WorldWideScience

Sample records for aot reverse micelles

  1. Ultrafast energy transfer in water-AOT reverse micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Bakulin, Artem; Lindner, Joerg; Voehringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    2007-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational dynamics of water in a geometrically confined environment is presented. Reverse micelles of the ternary microemulsion H2O/AOT/n-octane (AOT = bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate or aerosol-OT) with diameters ranging from 1 to 10 nm are used as a model

  2. Binding Constant of Amines to Water/AOT/n-Hexene Reverse Micelles. Influence of the Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Silber

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of different amines between n-hexane bulk and the micellar pseudophase of AOT reverse micelles were measured by a fluorometric method. An independent method was used to corroborate the incorporation of the amines to the interface. The effect of the amine structure on the binding constant was analysed.

  3. Controlled Growth of Gold Nanoparticles in AOT/C(12)E(4)/Isooctane Mixed Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Li

    2001-07-15

    Stable anisotropic gold nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of a relatively high concentration of tetrachloroauric acid with hydrazine in mixed reverse micelles formed with anionic surfactant AOT and nonionic surfactant tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C(12)E(4)) in isooctane. It was found that the C(12)E(4) serves not only as a structure modifier but also as a stabilizer for Au particles, to prevent their further growth and precipitation. By the analyses of a high-resolution electron microscope, electron diffraction patterns, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), the resultant particles have been found to be pure gold of face-centered cubic structure. In the presence of C(12)E(4), the Au particle size is larger than that in the absence of C(12)E(4), while the particle size decreases with increases in the concentration of C(12)E(4). The molar ratio of hydrazine to HAuCl(4) was found to be an important parameter in the control of size and shape for the production of gold nanoparticles. A decrease in the molar ratio of hydrazine to HAuCl(4) resulted in larger Au particles with significantly more polydispersity. When the HAuCl(4) was injected directly into the mixed reversed micelles containing hydrazine, anisotropic gold nanoparticles, such as cylinders and trigons, were obtained at the molar ratio of hydrazine to HAuCl(4) of less than 0.5. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Recovery of silver nanoparticles synthesized on AOT/C(12)E(4) mixed reverse micelles by antisolvent CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing; Liu, Juncheng; Zhang, Xiaogang; He, Jun; Liu, Zhimin; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Guanying

    2002-09-02

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles in isooctane with tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C(12)E(4)) as a cosurfactant. Recovery of the Ag particles from the reverse micelles by dissolving antisolvent CO(2) in the micellar solution was investigated. All the Ag particles in the reverse micelles could be precipitated by compressed CO(2) at suitable pressures, while the surfactants remained in the isooctane continuous phase, and well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles were obtained. The effects of operating conditions on the size and size distribution of the Ag particles were investigated. The particle size decreased with decreasing molar ratio (w) of water to surfactant. A higher CO(2) pressure in the recovery process favored production of smaller particles. A decrease in the molar ratio of reductant KBH(4) to AgNO(3) resulted in larger Ag particles with higher polydispersity.

  5. Extraction of cobalt ion using reverse-micelle of F-AOT in liquid/supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, M. S.; Jin, Y. W.; Kim, J. R.; Park, K. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W. [Kyunghee Univ., Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    A green decontamination method using CO{sub 2} as an environmentally benign solvent has been studied for removal of contaminant in the nuclear power plant. We developed a decontamination technique using CO{sub 2} for removal of contamination in working dresses. Owing to the low solubilizing, A reverse micelle system was developed. Fluorinated AOT was synthesized and used as surfactants forming reverse-micelle with water. Cobalt was extracted by dissolution into reverse-micelle in liquid CO{sub 2}. If this decontamination technique is applied to nuclear industry, the secondary waste during decontamination will be reverentially reduced. Negligibly small amount of water is a net waste, while the surfactants and solvent CO{sub 2} are recovered and reused in the system.

  6. Effect of micellar collisions and polyvinylpyrrolidone confinement on the electrical conductivity percolation parameters of water/AOT/isooctane reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettari, Moez; Aferni, Ahmed E. L.; Tajouri, Tahar

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is the analysis of micellar collisions and polymer confinement effects on the electrical conductivity percolative behavior of water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelles. Firstly, we have performed conductance measurements of the system for three AOT to isooctane volume ratio, φm = 0.1 , 0.15 and 0.2 to examine the influence of micellar collisions on the percolation parameters. All the measurements were carried out over the 298.15 K-333.15 K temperature range at a fixed water to AOT molar ratio, W0 = 45 . We have assessed that the rise of micellar collisions frequency enhances the conductance percolation. Secondly, the confinement effect of a water-soluble polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the reverse micelles conductance behavior was investigated. Temperature-induced percolation, Tp , have shown a dependence on the polymer concentration, CPVP . It was also observed that for various PVP concentrations, the activation energy of percolation decreases. Finally, the values of the critical exponents determined in the presence and absence of PVP prove that the polymer affects the dynamic of percolation.

