cholera toxin binding to hepatic cells, cholera toxin accumulates in a low-density endosomal compartment, and then undergoes endosomal proteolysis by the aspartic acid protease cathepsin-D [Merlen C, Fayol-Messaoudi D, Fabrega S, El Hage T, Servin A, Authier F (2005) FEBS J272, 4385-4397]. Here, we have used a subcellular fractionation approach to address the in vivo compartmentalization and cytotoxic action of cholera toxin in rat liver parenchyma. Following administration of a saturating dose of cholera toxin to rats, rapid endocytosis of both cholera toxin subunits was observed, coincident with massive internalization of both the 45 kDa and 47 kDa Gsalpha proteins. These events coincided with the endosomal recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor proteins, especially ADP-ribosylation factor-6, with a time course identical to that of toxin and the A subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha) translocation. After an initial lag phase of 30 min, these constituents were linked to NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of endogenous Gsalpha, with maximum accumulation observed at 30-60 min postinjection. Assessment of the subsequent postendosomal fate of internalized Gsalpha revealed sustained endolysosomal transfer of the two Gsalpha isoforms. Concomitantly, cholera toxin increased in vivo endosome acidification rates driven by the ATP-dependent H(+)-ATPase pump and in vitro vacuolar acidification in hepatoma HepG2 cells. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A partially inhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, the cAMP response to cholera toxin. This cathepsin D-dependent action of cholera toxin under the control of endosomal acidity was confirmed using cellular systems in which modification of the expression levels of cathepsin D, either by transfection of the cathepsin D gene or small interfering RNA, was followed by parallel changes in the cytotoxic

  2. Antroquinonol from Antrodia Camphorata suppresses breast tumor migration/invasion through inhibiting ERK-AP-1- and AKT-NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-Theng; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung; Chen, Yen-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Antroquinonol (ANQ) is an ubiquinon derivative isolated from the mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. However, the effect of ANQ on breast cancer treatment is unknown. We found that ANQ significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, and inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced invasiveness by MCF7 cells. ANQ inhibiting MMP-9 gene expression and enzymatic activity occurred at transcriptional regulation. Mechanistically, activation of ERK and AKT is crucial for MMP-9 gene expression, and the addition of ANQ suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. The induction of the AP-1 and NF-κB pathway participated in MMP-9 gene expression. Suppression of ERK inhibited AP-1, whereas blocking AKT diminished NF-κB activity, and treatment with ANQ suppressed both AP-1 and NF-κB signaling. Moreover, ANQ suppressed EMT protein expression, and inhibited TPA-induced EMT through downregulating the ERK-AP-1 and AKT-NF-κB signaling cascades. Together, our data showed for the first time that ANQ inhibited breast cancer invasiveness by suppressing ERK-AP-1- and AKT-NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and EMT expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Common traffic routes for imported spermine and endosomal glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate in fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2018-03-15

    Import of the polyamine spermine from the extracellular environment depends on the presence of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as glypican-1. This proteoglycan is internalized by endocytosis, releases its heparan sulfate chains in endosomes by a nitric oxide-, copper- and amyloid precursor protein-dependent mechanism, then penetrates the membrane and is transported to the nucleus and then to autophagosomes. This process is spontaneous or induced by ascorbate depending on the growth-state of the cell. Here, we have explored possible connections between the heparan sulfate traffic route and spermine uptake and delivery in wild-type and Tg2576 mouse fibroblasts. Cells were examined by deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy. The antibodies used were specific for spermine, glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate, Rab7, nucleolin and a marker for autophagosomes. Endogenous immunostainable spermine was primarily associated with autophagosomes. When spermine synthesis was inhibited, imported spermine appeared in Rab7-positive endosomes. When ascorbate was added, heparan sulfate and spermine were transported to the nucleus where they colocalized with nucleolin. Spermine also appeared in autophagosomes. In a pulse-chase experiment, heparan sulfate and spermine were first arrested in late endosomes by actinomycin D treatment. During the chase, when arrest was abolished, heparan sulfate and spermine were both transported to the nucleus and targeted nucleolin. In amyloid precursor protein -/- -fibroblasts, ascorbate failed to induce release of heparan sulfate and spermine remained in the endosomes. We propose that cell surface glypican-1 carries spermine to the endosomes and that the released heparan sulfate carries spermine across the membrane into the cytosol and then to the nucleus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Delta FosB and AP-1-mediated transcription modulate cannabinoid CB₁ receptor signaling and desensitization in striatal and limbic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, Matthew F; David, Bethany G; Lichtman, Aron H; Nestler, Eric J; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2014-10-01

    Repeated Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration produces cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB₁R) desensitization and downregulation, as well as tolerance to its in vivo pharmacological effects. However, the magnitude of CB₁R desensitization varies by brain region, with CB₁Rs in the striatum and its output nuclei undergoing less desensitization than other regions. A growing body of data indicates that regional differences in CB₁R desensitization are produced, in part, by THC-mediated induction of the stable transcription factor, ΔFosB, and subsequent regulation of CB₁Rs. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether THC-mediated induction of ΔFosB in the striatum inhibits CB₁R desensitization in the striatum and output nuclei. This hypothesis was tested using bitransgenic mice with inducible expression of ΔFosB or ΔcJun, a dominant negative inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transcription, in specific forebrain regions. Mice were treated repeatedly with escalating doses of THC or vehicle for 6.5 days, and CB₁R-mediated G-protein activation was assessed using CP55,940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography. Overexpression of ΔFosB in striatal dopamine type 1 receptor-containing (D1R) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) attenuated CB₁R desensitization in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and amygdala. Expression of ΔcJun in striatal D1R- and dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R)-containing MSNs enhanced CB₁R desensitization in the caudate-putamen and attenuated desensitization in the hippocampus and VTA. THC-mediated in vivo pharmacological effects were then assessed in ΔcJun-expressing mice. Tolerance to THC-mediated hypomotility was enhanced in ΔcJun-expressing mice. These data reveal that ΔFosB and possibly other AP-1 binding proteins regulate CB₁R signaling and adaptation in the striatum and limbic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin–actin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7+ endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor–induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover. PMID:26323691

  6. Basolateral Endocytic Recycling Requires RAB-10 and AMPH-1 Mediated Recruitment of RAB-5 GAP TBC-2 to Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Liu

    Full Text Available The small GTPase RAB-5/Rab5 is a master regulator of the early endosome, required for a myriad of coordinated activities, including the degradation and recycling of internalized cargo. Here we focused on the recycling function of the early endosome and the regulation of RAB-5 by GAP protein TBC-2 in the basolateral C. elegans intestine. We demonstrate that downstream basolateral recycling regulators, GTPase RAB-10/Rab10 and BAR domain protein AMPH-1/Amphiphysin, bind to TBC-2 and help to recruit it to endosomes. In the absence of RAB-10 or AMPH-1 binding to TBC-2, RAB-5 membrane association is abnormally high and recycling cargo is trapped in early endosomes. Furthermore, the loss of TBC-2 or AMPH-1 leads to abnormally high spatial overlap of RAB-5 and RAB-10. Taken together our results indicate that RAB-10 and AMPH-1 mediated down-regulation of RAB-5 is an important step in recycling, required for cargo exit from early endosomes and regulation of early endosome-recycling endosome interactions.

  7. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Activator protein (AP)-1 family members play important roles in the development and maintenance of the adult skeleton. Transgenic mice that overexpress the naturally occurring DeltaFosB splice variant of FosB develop severe osteosclerosis. Translation of Deltafosb mRNA produces both...... that overexpress only Delta2DeltaFosB using the enolase 2 (ENO2) promoter-driven bitransgenic Tet-Off system. RESULTS: Despite Delta2DeltaFosB's failure to induce transcription of an AP-1 reporter gene, the transgenic mice exhibited both the bone and the fat phenotypes seen in the ENO2-DeltaFosB mice. Both Delta......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  8. Smac mimetic induces an early wave of gene expression via NF-κB and AP-1 and a second wave via TNFR1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nadine; Haydn, Tinka; Schneider, Ines; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Fulda, Simone

    2018-05-01

    Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) mimetics are considered as promising cancer therapeutics, but little is yet known about how they alter gene expression. In this study, we used an unbiased genome-wide expression array to investigate gene regulation induced by the Smac mimetic BV6 in breast cancer cell lines. Here, we discover that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) auto-/paracrine signaling regulates Smac mimetic-stimulated changes in gene expression in a time-dependent manner. TNFR1-independent and -dependent genes account for two subsequent waves of BV6-induced gene expression. While the first wave mostly comprises TNFR1-independent genes and involves nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 transcription factors, the second wave largely depends on TNFR1 signaling. Interestingly, disrupting auto-/paracrine TNFα/TNFR1 signaling by knockdown of TNFR1 strongly attenuates the BV6-induced second wave of gene expression and upregulation of many pathways, including NF-κB, apoptosis and immune signaling, while activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling occurs also in TNFR1 knockdown cells. Thus, BV6 alters gene expression in a time- as well as TNFR1-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects against UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen synthesis via regulation of TGF-β/Smad signals and attenuation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bom; Hwang, Eunson; Seo, Seul A; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation. We found that Eucalyptus globulus suppressed the expression of MMPs and IL-6, but increased the expression of TGF-β1 and procollagen type 1. In addition, Eucalyptus globulus inhibited activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Eucalyptus globulus was also found to regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling by reversing the activity of negative Smad regulators. Lastly, in vivo studies showed that topical application of Eucalyptus globulus on UVB-irradiated hairless mice reduced wrinkle formation and dryness by down-regulating MMP-1 and up-regulating expression of elastin, TGF-β1, and procollagen type 1. Taken together, these data suggest that Eucalyptus globulus may be a useful agent in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of acetylpolyamine oxidase by selected AP-1 members regulates DNp73 abundance: mechanistic insights for overcoming DNp73-mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjobpol, W; Dulloo, I; Igarashi, K; Concin, N; Matsuo, K; Sabapathy, K

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced resistance to chemotherapy has been correlated with high levels of Delta-Np73 (DNp73), an anti-apoptotic protein of the p53 tumor-suppressor family which inhibits the pro-apoptotic members such as p53 and TAp73. Although genotoxic drugs have been shown to induce DNp73 degradation, lack of mechanistic understanding of this process precludes strategies to enhance the targeting of DNp73 and improve treatment outcomes. Antizyme (Az) is a mediator of ubiquitin-independent protein degradation regulated by the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. We show here that acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAOX), a catabolic enzyme of this pathway, upregulates DNp73 levels by suppressing its degradation via the Az pathway. Conversely, downregulation of PAOX activity by siRNA-mediated knockdown or chemical inhibition leads to DNp73 degradation in an Az-dependent manner. PAOX expression is suppressed by several genotoxic drugs, via selected members of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors, namely c-Jun, JunB and FosB, which are required for stress-mediated DNp73 degradation. Finally, chemical- and siRNA-mediated inhibition of PAOX significantly reversed the resistant phenotype of DNp73-overexpressing cancer cells to genotoxic drugs. Together, these data define a critical mechanism for the regulation of DNp73 abundance, and reveal that inhibition of PAOX could widen the therapeutic index of cytotoxic drugs and overcome DNp73-mediated chemoresistance in tumors.

  11. Peroxide sensing and signaling in the Sporothrix schenckii complex: an in silico analysis to uncover putative mechanisms regulating the Hog1 and AP-1 like signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivy; Soares Felipe, Maria Sueli; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Lopes Bezerra, Leila Maria; Da Silva Dantas, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how fungal pathogens can survive inside the host, we must analyze how they evade the fungicidal mechanisms mounted by the host's immune system, such as generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Studies have shown that infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis can be more aggressive than those due to Sporothrix schenckii. Therefore, we propose to analyze and compare the ability of these two pathogenic species to counteract oxidative stress, which, as noted, can be relevant in the host response to infection. We have shown that S. brasiliensis is more resistant to different oxidants, such as H2O2 and menadione, when compared with S. schenckii. Furthermore, our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms by which Sporothrix spp. AP-1 like transcription factors are regulated probably differs from the one seen in other fungal pathogens. Interestingly, comparison between sequences of SbHog1 and SsHog1 stress activated protein kinases suggest that S. brasiliensis Hog1 display mutations that could account for the differences seen in stress sensitivities of these two species. In summary, this is the first study to our knowledge to investigate oxidative stress responses of Sporothrix spp. and provided a model that can be employed in vivo to address how these fungal pathogens can surmount the oxidative stress generated by the host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Prostaglandin E1 and Its Analog Misoprostol Inhibit Human CML Stem Cell Self-Renewal via EP4 Receptor Activation and Repression of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyin; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Yu, Shuyang; Bhave, Rupali R; Lentz, Steven R; Tan, Kai; Guzman, Monica L; Zhao, Chen; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2017-09-07

    Effective treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) largely depends on the eradication of CML leukemic stem cells (LSCs). We recently showed that CML LSCs depend on Tcf1 and Lef1 factors for self-renewal. Using a connectivity map, we identified prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a small molecule that partly elicited the gene expression changes in LSCs caused by Tcf1/Lef1 deficiency. Although it has little impact on normal hematopoiesis, we found that PGE1 treatment impaired the persistence and activity of LSCs in a pre-clinical murine CML model and a xenograft model of transplanted CML patient CD34 + stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, PGE1 acted on the EP4 receptor and repressed Fosb and Fos AP-1 factors in a β-catenin-independent manner. Misoprostol, an FDA-approved EP4 agonist, conferred similar protection against CML. These findings suggest that activation of this PGE1-EP4 pathway specifically targets CML LSCs and that the combination of PGE1/misoprostol with conventional tyrosine-kinase inhibitors could provide effective therapy for CML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CR3 and Dectin-1 Collaborate in Macrophage Cytokine Response through Association on Lipid Rafts and Activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juin-Hua Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between heterogeneous pattern recognition receptors (PRRs leading to synergistic coordination of immune response is important for the host to fight against invading pathogens. Although complement receptor 3 (CR3 and Dectin-1 are major PRRs to detect fungi, crosstalk between these two receptors in antifungal immunity is largely undefined. Here we took advantage of Histoplasma capsulatum which is known to interact with both CR3 and Dectin-1 and specific particulate ligands to study the collaboration of CR3 and Dectin-1 in macrophage cytokine response. By employing Micro-Western Array (MWA, genetic approach, and pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrated that CR3 and Dectin-1 act collaboratively to trigger macrophage TNF and IL-6 response through signaling integration at Syk kinase, allowing subsequent enhanced activation of Syk-JNK-AP-1 pathway. Upon engagement, CR3 and Dectin-1 colocalize and form clusters on lipid raft microdomains which serve as a platform facilitating their cooperation in signaling activation and cytokine production. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that CR3 and Dectin-1 cooperatively participate in host defense against disseminated histoplasmosis and instruct adaptive immune response. Taken together, our findings define the mechanism of receptor crosstalk between CR3 and Dectin-1 and demonstrate the importance of their collaboration in host defense against fungal infection.

  14. Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  15. Alterations of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression correlate with major evolutionary shifts of inflorescence architecture in Cornus (Cornaceae) - a proposed model for variation of closed inflorescence forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; Liu, Xiang; Franks, Robert G; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny

    2017-10-01

    TFL1-, AP1- and LFY-like genes are known to be key regulators of inflorescence development. However, it remains to be tested whether the evolutionary modifications of inflorescence morphology result from shifts in their expression patterns. We compared the spatiotemporal expression patterns of CorTFL1, CorAP1 and CorLFY in six closely related Cornus species that display four types of closed inflorescence morphology using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RNA in situ hybridization. Character mapping on the phylogeny was conducted to identify evolutionary changes and to assess the correlation between changes in gene expression and inflorescence morphology. Results demonstrated variation of gene expression patterns among species and a strong correlation between CorTFL1 expression and the branch index of the inflorescence type. Evolutionary changes in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression co-occurred on the phylogeny with the morphological changes underpinning inflorescence divergence. The study found a clear correlation between the expression patterns of CorTFL1 and CorAP1 and the inflorescence architecture in a natural system displaying closed inflorescences. The results suggest a role for the alteration in CorTFL1 and CorAP1 expression during the evolutionary modification of inflorescences in Cornus. We propose that a TFL1-like and AP1-like gene-based model may explain variation of closed inflorescences in Cornus and other lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus induces TGF-β1and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmei; Ding, Yulin; Wang, Jinling; Wang, Fenglong

    2018-02-13

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) are important parenchymal cells of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of BMEC and the roles of the TLR-NF-κBand TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibrosis, BMEC cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression and production of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Specific NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors were also used to investigate their effects on the regulation of TGF-β 1 and bFGF expression. The results indicated that, in addition to increasing mRNA expression and secretion of TLR2 and TLR4, S. aureus could also upregulate TGF-β 1 and bFGF mRNA expression and secretion through the activation of NF-κB and AP-1. The increase in TGF-β 1 and bFGF expression was shown to be inhibited by AP-1- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors. Taken together, S. aureus induces TGF-β1 and bFGF expression through the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB in BMECs. This information offers new potential targets for the treatment of bovine mammary fibrosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mammalian CLC protein family comprises nine members (ClC-1 to -7 and ClC-Ka, -Kb that function either as plasma membrane chloride channels or as intracellular chloride/proton antiporters, and that sustain a broad spectrum of cellular processes, such as membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In this study we focus on human ClC-6, which is structurally most related to the late endosomal/lysomal ClC-7. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a polyclonal affinity-purified antibody directed against a unique epitope in the ClC-6 COOH-terminal tail, we show that human ClC-6, when transfected in COS-1 cells, is N-glycosylated in a region that is evolutionary poorly conserved between mammalian CLC proteins and that is located between the predicted helices K and M. Three asparagine residues (N410, N422 and N432 have been defined by mutagenesis as acceptor sites for N-glycosylation, but only two of the three sites seem to be simultaneously N-glycosylated. In a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y, endogenous ClC-6 colocalizes with LAMP-1, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker, but not with early/recycling endosomal markers such as EEA-1 and transferrin receptor. In contrast, when transiently expressed in COS-1 or HeLa cells, human ClC-6 mainly overlaps with markers for early/recycling endosomes (transferrin receptor, EEA-1, Rab5, Rab4 and not with late endosomal/lysosomal markers (LAMP-1, Rab7. Analogously, overexpression of human ClC-6 in SH-SY5Y cells also leads to an early/recycling endosomal localization of the exogenously expressed ClC-6 protein. Finally, in transiently transfected COS-1 cells, ClC-6 copurifies with detergent-resistant membrane fractions, suggesting its partitioning in lipid rafts. Mutating a juxtamembrane string of basic amino acids (amino acids 71-75: KKGRR disturbs the association with detergent-resistant membrane fractions and also affects the segregation of ClC-6

  18. Involvement of the endosomal-lysosomal system correlates with regional pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Gábor G; Gelpi, Ellen; Ströbel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    . Combined with stereologic techniques, we examined components of the ELS in human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brains. We immunostained for the early endosomal marker Rab5 and lysosomal enzymes cathepsin D and B. We determined neuron-specific changes in their expression and correlated......-immunoreactive lysosomes. The intraneuronal distribution of cathepsin D and B diverges between Purkinje cells and frontal cortical neurons in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brains. We demonstrated focal intra- and perineuronal colocalization of cathepsin D and PrP. Our results indicate that effects in the ELS......The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine how experimental observations can be translated to human neuropathology and whether alterations of the ELS relate to neuropathologic changes...

  19. Surface functionalization dependent subcellular localization of Superparamagnetic nanoparticle in plasma membrane and endosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate the application of thermal decomposition based synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticle (SPMNP) in subcellular fractionation context. Here, we performed surface functionalization of SPMNP with phospholipids and dimercaptosuccinic acid. Surprisingly, we observed surface functionalization dependent SPMNP localization in subcellular compartments such as plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes. By using SPMNP based subcellular localization with pulse-chase methodology, we could use SPMNP for high pure-high yield organelle (plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosome) fractionation. Further, SPMNP that are distinctly localized in subcellular compartments can be used as technology for subcellular fractionation that can complement existing tools for cell biology research. As a future perspective, isolated magnetic organelles can be extended to protein/protein complex purification for biochemical and structural biology studies.