  7. Role of Charge and Solvation in the Structure and Dynamics of Alanine-Rich Peptide AKA2 in AOT Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Anna Victoria; Małolepsza, Edyta; Domínguez, Laura; Lu, Qing; Straub, John E

    2015-07-23

    The propensity of peptides to form α-helices has been intensely studied using theory, computation, and experiment. Important model peptides for the study of the coil-to-helix transition have been alanine-lysine (AKA) peptides in which the lysine residues are placed on opposite sides of the helix avoiding charge repulsion while enhancing solubility. In this study, the effects of capped versus zwitterionic peptide termini on the secondary structure of alanine-rich peptides in reverse micelles are explored. The reverse micelles are found to undergo substantial shape fluctuations, a property observed in previous studies of AOT reverse micelles in the absence of solvated peptide. The peptides are observed to interact with water, as well as the AOT surfactant, including interactions between the nonpolar residues and the aliphatic surfactant tails. Computation of IR spectra for the amide I band of the peptide allows for direct comparison with experimental spectra. The results demonstrate that capped AKA2 peptides form more stable α helices than zwitterionic AKA2 peptides in reverse micelles. The rotational anisotropy decay of water is found to be distinctly different in the presence or absence of peptide within the reverse micelle, suggesting that the introduction of peptide significantly alters the number of free waters within the reverse micelle nanopool. However, neither the nature of the peptide termini (capped or charged) nor the degree of peptide helicity is found to significantly alter the balance of interactions between the peptides and the environment. Observed changes in the degree of helicity in AKA2 peptides in bulk solution and in reverse micelle environments result from changes in peptide confinement and hydration as well as direct nonpolar and polar interactions with the water-surfactant interface.

  8. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  9. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.

    Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant

  10. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  11. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  12. Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Yuan, Zhuliang; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)-isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-benzene and SDS-carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) reverse micelles were analysized. The results revealed that the maximum rate of hydrogen production (R{sub m}) was also suitable to formulate the relationship between hydrogen-producing rate and hydrogen productivity in reverse micelles. (author)

  13. Synthesis and agglomeration of gold nanoparticles in reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Resto, Oscar; Briano, Julio G.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2005-07-01

    Reverse micelles prepared in the system water, sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoccinate (AOT), and isooctane were investigated as a templating system for the production of gold nanoparticles from Au(III) and the reducing agent sulfite. A core-shell Mie model was used to describe the optical properties of gold nanoparticles in the reverse micelles. Dynamic light scattering of gold colloids in aqueous media and in reverse micelle solution indicated agglomeration of micelles containing particles. This was verified theoretically with an analysis of the total interaction energy between pairs of particles as a function of particle size. The analysis indicated that particles larger than about 8 nm in diameter should reversibly flocculate. Transmission electron microscopy measurements of gold nanoparticles produced in our reverse micelles showed diameters of 8-10 nm. Evidence of cluster formation was also observed. Time-correlated UV-vis absorption measurements showed a red shift for the peak wavelength. This was interpreted as the result of multiple scattering and plasmon interaction between particles due to agglomeration of micelles with particles larger than 8 nm.

  14. Reverse micelles as suitable microreactor for increased biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Pandey, Ashutosh [Centre of Energy Studies, MNNIT, Allahabad 211004 (India)

    2008-01-15

    Reverse micelles have been shown to act as efficient microreactors for enzymic reactions and whole cell entrapment in organic (non-aqueous) media wherein the reactants are protected from denaturation by the surrounding organic solvent. These micelles are thermodynamically stable, micrometer sized water droplets dispersed in an organic phase by a surfactant. It has been observed that when whole cells of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides or Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1) are entrapped inside these reverse micelles, the H{sub 2} production enhanced from 25 to 35 folds. That is, 1.71mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1} in case of R. sphaeroides which is 25 fold higher in benzene-sodium lauryl sulfate reverse micelles. Whereas, in case of R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 the H{sub 2} production was increased by 35 fold within AOT-isooctane reverse micelles i.e. 11.5mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The observations indicate that the entrapment of whole cells of microbes within reverse micelles provides a novel and efficient technique to produce hydrogen by the inexhaustible biological route. The two microorganisms R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (a photosynthetic bacteria) and Citrobacter Y19 (a facultative anaerobic bacteria) together are also entrapped within AOT-isooctane and H{sub 2} production was measured i.e. 69mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The nitrogenase enzyme responsible for hydrogen production by R. sphaeroides/R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 cells is oxygen sensitive, and very well protected within reverse micelles by the use of combined approach of two cells (R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and Citrobacter Y19). In this case glucose present in the medium of Citrobacter Y19 serves double roles in enhancing the sustained production rate of hydrogen. Firstly, it quenches the free O{sub 2}liberated as a side product of reaction catalyzed by nitrogenase, which is O{sub 2} labile. Secondly, organic acid produced by this reaction is utilized by the Citrobacter Y19 as organic substrate in

  15. Proton transfer in ionic and neutral reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Christian; Fayer, Michael D

    2015-05-14

    Proton-transfer kinetics in both ionic and neutral reverse micelles were studied by time-correlated single-photon counting investigations of the fluorescent photoacid 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (HPTS). Orientational dynamics of dissolved probe molecules in the water pools of the reverse micelles were also investigated by time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurements of MPTS, the methoxy derivative of HPTS. These experiments were compared to the same experiments in bulk water. It was found that in ionic reverse micelles (surfactant Aerosol OT, AOT), orientational motion (fluorescence anisotropy decay) of MPTS was relatively unhindered, consistent with MPTS being located in the water core of the reverse micelle away from the water-surfactant interface. In nonionic reverse micelles (surfactant Igepal CO-520, Igepal), however, orientational anisotropy displayed a slow multiexponential decay consistent with wobbling-in-a-cone behavior, indicating MPTS is located at the water-surfactant interface. HPTS proton transfer in ionic reverse micelles followed kinetics qualitatively like those in bulk water, albeit slower, with the long-time power law time dependence associated with recombination of the proton with the dissociated photoacid, suggesting a modified diffusion-controlled process. However, the power law exponents in the ionic reverse micelles are smaller (∼ -0.55) than that in bulk water (-1.1). In neutral reverse micelles, proton-transfer kinetics did not show discernible power law behavior and were best represented by a two-component model with one relatively waterlike population and a population with a faster fluorescence lifetime and negligible proton transfer. We explain the Igepal results on the basis of close association between the probe and the neutral water-surfactant interface, with the probe experiencing a distribution of more and less waterlike environments. In addition, the observation in bulk water of a power law t(-1.1) for diffusion

  16. Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Petersen, C.; Woutersen, S.; Bakker, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    he ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D2O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is

  17. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  18. Structure and reactivity in reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pileni, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This book gives an up-to-date, comprehensive assessment of current knowledge in the very fast-moving field of reverse micelles, ranging from physical studies to biotechnological applications. Starting with physical and spectroscopic studies of reverse micelle structure at the macro- and microstructural levels, topics dealt with in detail are the NMR spectroscopy of reverse micells, fluorescence quenching kinetics, photochemical behaviour, role and behaviour of hydrated electrons in reverse micelles, including femtosecond phenomena, reactivity-dependent applications such as microlatex formation, protein partitioning, extraction, and purification. The microreactor characteristics of reverse micelles are shown to allow formation of semiconductor clusters, peptide synthesis through enzyme-catalyzed reactions, reaction product extraction, and enhanced-reactivity phenomena. The reactivity effects and their consequences are particularly highlighted throughout the book

  19. Subtleties of catanionic surfactant reverse micelle assemblies revealed by a fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Cristian C.; Silber, Juana J.; Darío Falcone, R.; Mariano Correa, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the absorption and emission behavior of the cationic hemicyanine trans-4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (HC) in reverse micelles (RMs) formed by the catanionic surfactants benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium-1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-BHD) and cetyltrimethylammonium-1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-CTA) have been investigated. Our results show that the spectroscopic behavior of HC changes when the dye is dissolved in AOT-BHD or in AOT-CTA RMs. While HC undergoes an intramolecular charge-transfer process upon excitation in AOT-CTA RMs, in AOT-BHD RMs this process is inhibited due to a specific interaction between HC and the polar head group of the BHD+ cation. This implies that the chemical structure of CTA+ and BHD+ cations has a large impact on the excited stated from which HC emission occurs. Additionally, the structural difference between the two cations impacts on the water–RM interface interaction, which provides a way of controlling the solvation process in these RMs. Furthermore, differences in the interfacial fluidity between the two catanionic RMs is observed, a result that is particularly interesting with regard to these systems being used as nanoreactors.

  20. Size and diffusion phenomena of AOT/alcohol/water system in the presence of morin by dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, Hanna

    2015-01-30

    Presented paper is a continuation of our studies on morin interaction with AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) reversed micelles solutions in two solvents: ethanol and n-decanol. Now we focused on morin influence on size and diffusion phenomena in the system morin/solvent/AOT/water. In this paper precise measurements of dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the effects of temperature, solvents (alcohols), water on the size and diffusion of AOT reversed micelles in the morin/AOT/alcohol/water system are reported. The concentrations of AOT were varied from 0.51 to 0.78mol/L. Morin concentration in during auto-correlation function registration was not the same in each solvent because of its different solubility depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=(H2O)/(AOT) and was equal 0 and 30 in ethanol, and 0 in n-decanol. DLS measurements were done at 298.15 and 308.15K. DLS experiment involved on detection two relaxation modes (fast and slow) in the systems containing AOT reversed micelles, water, morin and solvents (ethanol and n-decanol). The DLS data clearly show the solvent influence as well as morin presence on AOT reversed micelles size and consequently their diffusion coefficients. Contrary to n-decanol strong competition between morin and ethanol molecules in AOT reversed micelles palisade layer has been found. It suggests that morin molecules replaced ethanol in AOT reversed micelles and locate in their palisade layer strongly increasing AOT reversed micelles size. Furthermore, it was found a sharp increase in correlation radii of slow modes of AOT reversed micelles containing morin molecules and their diffusion coefficients diminishing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Local chemistry of the surfactant's head groups determines protein stability in reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, Michael; Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Schäfer, Sarah; Wirtz, Hanna; Savolainen, Janne; Weingärtner, Hermann; Havenith, Martina

    2018-03-28

    When comparing protein folding in vitro and in vivo significant differences have been found. This has been attributed to crowding and confinement effects. Using a combination of GHz- and THz-dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and MD simulations, we studied hydration dynamics and reviewed protein stability data inside sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelles which are model systems for confinement. We find that water inside anionic AOT and cationic CTAB reverse micelles is characterized by a strong dielectric depolarization giving rise to a very low relative permittivity compared to an unconfined solution. Despite differences in the hydration dynamics of the surfactant's head groups, simulations using the two-phase thermodynamics method predict a similar reduction in water entropy for both reverse micelle systems compared to bulk water. When we compare the stability data of proteins in these reverse micelles we find that in contrast to our initial expectation, protein stability correlates rather with the local chemistry of the hydrated head groups than with the excluded volume effect or the low global permittivity.

  2. Biochemical synthesis of gold and zinc nanoparticles in reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, E. M.