  20. Curcumin nanoparticles ameliorate ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated lung epithelial cells through p47 (phox and MAPKs/AP-1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    Full Text Available Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human lung epithelial cells during lung inflammatory reactions. We have previously demonstrated that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (CURN improve the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of curcumin in hepatocytes. In this study, we focused on the effects of CURN on the expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-α-treated lung epithelial cells and compared these to the effects of curcumin water preparation (CURH. TNF-αinduced ICAM-1 expression, ROS production, and cell-cell adhesion were significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidants (DPI, APO, or NAC and CURN, but not by CURH, as revealed by western blot analysis, RT-PCR, promoter assay, and ROS detection and adhesion assay. In addition, treatment of TNF-α-treated cells with CURN and antioxidants also resulted in an inhibition of activation of p47 (phox and phosphorylation of MAPKs, as compared to that using CURH. Our findings also suggest that phosphorylation of MAPKs may eventually lead to the activation of transcription factors. We also observed that the effects of TNF-α treatment for 30 min, which includes a significant increase in the binding activity of AP-1 and phosphorylation of c-jun and c-fos genes, were reduced by CURN treatment. In vivo studies have revealed that CURN improved the anti-inflammation activities of CURH in the lung epithelial cells of TNF-α-treated mice. Our results indicate that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles may potentially serve as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  1. FSL-1 Induces MMP-9 Production through TLR-2 and NF-κB /AP-1 Signaling Pathways in Monocytic THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disorders. FSL-1 (fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 induces cytokine production by monocytes/macrophages. However, it is unclear whether FSL-1 is also able to induce MMP-9 production. Herein, we determined whether FSL-1 could induce MMP-9 production, and if so, which signal transduction pathway(s were involved. Methods: MMP-9 expression was assessed with real-time qPCR and ELISA. Signaling pathways were studied by using THP1-XBlue™ cells, THP1-XBlue™-defMyD cells, anti-TLR2 mAb and pharmacological inhibitors. Phospho and total proteins were determined by Western blotting. Results: FSL-1 induces MMP-9 expression (PP-/- THP-1 cells did not express MMP-9 in response to FSL-1 treatment. By small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, we also show that FSL-1-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 requires MyD88. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with inhibitors of JNK (SP600125, MEK/ERK (U0126; PD98056; XMD 8-92, p38 MAPK (SB203580 and NF-κB (BAY11-7085, Triptolide, Resveratrol significantly suppressed (PConclusion: These findings provide the first evidence that FSL-1 induces TLR-2-dependent MMP-9 gene expression which requires the recruitment of MyD88 and leads to activation of MEK1/2 /ERK 1/2, MEK5/ERK5, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB/AP-1.

  2. Norepinephrine Controls Effector T Cell Differentiation through β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 in Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Maisa Carla; Araujo, Leandro Pires; Maricato, Juliana Terzi; Nascimento, Vanessa M; Guereschi, Marcia Grando; Rezende, Rafael Machado; Quintana, Francisco J; Basso, Alexandre S

    2016-01-15

    Despite accumulating evidence indicating that neurotransmitters released by the sympathetic nervous system can modulate the activity of innate immune cells, we still know very little about how norepinephrine impacts signaling pathways in dendritic cells (DC) and the consequence of that in DC-driven T cell differentiation. In this article, we demonstrate that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activation in LPS-stimulated DC does not impair their ability to promote T cell proliferation; however, it diminishes IL-12p70 secretion, leading to a shift in the IL-12p70/IL-23 ratio. Although β2AR stimulation in DC induces protein kinase A-dependent cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, the effect of changing the profile of cytokines produced upon LPS challenge occurs in a protein kinase A-independent manner and, rather, is associated with inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. Moreover, as a consequence of the inverted IL-12p70/IL-23 ratio following β2AR stimulation, LPS-stimulated DC promoted the generation of CD4(+) T cells that, upon TCR engagement, produced lower amounts of IFN-γ and higher levels of IL-17. These findings provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms by which β2AR stimulation in murine DC can influence the generation of adaptive immune responses and may explain some aspects of how sympathetic nervous system activity can modulate immune function. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS or concanavalin A (ConA, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in vitro and in vivo. Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line and murine splenocytes were incubated with the oyster mushroom concentrate (OMC, 0-100 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (ConA), respectively. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Expression of cytokines and proteins was measured by ELISA assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. DNA-binding activity was assayed by the gel-shift analysis. Inflammation in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results OMC suppressed LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12p40 from RAW264.7 macrophages. OMC inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) through the down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and iNOS, respectively. OMC also inhibited LPS-dependent DNA-binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Oral administration of OMC markedly suppressed secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice challenged with LPS in vivo. Anti-inflammatory activity of OMC was confirmed by the inhibition of proliferation and secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, and IL-6 from concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Conclusions Our study suggests that oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activities and could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation. The health benefits of the oyster mushroom warrant further clinical studies. PMID:21575254

  5. Amitriptyline up-regulates connexin43-gap junction in rat cultured cortical astrocytes via activation of the p38 and c-Fos/AP-1 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, N; Suekama, K; Zhang, F F; Kajitani, N; Hisaoka-Nakashima, K; Takebayashi, M; Nakata, Y

    2014-06-01

    Intercellular communication via gap junctions, comprised of connexin (Cx) proteins, allow for communication between astrocytes, which in turn is crucial for maintaining CNS homeostasis. The expression of Cx43 is decreased in post-mortem brains from patients with major depression. A potentially novel mechanism of tricyclic antidepressants is to increase the expression and functioning of gap junctions in astrocytes. The effect of amitriptyline on the expression of Cx43 and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in rat primary cultured cortical astrocytes was investigated. We also investigated the role of p38 MAPK intracellular signalling pathway in the amitriptyline-induced expression of Cx43 and GJIC. Treatment with amitriptyline for 48 h significantly up-regulated Cx43 mRNA, protein and GJIC. The up-regulation of Cx43 was not monoamine-related since noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine did not induce Cx43 expression and pretreatment with α- and β-adrenoceptor antagonists had no effect. Intracellular signalling involved p38 MAPK, as amitriptyline significantly increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Cx43 expression and GJIC were significantly blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB 202190. Furthermore, amitriptyline-induced Cx43 expression and GJIC were markedly reduced by transcription factor AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone IIA). The translocation of c-Fos from the cytosol and the nucleus of cortical astrocytes was increased by amitriptyline, and this response was dependent on p38 activity. These findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of amitriptyline through cortical astrocytes, and further suggest that targeting this mechanism could lead to the development of a new class of antidepressants. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Enhanced protein internalization and efficient endosomal escape using polyampholyte-modified liposomes and freeze concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sana; Fujita, Satoshi; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Here we show a new strategy for efficient freeze concentration-mediated cytoplasmic delivery of proteins, obtained via the endosomal escape property of polyampholyte-modified liposomes. The freeze concentration method successfully induces the efficient internalization of proteins simply by freezing cells with protein and nanocarrier complexes. However, the mechanism of protein internalization remains unclear. Here, we designed a novel protein delivery carrier by modifying liposomes through in...

  7. EHD3-Dependent Endosome Pathway Regulates Cardiac Membrane Excitability and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Makara, Michael A.; Little, Sean C.; Musa, Hassan; Liu, Bin; Wu, Xiangqiong; Polina, Iuliia; Alecusan, Joe; Wright, Patrick; Li, Jingdong; Billman, George E.; Boyden, Penelope A.; Gyorke, Sandor; Band, Hamid; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac function is dependent on the coordinate activities of membrane ion channels, transporters, pumps, and hormone receptors to dynamically tune the membrane electrochemical gradient in response to acute and chronic stress. While our knowledge of membrane proteins has rapidly advanced over the past decade, our understanding of the subcellular pathways governing the trafficking and localization of integral membrane proteins is limited, and essentially unstudied in vivo. In heart, to our knowledge, there are no in vivo mechanistic studies that directly link endosome-based machinery with cardiac physiology. Objective Define the in vivo roles of endosome-based cellular machinery for cardiac membrane protein trafficking, myocyte excitability, and cardiac physiology. Methods and Results We identify the endosome-based EHD3 pathway as essential for cardiac physiology. EHD3−/− hearts display structural and functional defects including bradycardia and rate variability, conduction block, and blunted response to adrenergic stimulation. Mechanistically, EHD3 is critical for membrane protein trafficking, as EHD3−/− myocytes display reduced expression/localization of Na/Ca exchanger and Cav1.2 with a parallel reduction in INCX and ICa,L. Functionally, EHD3−/− myocytes show increased sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca], increased spark frequency, and reduced expression/localization of ankyrin-B, a binding partner for EHD3 and Na/Ca exchanger. Finally, we show that in vivo EHD3−/− defects are due to cardiac-specific roles of EHD3 as mice with cardiac-selective EHD3 deficiency demonstrate both structural and electrical phenotypes. Conclusions These data provide new insight into the critical role of endosome-based pathways in membrane protein targeting and cardiac physiology. EHD3 is a critical component of protein trafficking in heart and is essential for the proper membrane targeting of select cellular proteins that maintain excitability. PMID:24759929

  8. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-07-22

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. PMID:27302062

  10. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites-axons and dendrites-that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. © 2014 Takano et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Endosome-based protein trafficking and Ca2+ homeostasis in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry eCurran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to dynamically regulate, traffic, retain, and recycle proteins within the cell membrane is fundamental to life and central to the normal function of the heart and cardiovascular system. In the heart, these systems are essential for the regulation of cardiac calcium, both at the level of the plasma membrane, but also at local domains of the endoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nucleus, and nuclear envelope. One intracellular pathway often overlooked in relation to cardiovascular calcium regulation and signaling is the endosome-based trafficking pathway. Highlighting its importance, this system and its molecular components are evolutionarily conserved across all metazoans. However, remarkably little is known of how endosome-based protein trafficking and recycling functions within mammalian cells systems, especially in the heart. The vast majority of what is known has been derived from heterologous cell systems. However, recently, more appropriate cell and animal models been developed that have allowed researchers to begin to understand how this system functions within the intact physiological environment. All excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes, depend on the proper expression and organization of multiple ion channels, pumps, exchangers, and transporters within the plasma membrane. As the endosomal system acts to regulate the expression and localization of membrane proteins, understanding the in vivo function of this system in the heart is important. This review will focus on endosome-based protein trafficking in the heart in both health and disease. Special emphasis will be given to the role played by the family of endocytic regulatory proteins, C-terminal Eps15 homology domain -containing proteins (EHDs, as recent data demonstrates that this family of proteins is essential for the proper trafficking and localization and of key proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling.

  12. IL-4 inhibition of IL-1 induced Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression in human fibroblasts involves decreased AP-1 activation via negative crosstalk involving of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mariah; Kirkpatrick, Garrett; Evans, Michel; Gorski, Grzegorz; Foster, Sara; Borghaei, Ruth C

    2013-06-10

    Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) over-expression is associated with tissue destruction in the context of chronic inflammation. Previous studies showed that IL-4 inhibits induction of MMP-3 by IL-1β, and suggested that AP-1 might be involved. Here we show that IL-1 induced binding of transcription factor AP-1 to the MMP-3 promoter consists primarily of c-Jun, JunB, and c-Fos and that binding of c-Jun and c-Fos is inhibited by the combination of cytokines while binding of Jun B is not. Mutation of the AP-1 site in the MMP-3 promoter decreased the ability of IL-4 to inhibit its transcription in transfected MG-63 cells. Western blotting showed that both cytokines activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but with somewhat different kinetics, and that activation of JNK by both cytokines individually is inhibited by the combination. These results indicate that IL-4 inhibition of MMP-3 expression is associated with reduction of IL-1 induced binding of active forms of the AP-1 dimer, while less active JunB-containing dimers remain, and suggest that these changes are associated with decreased activation of JNK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metal loproteinase 9 (MMP-9 Activity by a c-fos/Estrogen Receptor Fusion Protein is Mediated by the Proximal AP-1 Site of the MMP-9 Promoter and Correlates with Reduced Tumor Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Crowe

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell invasion of basement membranes is one of the hallmarks of malignant transformation. Tumor cells secrete proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs which degrade extracellular matrix molecules. Increased expression of MMP-9 has been associated with acquisition of invasive phenotype in many tumors. However, multiple mechanisms for regulation of MMP-9 gene expression by tumor cell lines have been proposed. A number of transcription factor binding sites have been characterized in the upstream regulatory region of the MMP-9 gene, including those for AP-1. To determine how a specific AP-1 family member, c-fos, regulates MMP-9 promoter activity through these sites, we used an expression vector containing the c-fos coding region fused to the estrogen receptor (ER ligand binding domain. This construct is activated upon binding estradiol. Stable expression of this construct in ER negative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC lines produced an estradiol dependent decrease in the number of cells that migrated through a reconstituted basement membrane. This decreased invasiveness was accompanied by estradiol dependent downregulation of MMP-9 activity as determined by gelatin zymography. Estradiol also produced transcriptional downregulation of an MMP-9 promoter construct in cells transiently transfected with the c-fosER expression vector. This downregulation was mediated by the AP-1 site at —79 by in the MMP-9 promoter. We concluded that the proximal AP-1 site mediated the transcriptional downregulation of the MMP-9 promoter by a conditionally activated c-fos fusion protein.

  14. The thioredoxin MoTrx2 protein mediates reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and controls pathogenicity as a target of the transcription factor MoAP1 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhen; Yin, Ziyi; Tang, Wei; Cai, Xingjia; Gao, Chuyun; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that the transcription factor MoAP1 governs the oxidative response and is important for pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To explore the underlying mechanism, we have identified thioredoxin MoTrx2 as a target of MoAP1 in M. oryzae. Thioredoxins are highly conserved 12-kDa oxidoreductase enzymes containing a dithiol-disulfide active site, and function as antioxidants against free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In yeast and fungi, thioredoxins are important for oxidative stress tolerance and growth. To study the functions of MoTrx2, we generated ΔMotrx2 mutants that exhibit various defects, including sulfite assimilation, asexual and sexual differentiation, infectious hyphal growth and pathogenicity. We found that ΔMotrx2 mutants possess a defect in the scavenging of ROS during host cell invasion and in the active suppression of the rice defence response. We also found that ΔMotrx2 mutants display higher intracellular ROS levels during conidial germination, but lower peroxidase and laccase activities, which contribute to the attenuation in virulence. Given that the function of MoTrx2 overlaps that of MoAP1 in the stress response and pathogenicity, our findings further indicate that MoTrx2 is a key thioredoxin protein whose function is subjected to transcriptional regulation by MoAP1 in M. oryzae. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Cooperative regulation of Gja1 expression by members of the AP-1 family cJun and cFos in TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouili, Firas; Martin, Luc J

    2017-11-30

    Within the testis, connexin43 encoded by Gja1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication between Leydig cells as well as between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In the adult male, Leydig cells are the principal producers of testosterone sustaining spermatogenesis, while Sertoli cells nourish, protect and support the differentiating germ cells. It has been shown previously that members of the AP-1 family regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial cells, suggesting that such regulatory mechanism may also be relevant within the testis. Thus, we performed cotransfections of AP-1 expression plasmids with different mouse Gja1 promoter/luciferase reporter constructs within TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cells. We showed that a functional cooperation between cJun and cFos activates Gja1 expression and requires an AP-1 DNA regulatory element located between -132 and -26 bp. In addition, such synergy relies on the recruitment of cFos to this region of the mouse Gja1 promoter. Hence, our data indicate that AP-1 members are important for optimal expression of Gja1 within Sertoli and Leydig cells from the testis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ABMA, a small molecule that inhibits intracellular toxins and pathogens by interfering with late endosomal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Pons, Valérie; Goudet, Amélie; Panigai, Laetitia; Fischer, Annette; Herweg, Jo-Ana; Kali, Sabrina; Davey, Robert A; Laporte, Jérôme; Bouclier, Céline; Yousfi, Rahima; Aubenque, Céline; Merer, Goulven; Gobbo, Emilie; Lopez, Roman; Gillet, Cynthia; Cojean, Sandrine; Popoff, Michel R; Clayette, Pascal; Le Grand, Roger; Boulogne, Claire; Tordo, Noël; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Loiseau, Philippe M; Rudel, Thomas; Sauvaire, Didier; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel; Barbier, Julien

    2017-11-14

    Intracellular pathogenic microorganisms and toxins exploit host cell mechanisms to enter, exert their deleterious effects as well as hijack host nutrition for their development. A potential approach to treat multiple pathogen infections and that should not induce drug resistance is the use of small molecules that target host components. We identified the compound 1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine (ABMA) from a cell-based high throughput screening for its capacity to protect human cells and mice against ricin toxin without toxicity. This compound efficiently protects cells against various toxins and pathogens including viruses, intracellular bacteria and parasite. ABMA provokes Rab7-positive late endosomal compartment accumulation in mammalian cells without affecting other organelles (early endosomes, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus). As the mechanism of action of ABMA is restricted to host-endosomal compartments, it reduces cell infection by pathogens that depend on this pathway to invade cells. ABMA may represent a novel class of broad-spectrum compounds with therapeutic potential against diverse severe infectious diseases.

  17. Molecular determinants of the interaction between Doa1 and Hse1 involved in endosomal sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsu; Shin, Donghyuk; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2014-03-28

    Yeast Doa1/Ufd3 is an adaptor protein for Cdc48 (p97 in mammal), an AAA type ATPase associated with endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and endosomal sorting into multivesicular bodies. Doa1 functions in the endosomal sorting by its association with Hse1, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. The association of Doa1 with Hse1 was previously reported to be mediated between PFU domain of Doa1 and SH3 of Hse1. However, it remains unclear which residues are specifically involved in the interaction. Here we report that Doa1/PFU interacts with Hse1/SH3 with a moderate affinity of 5 μM. Asn-438 of Doa1/PFU and Trp-254 of Hse1/SH3 are found to be critical in the interaction while Phe-434, implicated in ubiquitin binding via a hydrophobic interaction, is not. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements combined with molecular docking and biochemical analysis yield the solution structure of the Doa1/PFU:Hse1/SH3 complex. Taken together, our results suggest that hydrogen bonding is a major determinant in the interaction of Doa1/PFU with Hse1/SH3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoparticles Escaping RES and Endosome: Challenges for siRNA Delivery for Cancer Therapy

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    Shutao Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs technology has emerged as a promising potential treatment for viral, genetic diseases and cancers. Despite the powerful therapeutic potential of siRNA, there are challenges for developing efficient and specific delivery systems for systemic administration. There are extracellular and intracellular barriers for nanoparticle-mediated delivery. First, nanoparticles are rapidly cleared from the circulation by the reticuloendothelial system (RES. Second, following their cellular uptake, nanoparticles are trapped in endosomes/lysosomes, where siRNA would be degraded by enzymes. In this review, we describe strategies for grafting a polyethylene glycol (PEG brush to the nanoparticles for evading RES, such that they may effectively accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect. PEG has to shed from the nanoparticles to allow close interaction with the tumor cells. Current strategies for facilitating endosome escape, such as ion pair formation, “proton sponge effect”, destabilizing endosome membrane, and hydrophobic modification of the vector, are discussed.

  19. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking of DNA After Gene Electrotransfer In Vitro

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    Christelle Rosazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA electrotransfer is a successful technique for gene delivery into cells and represents an attractive alternative to virus-based methods for clinical applications including gene therapy and DNA vaccination. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms governing DNA internalization and its fate inside cells. The objectives of this work were to investigate the role of endocytosis and to quantify the contribution of different routes of cellular trafficking during DNA electrotransfer. To pursue these objectives, we performed flow cytometry and single-particle fluorescence microscopy experiments using inhibitors of endocytosis and endosomal markers. Our results show that ≃50% of DNA is internalized by caveolin/raft-mediated endocytosis, 25% by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and 25% by macropinocytosis. During active transport, DNA is routed through multiple endosomal compartments with, in the hour following electrotransfer, 70% found in Rab5 structures, 50% in Rab11-containing organelles and 30% in Rab9 compartments. Later, 60% of DNA colocalizes with Lamp1 vesicles. Because these molecular markers can overlap while following organelles through several steps of trafficking, the percentages do not sum up to 100%. We conclude that electrotransferred DNA uses the classical endosomal trafficking pathways. Our results are important for a generalized understanding of gene electrotransfer, which is crucial for its safe use in clinics.

  20. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jennifer; Itzhak, Daniel N; Antrobus, Robin; Borner, Georg H H; Robinson, Margaret S

    2018-01-01

    The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5-associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.

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    Jennifer Hirst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR, GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5-associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Augmenting the Efficacy of Immunotoxins and Other Targeted Protein Toxins by Endosomal Escape Enhancers

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    Hendrik Fuchs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The toxic moiety of almost all protein-based targeted toxins must enter the cytosol of the target cell to mediate its fatal effect. Although more than 500 targeted toxins have been investigated in the past decades, no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date. Missing efficacy can be attributed in many cases to insufficient endosomal escape and therefore subsequent lysosomal degradation of the endocytosed toxins. To overcome this drawback, many strategies have been described to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This comprises the use of lysosomotropic amines, carboxylic ionophores, calcium channel antagonists, various cell-penetrating peptides of viral, bacterial, plant, animal, human and synthetic origin, other organic molecules and light-induced techniques. Although the efficacy of the targeted toxins was typically augmented in cell culture hundred or thousand fold, in exceptional cases more than million fold, the combination of several substances harbors new problems including additional side effects, loss of target specificity, difficulties to determine the therapeutic window and cell type-dependent variations. This review critically scrutinizes the chances and challenges of endosomal escape enhancers and their potential role in future developments.

  3. Cholesterol Regulates Syntaxin 6 Trafficking at trans-Golgi Network Endosomal Boundaries

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    Meritxell Reverter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes causes cellular cholesterol imbalance, including cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network (TGN. Here, using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 mutant cell lines and human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts, we show that altered cholesterol levels at the TGN/endosome boundaries trigger Syntaxin 6 (Stx6 accumulation into VAMP3, transferrin, and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs. This increases Stx6/VAMP3 interaction and interferes with the recycling of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins and cell migration, possibly in a Stx6-dependent manner. In NPC1 mutant cells, restoration of cholesterol levels in the TGN, but not inhibition of VAMP3, restores the steady-state localization of Stx6 in the TGN. Furthermore, elevation of RE cholesterol is associated with increased amounts of Stx6 in RE. Hence, the fine-tuning of cholesterol levels at the TGN-RE boundaries together with a subset of cholesterol-sensitive SNARE proteins may play a regulatory role in cell migration and invasion.

  4. Transient binding of dynein controls bidirectional long-range motility of early endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Martin; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Assmann, Marcus-Alexander; Lenz, Peter; Steinberg, Gero

    2011-03-01

    In many cell types, bidirectional long-range endosome transport is mediated by the opposing motor proteins dynein and kinesin-3. Here we use a fungal model system to investigate how both motors cooperate in early endosome (EE) motility. It was previously reported that Kin3, a member of the kinesin-3 family, and cytoplasmic dynein mediate bidirectional motility of EEs in the fungus Ustilago maydis. We fused the green fluorescent protein to the endogenous dynein heavy chain and the kin3 gene and visualized both motors and their cargo in the living cells. Whereas kinesin-3 was found on anterograde and retrograde EEs, dynein motors localize only to retrograde organelles. Live cell imaging shows that binding of retrograde moving dynein to anterograde moving endosomes changes the transport direction of the organelles. When dynein is leaving the EEs, the organelles switch back to anterograde kinesin-3-based motility. Quantitative photobleaching and comparison with nuclear pores as an internal calibration standard show that single dynein motors and four to five kinesin-3 motors bind to the organelles. These data suggest that dynein controls kinesin-3 activity on the EEs and thereby determines the long-range motility behavior of the organelles.

  5. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro

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    Alberto Canfrán-Duque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively, have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2 and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid, which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1 and coatomer subunit β (β-COP were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes’ internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality.

  6. The Endosome Localized Arf-GAP AGAP1 Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology Downstream of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Factor Dysbindin

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    Miranda Arnold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3 and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1. Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ; yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described. Here, we describe that AGAP1 localizes to axons, dendrites, dendritic spines, and synapses, colocalizing preferentially with markers of early and recycling endosomes. Functional studies reveal overexpression and down-regulation of AGAP1 affects both neuronal endosomal trafficking and dendritic spine morphology, supporting a role for AGAP1 in the recycling endosomal trafficking involved in their morphogenesis. Finally, we determined the sensitivity of AGAP1 expression to mutations in the DTNBP1 gene, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder, and found that AGAP1 mRNA and protein levels are selectively reduced in the null allele of the mouse orthologue of DTNBP1. We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function.

  7. Deficient Peptide Loading and MHC Class II Endosomal Sorting in a Human Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease: the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Wolfgang; Raposo, Graça; Tenza, Daniele; Pinet, Valérie; Vogt, Anne B.; Kropshofer, Harald; Fischer, Alain; de Saint-Basile, Geneviève; Amigorena, Sebastian

    1998-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a human recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations in a single gene encoding a protein of unknown function, called lysosomal-trafficking regulator. All cells in CHS patients bear enlarged lysosomes. In addition, T- and natural killer cell cytotoxicity is defective in these patients, causing severe immunodeficiencies. We have analyzed major histocompatibility complex class II functions and intracellular transport in Epstein Barr Virus–transformed B cells from CHS patients. Peptide loading onto major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen presentation are strongly delayed these cells. A detailed electron microscopy analysis of endocytic compartments revealed that only lysosomal multilaminar compartments are enlarged (reaching 1–2 μm), whereas late multivesicular endosomes have normal size and morphology. In contrast to giant multilaminar compartments that bear most of the usual lysosomal markers in these cells (HLA-DR, HLA-DM, Lamp-1, CD63, etc.), multivesicular late endosomes displayed reduced levels of all these molecules, suggesting a defect in transport from the trans-Golgi network and/or early endosomes into late multivesicular endosomes. Further insight into a possible mechanism of this transport defect came from immunolocalizing the lysosomal trafficking regulator protein, as antibodies directed to a peptide from its COOH terminal domain decorated punctated structures partially aligned along microtubules. These results suggest that the product of the Lyst gene is required for sorting endosomal resident proteins into late multivesicular endosomes by a mechanism involving microtubules. PMID:9606205

  8. Basolateral Endocytic Recycling Requires RAB-10 and AMPH-1 Mediated Recruitment of RAB-5 GAP TBC-2 to Endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RAB-5/Rab5 is a master regulator of the early endosome, required for a myriad of coordinated activities, including the degradation and recycling of internalized cargo. Here we focused on the recycling function of the early endosome and the regulation of RAB-5 by GAP protein TBC-2 in the basolateral C. elegans intestine. We demonstrate that downstream basolateral recycling regulators, GTPase RAB-10/Rab10 and BAR domain protein AMPH-1/Amphiphysin, bind to TBC-2 and help to recruit it to endosomes. In the absence of RAB-10 or AMPH-1 binding to TBC-2, RAB-5 membrane association is abnormally high and recycling cargo is trapped in early endosomes. Furthermore, the loss of TBC-2 or AMPH-1 leads to abnormally high spatial overlap of RAB-5 and RAB-10. Taken together our results indicate that RAB-10 and AMPH-1 mediated down-regulation of RAB-5 is an important step in recycling, required for cargo exit from early endosomes and regulation of early endosome–recycling endosome interactions. PMID:26393361

  9. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Barrio, Luis C.; Lerma, Milagros; de la Peña, Gema; Serna, Jorge; Pastor, Oscar; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Busto, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively), have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI)-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid), which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and coatomer subunit β (β-COP) were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes’ internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality. PMID:26999125

  10. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo

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    Ishii Shunsuke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Results Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFβ superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1, pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Conclusion Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  11. Dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) interacts with the phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase associated protein 1 (PAHX-AP1), a brain specific protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescond, Marilyne; Rahmani, Zohra

    2005-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic defect correlated with mental retardation and delayed development. The specific genes responsible for these phenotypic alterations have not yet been defined. Dyrk1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A), the human ortholog of the Drosophila minibrain gene (mnb), maps to the Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome fetal brain. In Drosophila, minibrain is involved in postembryonic neurogenesis. In human, DYRK1A encodes a serine-threonine kinase but despite its potential involvement in the neurobiological alterations associated with Down syndrome, its physiological function has not yet been defined. To gain some insight into its biological function, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify binding partners of DYRK1A. We found that the C-terminal region of DYRK1A interacts with a brain specific protein, phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase-associated protein 1 (PAHX-AP1, also named PHYHIP) which was previously shown to interact with phytanoyl-CoA alpha-hydroxylase (PAHX, also named PHYH), a Refsum disease gene product. This interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of PC12 cells co-transfected with DYRK1A and PAHX-AP1. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis of PC12 cells co-transfected with both plasmids showed a re-distribution of DYRK1A from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it co-localized with PAHX-AP1. Finally, in PC12 cells co-transfected with both plasmids, DYRK1A was no longer able to interact with the nuclear transcription factor CREB, thereby confirming that the intracellular localization of DYRK1A was changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the presence of PAHX-AP1. Therefore, these data indicate that by inducing a re-localization of DYRK1A into the cytoplasm, PAHX-AP1 may contribute to new cellular functions of DYRK1A and suggest that PAHX-AP1 may be involved in the development of neurological abnormalities

  12. Structure and Function of Vps15 in the Endosomal G Protein Signaling Pathway

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    Heenan, Erin J.; Vanhooke, Janeen L.; Temple, Brenda R.; Betts, Laurie; Sondek, John E.; Dohlman, Henrik G.; (UNC)

    2009-09-11

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate cellular responses to a wide variety of stimuli, including taste, light, and neurotransmitters. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, activation of the pheromone pathway triggers events leading to mating. The view had long been held that the G protein-mediated signal occurs principally at the plasma membrane. Recently, it has been shown that the G protein {alpha} subunit Gpa1 can promote signaling at endosomes and requires two components of the sole phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in yeast, Vps15 and Vps34. Vps15 contains multiple WD repeats and also binds to Gpa1 preferentially in the GDP-bound state; these observations led us to hypothesize that Vps15 may function as a G protein {beta} subunit at the endosome. Here we show an X-ray crystal structure of the Vps15 WD domain that reveals a seven-bladed propeller resembling that of typical G{beta} subunits. We show further that the WD domain is sufficient to bind Gpa1 as well as to Atg14, a potential G{gamma} protein that exists in a complex with Vps15. The Vps15 kinase domain together with the intermediate domain (linking the kinase and WD domains) also contributes to Gpa1 binding and is necessary for Vps15 to sustain G protein signaling. These findings reveal that the Vps15 G{beta}-like domain serves as a scaffold to assemble Gpa1 and Atg14, whereas the kinase and intermediate domains are required for proper signaling at the endosome.

  13. MHC class I endosomal and lysosomal trafficking coincides with exogenous antigen loading in dendritic cells.

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    Genc Basha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs is a crucial prerequisite for effective priming of cytotoxic T-cell responses against bacterial, viral and tumor antigens; however, this antigen presentation pathway remains poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to develop a comprehensive understanding of this process, we tested the hypothesis that the internalization of MHC class I molecules (MHC-I from the cell surface is directly involved in cross-presentation pathway and the loading of antigenic peptides. Here we provide the first examination of the internalization of MHC-I in DCs and we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of MHC-I appears to act as an addressin domain to route MHC-I to both endosomal and lysosomal compartments of DCs, where it is demonstrated that loading of peptides derived from exogenously-derived proteins occurs. Furthermore, by chasing MHC-I from the cell surface of normal and transgenic DCs expressing mutant forms of MHC-I, we observe that a tyrosine-based endocytic trafficking motif is required for the constitutive internalization of MHC-I molecules from the cell surface into early endosomes and subsequently deep into lysosomal peptide-loading compartments. Finally, our data support the concept that multiple pathways of peptide loading of cross-presented antigens may exist depending on the chemical nature and size of the antigen requiring processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that DCs have 'hijacked' and adapted a common vacuolar/endocytic intracellular trafficking pathway to facilitate MHC I access to the endosomal and lysosomal compartments where antigen processing and loading and antigen cross-presentation takes place.

  14. Absence of a persistently elevated 37 kDa fos-related antigen and AP-1-like DNA-binding activity in the brains of kainic acid-treated fosB null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelzys, A; Gruda, M A; Bravo, R; Morgan, J I

    1997-07-15

    Chronic stimulation of the nervous system or acute administration of kainic acid results in a persistent increase in AP-1-like DNA-binding activity in the brain. However, the composition and function of these AP-1 complexes remain controversial. By comparing wild-type and fosB-null mice treated with kainic acid, we establish that the complexes comprise JunD in association with an approximately 37 kDa Delta-FosB species. Delta-FosB was expressed persistently in neurons in many areas of the CNS, even though fosB mRNA only increased transiently. This implies that the 37 kDa protein is very stable. fosB-/- mice are predisposed to seizures. Therefore, the chronic expression of Delta-FosB elicited by kainic acid seizures may be indicative of a compensatory/protective role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  15. Dysfunction of autophagy and endosomal-lysosomal pathways: Roles in pathogenesis of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacurcio, Daniel J; Pensalfini, Anna; Jiang, Ying; Nixon, Ralph A

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD), largely owing to a triplication of the APP gene, located on chromosome 21. In DS and AD, defects in endocytosis and lysosomal function appear at the earliest stages of disease development and progress to widespread failure of intraneuronal waste clearance, neuritic dystrophy and neuronal cell death. The same genetic factors that cause or increase AD risk are also direct causes of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction, underscoring the essential partnership between this dysfunction and APP metabolites in AD pathogenesis. The appearance of APP-dependent endosome anomalies in DS beginning in infancy and evolving into the full range of AD-related endosomal-lysosomal deficits provides a unique opportunity to characterize the earliest pathobiology of AD preceding the classical neuropathological hallmarks. Facilitating this characterization is the authentic recapitulation of this endosomal pathobiology in peripheral cells from people with DS and in trisomy mouse models. Here, we review current research on endocytic-lysosomal dysfunction in DS and AD, the emerging importance of APP/βCTF in initiating this dysfunction, and the potential roles of additional trisomy 21 genes in accelerating endosomal-lysosomal impairment in DS. Collectively, these studies underscore the growing value of investigating DS to probe the biological origins of AD as well as to understand and ameliorate the developmental disability of DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome-lysosome retrograde fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A M; Goldman, S D B; Krise, J P

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome-lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders-Niemann-Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff's disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  18. Wnt-11 signaling leads to down-regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin, JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB pathways and promotes viability in the CHO-K1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railo, Antti; Nagy, Irina I.; Kilpelaeinen, Pekka; Vainio, Seppo

    2008-01-01

    The Wnt family of glycoprotein growth factors controls a number of central cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and ageing. All the Wnt proteins analyzed so far either activate or inhibit the canonical β-catenin signaling pathway that regulates transcription of the target genes. In addition, some of them activate noncanonical signaling pathways that involve components such as the JNK, heterotrimeric G proteins, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, although the precise signaling mechanisms are only just beginning to be revealed. We demonstrate here that Wnt-11 signaling is sufficient to inhibit not only the canonical β-catenin mediated Wnt signaling but also JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB signaling in the CHO cells, thus serving as a noncanonical Wnt ligand in this system. Inhibition of the JNK/AP-1 pathway is mediated in part by the MAPK kinase MKK4 and Akt. Moreover, protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of JNK/AP-1 by Wnt-11, but not of the NF-κB pathway. Consistent with the central role of Akt, JNK and NF-κB in cell survival and stress responses, Wnt-11 signaling promotes cell viability. Hence Wnt-11 is involved in coordination of key signaling pathways

  19. Aaptamines from the Marine Sponge Aaptos sp. Display Anticancer Activities in Human Cancer Cell Lines and Modulate AP-1-, NF-κB-, and p53-Dependent Transcriptional Activity in Mouse JB6 Cl41 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Dyshlovoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aaptamine (8,9-dimethoxy-1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridine is a marine natural compound possessing antioxidative, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiretroviral activity. Earlier, we have found that aaptamine and its derivatives demonstrate equal anticancer effects against the human germ cell cancer cell lines NT2 and NT2-R and cause some changes in the proteome of these cells. In order to explore further the mechanism of action of aaptamine and its derivatives, we studied the effects of aaptamine (1, demethyl(oxyaaptamine (2, and isoaaptamine (3 on human cancer cell lines and on AP-1-, NF-κB-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activity in murine JB6 Cl41 cells. We showed that compounds 1–3 demonstrate anticancer activity in THP-1, HeLa, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. Additionally, all compounds were found to prevent EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of murine JB6 Cl41 cells. Nuclear factors AP-1, NF-κB, and p53 are involved in the cellular response to high and nontoxic concentrations of aaptamine alkaloids 1–3. Furthermore, inhibition of EGF-induced JB6 cell transformation, which is exerted by the compounds 1–3 at low nontoxic concentrations of 0.7–2.1 μM, cannot be explained by activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  20. Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    Full Text Available Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Aiton with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 (mouse-derived microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide (NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1 and perilipin 2 (PLIN2. Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia.