    2010-04-01

    Gold and zinc nanoparticles were obtained in AOT reverse micelles in isooctane by reduction of the corresponding metal ions by the natural pigment quercetin (the biochemical synthesis technique). Gold and zinc ions were introduced into the micellar solution of quercetin in the form of aqueous solutions, HAuCl4 and [Zn(NH3)4]SO4, to the water to AOT molar ratios 1-3 and 3-4, respectively. The process of nanoparticle formation was investigated by spectrophotometry. Nanoparticle size and shape were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The data obtained allow to conclude that there are two steps in metal ion-quercetin interaction: (1) complex formation, and (2) complex dissociation with subsequent formation of nanoparticles and a second product, presumably oxidized quercetin. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes (spheres, hexahedrons, triangles, and cylinders) and sizes, mainly in the 10-20 nm range; zinc nanoparticles are chiefly spherical and ˜5 nm in size. In both cases, the nanoparticles are stable in the air in micellar solution over long periods of time (from a several months to a several years).

  3. Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo J; Brown, Paul; Correia, Gemima B; Rogers, Sarah E; Heenan, Richard; Grillo, Isabelle; Galembeck, André; Eastoe, Julian

    2011-08-02

    A new class of photoreactive surfactants (PRSs) is presented here, consisting of amphiphiles that can also act as reagents in photochemical reactions. An example PRS is cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate (Co(EH)(2)), which forms reverse micelles (RMs) in a hydrocarbon solvent, as well as mixed reversed micelles with the standard surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that mixed AOT/PRS RMs have a spherical structure and size similar to that of pure AOT micelles. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) band in the PRSs promotes electron transfer from PRS to associated metal counterions, leading to the generation of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles inside the RMs. This work presents proof of concept for employing PRSs as precursors to obtain nearly monodisperse inorganic nanoparticles: here both Co(3)O(4) and Bi nanoparticles have been synthesized at high metal concentration (10(-2) M) by simply irradiating the RMs. These results point toward a new approach of photoreactive self-assembly, which represents a clean and straightforward route to the generation of nanomaterials.

  4. Amyloid Beta Peptide Folding in Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Gözde; Axelsen, Paul H

    2017-07-19

    Previously published experimental studies have suggested that when the 40-residue amyloid beta peptide is encapsulated in a reverse micelle, it folds into a structure that may nucleate amyloid fibril formation (Yeung, P. S.-W.; Axelsen, P. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 6061 ). The factors that induce the formation of this structure have now been identified in a multi-microsecond simulation of the same reverse micelle system that was studied experimentally. Key features of the polypeptide-micelle interaction include the anchoring of a hydrophobic residue cluster into gaps in the reverse micelle surface, the formation of a beta turn at the anchor point that brings N- and C-terminal segments of the polypeptide into proximity, high ionic strength that promotes intramolecular hydrogen bond formation, and deformation of the reverse micelle surface to facilitate interactions with the surface along the entire length of the polypeptide. Together, these features cause the simulation-derived vibrational spectrum to red shift in a manner that reproduces the red-shift previously reported experimentally. On the basis of these findings, a new mechanism is proposed whereby membranes nucleate fibril formation and facilitate the in-register alignment of polypeptide strands that is characteristic of amyloid fibrils.

  5. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin☆

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to mani...

  6. Reduction of reversed micelle entrapped cytochrome c and cytochrome c3 by electrons generated by pulse radiolysis or by pyrene photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlsser, A.J.W.G.; Fendler, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Horse heart cytochrome c and cytochrome c 3 , isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been incorporated in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) entrapped water pools in heptane. The absorption spectra of the cytochromes have been found to be strongly dependent on the water to AOT concentration ratios. The proteins solubilized in heptane by the AOT reversed micelles have retained their ability to mediate electron transfer. They reacted very rapidly with hydrated electrons, generated pulse radiolytically or, alternatively, formed in the laser photoionization of pyrene

  7. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C

    2010-01-01

    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs. © 2010 American Institute of

  8. Characterization of lipase in reversed micelles formulated by Cibacron Blue F-3GA modified Span 85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Hao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    as a model reaction. The micellar hydrodynamic radius results reflected, to some extent, the redistribution of surfactant and water after enzyme addition, and the correlation between surfactant formulation, water content (W0), micellar size, and enzyme activity. An adequate modification density of CB......Sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) modified by Cibacron Blue F-3GA (CB) was prepared and used as an affinity surfactant to formulate a reversed micellar system for Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) solubilization. The system was characterized and evaluated by employing CRL-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil...... was found to be important for the reversed micelles to retain enough hydration capacity and achieve high enzyme activity. Compared with the results in AOT-based reversed micelles, CRL in this micellar system exhibited a different activity behavior versus W0. The optimal pH and temperature...