  1. The Aspergillus nidulans syntaxin PepA(Pep12) is regulated by two Sec1/Munc-18 proteins to mediate fusion events at early endosomes, late endosomes and vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berges, Manuel S; Pinar, Mario; Abenza, Juan F; Arst, Herbert N; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxins are target-SNAREs that crucially contribute to determine membrane compartment identity. Three syntaxins, Tlg2p, Pep12p and Vam3p, organize the yeast endovacuolar system. Remarkably, filamentous fungi lack the equivalent of the yeast vacuolar syntaxin Vam3p, making unclear how these organisms regulate vacuole fusion. We show that the nearly essential Aspergillus nidulans syntaxin PepA(Pep12) , present in all endocytic compartments between early endosomes and vacuoles, shares features of Vam3p and Pep12p, and is capable of forming compositional equivalents of all known yeast endovacuolar SNARE bundles including that formed by yeast Vam3p for vacuolar fusion. Our data further indicate that regulation by two Sec1/Munc-18 proteins, Vps45 in early endosomes and Vps33 in early and late endosomes/vacuoles contributes to the wide domain of PepA(Pep12) action. The syntaxin TlgB(Tlg2) localizing to the TGN appears to mediate retrograde traffic connecting post-Golgi (sorting) endosomes with the TGN. TlgB(Tlg2) is dispensable for growth but becomes essential if the early Golgi syntaxin SedV(Sed5) is compromised, showing that the Golgi can function with a single syntaxin, SedV(Sed5) . Remarkably, its pattern of associations with endosomal SNAREs is consistent with SedV(Sed5) playing roles in retrograde pathway(s) connecting endocytic compartments downstream of the post-Golgi endosome with the Golgi, besides more conventional intra-Golgi roles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Advanced glycation end products upregulate lysyl oxidase and endothelin-1 in human aortic endothelial cells via parallel activation of ERK1/2-NF-κB and JNK-AP-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamopoulos, Christos; Piperi, Christina; Gargalionis, Antonios N; Dalagiorgou, Georgia; Spilioti, Eliana; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction involves deregulation of the key extracellular matrix (ECM) enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the vasoconstrictor protein, endothelin-1 (ET-1), whose gene expression can be modulated by the transcriptional activators nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) present an aggravating factor of endothelial dysfunction which upon engagement to their receptor RAGE induce upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), leading to NF-κB and AP-1 potentiation. We hypothesized that AGEs could induce NF-κΒ- and AP-1-dependent regulation of LOX and ET-1 expression via the AGE/RAGE/MAPK signaling axis. Western blot, real-time qRT-PCR, FACS analysis and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were employed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) following treatment with AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) to investigate the signaling pathway towards this hypothesis. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of AGEs, RAGE, LOX and ET-1 expression was conducted in aortic endothelium of a rat experimental model exposed to high- or low-AGE content diet. HAECs exposed to AGE-BSA for various time points exhibited upregulation of LOX and ET-1 mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure of HAECs to AGE-BSA also showed specific elevation of phospho(p)-ERK1/2 and p-JNK levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGE administration significantly increased NF-κΒ- and AP-1-binding activity to both LOX and ET-1 cognate promoter regions. Moreover, LOX and ET-1 overexpression in rat aortic endothelium upon high-AGE content diet confirmed the functional interrelation of these molecules. Our findings demonstrate that AGEs trigger NF-κΒ- and AP-1-mediated upregulation of LOX and ET-1 via the AGE/RAGE/MAPK signaling cascade in human endothelial cells, thus contributing to distorted endothelial homeostasis by impairing endothelial barrier function, altering ECM biomechanical properties

  3. Apolipoprotein E4 Impairs Neuronal Insulin Signaling by Trapping Insulin Receptor in the Endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Liu, Chia-Chen; Van Ingelgom, Alexandra J; Martens, Yuka A; Linares, Cynthia; Knight, Joshua A; Painter, Meghan M; Sullivan, Patrick M; Bu, Guojun

    2017-09-27

    Diabetes and impaired brain insulin signaling are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between diabetes and AD-associated amyloid pathology is stronger among carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene allele, the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Here we report that apoE4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling in human apoE-targeted replacement (TR) mice in an age-dependent manner. High-fat diet (HFD) accelerates these effects in apoE4-TR mice at middle age. In primary neurons, apoE4 interacts with insulin receptor and impairs its trafficking by trapping it in the endosomes, leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. In aging brains, the increased apoE4 aggregation and compromised endosomal function further exacerbate the inhibitory effects of apoE4 on insulin signaling and related functions. Together, our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of apoE4 and insulin resistance in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glucose regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Graves, Lee M.; Duncan, Mara C.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is a rich source of energy and the raw material for biomass increase. Many eukaryotic cells remodel their physiology in the presence and absence of glucose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes changes in transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell polarity in response to glucose availability. Upon glucose starvation, translation initiation and cell polarity are immediately inhibited, and then gradually recover. In this paper, we provide evidence that, as in cell polarity and translation, traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes is regulated by glucose via an unknown mechanism that depends on protein kinase A (PKA). Upon glucose withdrawal, clathrin adaptors exhibit a biphasic change in localization: they initially delocalize from the membrane within minutes and later partially recover onto membranes. Additionally, the removal of glucose induces changes in posttranslational modifications of adaptors. Ras and Gpr1 signaling pathways, which converge on PKA, are required for changes in adaptor localization and changes in posttranslational modifications. Acute inhibition of PKA demonstrates that inhibition of PKA prior to glucose withdrawal prevents several adaptor responses to starvation. This study demonstrates that PKA activity prior to glucose starvation primes membrane traffic at the TGN and endosomes in response to glucose starvation. PMID:21832155

  5. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C. Kondapalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na+, K+ content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo and on the surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters, drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott W; Thomas, Diana Dh; Cooley, Michelle M; Jones, Elaina K; Falkowski, Michelle A; August, Benjamin K; Fernandez, Luis A; Gorelick, Fred S; Groblewski, Guy E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P 2 ) is an essential phospholipid generated by PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PI(3,5)P 2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE) to late endosomes (LE). Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE) intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacological inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1), and trypsinogen activation in response to high-dose CCK-8, bile acids and cigarette toxin was determined. PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to high CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular activation of zymogens leading to the pathogenicity of acute pancreatitis.

  7. The NKG2D ligand ULBP2 is specifically regulated through an invariant chain-dependent endosomal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Kehlet, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    by affecting endosomal/lysosomal integrity and protein kinase C activity. The invariant chain was further essential for endosomal transport of ULBP2. This novel pathway was identified through screening experiments by which methylselenic acid was found to possess notable NKG2D ligand regulatory properties....... The protein kinase C inhibitor methylselenic acid induced MICA/B surface expression but dominantly blocked ULBP2 surface transport. Remarkably, by targeting this novel pathway we could specifically block the production of soluble ULBP2 from different, primary melanomas. Our findings strongly suggest...

  8. Endosomal pH modulation by peptide-gold nanoparticle hybrids enables potent anti-inflammatory activity in phagocytic immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Kozicky, Lisa; Saferali, Aabida; Fung, Shan-Yu; Afacan, Nicole; Cai, Bing; Falsafi, Reza; Gill, Erin; Liu, Mingyao; Kollmann, Tobias R; Hancock, R E W; Sly, Laura M; Turvey, Stuart E

    2016-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic human inflammatory diseases, and pharmacological regulation of TLR responses is anticipated to be beneficial in many inflammatory conditions. Currently there are no specific TLR inhibitors in clinical use. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a nano-based TLR inhibitor (peptide-gold nanoparticle hybrids) that inhibits a broad spectrum of TLR responses. Through mechanistic studies, we established that specific peptide decorated-gold nanoparticles that display high cellular uptake in phagocytic immune cells modulate endosomal pH, leading to significant attenuation of signaling through multiple TLRs. Using a global transcriptomic approach, we defined the broad anti-inflammatory activity of the nanoparticle in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In vivo studies confirmed the beneficial immunomodulatory activity since treatment with the nanoparticle significantly reduced weight loss, improved the disease activity index, and ameliorated colonic inflammation in a murine model of intestinal inflammation. This work enhances our fundamental understanding of the role of peptide coatings on the nanoparticle surface in regulating innate immune signaling, and identifies specific peptide decorated nanoparticles that may represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  10. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) encodes specific trafficking signals within its long cytoplasmic tail (CT) that regulate incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Rab11-family interacting protein 1C (FIP1C) and Rab14 are host trafficking factors required for Env particle incorporation, suggesting that Env undergoes sorting from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) to the site of particle assembly on the plasma membrane. We disrupted outward sorting from the ERC by expressing a C-terminal fragment of FIP1C (FIP1C 560-649 ) and examined the consequences on Env trafficking and incorporation into particles. FIP1C 560-649 reduced cell surface levels of Env and prevented its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Remarkably, Env was trapped in an exaggerated perinuclear ERC in a CT-dependent manner. Mutation of either the Yxxϕ endocytic motif or the YW 795 motif in the CT prevented Env trapping in the ERC and restored incorporation into particles. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Env was not retained in the ERC, while substitution of the HIV-1 CT for the SIV CT resulted in SIV Env retention in this compartment. These results provide the first direct evidence that Env traffics through the ERC and support a model whereby HIV-1 Env is specifically targeted to the ERC prior to FIP1C- and CT-dependent outward sorting to the particle assembly site on the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE The HIV envelope protein is an essential component of the viral particle. While many aspects of envelope protein structure and function have been established, the pathway it follows in the cell prior to reaching the site of particle assembly is not well understood. The envelope protein has a very long cytoplasmic tail that interacts with the host cell trafficking machinery. Here, we utilized a truncated form of the trafficking adaptor FIP1C protein to arrest the intracellular transport of the envelope protein, demonstrating that it becomes

  11. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  12. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-30

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  13. Kinesin-3 and dynein cooperate in long-range retrograde endosome motility along a nonuniform microtubule array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, M.; Kilaru, S.; Fink, G.; Collemare, J.A.R.; Roger, Y.; Steinberg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The polarity of microtubules (MTs) determines the motors for intracellular motility, with kinesins moving to plus ends and dynein to minus ends. In elongated cells of Ustilago maydis, dynein is thought to move early endosomes (EEs) toward the septum (retrograde), whereas kinesin-3 transports them to

  14. Serum glycomarkers of endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal-endosomal system stress in human healthy aging and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To verify the idea that extracellular free oligosaccharides might be able to reflect the functional status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and lysosomal-endosomal system, HPLC-profiles of serum-derived free oligosaccharides (FOS in human healthy aging, acute myeloproliferative neoplasms, and cardiovascular pathologies were compared with intracellular glycans. After plasma deproteinization and FOS purification the oligosaccharides were labelled with anthranilic acid, separated into the neutral and charged with QAE Sephadex (Q25-120 chromatography and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The charged FOS were digested with a sialidase and compared with free oligosaccharides from transferrin for structural decoding. HPLC-profiles of serum-derived FOS revealed mild delay of the dolichol phosphate cycle in ER, moderate intensification of ER-associated degradation (ERAD and degradation in endosomal-lysosomal system with aging; an inhibition of the dolichol phosphate cycle, intensification of ERAD and increasing of lysosomal exocytosis in acute myeloproliferative neoplasms; intensification of ERAD and glycocojugate degradation with endosomal-lysosomal system in cardiovascular diseases. As serum free oligosaccharides are able to reflect specifically perturbations in ER and endosomal-lysosomal system under wide range of stressors they can serve as extracellular markers of functionality of these organelles.

  15. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A.; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G.; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F.; Geng, Linda N.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; De Sluis, Bart van; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex

  16. Association with AflR in Endosomes Reveals New Functions for AflJ in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Linz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens of fungal origin. Biosynthesis of aflatoxin involves the coordinated expression of more than 25 genes. The function of one gene in the aflatoxin gene cluster, aflJ, is not entirely understood but, because previous studies demonstrated a physical interaction between the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor AflR and AflJ, AflJ was proposed to act as a transcriptional co-activator. Image analysis revealed that, in the absence of aflJ in A. parasiticus, endosomes cluster within cells and near septa. AflJ fused to yellow fluorescent protein complemented the mutation in A. parasiticus ΔaflJ and localized mainly in endosomes. We found that AflJ co-localizes with AflR both in endosomes and in nuclei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation did not detect AflJ binding at known AflR DNA recognition sites suggesting that AflJ either does not bind to these sites or binds to them transiently. Based on these data, we hypothesize that AflJ assists in AflR transport to or from the nucleus, thus controlling the availability of AflR for transcriptional activation of aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster genes. AflJ may also assist in directing endosomes to the cytoplasmic membrane for aflatoxin export.

  17. Characterization of PEBBLEs as a Tool for Real-Time Measurement of Dictyostelium discoideum Endosomal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Moding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of intracellular ion concentration change is important for understanding the cellular mechanisms for communication. Recently developed nanosensors, (Photonic Explorers for Biomedical use with Biologically Localized Embedding PEBBLEs, have a number of advantages for measuring ions in cells over established methods using microelectrodes, unbound fluorescent dyes, or NMR. PEBBLE sensors have been shown to work in principle for measuring dynamic ion changes, but few in vivo applications have been demonstrated. We modified the protocol for the fabrication of pH sensing PEBBLEs and developed a protocol for the utilization of these sensors for the monitoring of dynamic pH changes in the endosomes of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum. Oregon Green 514-CdSe Quantum Dot PEBBLEs were used to measure real-time pH inside D. discoideum endosomes during cAMP stimulation. Endosomal pH was shown to decrease during cAMP signaling, demonstrating a movement of protons into the endosomes of D. discoideum amoebae.

  18. IL4/PGE2 induction of an enlarged early endosomal compartment in mouse macrophages is Rab5-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Proctor, Brandon M.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Stahl, Philip D.; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    The endosomal compartment and the plasma membrane form a complex partnership that controls signal transduction and trafficking of different molecules. The specificity and functionality of the early endocytic pathway are regulated by a growing number of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab5. In this study, we demonstrate that IL4 (a Th-2 cytokine) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synergistically induce Rab5 and several Rab effector proteins, including Rin1 and EEA1, and promote the formation of an enlarged early endocytic (EEE) compartment. Endosome enlargement is linked to a substantial induction of the mannose receptor (MR), a well-characterized macrophage endocytic receptor. Both MR levels and MR-mediated endocytosis are enhanced approximately 7-fold. Fluid-phase endocytosis is also elevated in treated cells. Light microscopy and fractionation studies reveal that MR colocalizes predominantly with Rab5a and partially with Rab11, an endosomal recycling pathway marker. Using retroviral expression of Rab5a:S34N, a dominant negative mutant, and siRNA Rab5a silencing, we demonstrate that Rab5a is essential for the large endosome phenotype and for localization of MR in these structures. We speculate that the EEE is maintained by activated Rab5, and that the EEE phenotype is part of some macrophage developmental program such as cell fusion, a characteristic of IL4-stimulated cells

  19. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Humberto; Afonso, Valéry; Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation.

  20. Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47phox pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Lin, Zih-Chan; Liang, Chan-Jung; Yen, Feng-Lin; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Lee, Chiang-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases. - Highlights: • LPS activates the Nox2/p47 phox /JNK/AP-1 and induces COX2 expression in Hs68 cells. • Eupafolin inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression via Nox2/p47 phox inhibition. • Eupafolin may be used in the treatment of skin diseases involving inflammation

  1. Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47{sup phox} pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Horng [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Lin, Zih-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chan-Jung [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yen, Feng-Lin [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Yao-Chang [Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chiang-Wen, E-mail: cwlee@gw.cgust.edu.tw [Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Research Center, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-01

    Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases. - Highlights: • LPS activates the Nox2/p47{sup phox}/JNK/AP-1 and induces COX2 expression in Hs68 cells. • Eupafolin inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression via Nox2/p47{sup phox} inhibition. • Eupafolin may be used in the treatment of skin diseases involving inflammation.

  2. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  3. pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Mason, Caleb; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-05-12

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes. First, we found that a modest elevation of external pH can raise the pH in early endosomes in a cell type-dependent manner and thereby delay the acid-induced fusion of endocytosed ASLV. Second, we observed a cell type-dependent delay between the low pH-dependent and temperature-dependent steps of viral fusion, consistent with the delayed enlargement of the fusion pore. Third, ectopic expression of IFITMs, known to potently block influenza virus fusion with late compartments, was found to only partially inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. Interestingly, IFITM expression promoted virus uptake and the acidification of endosomal compartments, resulting in an accelerated fusion rate when driven by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, but not by the transmembrane isoform of the ASLV receptor. Collectively, these results highlight the role of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors in regulating the efficiency and kinetics of virus entry and fusion with target cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. A putative SUMO interacting motif in the B30.2/SPRY domain of rhesus macaque TRIM5α important for NF-κB/AP-1 signaling and HIV-1 restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Édith Nepveu-Traversy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIM5α from the rhesus macaque (TRIM5αRh is a restriction factor that shows strong activity against HIV-1. TRIM5αRh binds specifically to HIV-1 capsid (CA through its B30.2/PRYSPRY domain shortly after entry of the virus into the cytoplasm. Recently, three putative SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs have been identified in the PRYSPRY domain of human and macaque TRIM5α. However, structural modeling of this domain suggested that two of them were buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein, implying that interaction with SUMO was implausible, while the third one was not relevant to restriction. In light of these results, we re-analyzed the TRIM5αRh PRYSPRY sequence and identified an additional putative SIM (435VIIC438 which we named SIM4. This motif is exposed at the surface of the PRYSPRY domain, allowing potential interactions with SUMO or SUMOylated proteins. Introducing a double mutation in SIM4 (V435K, I436K did not alter stability, unlike mutations in SIM1. SIM4-mutated TRIM5αRh failed to bind HIV-1CA and lost the ability to restrict this virus. Accordingly, SIM4 undergoes significant variation among primates and substituting this motif with naturally occurring SIM4 variants affected HIV-1 restriction by TRIM5αRh, suggesting a direct role in capsid recognition. Interestingly, SIM4-mutated TRIM5αRh also failed to activate NF-κB and AP-1-mediated transcription. Although there is no direct evidence that SIM4 is involved in direct interaction with SUMO or a SUMOylated protein, mutating this motif strongly reduced co-localization of TRIM5αRh with SUMO-1 and with PML, a SUMOylated nuclear protein. In conclusion, this new putative SIM is crucial for both direct interaction with incoming capsids and for NF-κB/AP-1 signaling. We speculate that the latter function is mediated by interactions of SIM4 with a SUMOylated protein involved in the NF-κB/AP-1 signaling pathways.

  5. Munc13-4 functions as a Ca2+ sensor for homotypic secretory granule fusion to generate endosomal exocytic vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang Su; James, Declan J; Martin, Thomas F J

    2017-03-15

    Munc13-4 is a Ca 2+ -dependent SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)- and phospholipid-binding protein that localizes to and primes secretory granules (SGs) for Ca 2+ -evoked secretion in various secretory cells. Studies in mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells provide direct evidence that Munc13-4 with its two Ca 2+ -binding C2 domains functions as a Ca 2+ sensor for SG exocytosis. Unexpectedly, Ca 2+ stimulation also generated large (>2.4 μm in diameter) Munc13-4 + /Rab7 + /Rab11 + endosomal vacuoles. Vacuole generation involved the homotypic fusion of Munc13-4 + /Rab7 + SGs, followed by a merge with Rab11 + endosomes, and depended on Ca 2+ binding to Munc13-4. Munc13-4 promoted the Ca 2+ -stimulated fusion of VAMP8-containing liposomes with liposomes containing exocytic or endosomal Q-SNAREs and directly interacted with late endosomal SNARE complexes. Thus Munc13-4 is a tethering/priming factor and Ca 2+ sensor for both heterotypic SG-plasma membrane and homotypic SG-SG fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that vacuoles were exocytic and mediated secretion of β-hexosaminidase and cytokines accompanied by Munc13-4 diffusion onto the plasma membrane. The results provide new molecular insights into the mechanism of multigranular compound exocytosis commonly observed in various secretory cells. © 2017 Woo et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Amyloid precursor protein and endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: inseparable partners in a multifactorial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ralph A

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities of the endosomal-lysosomal network (ELN) are a signature feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These include the earliest known cytopathology that is specific to AD and that affects endosomes and induces the progressive failure of lysosomes, each of which are directly linked by distinct mechanisms to neurodegeneration. The origins of ELN dysfunction and β-amyloidogenesis closely overlap, which reflects their common genetic basis, the established early involvement of endosomes and lysosomes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and clearance, and the pathologic effect of certain APP metabolites on ELN functions. Genes that promote β-amyloidogenesis in AD (APP, PSEN1/2, and APOE4) have primary effects on ELN function. The importance of primary ELN dysfunction to pathogenesis is underscored by the mutations in more than 35 ELN-related genes that, thus far, are known to cause familial neurodegenerative diseases even though different pathogenic proteins may be involved. In this article, I discuss growing evidence that implicates AD gene-driven ELN disruptions as not only the antecedent pathobiology that underlies β-amyloidogenesis but also as the essential partner with APP and its metabolites that drive the development of AD, including tauopathy, synaptic dysfunction, and neurodegeneration. The striking amelioration of diverse deficits in animal AD models by remediating ELN dysfunction further supports a need to integrate APP and ELN relationships, including the role of amyloid-β, into a broader conceptual framework of how AD arises, progresses, and may be effectively therapeutically targeted.-Nixon, R. A. Amyloid precursor protein and endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: inseparable partners in a multifactorial disease. © FASEB.