  9. Improved hydrogen production by coupled systems of hydrogenase negative photosynthetic bacteria and fermentative bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anita [Centre for Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Misra, Krishna [Indo-Russian Center for Bioinformatics, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad 211011 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Significant improvement in biological hydrogen production is achieved by the use of coupled bacterial cells in reverse micellar systems. Two coupled systems (a) Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009/Citrobacter Y19, and (b) Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1/Citrobacter Y19 bacteria have been immobilized separately in aqueous pool of the reverse micelles fabricated by various surfactants (AOT, CBAC and SDS) and apolar organic solvents (benzene and isooctane). The gene for uptake hydrogenase enzyme has been manipulated further for hydrogen generation. Mutants deficient in uptake hydrogenase (Hup{sup -}) were obtained from R. palustris CGA009 and R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, and entrapped with Citrobacter Y19 in the reverse micellar systems. More than two fold increase in hydrogen production was obtained by the use of Hup{sup -} mutants instead of wild-type photosynthetic bacteria together with Citrobacter Y19. Addition of sodium dithionite, a reducing agent to AOT/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system with the coupled systems of wild-type photosynthetic bacteria and fermentative bacterium Y19 effected similar increase in hydrogen production rate as it is obtained by the use of mutants. CBAC/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system is used for the first time for hydrogen production and is as promising as AOT/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system. All reverse micellar systems of coupled bacterial cultures gave encouraging hydrogen production (rate as well as yield) compared to uncoupled bacterial culture. (author)

  10. A reliable and reproducible method for the lipase assay in an AOT/isooctane reversed micellar system: modification of the copper-soap colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Choi, Seung Jun; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-09-01

    The copper-soap method, which is based on the absorbance of a fatty acid-copper complex at 715 nm, is a widely used colorimetric assay to determine the lipase activity in reversed micellar system. However, the absorbance of the bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)-copper complex prevents the use of an AOT/isooctane reversed micellar system. An extraction step was added to the original procedure to remove AOT and eliminate interference from the AOT-copper complex. Among the solvents tested, acetonitrile was determined to be the most suitable because it allows for the generation of a reproducible calibration curve with oleic acid that is independent of the AOT concentrations. Based on the validation data, the modified method, which does not experience interference from the AOT-copper complex, could be a useful method with enhanced accuracy and reproducibility for the lipase assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-08-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to manipulate water content. Hydration properties are probed using the water-sensitive fluorescence from Hb bound pyranine and covalently attached Badan. Protein dynamics are probed through ligand recombination traces derived from photodissociated carbonmonoxy hemoglobin on a log scale that exposes the potential role of both α and β solvent fluctuations in modulating protein dynamics. The results open the possibility of probing hydration level phenomena in this system using a combination of NMR and optical probes.

  12. Effect of the cationic surfactant moiety on the structure of water entrapped in two catanionic reverse micelles created from ionic liquid-like surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Cristian C; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano; Falcone, R Darío

    2014-10-06

    The behavior of water entrapped in reverse micelles (RMs) formed by two catanionic ionic liquid-like surfactants, benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-BHD) and cetyltrimethylammonium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT-CTA), was investigated by using dynamic (DLS) and static (SLS) light scattering, FTIR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which AOT-CTA has been used to create RMs and encapsulate water. DLS and SLS results revealed the formation of RMs in benzene and the interaction of water with the RM interface. From FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data, a difference in the magnitude of the water-catanionic surfactant interaction at the interface is observed. For the AOT-BHD RMs, a strong water-surfactant interaction can be invoked whereas for AOT-CTA this interaction seems to be weaker. Consequently, more water molecules interact with the interface in AOT-BHD RMs with a completely disrupted hydrogen-bond network, than in AOT-CTA RMs in which the water structure is partially preserved. We suggest that the benzyl group present in the BHD(+) moiety in AOT-BHD is responsible for the behavior of the catanionic interface in comparison with the interface created in AOT-CTA. These results show that a simple change in the cationic component in the catanionic surfactant promotes remarkable changes in the RMs interface with interesting consequences, in particular when using the systems as nanoreactors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the cutinase-catalyzed transesterification of oils in AOT reversed micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2011-11-01

    The kinetics of the enzymatic transesterification between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol for biodiesel production in a bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reversed micellar system, using recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi as a catalyst, was investigated. In order to describe the results that were obtained, a mechanistic scheme was proposed, based on the literature and on the experimental data. This scheme includes the following reaction steps: the formation of the active enzyme-substrate complex, the addition of an alcohol molecule to the complex followed by the separation of a molecule of the fatty acid alkyl ester and a glycerol moiety, and release of the active enzyme. Enzyme inhibition and deactivation effects due to methanol and glycerol were incorporated in the model. This kinetic model was fitted to the concentration profiles of the fatty acid methyl esters (the components of biodiesel), tri-, di- and monoglycerides, obtained for a 24 h transesterification reaction performed in a stirred batch reactor under different reaction conditions of enzyme and initial substrates concentration.

  14. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol.

  15. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  17. Degradation patterns of tetracycline antibiotics in reverse micelles and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Hongkee

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical stability of tetracycline and oxytetracycline hydro-chlorides in reverse micelles. Their reverse micellar solutions were prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, water and ethyl formate. The aqueous solutions of the tetracycline antibiotics were also prepared for comparison. The reverse micellar and aqueous solutions were stored at 37 degrees C. Samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. When evaluation was performed on an aqueous tetracycline HCl solution, its half-life was estimated to be 329 h. Its chemical stability was not improved after being dissolved in the reverse micelles, and a similar half-life of 330 h was observed. However, there were noticeable differences between the two systems in terms of degradation kinetics and degradation byproducts. On the other hand, oxytetracycline HCl was unstable in water so that its half-life was only 34 h. Very interestingly, pronounced improvement in stability was attained with the reverse micellar system: upon dissolving in the reverse micelles, its half-life was increased to 2402 h. There were also marked differences in degradation patterns and mechanisms of oxytetracycline HCl in water and the reverse micelles. Our study indicates that the reverse micellar system has potential applications in solubilizing and stabilizing oxytetracycline HCl, thereby contributing to the development of its dosage forms. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. TR-ESR Investigation on Reaction of Vitamin C with Excited Triplet of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in Reversed Micelle Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-sheng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Ji, Xue-han; Cui, Zhi-feng