  7. Augmented internalisation of ferroportin to late endosomes impairs iron uptake by enterocyte-like IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Phillip S; Thomas, Carla

    2005-08-01

    Absorption of iron occurs by duodenal enterocytes, involving uptake by the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and release by ferroportin. Ferroportin responds to the hepatocyte-produced 25-amino-acid-peptide hepcidin-25 by undergoing internalisation to late endosomes that impair iron release. Ferroportin is also expressed on the apical membrane of polarised Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal cells and in IEC-6 cells (an intestinal epithelial cell line). A blocking antibody to ferroportin also impairs the uptake, but not the release, of iron. In this study IEC-6 cells were used to study the mechanism of impairment or recovery from impairment produced by the blocking antibody and the fate of DMT1 and ferroportin. Uptake of 1 muM Fe(II) was studied by adding the antibody from time 0 and after adding or removing the antibody once a steady state had been reached. Surface binding, maximum iron transport rate V(max) and transporter affinity (K(m)) were measured after impairment of iron uptake. Ferroportin and DMT1 distribution were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Antibody-mediated impairment, or recovery from impairment, of Fe(II) uptake occurred within minutes. Impairment was lost when the antibody was combined with the immunizing peptide. DMT1 and ferroportin undergo internalisation to late endosomes and, in the presence of the antibody, augmented internalisation of DMT1 and ferroportin caused swelling of late endosomes. Surface binding of Fe(II) and iron transport V(max) were reduced by 50%, indicating that the antibody removed membrane-bound DMT1. The ferroportin antibody induced rapid turnover of membrane ferroportin and DMT1 and its internalisation to late endosomes, resulting in impaired Fe(II) uptake.

  8. Fluorescence microscopy colocalization of lipid-nucleic acid nanoparticles with wildtype and mutant Rab5-GFP: A platform for investigating early endosomal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Silva, Bruno F B; Liang, Keng S; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2015-06-01

    Endosomal entrapment is known to be a major bottleneck to successful cytoplasmic delivery of nucleic acids (NAs) using cationic liposome-NA nanoparticles (NPs). Quantitative measurements of distributions of NPs within early endosomes (EEs) have proven difficult due to the sub-resolution size and short lifetime of wildtype EEs. In this study we used Rab5-GFP, a member of the large family of GTPases which cycles between the plasma membrane and early endosomes, to fluorescently label early endosomes. Using fluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis of cells expressing Rab5-GFP, we found that at early time points (t<1h), only a fraction (≈35%) of RGD-tagged NPs (which target cell surface integrins) colocalize with wildtype EEs, independent of the NP's membrane charge density. In comparison, a GTP-hydrolysis deficient mutant, Rab5-Q79L, which extends the size and lifetime of EEs yielding giant early endosomes (GEEs), enabled us to resolve and localize individual NPs found within the GEE lumen. Remarkably, nearly all intracellular NPs are found to be trapped within GEEs implying little or no escape at early time points. The observed small degree of colocalization of NPs and wildtype Rab5 is consistent with recycling of Rab5-GDP to the plasma membrane and not indicative of NP escape from EEs. Taken together, our results show that endosomal escape of PEGylated nanoparticles occurs downstream of EEs i.e., from late endosomes/lysosomes. Our studies also suggest that Rab5-Q79L could be used in a robust imaging assay which allows for direct visualization of NP interactions with the luminal membrane of early endosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. mTORC1 activity repression by late endosomal phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marat, Andrea L; Wallroth, Alexander; Lo, Wen-Ting; Müller, Rainer; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Falasca, Marco; Schultz, Carsten; Haucke, Volker

    2017-06-02

    Nutrient sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on lysosomes and late endosomes (LyLEs) regulates cell growth. Many factors stimulate mTORC1 activity, including the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P 3 ] by class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) at the plasma membrane. We investigated mechanisms that repress mTORC1 under conditions of growth factor deprivation. We identified phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P 2 ], synthesized by class II PI3K β (PI3KC2β) at LyLEs, as a negative regulator of mTORC1, whereas loss of PI3KC2β hyperactivated mTORC1. Growth factor deprivation induced the association of PI3KC2β with the Raptor subunit of mTORC1. Local PI(3,4)P 2 synthesis triggered repression of mTORC1 activity through association of Raptor with inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins. These results unravel an unexpected function for local PI(3,4)P 2 production in shutting off mTORC1. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. SNX27 mediates retromer tubule entry and endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking of signalling receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Paul; Lauffer, Ben; Jäger, Stefanie; Cimermancic, Peter; Krogan, Nevan J; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Endocytic sorting of signalling receptors between recycling and degradative pathways is a key cellular process controlling the surface complement of receptors and, accordingly, the cell's ability to respond to specific extracellular stimuli. The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical seven-transmembrane signalling receptor that recycles rapidly and efficiently to the plasma membrane after ligand-induced endocytosis. β2AR recycling is dependent on the receptor's carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand and Rab4. This active sorting process is required for functional resensitization of β2AR-mediated signalling. Here we show that sequence-directed sorting occurs at the level of entry into retromer tubules and that retromer tubules are associated with Rab4. Furthermore, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) serves as an essential adaptor protein linking β2ARs to the retromer tubule. SNX27 does not seem to directly interact with the retromer core complex, but does interact with the retromer-associated Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The present results identify a role for retromer in endocytic trafficking of signalling receptors, in regulating a receptor-linked signalling pathway, and in mediating direct endosome-to-plasma membrane traffic.

  11. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum "hitchhike" on motile early endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Sofia C; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R A; Schrader, Michael; Steinberg, Gero

    2015-12-07

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3- and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. © 2015 Guimaraes et al.

  12. Smart DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers: compaction and endosomal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintgens, Véronique; Leborgne, Christian; Baconnais, Sonia; Burckbuchler, Virginie; Le Cam, Eric; Scherman, Daniel; Kichler, Antoine; Amiel, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Neutral β-cyclodextrin polymers (polyβCD) associated with cationic adamantyl derivatives (Ada) can be used to deliver plasmid DNA into cells. In absence of an endosomolytic agent, transfection efficiency remains low because most complexes are trapped in the endosomal compartment. We asked whether addition of an imidazole-modified Ada can increase efficiency of polyβCD/cationic Ada-based delivery system. We synthesized two adamantyl derivatives: Ada5, which has a spacer arm between the Ada moiety and a bi-cationic polar head group, and Ada6, which presents an imidazole group. Strength of association between polyβCD and Ada derivatives was evaluated by fluorimetric titration. Gel mobility shift assay, zeta potential, and dark field transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the system allowed for efficient DNA compaction. In vitro transfection experiments performed on HepG2 and HEK293 cells revealed the quaternary system polyβCD/Ada5/Ada6/DNA has efficiency comparable to cationic lipid DOTAP. We successfully designed fine-tuned DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers combined with two new adamantyl derivatives, leading to significant transfection associated with low toxicity.

  13. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  14. Upregulation of μ3A Drives Homeostatic Plasticity by Rerouting AMPAR into the Recycling Endosomal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine C. Steinmetz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity driven by transcription-dependent changes in AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR trafficking. To uncover the pathways involved, we performed a cell-type-specific screen for transcripts persistently altered during scaling, which identified the μ subunit (μ3A of the adaptor protein complex AP-3A. Synaptic scaling increased μ3A (but not other AP-3 subunits in pyramidal neurons and redistributed dendritic μ3A and AMPAR to recycling endosomes (REs. Knockdown of μ3A prevented synaptic scaling and this redistribution, while overexpression (OE of full-length μ3A or a truncated μ3A that cannot interact with the AP-3A complex was sufficient to drive AMPAR to REs. Finally, OE of μ3A acted synergistically with GRIP1 to recruit AMPAR to the dendritic membrane. These data suggest that excess μ3A acts independently of the AP-3A complex to reroute AMPAR to RE, generating a reservoir of receptors essential for the regulated recruitment to the synaptic membrane during scaling up.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diacylglycerol kinase α regulates tubular recycling endosome biogenesis and major histocompatibility complex class I recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2014-11-14

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presents intracellular-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and its subcellular itinerary is important in regulating the immune response. While a number of diacylglycerol kinase isoforms have been implicated in clathrin-dependent internalization, MHC I lacks the typical motifs known to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that depletion of diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα), a kinase devoid of a clathrin-dependent adaptor protein complex 2 binding site, caused a delay in MHC I recycling to the plasma membrane without affecting the rate of MHC I internalization. We demonstrate that DGKα knock-down causes accumulation of intracellular and surface MHC I, resulting from decreased degradation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DGKα is required for the generation of phosphatidic acid required for tubular recycling endosome (TRE) biogenesis. Moreover, we show that DGKα forms a complex with the TRE hub protein, MICAL-L1. Given that MICAL-L1 and the F-BAR-containing membrane-tubulating protein Syndapin2 associate selectively with phosphatidic acid, we propose a positive feedback loop in which DGKα generates phosphatidic acid to drive its own recruitment to TRE via its interaction with MICAL-L1. Our data support a novel role for the involvement of DGKα in TRE biogenesis and MHC I recycling. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  18. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 4 predominantly localizes to an early endosome-related organelle upon heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Verena; Friedrich, Katharina; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent proton-gated amiloride sensitive sodium channels, belonging to the DEG/ENaC gene family. Six different ASICs have been identified (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, ASIC4) that are activated by a drop in extracellular pH, either as homo- or heteromers. An exception is ASIC4, which is not activated by protons as a homomer and which does not contribute to functional heteromeric ASICs. Insensitivity of ASIC4 to protons and its comparatively low sequence identity to other ASICs (45%) raises the question whether ASIC4 may have different functions than other ASICs. In this study, we therefore investigated the subcellular localization of ASIC4 in heterologous cell lines, which revealed a surprising accumulation of the channel in early endosome-related vacuoles. Moreover, we identified an unique amino-terminal motif as important for forward-trafficking from the ER/Golgi to the early endosome-related compartment. Collectively, our results show that heterologously expressed ASIC4 predominantly resides in an intracellular endosomal compartment.

  19. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  20. Comparative analysis of the pteridophyte Adiantum MFT ortholog reveals the specificity of combined FT/MFT C and N terminal interaction with FD for the regulation of the downstream gene AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cheng-Jing; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    To study the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene families in non-flowering plants, we performed a functional analysis of the PEBP gene AcMFT of the MFT clade in the pteridophyte Adiantum capillus-veneris. The expression of AcMFT was regulated by photoperiod similar to that for FT under both long day and short day conditions. Ectopic expression of AcMFT in Arabidopsis promotes the floral transition and partially complements the late flowering defect in transgenic Arabidopsis ft-1 mutants, suggesting that AcMFT functions similarly to FT in flowering plants. Interestingly, a similar partial compensation of the ft-1 late flowering phenotype was observed in Arabidopsis ectopically expressing only exon 4 of the C terminus of AcMFT and FT. This result indicated that the fourth exon of AcMFT and FT plays a similar and important role in promoting flowering. Further analysis indicated that exons 1-3 in the N terminus specifically enhanced the function of FT exon 4 in controlling flowering in Arabidopsis. Protein pull-down assays indicated that Arabidopsis FD proteins interact with full-length FT and AcMFT, as well as peptides encoded by 1-3 exon fragments or the 4th exon alone. Furthermore, similar FRET efficiencies for FT-FD and AcMFT-FD heterodimer in nucleus were observed. These results indicated that FD could form the similar complex with FT and AcMFT. Further analysis indicated that the expression of AP1, a gene downstream of FT, was up-regulated more strongly by FT than AcMFT in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results revealed that AcMFT from a non-flowering plant could interact with FD to regulate the floral transition and that this function was reduced due to the weakened ability of AcMFT-FD to activate the downstream gene AP1.

  1. Inhibitory effect of moschamine isolated from Carthamus tinctorius on LPS-induced inflammatory mediators via AP-1 and STAT1/3 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, A-Ra; Han, Hee-Soo; Seo, Seunghwan; Shin, Ji-Sun; Lee, Jae Yeol; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2017-12-01

    Seeds of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae) have been used in Korean traditional medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular and bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of known serotonin derivatives (1-9) isolated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction from the seeds of C. tinctorius. Compound 2, identified as moschamine, most potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moschamine concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced PGE 2 and NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, moschamine suppressed the protein and mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E 2 synthase (mPGES)-1, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. In addition, pretreatment of moschamine significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, moschamine inhibited LPS-induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but it had no effect on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggest that the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of moschamine is associated with the downregulation of COX-2, mPGES-1, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1β expression through the suppression of AP-1 and STAT1/3 activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pristimerin Inhibits LPS-Triggered Neurotoxicity in BV-2 Microglia Cells Through Modulating IRAK1/TRAF6/TAK1-Mediated NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Bin; Zhang, Liping; Zhou, Qinhua; Hui, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Microglia plays a prominent role in the brain's inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations and secreting inflammatory molecules. However, hyperactivated microglial is neurotoxic and plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, possesses antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect and the molecular mechanism of pristimerin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in microglia remain to be revealed. In the present study, using BV-2 microglial cultures, we investigated whether pristimerin modifies neurotoxicity after LPS stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the effect of pristimerin. Here we show that pristimerin markedly suppressed the release of Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). Pristimerin also significantly inhibited migration of BV-2 microglia and alleviated the death of neuron-like PC12 cell induced by the conditioned medium from LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells. Moreover, pristimerin reduced the expression and interaction of TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) and Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases (IRAK1), limiting TGF-beta activating kinase 1 (TAK1) activation, and resulting in an inhibition of IKKα/β/NF-κB and MKK7/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Taken together, the anti-neurotoxicity action of pristimerin is mediated through the inhibition of TRAF6/IRAK1/TAK1 interaction as well as the related pathways: IKKα/β/NF-κB and MKK7/JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. These findings may suggest that pristimerin might serve as a new therapeutic agent for treating hyperactivated microglial induced neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  5. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  6. Endosome-mediated autophagy: an unconventional MIIC-driven autophagic pathway operational in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Vangelis; van Nispen Tot Pannerden, Hezder E; van Dijk, Suzanne; Ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Geerts, Willie J; Seinen, Cor; Mutis, Tuna; Heijnen, Harry F G

    2013-06-01

    Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4B (C74A) mutant and atg4b (-/-) bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival.

  7. Eps homology domain endosomal transport proteins differentially localize to the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Suzanne E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recycling of endosomes is important for trafficking and maintenance of proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We have previously shown high expression of the endocytic recycling regulator Eps15 homology domain-containing (EHD1 proteinin the Torpedo californica electric organ, a model tissue for investigating a cholinergic synapse. In this study, we investigated the localization of EHD1 and its paralogs EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4 in mouse skeletal muscle, and assessed the morphological changes in EHD1−/− NMJs. Methods Localization of the candidate NMJ protein EHD1 was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis of whole-mount mouse skeletal muscle fibers after direct gene transfer and immunolabeling. The potential function of EHD1 was assessed by specific force measurement and α-bungarotoxin-based endplate morphology mapping in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle. Results Endogenous EHD1 localized to primary synaptic clefts of murine NMJ, and this localization was confirmed by expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein labeled-EHD1 in murine skeletal muscle in vivo. EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle had normal histology and NMJ morphology, and normal specific force generation during muscle contraction. The EHD 1–4 proteins showed differential localization in skeletal muscle: EHD2 to muscle vasculature, EHD3 to perisynaptic regions, and EHD4 to perinuclear regions and to primary synaptic clefts, but at lower levels than EHD1. Additionally, specific antibodies raised against mammalian EHD1-4 recognized proteins of the expected mass in the T. californica electric organ. Finally, we found that EHD4 expression was more abundant in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle than in wild-type skeletal muscle. Conclusion EHD1 and EHD4 localize to the primary synaptic clefts of the NMJ. Lack of obvious defects in NMJ structure and muscle function in EHD1−/− muscle may be due to functional compensation by other EHD paralogs.

  8. Adenovirus RIDalpha regulates endosome maturation by mimicking GTP-Rab7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankur H; Cianciola, Nicholas L; Mills, Jeffrey L; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Carlin, Cathleen

    2007-12-03

    The small guanosine triphosphatase Rab7 regulates late endocytic trafficking. Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1L (ORP1L) are guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-Rab7 effectors that instigate minus end-directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that RILP and ORP1L both interact with the group C adenovirus protein known as receptor internalization and degradation alpha (RIDalpha), which was previously shown to clear the cell surface of several membrane proteins, including the epidermal growth factor receptor and Fas (Carlin, C.R., A.E. Tollefson, H.A. Brady, B.L. Hoffman, and W.S. Wold. 1989. Cell. 57:135-144; Shisler, J., C. Yang, B. Walter, C.F. Ware, and L.R. Gooding. 1997. J. Virol. 71:8299-8306). RIDalpha localizes to endocytic vesicles but is not homologous to Rab7 and is not catalytically active. We show that RIDalpha compensates for reduced Rab7 or dominant-negative (DN) Rab7(T22N) expression. In vitro, Cu(2+) binding to RIDalpha residues His75 and His76 facilitates the RILP interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis of these His residues results in the loss of RIDalpha-RILP interaction and RIDalpha activity in cells. Additionally, expression of the RILP DN C-terminal region hinders RIDalpha activity during an acute adenovirus infection. We conclude that RIDalpha coordinates recruitment of these GTP-Rab7 effectors to compartments that would ordinarily be perceived as early endosomes, thereby promoting the degradation of selected cargo.

  9. Activation mobilizes the cholesterol in the late endosomes-lysosomes of Niemann Pick type C cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Lange

    Full Text Available A variety of intercalating amphipaths increase the chemical activity of plasma membrane cholesterol. To test whether intracellular cholesterol can be similarly activated, we examined NPC1 and NPC2 fibroblasts, since they accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/L. We gauged the mobility of intracellular sterol from its appearance at the surface of the intact cells, as determined by its susceptibility to cholesterol oxidase and its isotope exchange with extracellular 2-(hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-cholesterol. The entire cytoplasmic cholesterol pool in these cells was mobile, exchanging with the plasma membrane with an apparent half-time of ∼3-4 hours, ∼4-5 times slower than that for wild type human fibroblasts (half-time ∼0.75 hours. The mobility of the intracellular cholesterol was increased by the membrane-intercalating amphipaths chlorpromazine and 1-octanol. Chlorpromazine also promoted the net transfer of LE/L cholesterol to serum and cyclodextrin. Surprisingly, the mobility of LE/L cholesterol was greatly stimulated by treating intact NPC cells with glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde. Similar effects were seen with wild type fibroblasts in which the LE/L cholesterol pool had been expanded using U18666A. We also showed that the cholesterol in the intracellular membranes of fixed wild-type fibroblasts was mobile; it was rapidly oxidized by cholesterol oxidase and was rapidly replenished by exogenous sterol. We conclude that a the cholesterol in NPC cells can exit the LE/L (and the extensive membranous inclusions therein over a few hours; b this mobility is stimulated by the activation of the cholesterol with intercalating amphipaths; c intracellular cholesterol is even more mobile in fixed cells; and d amphipaths that activate cholesterol might be useful in treating NPC disease.