    2011-04-01

    Time-resolved electron spin resonance has been used to study quenching reactions between the antioxidant Vitamin C (VC) and the triplet excited states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PAQ) in ethylene glycol-water (EG-H2O) homogeneous and inhomogeneous reversed micelle solutions. Reversed micelle solutions were used to be the models of physiological environment of biological cell and tissue. In PAQ/EG-H2O homogeneous solution, the excited triplet of PAQ (3PAQ*) abstracts hydrogen atom from solvent EG. In PAQ/VC/EG-H2O solution, 3PAQ* abstracts hydrogen atom not only from solvent EG but also from VC. The quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is close to the diffusion-controlled value of 1.41 × 108 L/(mol ·s). In hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/EG-H2O and aerosol OT (AOT)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, 3PAQ* and VC react around the water-oil interface of the reversed micelle. Exit of 3PAQ* from the lipid phase slows down the quenching reaction. For Triton X-100 (TX-100)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solution, PAQ and VC coexist inside the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol core, and the quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is larger than those in AOT/EG-H2O and CTAB/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, even a little larger than that in EG-H2O homogeneous solution. The strong emissive chemically induced dynamic electron polarization of As.- resulted from the effective TM spin polarization transfer in hydrogen abstraction of 3PAQ* from VC.

  19. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  20. Water motion in reverse micelles studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Michael R.; Ladanyi, Branka M.; Levinger, Nancy E.; Herwig, Kenneth W.

    2004-10-01

    Motion of water molecules in Aerosol OT [sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, AOT] reverse micelles with water content w0 ranging from 1 to 5 has been explored both experimentally through quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The experiments were performed at the energy resolution of 85 μeV over the momentum transfer (Q) range of 0.36-2.53 Å-1 on samples in which the nonpolar phase (isooctane) and the AOT alkyl chains were deuterated, thereby suppressing their contribution to the QENS signal. QENS results were analyzed via a jump-diffusion/isotropic rotation model, which fits the results reasonably well despite the fact that confinement effects are not explicitly taken into account. This analysis indicates that in reverse micelles with low-water content (w0=1 and 2.5) translational diffusion rate is too slow to be detected, while for w0=5 the diffusion coefficient is much smaller than for bulk water. Rotational diffusion coefficients obtained from this analysis increase with w0 and are smaller than for bulk water, but rotational mobility is less drastically reduced than translational mobility. Using the Faeder/Ladanyi model [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1033 (2000)] of reverse micelle interior, MD simulations were performed to calculate the self-intermediate scattering function FS(Q,t) for water hydrogens. Comparison of the time Fourier transform of this FS(Q,t) with the QENS dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω), shows good agreement between the model and experiment. Separate intermediate scattering functions FSR(Q,t) and FSCM(Q,t) were determined for rotational and translational motion. Consistent with the decoupling approximation used in the analysis of QENS data, the product of FSR(Q,t) and FSCM(Q,t) is a good approximation to the total FS(Q,t). We find that the decay of FSCM(Q,t) is nonexponential and our analysis of the MD data indicates that this behavior is due to lower water mobility close to the interface and to

  1. Protein separation using affinity-based reversed micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun; Gu; Tong; Bai; Ichikawa; Furusaki

    1999-05-01

    Reversed micellar two-phase extraction is a developing technique for protein separation. Introduction of an affinity ligand is considered to be an effective approach to increase the selectivity and capacity of reversed micelles. In this article, Cibacron Blue F3G-A (CB) as an affinity ligand was immobilized to reversed micelles composed of soybean lecithin by a two-phase reaction. The affinity partitioning of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the CB-lecithin micelles was studied. Formation of mixed micelles by additionally introducing a nonionic surfactant, Tween 85, to the CB-lecithin micelles was effective to increase the solubilization of lysozyme due to the increase of W0 (water/surfactant molar ratio)/micellar size. The partitioning isotherms of lysozyme to the CB-lecithin micelles with and without Tween 85 were expressed by the Langmuir equation. The dissociation constants in the Langmuir equation decreased on addition of Tween 85, indicating the increase of the effectiveness of lysozyme binding to the immobilized CB. On addition of 20 g/L Tween 85 to 50 g/L lecithin/hexane micellar phase containing 0.1 mmol/L CB, the extraction capacity for lysozyme could be increased by 42%. Moreover, the CB-lecithin micelles with or without Tween 85 showed significant size exclusion for BSA due to its high molecular weight. Thus, lysozyme and BSA were separated from artificial solutions containing the two proteins. In addition, the affinity-based reversed micellar phase containing Tween 85 was recycled three times for lysozyme purification from crude egg-white solutions. Lysozyme purity increased by 16-18-fold, reaching 60-70% in the recycled use.

  2. Extraction of L-Aspartic Acid with Reverse Micelle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYDOĞAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the extraction L-aspartic acid which is a hydrophobic amino acid with reverse micelle system. Production of amino acids by fermentation has been more important in recent years. These amino acids are obtained in dilute aqueous solutions and have to be separated from excess substrate, inorganic salts and by-products. Recently, separation of amino acids from fermentation media by reverse micelle extraction has received a great deal of attention. In this study, reverse micelle phase includes aliquat-336 as a surfactant, 1-decanol as a co-surfactant and isooctane as an apolar solvent. Experiments were performed at 150 rpm stirring rate, at 30 oC, for 30 min extraction time with equal volumes of reverse micelle and aqueous phases. Concentration of L-aspartic acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extraction yield increased with increasing pH and aliquat-336 concentration and with decreasing initial amino acid concentration. Maximum ekstraction yield (68 % was obtained at pH of 12, surfactant concentration of 200 mM and an initial amino acid concentration of 5 mM.

  3. Optical properties of CdS and CdS/ZnS quantum dots synthesized by reverse micelle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Thi Kim Lien; Chu Viet Ha; Le Tien Ha; Nguyen Nhu Dat

    2009-01-01

    The CdS and CdS/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots have been synthesized by reverse micelle method using sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) surfactant agent. The quantum dot diameter is about 2.5 to 4 nm depending on the concentration of the surfactant agent. It is interesting that, in contrast to other colloidal methods, the size of quantum dots does not depend on the growth time. The absorption spectra of CdS quantum dots show the narrow size distribution. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra include two bands, the intrinsic emission of CdS nanocrystals and the emission of surface states. There is noticeable increase of the PL intensity and subsequent photostability of CdS/ZnS core-shell quantum dots in comparison with CdS quantum dots without the ZnS shell.

  4. Extraction of DNA by the reverse micelle; Gyaku miseru ni yoru DNA no chushutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School; Ono, Tsutomu; Horiuchi, Akihiko; Furusaki, Shintaro

    1999-03-05

    Using the reverse micelle which consisted of the surfactant of the cations, it succeeded in DNA extraction of the salmon spermatozoon. The transfer of DNA formed in the isooctane from water phase to the reverse micelle is greatly dependent on type and ionic strength of the surfactant. By the surfactant of quaternary ammonium salt type with two long-chain alkyl units, the DNA which was charged anionic was efficiently extracted in the reverse micelle. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Micropolarity and Hydrogen-Bond Donor Ability of Environmentally Friendly Anionic Reverse Micelles Explored by UV/Vis Absorption of a Molecular Probe and FTIR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Valeria R; Silber, Juana J; Falcone, Ruben Darío; Correa, N Mariano

    2018-02-08

    In the present work we show how two biocompatible solvents, methyl laurate (ML) and isopropyl myristate (IPM), can be used as a less toxic alternative to replace the nonpolar component in a sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles (RMs) formulation. In this sense, the micropolarity and the hydrogen-bond ability of the interface were monitored through the use of the solvatochromism of a molecular probe (1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine, QB) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Our results demonstrate that the micropolarity sensed by QB in ML RMs is lower than in IPM RMs. Additionally, the water molecules form stronger H-bond interactions with the polar head of AOT in ML than in IPM. By FTIR was revealed that more water molecules interact with the interface in ML/AOT RMs. On the other hand, for AOT RMs generated in IPM, the weaker water-surfactant interaction allows the water molecules to establish hydrogen bonds with each other trending to bulk water more easily than in ML RMs, a consequence of the dissimilar penetration of nonpolar solvents into the interfacial region. The penetration process is strongly controlled by the polarity and viscosity of the external solvents. All of these results allow us to characterize these biocompatible systems, providing information about interfacial properties and how they can be altered by changing the external solvent. The ability of the nontoxic solvent to penetrate or not into the AOT interface produces a new interface with attractive properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Reverse micelles for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, S; Sharma, Y C; Upadhyay, S N

    2009-08-01

    The ability of reverse micelles to solvate organic dyes in the aqueous core was investigated with methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) surfactants in a polar amyl alcohol medium. The removal trend of the dyes from water was studied with different concentrations of the dyes. The effects of NaCl and CaCl2 salts on removal efficiency of the surfactants were investigated and results were compared. It was observed that the separation of dyes from the aqueous phase to the organic phase depends on the electrostatic interaction between the dye molecule and surfactant head groups. In the case of NaCl, with increasing salt concentration, the removal (%) of dye decreases. For CaCl2, removal of methyl orange shows a gradual increase with increasing dye concentration, whereas, for methylene blue, its removal decreases with increasing dye concentration.

  7. Hydrogen evolution and consumption in AOT–isooctane reverse micelles by Desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, José J. G.; Andrade, Susana L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The enzyme hydrogenase isolated from the sulphate reducing anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas was encapsulated in reverse micelles of AOT–water–isooctane. The enzyme ability to consume molecular hydrogen was studied as a function of the micelle size (given by Wo = [H2O]/[organic solvent]). A peak of catalytic activity was obtained for Wo = 18, a micelle size theoretically fitting the heterodimeric hydrogenase molecule. At this Wo value, the recorded catalytic activity was slightly ...

  8. Gold nanorod in reverse micelles: a fitting fusion to catapult lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subhabrata; Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2011-09-21

    Lipase solubilized within gold nanorod doped CTAB reverse micelles exhibited remarkable improvement in its activity mainly due to the enhanced interfacial domain of newly developed self-assembled nanocomposites.

  9. Enhanced hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplast after entrapment within reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Dubey, R.S. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Biochemistry; Pandey, K.D. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1999-08-01

    Reverse micelles were used for the enhanced rate of photoproduction of hydrogen using the coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplasts organelles. Different combinations of organic solvents and surfactants were used for generating reverse micelles. A several fold enhancement in the rate of H{sub 2} production was observed when the coupled system was entrapped within reverse micelles as compared to the aqueous suspension where no detectable H{sub 2} was produced. The coupled system immobilized in reverse micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate and carbon tetrachloride yielded maximum rate of H{sub 2} evolution. The optimum temperature for such hydrogen production was 40{sup o}C using light of 520-570 nm wavelength and 100 lux intensity. (author)

  10. Environmental applications of lanthanide counterions bound to reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, I.M.; Mwalupindi, A.G.; Ndou, T.T.