  10. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  11. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  13. A novel berbamine derivative inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells of human glioblastoma, via up-regulation of miRNA-4284 and JNK/AP-1 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor, accounting for approximately 40% of all central nervous system malignancies. Despite standard treatment consisting of surgical resection, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM is poor; with a median survival of 14.6 months. The cancer stem cell or cancer-initiating cell model has provided a new paradigm for understanding development and recurrence of GBM following treatment. Berbamine (BBM is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plant, and along with its derivatives, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in several cancers. Here, we reported that a novel synthetic Berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the CSCs from four GBM patients (PBT003, PBT008, PBT022, and PBT030 were cultured. These CSCs grew in neurospheres and expressed CD133 and nestin as markers. Treatment with BBMD3 destroyed the neurosphere morphology, and led to the induction of apoptosis in the CSCs. Induction of apoptosis in these CSCs is dependent upon activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. MicroRNA-4284 (miR-4284 was shown to be over-expressed about 4-fold in the CSCs following BBMD3 treatment. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic anti-sense oligonucleotide against human miR-4284 partially blocked the anticancer effects of BBMD3 on the GBM derived CSCs. BBMD3 also increased phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK, resulting in an increase expression of phosphorylated c-Jun and total c-Fos; the major components of transcriptional factor AP-1. The JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis in response to UV irradiation and some drug treatments. Targeting glioblastoma stem-like cells with BBMD3 is therefore novel, and may have promise as an

  14. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) down-regulated arsenic-induced heme oxygenase-1 and ARS2 expression by inhibiting Nrf2, NF-κB, AP-1 and MAPK pathways in human proximal tubular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuezhong; Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that sodium arsenite at a clinically relevant dose induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2, which could be inhibited by natural product 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) with antioxidant activity. The present study demonstrated that arsenic exposure resulted in protein and enzymatic induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells. Blocking HO-1enzymatic activity by Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) augmented arsenic-induced apoptosis, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting a critical role for HO-1 as a renal protectant in this procession. On the other hand, TMP, upstream of HO-1, inhibited arsenic-induced ROS production and ROS-dependent HO-1 expression. TMP also prevented mitochondria dysfunction and suppressed activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HK-2 cells. Our results revealed that the regulation of arsenic-induced HO-1 expression was performed through multiple ROS-dependent signal pathways and the corresponding transcription factors, including p38 MAPK and JNK (but not ERK), AP-1, Nrf2 and NF-κB. TMP inhibited arsenic-induced activations of JNK, p38 MAPK, ERK, AP-1 and Nrf2 and block HO-1 protein expression. The present study, furthermore, demonstrated arsenic-induced expression of Arsenic response protein 2 (ARS2) that was regulated by p38 MAPK, ERK and NF-κB. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ARS2 involved in arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity while TMP pretreatment prevented such an up-regulation of ARS2 in HK-2 cells. Given ARS2 and HO-1 sharing the similar regulation mechanism, we speculated that ARS2 might also mediate cell survival in this procession. In summary, our study highlighted a role of HO-1 in the protection against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity downstream from the primary targets of TMP and further indicated that TMP may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of arsenic

  15. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  16. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  17. Endosomal accumulation of APP in wobbler motor neurons reflects impaired vesicle trafficking: implications for human motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Ralf; Golfi, Panagiota; Heimann, Peter; Shaw, Christopher; Troakes, Claire; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Bartsch, Jörg W

    2011-03-07

    The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is largely unknown but hypotheses about disease mechanisms include oxidative stress, defective axonal transport, mitochondrial dysfunction and disrupted RNA processing. Whereas familial ALS is well represented by transgenic mutant SOD1 mouse models, the mouse mutant wobbler (WR) develops progressive motor neuron degeneration due to a point mutation in the Vps54 gene, and provides an animal model for sporadic ALS. VPS54 protein as a component of a protein complex is involved in vesicular Golgi trafficking; impaired vesicle trafficking might also be mechanistic in the pathogenesis of human ALS. In motor neurons of homozygous symptomatic WR mice, a massive number of endosomal vesicles significantly enlarged (up to 3 μm in diameter) were subjected to ultrastructural analysis and immunohistochemistry for the endosome-specific small GTPase protein Rab7 and for amyloid precursor protein (APP). Enlarged vesicles were neither detected in heterozygous WR nor in transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice; in WR motor neurons, numerous APP/Rab7-positive vesicles were observed which were mostly LC3-negative, suggesting they are not autophagosomes. We conclude that endosomal APP/Rab7 staining reflects impaired vesicle trafficking in WR mouse motor neurons. Based on these findings human ALS tissues were analysed for APP in enlarged vesicles and were detected in spinal cord motor neurons in six out of fourteen sporadic ALS cases. These enlarged vesicles were not detected in any of the familial ALS cases. Thus our study provides the first evidence for wobbler-like aetiologies in human ALS and suggests that the genes encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking should be screened for pathogenic mutations.

  18. The late endosomal HOPS complex anchors active G-protein signaling essential for pathogenesis in magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikrishna Ramanujam

    Full Text Available In Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal ascomycete of the devastating rice blast disease, the conidial germ tube tip must sense and respond to a wide array of requisite cues from the host in order to switch from polarized to isotropic growth, ultimately forming the dome-shaped infection cell known as the appressorium. Although the role for G-protein mediated Cyclic AMP signaling in appressorium formation was first identified almost two decades ago, little is known about the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cascade and how the signal is transmitted through the intracellular network during cell growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the late endosomal compartments, comprising of a PI3P-rich (Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate highly dynamic tubulo-vesicular network, scaffold active MagA/GαS, Rgs1 (a GAP for MagA, Adenylate cyclase and Pth11 (a non-canonical GPCR in the likely absence of AKAP-like anchors during early pathogenic development in M. oryzae. Loss of HOPS component Vps39 and consequently the late endosomal function caused a disruption of adenylate cyclase localization, cAMP signaling and appressorium formation. Remarkably, exogenous cAMP rescued the appressorium formation defects associated with VPS39 deletion in M. oryzae. We propose that sequestration of key G-protein signaling components on dynamic late endosomes and/or endolysosomes, provides an effective molecular means to compartmentalize and control the spatio-temporal activation and rapid downregulation (likely via vacuolar degradation of cAMP signaling amidst changing cellular geometry during pathogenic development in M. oryzae.

  19. Genetic reconstitution of the human Adenovirus type 2 temperature-sensitive 1 mutant defective in endosomal escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastaldelli Michele

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Adenoviruses infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the urinary and digestive tracts, lymphoid systems and heart, and give rise to epidemic conjunctivitis. More than 51 human serotypes have been identified to-date, and classified into 6 species A-F. The species C Adenoviruses Ad2 and Ad5 (Ad2/5 cause upper and lower respiratory disease, but how viral structure relates to the selection of particular infectious uptake pathways is not known. An adenovirus mutant, Ad2-ts1 had been isolated upon chemical mutagenesis in the past, and shown to have unprocessed capsid proteins. Ad2-ts1 fails to package the viral protease L3/p23, and Ad2-ts1 virions do not efficiently escape from endosomes. It had been suggested that the C22187T point mutation leading to the substitution of the conserved proline 137 to leucine (P137L in the L3/p23 protease was at least in part responsible for this phenotype. To clarify if the C22187T mutation is necessary and sufficient for the Ad2-ts1 phenotype, we sequenced the genes encoding the structural proteins of Ad2-ts1, and confirmed that the Ad2-ts1 DNA carries the point mutation C22187T. Introduction of C22187T to the wild-type Ad2 genome in a bacterial artificial chromosome (Ad2-BAC gave Ad2-BAC46 virions with the full Ad2-ts1 phenotype. Reversion of Ad2-BAC46 gave wild-type Ad2 particles indicating that P137L is necessary and sufficient for the Ad2-ts1 phenotype. The kinetics of Ad2-ts1 uptake into cells were comparable to Ad2 suggesting similar endocytic uptake mechanisms. Surprisingly, infectious Ad2 or Ad5 but not Ad2-ts1 uptake required CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid protein, which controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis and membrane transport between endosomes and the trans-Golgi-network. The data show that no other mutations than P137L in the viral protease are necessary to give rise to particles that are defective in capsid processing and endosomal escape. This provides a basis for

  20. Viral miRNAs exploiting the endosomal-exosomal pathway for intercellular cross-talk and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegtel, D Michiel; van de Garde, Martijn D B; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2011-01-01

    The class of persistent gamma-herpesviruses has developed a variety of strategies that exploit host-cell regulatory pathways to ensure a long-lasting, well-balanced infection of their host. However when these pathways are deregulated, an otherwise harmless infection can lead to disease including cancer. We recently demonstrated that the human herpes virus 4 (HHV4) also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), encodes for small regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be transferred from an infected cell to uninfected neighboring cells. Upon arrival these miRNAs are functional in the recipient cell, in that they are able to down regulate specific target genes. These secreted miRNAs are transported to recipient cells via small nano-sized vesicles (known as exosomes) that are of endosomal origin, formed as intraluminal vesicles (ILV) inside multivesicular bodies (MVB). One question that needs to be addressed is how viral miRNAs are sorted into these exosomes. Mature miRNAs, including those of viral origin, are loaded into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) for gene silencing via blocking mRNA translation and/or initiating mRNA decay. Recent insights indicate that cytoplasmic RNA granules rich in RISC complexes are closely associated with endosomes. In fact, selective components of RISC, including GW182 and Argonaut proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs are present in exosomes. Thus miRNA function, mRNA stability and exosome-mediated intercellular communication converge at the level of endosomes. Since endosomes can be considered as key intracellular cross-roads that regulate communication of cells with their exterior, including neighboring cells, it is perhaps not surprising that viruses have found means to exploit this pathway to their benefit. Little is known however, how and if (micro) RNA species are specifically sorted into ILVs and what (micro)RNA-binding proteins are involved. Here we discuss recent developments relating to intracellular trafficking and function of

  1. A distinct endosomal Ca2+/Mn2+ pump affects root growth through the secretory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyan; Chanroj, Salil; Wu, Zhongyi; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Harper, Jeffrey F; Sze, Heven

    2008-08-01

    Ca(2+) is required for protein processing, sorting, and secretion in eukaryotic cells, although the particular roles of the transporters involved in the secretory system of plants are obscure. One endomembrane-type Ca-ATPase from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtECA3, diverges from AtECA1, AtECA2, and AtECA4 in protein sequence; yet, AtECA3 appears similar in transport activity to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound AtECA1. Expression of AtECA3 in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant defective in its endogenous Ca(2+) pumps conferred the ability to grow on Ca(2+)-depleted medium and tolerance to toxic levels of Mn(2+). A green fluorescent protein-tagged AtECA3 was functionally competent and localized to intracellular membranes of yeast, suggesting that Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) loading into internal compartment(s) enhanced yeast proliferation. In mesophyll protoplasts, AtECA3-green fluorescent protein associated with a subpopulation of endosome/prevacuolar compartments based on partial colocalization with the Ara7 marker. Interestingly, three independent eca3 T-DNA disruption mutants showed severe reduction in root growth normally stimulated by 3 mm Ca(2+), indicating that AtECA3 function cannot be replaced by an ER-associated AtECA1. Furthermore, root growth of mutants is sensitive to 50 microm Mn(2+), indicating that AtECA3 is also important for the detoxification of excess Mn(2+). Curiously, Ateca3 mutant roots produced 65% more apoplastic protein than wild-type roots, as monitored by peroxidase activity, suggesting that the secretory process was altered. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of AtECA3 is distinct from that of the more abundant ER AtECA1. AtECA3 supports Ca(2+)-stimulated root growth and the detoxification of high Mn(2+), possibly through activities mediated by post-Golgi compartments that coordinate membrane traffic and sorting of materials to the vacuole and the cell wall.

  2. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  3. Endosomal MR1 Trafficking Plays a Key Role in Presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ligands to MAIT Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Harriff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT cells, present in high frequency in airway and other mucosal tissues, have Th1 effector capacity positioning them to play a critical role in the early immune response to intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. MR1 is a highly conserved Class I-like molecule that presents vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. The mechanisms for loading these ubiquitous small molecules are likely to be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate MAIT cell activation. To define the intracellular localization of MR1, we analyzed the distribution of an MR1-GFP fusion protein in antigen presenting cells. We found that MR1 localized to endosomes and was translocated to the cell surface upon addition of 6-formyl pterin (6-FP. To understand the mechanisms by which MR1 antigens are presented, we used a lentiviral shRNA screen to identify trafficking molecules that are required for the presentation of Mtb antigen to HLA-diverse T cells. We identified Stx18, VAMP4, and Rab6 as trafficking molecules regulating MR1-dependent MAIT cell recognition of Mtb-infected cells. Stx18 but not VAMP4 or Rab6 knockdown also resulted in decreased 6-FP-dependent surface translocation of MR1 suggesting distinct pathways for loading of exogenous ligands and intracellular mycobacterially-derived ligands. We postulate that endosome-mediated trafficking of MR1 allows for selective sampling of the intracellular environment.

  4. Endosomal "sort" of signaling control: The role of ESCRT machinery in regulation of receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Ewelina; Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Miaczynska, Marta

    2018-02-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) machinery consists of four protein assemblies (ESCRT-0 to -III subcomplexes) which mediate various processes of membrane remodeling in the cell. In the endocytic pathway, ESCRTs sort cargo destined for degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of endosomes. Cargos targeted by ESCRTs include various signaling molecules, mainly internalized cell-surface receptors but also some cytosolic proteins. It is therefore expected that aberrant trafficking caused by ESCRT dysfunction affects different signaling pathways. Here we review how perturbation of ESCRT activity alters intracellular transport of membrane receptors, causing their accumulation on endocytic compartments, decreased degradation and/or altered recycling to the plasma membrane. We further describe how perturbed trafficking of receptors impacts the activity of their downstream signaling pathways, with or without changes in transcriptional responses. Finally, we present evidence that ESCRT components can also control activity and intracellular distribution of cytosolic signaling proteins (kinases, other effectors and soluble receptors). The underlying mechanisms involve sequestration of such proteins in ILVs, their sorting for degradation or towards non-lysosomal destinations, and regulating their availability in various cellular compartments. All these ESCRT-mediated processes can modulate final outputs of multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reorganization of the Endosomal System in Salmonella-Infected Cells: The Ultrastructure of Salmonella-Induced Tubular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Viktoria; Liebl, David; Zhang, Yuying; Rajashekar, Roopa; Chlanda, Petr; Giesker, Katrin; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the intracellular life of Salmonella enterica, a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella-containing vacuole, or SCV, is formed. By means of translocated effector proteins, intracellular Salmonella also induce the formation of extensive, highly dynamic membrane tubules termed Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. Here we report the first detailed ultrastructural analyses of the SCV and SIF by electron microscopy (EM), EM tomography and live cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We found that a subset of SIF is composed of double membranes that enclose portions of host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments within its inner lumen. Despite some morphological similarities, we found that the formation of SIF double membranes is independent from autophagy and requires the function of the effector proteins SseF and SseG. The lumen of SIF network is accessible to various types of endocytosed material and our CLEM analysis of double membrane SIF demonstrated that fluid phase markers accumulate only between the inner and outer membrane of these structures, a space continual with endosomal lumen. Our work reveals how manipulation of the endosomal membrane system by an intracellular pathogen results in a unique tubular membrane compartmentalization of the host cell, generating a shielded niche permissive for intracellular proliferation of Salmonella. PMID:25254663

  6. Toxoplasma gondii Syntaxin 6 Is Required for Vesicular Transport Between Endosomal-Like Compartments and the Golgi Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison J; Clucas, Caroline; Mamczur, Nicola J; Ferguson, David J; Meissner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular parasites that invade the host cell in an active process that relies on unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules) localized at the apical tip of these highly polarized eukaryotes. In order for the contents of these specialized organelles to reach their final destination, these proteins are sorted post-Golgi and it has been speculated that they pass through endosomal-like compartments (ELCs), where they undergo maturation. Here, we characterize a Toxoplasma gondii homologue of Syntaxin 6 (TgStx6), a well-established marker for the early endosomes and trans Golgi network (TGN) in diverse eukaryotes. Indeed, TgStx6 appears to have a role in the retrograde transport between ELCs, the TGN and the Golgi, because overexpression of TgStx6 results in the development of abnormally shaped parasites with expanded ELCs, a fragmented Golgi and a defect in inner membrane complex maturation. Interestingly, other organelles such as the micronemes, rhoptries and the apicoplast are not affected, establishing the TGN as a major sorting compartment where several transport pathways intersect. It therefore appears that Toxoplasma has retained a plant-like secretory pathway. PMID:23962112

  7. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, P.R.P.; TERADA, M.; JUNIOR, O.R.A.; LOPES, A.C.; COSTA, I.; BANCZEK, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  8. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther; Carroll, Miles; Rommelaere, Jean; Almendral, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  9. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Carroll, Miles [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, Wilts (United Kingdom); Rommelaere, Jean [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Division F010, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Almendral, Jose M., E-mail: jmalmendral@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-10

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  10. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... and durability of anticorrosive coatings have been included. The different types of anticorrosive coatings are presented, and the most widely applied generic types of binders and pigments in anticorrosive coatings are listed and described. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms of barrier, sacrificial...

  11. Mechanism of Action of Nigella sativa on Human Colon Cancer Cells: the Suppression of AP-1 and NF-κB Transcription Factors and the Induction of Cytoprotective Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania A; El-Assouli, Sufian M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth-suppression potentiality of a crude saponin extract (CSENS) prepared from medicinal herb, Nigella sativa, on human colon cancer cells, HCT116. HCT116 cells were subjected to increasing doses of CSENS for 24, 48 and 72 h, and then harvested and assayed for cell viability by WST-1. Flow cytometry analyses, cell death detection ELISA, fluorescent stains (Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide), DNA laddering and comet assays were carried out to confirm the apoptogenic effects of CSENS. Luciferase reporter gene assays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. The results demonstrated that CSENS inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses, while CSENS-treated cells exhibited morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, irregularity in cellular shape, cellular detachment and chromatin condensation. Biochemical signs of apoptosis, such as DNA degradation, were observed by comet assay and gel electrophoresis. The pro-apoptotic effect of CSENS was caspase-3-independent and associated with increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CSENS treatment down-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 proteins, associated with down-regulation of their target oncogenes, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and survivin. On the other hand, CSENS up-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of Nrf2 and expression of cytoprotective genes. In addition, CSENS modulated the expression levels of ERK1/2 MAPK, p53 and p21. These findings suggest that CSENS may be a valuable agent for treatment of colon cancer.

  12. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  13. Seal coat research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  14. Evaluation of masonry coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of five coating systems to replace the conventional Class 2 rubbed finish now required on concrete structures. The evaluation consisted of preparing test specimens with each of the five coatings and conducting abs...

  15. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  16. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  17. Ceramic with zircon coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  18. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  19. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  20. Radiation-hardening coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellmer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Lacquers and coating agents hardened by radiation have replaced conventional coating in some fields. By means of single developments (glass-fiber coating, photosensitive lacquers for films and printing plates, photoresists, additives and fillers) the latest tendencies are shown in a survey. (HP) [de

  1. Coating of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  2. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, E.; Sleszynska, M.; Evers, M. J W; Storm, G.; Martin, Nathaniel; Mastrobattista, E.

    2017-01-01

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high

  3. Effective photo-enhancement of cellular activity of fluorophore-octaarginine antisense PNA conjugates correlates with singlet oxygen formation, endosomal escape and chromophore lipophilicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarani, Reza; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a cellular drug delivery method based on the generation of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to the endosomal membrane and thereby resulting in drug release to the cytoplasm. In our study a series of antisense fluorophore octaarginine...

  4. Cytoplasmic capes are nuclear envelope intrusions that are enriched in endosomal proteins and depend upon βH-spectrin and Annexin B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bakerink, Katelyn J; Evangelista, Meagan E; Thomas, Graham H

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that non-erythroid spectrins have roles remote from the plasma membrane, notably in endomembrane trafficking. The large spectrin isoform, βH, partners with Annexin B9 to modulate endosomal processing of internalized proteins. This modulation is focused on the early endosome through multivesicular body steps of endocytic processing and loss of either protein appears to cause a traffic jam before removal of ubiquitin at the multivesicular body. We previously reported that βH/Annexin B9 influenced EGF receptor signaling. While investigating this effect we noticed that mSptiz, the membrane bound precursor of the secreted EGF receptor ligand sSpitz, is located in striking intrusions of the nuclear membrane. Here we characterize these structures and identify them as 'cytoplasmic capes', which were previously identified in old ultrastructural studies and probably coincide with recently recognized sites of non-nuclear-pore RNA export. We show that cytoplasmic capes contain multiple endosomal markers and that their existence is dependent upon βH and Annexin B9. Diminution of these structures does not lead to a change in mSpitz processing. These results extend the endosomal influence of βH and its partner Annexin B9 to this unusual compartment at the nuclear envelope.

  5. Cytoplasmic capes are nuclear envelope intrusions that are enriched in endosomal proteins and depend upon βH-spectrin and Annexin B9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that non-erythroid spectrins have roles remote from the plasma membrane, notably in endomembrane trafficking. The large spectrin isoform, βH, partners with Annexin B9 to modulate endosomal processing of internalized proteins. This modulation is focused on the early endosome through multivesicular body steps of endocytic processing and loss of either protein appears to cause a traffic jam before removal of ubiquitin at the multivesicular body. We previously reported that βH/Annexin B9 influenced EGF receptor signaling. While investigating this effect we noticed that mSptiz, the membrane bound precursor of the secreted EGF receptor ligand sSpitz, is located in striking intrusions of the nuclear membrane. Here we characterize these structures and identify them as 'cytoplasmic capes', which were previously identified in old ultrastructural studies and probably coincide with recently recognized sites of non-nuclear-pore RNA export. We show that cytoplasmic capes contain multiple endosomal markers and that their existence is dependent upon βH and Annexin B9. Diminution of these structures does not lead to a change in mSpitz processing. These results extend the endosomal influence of βH and its partner Annexin B9 to this unusual compartment at the nuclear envelope.

  6. Physical, Functional and Genetic Interactions between the BEACH Domain Protein SPIRRIG and LIP5 and SKD1 and Its Role in Endosomal Trafficking to the Vacuole in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Steffens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Beige and Chediak Higashi (BEACH domain-containing proteins (BDCPs are facilitators of membrane-dependent cellular processes in eukaryotes. Mutations in BDCPs cause malfunctions of endosomal compartments in various cell types. Recently, the molecular analysis of the BDCP homolog gene SPIRRIG (SPI has revealed a molecular function in P-bodies and the regulation of RNA stability. We therefore aimed to analyze, whether SPI has also a role in membrane-dependent processes. In this study, we show that SPI physically interacts with endosomal sorting complex required for transport associated ATPase Suppressor of K+-transport growth defect1 (SKD1 and its positive regulator, LYST Interacting Protein 5 (LIP5 and report genetic interactions between SPI and SKD1 and LIP5. We further show that the endosomal transport route of soluble proteins to the lytic vacuole is disturbed in spi lip5 double mutants but not in the single mutants. These vacuolar transport defects were suppressed by additional expression of SKD1. Our results indicate that the BEACH domain protein SPI has in addition to a role in P-bodies a function in endosomal transport routes.

  7. Endosomal Escape and Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Machinery Enabled by Nanoscale Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2017-12-22

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a combined protein (Cas9) and an engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) genome editing platform that offers revolutionary solutions to genetic diseases. It has, however, a double delivery problem owning to the large protein size and the highly charged RNA component. In this work, we report the first example of CRISPR/Cas9 encapsulated by nanoscale zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) with a loading efficiency of 17% and enhanced endosomal escape promoted by the protonated imidazole moieties. The gene editing potential of CRISPR/Cas9 encapsulated by ZIF-8 (CC-ZIFs) is further verified by knocking down the gene expression of green fluorescent protein by 37% over 4 days employing CRISPR/Cas9 machinery. The nanoscale CC-ZIFs are biocompatible and easily scaled-up offering excellent loading capacity and controlled co-delivery of intact Cas9 protein and sgRNA.

  8. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  9. Metallic coating of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  10. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  11. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  12. The endosomal trafficking factors CORVET and ESCRT suppress plasma membrane residence of the renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Timothy D; Kim, Bo-Young; Subramanya, Arohan R; Bain, Daniel J; O'Donnell, Allyson F; Welling, Paul A; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2018-03-02

    Protein trafficking can act as the primary regulatory mechanism for ion channels with high open probabilities, such as the r enal o uter m edullary (ROMK) channel. ROMK, also known as Kir1.1 (KCNJ1), is the major route for potassium secretion into the pro-urine and plays an indispensable role in regulating serum potassium and urinary concentrations. However, the cellular machinery that regulates ROMK trafficking has not been fully defined. To identify regulators of the cell-surface population of ROMK, we expressed a pH-insensitive version of the channel in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We determined that ROMK primarily resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as it does in mammalian cells, and is subject to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). However, sufficient ROMK levels on the plasma membrane rescued growth on low-potassium medium of yeast cells lacking endogenous potassium channels. Next, we aimed to identify the biological pathways most important for ROMK regulation. Therefore, we used a synthetic genetic array to identify non-essential genes that reduce the plasma membrane pool of ROMK in potassium-sensitive yeast cells. Genes identified in this screen included several members of the endosomal complexes required for transport (ESCRT) and the class-C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complexes. Mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed that yeast cells lacking an ESCRT component accumulate higher potassium concentrations. Moreover, silencing of ESCRT and CORVET components increased ROMK levels at the plasma membrane in HEK293 cells. Our results indicate that components of the post-endocytic pathway influence the cell-surface density of ROMK and establish that components in this pathway modulate channel activity.

  13. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  14. LITAF mutations associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1C show mislocalization from the late endosome/lysosome to the mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Ferreira Lacerda

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease is one of the most common heritable neuromuscular disorders, affecting 1 in every 2500 people. Mutations in LITAF have been shown to be causative for CMT type 1C disease. In this paper we explore the subcellular localization of wild type LITAF and mutant forms of LITAF known to cause CMT1C (T49M, A111G, G112S, T115N, W116G, L122V and P135T. The results show that LITAF mutants A111G, G112S, W116G, and T115N mislocalize from the late endosome/lysosome to the mitochondria while the mutants T49M, L122V, and P135T show partial mislocalization with a portion of the total protein present in the late endosome/lysosome and the remainder of the protein localized to the mitochondria. This suggests that different mutants of LITAF will produce differing severity of disease. We also explored the effect of the presence of mutant LITAF on wild-type LITAF localization. We showed that in cells heterozygous for LITAF, CMT1C mutants T49M and G112S are dominant since wild-type LITAF localized to the mitochondria when co-transfected with a LITAF mutant. Finally, we demonstrated how LITAF transits to the endosome and mitochondria compartments of the cell. Using Brefeldin A to block ER to Golgi transport we demonstrated that wild type LITAF traffics through the secretory pathway to the late endosome/lysosome while the LITAF mutants transit to the mitochondria independent of the secretory pathway. In addition, we demonstrated that the C-terminus of LITAF is necessary and sufficient for targeting of wild-type LITAF to the late endosome/lysosome and the mutants to the mitochondria. Together these data provide insight into how mutations in LITAF cause CMT1C disease.

  15. MAA-1, a novel acyl-CoA-binding protein involved in endosomal vesicle transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Tuck, Simon; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    The budding and fission of vesicles during membrane trafficking requires many proteins, including those that coat the vesicles, adaptor proteins that recruit components of the coat, and small GTPases that initiate vesicle formation. In addition, vesicle formation in vitro is promoted by the hydro...

  16. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  19. Rabies Internalizes into Primary Peripheral Neurons via Clathrin Coated Pits and Requires Fusion at the Cell Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinotti, Silvia; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The single glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RABV) dictates all viral entry steps from receptor engagement to membrane fusion. To study the uptake of RABV into primary neuronal cells in culture, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in which the G protein was replaced with that of the neurotropic RABV CVS-11 strain (rVSV CVS G). Using microfluidic compartmentalized culture, we examined the uptake of single virions into the termini of primary neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and ventral spinal cord. By pharmacologically disrupting endocytosis at the distal neurites, we demonstrate that rVSV CVS G uptake and infection are dependent on dynamin. Imaging of single virion uptake with fluorescent endocytic markers further identifies endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits as the predominant internalization mechanism. Transmission electron micrographs also reveal the presence of viral particles in vesicular structures consistent with incompletely coated clathrin pits. This work extends our previous findings of clathrin-mediated uptake of RABV into epithelial cells to two neuronal subtypes involved in rabies infection in vivo. Chemical perturbation of endosomal acidification in the neurite or somal compartment further shows that establishment of infection requires pH-dependent fusion of virions at the cell body. These findings correlate infectivity to existing single particle evidence of long-range endosomal transport of RABV and clathrin dependent uptake at the plasma membrane. PMID:27463226

  20. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  1. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  2. Metallurgical coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-05-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer.

  3. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  4. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  5. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  6. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  7. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  8. Alsin and SOD1G93A Proteins Regulate Endosomal Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Glial Cells and Proinflammatory Pathways Responsible for Neurotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Spencer, Netanya Y.; Pantazis, Nicholas J.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated enhanced Nox2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) by microglia in the pathogenesis of motor neuron death observed in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this context, ALS mutant forms of SOD1 enhance Rac1 activation, leading to increased Nox2-dependent microglial ROS production and neuron cell death in mice. It remains unclear if other genetic mutations that cause ALS also function through similar Nox-dependent pathways to enhance ROS-mediate motor neuron death. In the present study, we sought to understand whether alsin, which is mutated in an inherited juvenile form of ALS, functionally converges on Rac1-dependent pathways acted upon by SOD1G93A to regulate Nox-dependent ROS production. Our studies demonstrate that glial cell expression of SOD1G93A or wild type alsin induces ROS production, Rac1 activation, secretion of TNFα, and activation of NFκB, leading to decreased motor neuron survival in co-culture. Interestingly, coexpression of alsin, or shRNA against Nox2, with SOD1G93A in glial cells attenuated these proinflammatory indicators and protected motor neurons in co-culture, although shRNAs against Nox1 and Nox4 had little effect. SOD1G93A expression dramatically enhanced TNFα-mediated endosomal ROS in glial cells in a Rac1-dependent manner and alsin overexpression inhibited SOD1G93A-induced endosomal ROS and Rac1 activation. SOD1G93A expression enhanced recruitment of alsin to the endomembrane compartment in glial cells, suggesting that these two proteins act to modulate Nox2-dependent endosomal ROS and proinflammatory signals that modulate NFκB. These studies suggest that glial proinflammatory signals regulated by endosomal ROS are influenced by two gene products known to cause ALS. PMID:21937428

  9. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Blenke, E; Sleszynska, M; Evers, M J W; Storm, G; Martin, N I; Mastrobattista, E

    2017-02-15

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high membranolytic activity. However, such lytic peptides also impose a significant safety risk when applied in vivo as they often have similar activity against red blood cells and other nontarget cell membranes. Our aim is to control the membrane-disrupting capacity of these peptides in time and space by physically constraining them to a nanocarrier surface in such a way that they only become activated when delivered inside acidic endosomes. To this end, a variety of chemical approaches for the coupling of lytic peptides to liposomes via functionalized PEG-lipids were explored, including maleimide-thiol chemistry, click-chemistry, and aldehyde-hydrazide chemistry. The latter enables reversible conjugation via a hydrazone bond, allowing for release of the peptide under endosomal conditions. By carefully choosing the conjugation site and by using a pH activated analog of the melittin peptide, lytic activity toward a model membrane is completely inhibited at physiological pH. At endosomal pH the activity is restored by hydrolysis of the acid-labile hydrazone bond, releasing the peptide in its most active, free form. Furthermore, using an analogue containing a nonhydrolyzable bond as a control, it was shown that the activity observed can be completely attributed to release of the peptide, validating dynamic covalent conjugation as a suitable strategy to maintain safety during circulation.

  10. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Razi, Minoo [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Weston, Anne [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Soft Matter and Functional Materials, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tooze, Sharon A. [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Collinson, Lucy M., E-mail: lucy.collinson@cancer.org.uk [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. - Highlights: • We image whole, unstained mammalian cells using cryo-soft X-ray tomography. • Endosomes are identified using a gold marker for the transferrin receptor. • A new workflow for correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT is used to locate early autophagosomes. • Interactions between endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and forming autophagosomes are mapped in 3D. • Multiple omegasomes are shown to form at ‘hotspots’ on the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  12. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  13. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  14. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  15. Endosomal-lysosomal Cholesterol Sequestration by U18666A Differentially Regulates APP Metabolism in Normal and APP Overexpressing Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J; Phukan, G; Vergote, D; Mohamed, A; Maulik, M; Stahn, M; Andrew, R J; Thinakaran, G; Posse de Chaves, E; Kar, S

    2018-03-12

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a critical role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Current evidence indicates that altered levels/subcellular distribution of cholesterol can regulate Aβ production/clearance, but it remains unclear how cholesterol sequestration within the endosomal-lysosomal (EL) system can influence APP metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the effects of U18666A, which triggers cholesterol redistribution within EL system, on mouse N2a cells expressing different levels of APP in the presence or absence of extracellular cholesterol/lipids provided by fetal bovine serum (FBS). Our results reveal that U18666A and FBS differentially increase the levels of APP and its cleaved products α/β/η-C-terminal fragments in N2a cells expressing normal levels of mouse APP (N2awt) or higher levels of human wild-type APP (APPwt) or "Swedish" mutant APP (APPsw). The cellular levels of Aβ 1-40 /Aβ 1-42 were markedly increased in U18666A-treated APPwt and APPsw cells. Our studies further demonstrate that APP and its cleaved products are partly accumulated in the lysosomes possibly due to decreased clearance. Finally, we show that autophagy inhibition plays a role in mediating U18666A effects. Collectively, these results suggest that altered levels/distribution of cholesterol/lipids can differentially regulate APP metabolism depending on the nature of APP expression. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Downregulation of a GPCR by β-Arrestin2-Mediated Switch from an Endosomal to a TGN Recycling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazish; Beg, Muheeb; Soares, David; Dittman, Jeremy S; McGraw, Timothy E

    2016-12-13

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone involved in nutrient homeostasis. GIP receptor (GIPR) is constitutively internalized and returned to the plasma membrane, atypical behavior for a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). GIP promotes GIPR downregulation from the plasma membrane by inhibiting recycling without affecting internalization. This transient desensitization is achieved by altered intracellular trafficking of activated GIPR. GIP stimulation induces a switch in GIPR recycling from a rapid endosomal to a slow trans-Golgi network (TGN) pathway. GPCR kinases and β-arrestin2 are required for this switch in recycling. A coding sequence variant of GIPR, which has been associated with metabolic alterations, has altered post-activation trafficking characterized by enhanced downregulation and prolonged desensitization. Downregulation of the variant requires β-arrestin2 targeting to the TGN but is independent of GPCR kinases. The single amino acid substitution in the variant biases the receptor to promote GIP-stimulated β-arrestin2 recruitment without receptor phosphorylation, thereby enhancing downregulation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arfophilins Are Dual Arf/Rab 11 Binding Proteins That Regulate Recycling Endosome Distribution and Are Related to Drosophila Nuclear Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Gilles R.X.; Matheson, Johanne; Riggs, Blake; Maier, Valerie H.; Fielding, Andrew B.; Prekeris, Rytis; Sullivan, William; Barr, Francis A.; Gould, Gwyn W.

    2003-01-01

    Arfophilin is an ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) binding protein of unknown function. It is identical to the Rab11 binding protein eferin/Rab11-FIP3, and we show it binds both Arf5 and Rab11. We describe a related protein, arfophilin-2, that interacts with Arf5 in a nucleotide-dependent manner, but not Arf1, 4, or 6 and also binds Rab11. Arfophilin-2 localized to a perinuclear compartment, the centrosomal area, and focal adhesions. The localization of arfophilin-2 to the perinuclear compartment was selectively blocked by overexpression of Arf5-T31N. In contrast, a green fluorescent protein-arfophilin-2 chimera or arfophilin-2 deletions were localized around the centrosome in a region that was also enriched for transferrin receptors and Rab11 but not early endosome markers, suggesting that the distribution of the endosomal recycling compartment was altered. The arfophilins belong to a conserved family that includes Drosophila melanogaster nuclear fallout, a centrosomal protein required for cellularization. Expression of green fluorescent protein-nuclear fallout in HeLa cells resulted in a similar phenotype, indicative of functional homology and thus implicating the arfophilins in mitosis/cytokinesis. We suggest that the novel dual GTPase-binding capacity of the arfophilins could serve as an interface of signals from Rab and Arf GTPases to regulate membrane traffic and integrate distinct signals in the late endosomal recycling compartment. PMID:12857874

  18. Rab35 promotes the recruitment of Rab8, Rab13 and Rab36 to recycling endosomes through MICAL-L1 during neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotaka Kobayashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPase Rab35 is an important molecular switch for endocytic recycling that regulates various cellular processes, including cytokinesis, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth. We previously showed that active Rab35 promotes nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells by recruiting MICAL-L1, a multiple Rab-binding protein, to Arf6-positive recycling endosomes. However, the physiological significance of the multiple Rab-binding ability of MICAL-L1 during neurite outgrowth remained completely unknown. Here we report that Rab35 and MICAL-L1 promote the recruitment of Rab8, Rab13, and Rab36 to Arf6-positive recycling endosomes during neurite outgrowth. We found that Rab35 functions as a master Rab that determines the intracellular localization of MICAL-L1, which in turn functions as a scaffold for Rab8, Rab13, and Rab36. We further showed by functional ablation experiments that each of these downstream Rabs regulates neurite outgrowth in a non-redundant manner downstream of Rab35 and MICAL-L1, e.g. by showing that knockdown of Rab36 inhibited recruitment of Rab36-specific effector JIP4 to Arf6-positive recycling endosomes, and caused inhibition of neurite outgrowth without affecting accumulation of Rab8 and Rab13 in the same Arf6-positive area. Our findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism that recruits multiple Rab proteins at the Arf6-positive compartment by MICAL-L1.

  19. The functional interplay of Rab11, FIP3 and Rho proteins on the endosomal recycling pathway controls cell shape and symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; McCaffrey, Mary W; Graziani, Andrea; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-08-17

    Several families of small GTPases regulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, encompassing growth factor signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and control of the cytoskeleton. Frequently, their action is hierarchical and complementary, but much of the detail of their functional interactions remains to be clarified. It is well established that Rab family members regulate a variety of intracellular vesicle trafficking pathways. Moreover, Rho family GTPases are pivotal for the control of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the interplay between these 2 types of GTPases has been rarely reported. We discuss here our recent findings showing that Rab11, a key regulator of endosomal recycling, and Rac1, a central actin cytoskeleton regulator involved in lamellipodium formation and cell migration, interplay on endosomes through the Rab11 effector FIP3. In the context of the rapidly reactive T lymphocytes, Rab11-Rac1 endosomal functional interplay is important to control cell shape changes and cell symmetry during lymphocyte spreading and immunological synapse formation and ultimately modulate T cell activation.

  20. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  1. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  2. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  3. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Sankar (Chicago, IL); Steiner, Kimberly A. (Chicago, IL); Rangan, Krishnaswamy K. (Evanston, IL)

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  4. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  5. Manganese phosphate-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese phosphate-coating is one of the numerous chemical surface treatment which is used industrially. Its applications are usual for improving the friction properties of a lot of mechanical parts. Used for the treatment of steels and cast steels, baths (containing phosphoric acid, manganese phosphate and different additives) lead to the formation of nonmetal coatings of a few micrometers. These manganese-iron or manganese phosphates crystals reduce the friction coefficient and retain the lubricant film in contact with the moving parts. The running noises, the wear and the seizure risks are then strongly reduced. Pure manganese phosphate-coating is currently developing because the obtained coatings are thinner and more regular. (O.M.)

  6. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  7. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  8. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  9. Pannexin2 oligomers localize into endosomal vesicles in mammalian cells while Pannexin1 channels traffic to the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eBoassa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin2 (Panx2 is the largest of three members of the pannexin proteins. Pannexins are topologically related to connexins and innexins, but serve different functional roles than forming gap junctions. We previously showed that pannexins form oligomeric channels but unlike connexins and innexins, they form only single membrane channels. High levels of Panx2 mRNA and protein in the Central Nervous System (CNS have been documented. Whereas Pannexin1 (Panx1 is fairly ubiquitous and Pannexin3 (Panx3 is found in skin and connective tissue, both are fully glycosylated, traffic to the plasma membrane and have functions correlated with extracellular ATP release. Here, we describe trafficking and subcellular localizations of exogenous Panx2 and Panx1 protein expression in MDCK, HeLa and HEK293T cells as well as endogenous Panx1 and Panx2 patterns in the CNS. Panx2 was found in intracellular localizations, was partially N-glycosylated, and localizations were non-overlapping with Panx1. Confocal images of hippocampal sections immunolabeled for the astrocytic protein GFAP, Panx1 and Panx2 demonstrated that the two isoforms, Panx1 and Panx2, localized at different subcellular compartments in both astrocytes and neurons. Using recombinant fusions of Panx2 with appended genetic tags developed for correlated light and electron microscopy and then expressed in different cell lines, we determined that Panx2 is localized in the membrane of intracellular vesicles and not in the endoplasmic reticulum as initially indicated by calnexin colocalization experiments. Dual immunofluorescence imaging with protein markers for specific vesicle compartments showed that Panx2 vesicles are early endosomal in origin. In electron tomographic volumes, cross-sections of these vesicles displayed fine structural details and close proximity to actin filaments. Thus, pannexins expressed at different subcellular compartments likely exert distinct functional roles, particularly in the

  10. Sec61 blockade by mycolactone inhibits antigen cross-presentation independently of endosome-to-cytosol export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzke, Jeff E; Kozik, Patrycja; Morel, Jean-David; Impens, Francis; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Cresswell, Peter; Amigorena, Sebastian; Demangel, Caroline

    2017-07-18

    Although antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells (DCs) is critical to the initiation of most cytotoxic immune responses, the intracellular mechanisms and traffic pathways involved are still unclear. One of the most critical steps in this process, the export of internalized antigen to the cytosol, has been suggested to be mediated by Sec61. Sec61 is the channel that translocates signal peptide-bearing nascent polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and it was also proposed to mediate protein retrotranslocation during ER-associated degradation (a process called ERAD). Here, we used a newly identified Sec61 blocker, mycolactone, to analyze Sec61's contribution to antigen cross-presentation, ERAD, and transport of internalized antigens into the cytosol. As shown previously in other cell types, mycolactone prevented protein import into the ER of DCs. Mycolactone-mediated Sec61 blockade also potently suppressed both antigen cross-presentation and direct presentation of synthetic peptides to CD8 + T cells. In contrast, it did not affect protein export from the ER lumen or from endosomes into the cytosol, suggesting that the inhibition of cross-presentation was not related to either of these trafficking pathways. Proteomic profiling of mycolactone-exposed DCs showed that expression of mediators of antigen presentation, including MHC class I and β2 microglobulin, were highly susceptible to mycolactone treatment, indicating that Sec61 blockade affects antigen cross-presentation indirectly. Together, our data suggest that the defective translocation and subsequent degradation of Sec61 substrates is the cause of altered antigen cross-presentation in Sec61-blocked DCs.

  11. Endosomes and lysosomes are involved in early steps of Tl(III)-mediated apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E; Almeira Gubiani, María F; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms that mediate thallium (Tl) toxicity are still not completely understood. The exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to Tl(I) or Tl(III) activates both mitochondrial (Tl(I) and Tl(III)) and extrinsic (Tl(III)) pathways of apoptosis. In this work we evaluated the hypothesis that the effects of Tl(III) may be mediated by the damage to lysosomes, where it might be incorporated following the route of iron uptake. PC12 cells exposed for 3 h to 100 μM Tl(III) presented marked endosomal acidification, effect that was absent when cells were incubated in a serum-free medium and that was fully recovered when the latter was supplemented with transferrin. After 6 h of incubation the colocalization of cathepsins D and B with the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 was decreased together with an increase in the total activity of the enzymes. A permanent damage to lysosomes after 18 h of exposure was evidenced from the impairment of acridine orange uptake. Cathepsin D caused the cleavage of pro-apoptotic protein BID that is involved in the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Supporting that, BID cleavage and the activation of caspase 3 by Tl(III) were fully prevented when cells were preincubated with cathepsin D inhibitor (pepstatin A) and only partially prevented when cathepsin B inhibitor (E64d) was used. None of these inhibitors affected BID cleavage or caspase 3 activation in Tl(I)-treated cells. Together, experimental results support the role of Tl(III) uptake by the acidic cell compartments and their involvement in the early steps of Tl(III)-mediated PC12 cells apoptosis.

  12. Photochemical internalisation, a minimally invasive strategy for light-controlled endosomal escape of cancer stem cell-targeting therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbo, Pål Kristian; Bostad, Monica; Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Edwards, Victoria Tudor; Høgset, Anders; Weyergang, Anette; Berg, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    Despite progress in radio-, chemo- and photodynamic-therapy (PDT) of cancer, treatment resistance still remains a major problem for patients with aggressive tumours. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells are intrinsically and notoriously resistant to conventional cancer therapies and are proposed to be responsible for the recurrence of tumours after therapy. According to the CSC hypothesis, it is imperative to develop novel anticancer agents or therapeutic strategies that take into account the biology and role of CSCs. The present review outlines our recent study on photochemical internalisation (PCI) using the clinically relevant photosensitiser TPCS2a/Amphinex® as a rational, non-invasive strategy for the light-controlled endosomal escape of CSC-targeting drugs. PCI is an intracellular drug delivery method based on light-induced ROS-generation and a subsequent membrane-disruption of endocytic vesicles, leading to cytosolic release of the entrapped drugs of interest. In different proof-of-concept studies we have demonstrated that PCI of CSC-directed immunotoxins targeting CD133, CD44, CSPG4 and EpCAM is a highly specific and effective strategy for killing cancer cells and CSCs. CSCs overexpressing CD133 are PDT-resistant; however, this is circumvented by PCI of CD133-targeting immunotoxins. In view of the fact that TPCS2a is not a substrate of the efflux pumps ABCG2 and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the PCI-method is a promising anti-CSC therapeutic strategy. Due to a laser-controlled exposure, PCI of CSC-targeting drugs will be confined exclusively to the tumour tissue, suggesting that this drug delivery method has the potential to spare distant normal stem cells.

  13. Multifunctional Cationic Lipid-Based Nanoparticles Facilitate Endosomal Escape and Reduction-Triggered Cytosolic siRNA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujrati, Maneesh; Malamas, Anthony; Shin, Tesia; Jin, Erlei; Sun, Lulu; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has garnered much attention in recent years as a promising avenue for cancer gene therapy due to its ability to silence disease-related genes. Effective gene silencing is contingent upon the delivery of siRNA into the cytosol of target cells and requires the implementation of delivery systems possessing multiple functionalities to overcome delivery barriers. The present work explores the multifunctional properties and biological activity of a recently developed cationic lipid carrier, (1-aminoethyl)iminobis[N-(oleicylcysteinyl-1-amino-ethyl)propionamide]) (ECO). The physicochemical properties and biological activity of ECO/siRNA nanoparticles were assessed over a range of N/P ratios to optimize the formulation. Potent and sustained luciferase silencing in a U87 glioblastoma cell line was observed, even in the presence of serum proteins. ECO/siRNA nanoparticles exhibited pH-dependent membrane disruption at pH levels corresponding to various stages of the intracellular trafficking pathway. It was found that disulfide linkages created during nanoparticle formation enhanced the protection of siRNA from degradation and facilitated site-specific siRNA release in the cytosol by glutathione-mediated reduction. Confocal microscopy confirmed that ECO/siRNA nanoparticles readily escaped from late endosomes prior to cytosolic release of the siRNA cargo. These results demonstrate that the rationally designed multifunctionality of ECO/siRNA nanoparticles is critical for intracellular siRNA delivery and the continuing development of safe and effective delivery systems. PMID:25020033

  14. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  15. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  16. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  17. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  18. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  19. Differences in the signaling pathways of α(1A- and α(1B-adrenoceptors are related to different endosomal targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Segura

    Full Text Available AIMS: To compare the constitutive and agonist-dependent endosomal trafficking of α(1A- and α(1B-adrenoceptors (ARs and to establish if the internalization pattern determines the signaling pathways of each subtype. METHODS: Using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope tagged α(1A- and α(1B-ARs stably and transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells, we analyzed by confocal microscopy the constitutive and agonist-induced internalization of each subtype, and the temporal relationship between agonist induced internalization and the increase in intracellular calcium (determined by FLUO-3 flouorescence, or the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases (determined by Western blot. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Constitutive as well as agonist-induced trafficking of α(1A and α(1B ARs maintain two different endosomal pools of receptors: one located close to the plasma membrane and the other deeper into the cytosol. Each subtype exhibited specific characteristics of internalization and distribution between these pools that determines their signaling pathways: α(1A-ARs, when located in the plasma membrane, signal through calcium and ERK1/2 pathways but, when translocated to deeper endosomes, through a mechanism sensitive to β-arrestin and concanavalin A, continue signaling through ERK1/2 and also activate the p38 pathway. α(1B-ARs signal through calcium and ERK1/2 only when located in the membrane and the signals disappear after endocytosis and by disruption of the membrane lipid rafts by methyl-β-cyclodextrin.

  20. Endosomal H2O2 production leads to localized cysteine sulfenic acid formation on proteins during lysophosphatidic acid-mediated cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomsiri, Chananat; Rogers, LeAnn C; Soito, Laura; McCauley, Anita K; King, S Bruce; Nelson, Kimberly J; Poole, Leslie B; Daniel, Larry W

    2014-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a growth factor for many cells including prostate and ovarian cancer-derived cell lines. LPA stimulates H2O2 production which is required for growth. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the spatial and temporal regulation of H2O2-dependent signaling and the way in which signals are transmitted following receptor activation. Herein, we describe the use of two reagents, DCP-Bio1 and DCP-Rho1, to evaluate the localization of active protein oxidation after LPA stimulation by detection of nascent protein sulfenic acids. We found that LPA stimulation causes internalization of LPA receptors into early endosomes that contain NADPH oxidase components and are sites of H2O2 generation. DCP-Rho1 allowed visualization of sulfenic acid formation, indicative of active protein oxidation, which was stimulated by LPA and decreased by an LPA receptor antagonist. Protein oxidation sites colocalized with LPAR1 and the endosomal marker EEA1. Concurrent with the generation of these redox signaling-active endosomes (redoxosomes) is the H2O2- and NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidation of Akt2 and PTP1B detected using DCP-Bio1. These new approaches therefore enable detection of active, H2O2-dependent protein oxidation linked to cell signaling processes. DCP-Rho1 may be a particularly useful protein oxidation imaging agent enabling spatial resolution due to the transient nature of the sulfenic acid intermediate it detects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocytosed 2-Microglobulin Amyloid Fibrils Induce Necrosis and Apoptosis of Rabbit Synovial Fibroblasts by Disrupting Endosomal/Lysosomal Membranes: A Novel Mechanism on the Cytotoxicity of Amyloid Fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakazu Okoshi

    Full Text Available Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a major complication in long-term hemodialysis patients. In dialysis-related amyloidosis, β2-microglobulin (β2-m amyloid fibrils deposit in the osteoarticular tissue, leading to carpal tunnel syndrome and destructive arthropathy with cystic bone lesions, but the mechanism by which these amyloid fibrils destruct bone and joint tissue is not fully understood. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxic effect of β2-m amyloid fibrils on the cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Under light microscopy, the cells treated with amyloid fibrils exhibited both necrotic and apoptotic changes, while the cells treated with β2-m monomers and vehicle buffer exhibited no morphological changes. As compared to β2-m monomers and vehicle buffer, β2-m amyloid fibrils significantly reduced cellular viability as measured by the lactate dehydrogenase release assay and the 3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay and significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells as measured by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. β2-m amyloid fibrils added to the medium adhered to cell surfaces, but did not disrupt artificial plasma membranes as measured by the liposome dye release assay. Interestingly, when the cells were incubated with amyloid fibrils for several hours, many endosomes/lysosomes filled with amyloid fibrils were observed under confocal laser microscopy and electron microscopy, Moreover, some endosomal/lysosomal membranes were disrupted by intravesicular fibrils, leading to the leakage of the fibrils into the cytosol and adjacent to mitochondria. Inhibition of actin-dependent endocytosis by cytochalasin D attenuated the toxicity of amyloid fibrils. These results suggest that endocytosed β2-m amyloid fibrils induce necrosis and apoptosis by disrupting endosomal/lysosomal membranes, and this novel mechanism on the cytotoxicity of amyloid

  2. White coat, patient gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A Distinct Endosomal Ca2+/Mn2+ Pump Affects Root Growth through the Secretory Process1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyan; Chanroj, Salil; Wu, Zhongyi; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Sze, Heven

    2008-01-01

    Ca2+ is required for protein processing, sorting, and secretion in eukaryotic cells, although the particular roles of the transporters involved in the secretory system of plants are obscure. One endomembrane-type Ca-ATPase from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AtECA3, diverges from AtECA1, AtECA2, and AtECA4 in protein sequence; yet, AtECA3 appears similar in transport activity to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound AtECA1. Expression of AtECA3 in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant defective in its endogenous Ca2+ pumps conferred the ability to grow on Ca2+-depleted medium and tolerance to toxic levels of Mn2+. A green fluorescent protein-tagged AtECA3 was functionally competent and localized to intracellular membranes of yeast, suggesting that Ca2+ and Mn2+ loading into internal compartment(s) enhanced yeast proliferation. In mesophyll protoplasts, AtECA3-green fluorescent protein associated with a subpopulation of endosome/prevacuolar compartments based on partial colocalization with the Ara7 marker. Interestingly, three independent eca3 T-DNA disruption mutants showed severe reduction in root growth normally stimulated by 3 mm Ca2+, indicating that AtECA3 function cannot be replaced by an ER-associated AtECA1. Furthermore, root growth of mutants is sensitive to 50 μm Mn2+, indicating that AtECA3 is also important for the detoxification of excess Mn2+. Curiously, Ateca3 mutant roots produced 65% more apoplastic protein than wild-type roots, as monitored by peroxidase activity, suggesting that the secretory process was altered. Together, these results demonstrate that the role of AtECA3 is distinct from that of the more abundant ER AtECA1. AtECA3 supports Ca2+-stimulated root growth and the detoxification of high Mn2+, possibly through activities mediated by post-Golgi compartments that coordinate membrane traffic and sorting of materials to the vacuole and the cell wall. PMID:18567829

  4. Cloud storage for endosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dellibovi‐Ragheb, Teegan; Altan‐Bonnet, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated regulation of vesicle trafficking is critical for the proper functioning of a cell. The bulk of cellular transport vesicles are sequestered in a “perinuclear cloud”, with only a small fraction released to the cell periphery. Jongsma et al (2016) found that the ER‐associated E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF26 is responsible for establishing and maintaining the architecture of the perinuclear cloud and that this spatiotemporal positioning is critical for effective regulation of the endocytic...

  5. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  6. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  7. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  8. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  9. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...... direction. Although the airflow compromised the anti-ice properties to some extent, the application of the hydrophobic coating in a heat recovery ventilation experiment extended the time interval between defrosting cycles by a factor of 2.3....

  10. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  11. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  12. Rab5 Activity Regulates GLUT4 Sorting Into Insulin-Responsive and Non-Insulin-Responsive Endosomal Compartments: A Potential Mechanism for Development of Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessneer, Kandice L.; Jackson, Robert M.; Griesel, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) is the insulin-responsive glucose transporter mediating glucose uptake in adipose and skeletal muscle. Reduced GLUT4 translocation from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane is a cause of peripheral insulin resistance. Using a chronic hyperinsulinemia (CHI)-induced cell model of insulin resistance and Rab5 mutant overexpression, we determined these manipulations altered endosomal sorting of GLUT4, thus contributing to the development of insulin resistance. We found that CHI induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by retaining GLUT4 in a Rab5-activity-dependent compartment that is unable to equilibrate with the cell surface in response to insulin. Furthermore, CHI-mediated retention of GLUT4 in this non-insulin-responsive compartment impaired filling of the transferrin receptor (TfR)-positive and TfR-negative insulin-responsive storage compartments. Our data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may inhibit GLUT4 by chronically maintaining GLUT4 in the Rab5 activity-dependent endosomal pathway and impairing formation of the TfR-negative and TfR-positive insulin-responsive GLUT4 pools. This model suggests that an early event in the development of insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose tissue is to alter the intracellular localization of GLUT4 to a compartment that does not efficiently equilibrate with the cell surface when insulin levels are elevated for prolonged periods of time. PMID:24932807

  13. Recruitment of Cbl-b to B cell antigen receptor couples antigen recognition to Toll-like receptor 9 activation in late endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Veselits

    Full Text Available Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b is a ubiquitin ligase (E3 that modulates signaling by tagging molecules for degradation. It is a complex protein with multiple domains and binding partners that are not involved in ubiquitinating substrates. Herein, we demonstrate that Cbl-b, but not c-Cbl, is recruited to the clustered B cell antigen receptor (BCR and that Cbl-b is required for entry of endocytosed BCRs into late endosomes. The E3 activity of Cbl-b is not necessary for BCR endocytic trafficking. Rather, the ubiquitin associated (UBA domain is required. Furthermore, the Cbl-b UBA domain is sufficient to confer the receptor trafficking functions of Cbl-b on c-Cbl. Cbl-b is also required for entry of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 into late endosomes and for the in vitro activation of TLR9 by BCR-captured ligands. These data indicate that Cbl-b acts as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the delivery of the BCR and TLR9 into subcellular compartments required for productively delivering BCR-captured ligands to TLR9.

  14. Human lung epithelial cells contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a late endosomal vacuole and are efficiently recognized by CD8⁺ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Harriff

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized particles. While alveolar macrophages are thought to play a central role in the acquisition and control of this infection, Mtb also has ample opportunity to interact with the airway epithelium. In this regard, we have recently shown that the upper airways are enriched with a population of non-classical, MR1-restricted, Mtb-reactive CD8⁺ T cells (MAIT cells. Additionally, we have demonstrated that Mtb-infected epithelial cells lining the upper airways are capable of stimulating IFNγ production by MAIT cells. In this study, we demonstrate that airway epithelial cells efficiently stimulate IFNγ release by MAIT cells as well as HLA-B45 and HLA-E restricted T cell clones. Characterization of the intracellular localization of Mtb in epithelial cells indicates that the vacuole occupied by Mtb in epithelial cells is distinct from DC in that it acquires Rab7 molecules and does not retain markers of early endosomes such as Rab5. The Mtb vacuole is also heterogeneous as there is a varying degree of association with Lamp1 and HLA-I. Although the Mtb vacuole shares markers associated with the late endosome, it does not acidify, and the bacteria are able to replicate within the cell. This work demonstrates that Mtb infected lung epithelial cells are surprisingly efficient at stimulating IFNγ release by CD8⁺ T cells.

  15. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Elizabeth M H; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from 'hotspots' on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H.; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A.; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. PMID:24238600

  17. On the entry of an emerging arbovirus into host cells: Mayaro virus takes the highway to the cytoplasm through fusion with early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.M. Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is an emergent sylvatic alphavirus in South America, related to sporadic outbreaks of a chikungunya-like human febrile illness accompanied by severe arthralgia. Despite its high potential for urban emergence, MAYV is still an obscure virus with scarce information about its infection cycle, including the corresponding early events. Even for prototypical alphaviruses, the cell entry mechanism still has some rough edges to trim: although clathrin-mediated endocytosis is quoted as the putative route, alternative paths as distinct as direct virus genome injection through the cell plasma membrane seems to be possible. Our aim was to clarify crucial details on the entry route exploited by MAYV to gain access into the host cell. Tracking the virus since its first contact with the surface of Vero cells by fluorescence microscopy, we show that its entry occurs by a fast endocytic process and relies on fusion with acidic endosomal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis or depleting cholesterol from the cell membrane leads to a strong inhibition of viral infection, as assessed by plaque assays. Following this clue, we found that early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles are both implicated as target membranes for MAYV fusion. Our findings unravel the very first events that culminate in a productive infection by MAYV and shed light on potential targets for a rational antiviral therapy, besides providing a better comprehension of the entry routes exploited by alphaviruses to get into the cell.

  18. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  19. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  20. Self-Cleaning Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    4 Removal of filler from PSX-700...particles with filler -removed PSX-700 ............................................ 4 Filtration of the modified paint...700 which is a replacement of Amercoat 7229C. PSX-700 is a weatherable epoxy based polysiloxane coating. What the supplier could provide is the final

  1. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...