    1992-01-01

    The lanthanide surfactants of the formula [Ln(EHS) 3 ] [where EHS - bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and Ln = Tb(III)or Eu(III)] have been synthesized from aerosol OT, and used to detect select organic analytes. This technique is based on the ability of the lanthanide ions to transform the energy absorbed by the organic compounds into a visible lanthanide ion emission via intermolecular energy transfer. When dissolved in an organic solvent, the surfactants form reverse micelles which provide molecular organization of the donor and acceptor species to come into close contact for energy transfer. An enhancement of the sensitized luminescence of the lanthanide counterions have been demonstrated in the presence of many organic analytes. The results show that a significant enhancement can be achieved by using an organic analyte containing a polar substituent. The observed efficient sensitization of the lanthanide ions is used for the determination of select organic analytes. Many of the organic analytes used are potential pollutants and carcinogens. Therefore, this procedure is more likely to provide a detection scheme to selectively analyze water for environmentally important pollutants such as polychlorobiphenyls. 1 H NMR spectroscopy has been used to establish the interaction between the organic analyte donor and lanthanide ion acceptor and then examine the relative locations of various photosensitive species present in the reverse micellar solution. This information was derived from changes in the chemical shift and resolution of both the analyte and the surfactant protons upon solubilization of the donor in the micellar solution. These data are used to estimate the average distance between the donor and the acceptor in this analytical scheme. The ability and the effectiveness of these surfactants to act as NME shift reagents is discussed

  11. Glyco-Nanoparticles Made from Self-Assembly of Maltoheptaose-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate): Micelle, Reverse Micelle, and Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Karine M; Otsuka, Issei; Bouilhac, Cécile; Muniz, Edvani C; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-07-13

    The synthesis and the solution-state self-assembly of the "hybrid" diblock copolymers, maltoheptaose-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MH-b-PMMA), into large compound micelles (LCMs) and reverve micelle-type nanoparticles, are reported in this paper. The copolymers were self-assembled in water and acetone by direct dissolution method, and the morphologies of the nanoparticles were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and fluorescence spectroscopy as a function of the volume fraction of the copolymer hydrophobic block, copolymer concentration, stirring speed, and solvent polarity. The DLS measurements and TEM images showed that the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the LCMs obtained in water increases with the copolymer concentration. Apart from that, increasing the stirring speed leads to polydispersed aggregations of the LCMs. On the other hand, in acetone, the copolymers self-assembled into reverse micelle-type nanoparticles having Rh values of about 6 nm and micellar aggregates, as revealed the results obtained from DLS, AFM, and (1)H NMR analyses. The variation in micellar structure, that is, conformational inversion from LCMs to reverse micelle-type structures in response to polarity of the solvent, was investigated by apparent water contact angle (WCA) and (1)H NMR analyses. This conformational inversion of the nanoparticles was further confirmed by encapsulation and release of hydrophobic guest molecule, Nile red, characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  12. Static structure factor of polymerlike micelles: Overall dimension, flexibility, and local properties of lecithin reverse micelles in deuterated isooctane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different concentrat......We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different...... transformation and square-root deconvolution techniques. We demonstrate that we can determine structural properties such as the micellar cross-section profile and flexibility as well as quantitatively incorporate the influence of micellar growth and excluded-volume effects on S(q,c)....

  13. Structural study of the AOT reverse micellar system. Influence of attractive interactions induced by the solubilisation of native and modified proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Guillaume

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of intra-micellar attractions on the thermodynamic behaviour of reverse micellar systems, as well as of the effects induced by the solubilisation of natives or modified proteins. The author proposes a model to explain the decrease of attractions between droplets when the volume fraction occupied by reverse micelles increases. This model which highlights the importance of depletion forces between reverse micelles, allows the building up of a theoretical relationship between the bonding parameter and the volume fraction of reverse micelles. In order to understand the appearance of an attractive term related to the solubilisation of native cytochrome-c in these systems, this protein has been chemically modified. The author highlights the role of the charge born by a micellar probe on the thermodynamic behaviour of micro-emulsions. Then, the author applies the model of dimerizing adhesive spheres to reverse micellar systems containing native cytochrome-c. He shows that theoretical predictions of this model are in agreement with obtained experimental results [fr

  14. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  15. Fabrication of thermo-sensitive complex micelles for reversible cell targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yukun; Yang, Chengling; Lai, Quanyong; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    To ideally solve the contradiction between enhanced cellular uptake and prolonged blood circulation, reversible targeting polymeric micelles based on the expanding and shrinking behavior of a temperature-responsive polymer were developed. The micelle contained a hydrophobic PCL core and a mixed shell consisting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (Biotin-PEG), and its targeting ability could be switched on/off by temperature. The cellular uptake of the complex polymeric micelles was studied. The results from a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the surface biotin content increased by as much as 11.6-fold when the temperature increased above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). More importantly, the ELISA confirmed that biotin-mediated targeting on the surface was reversibly switched on and off for at least five cycles. In addition, the results from quantitative flow cytometry and confocal spectroscopy indicated that the cellular uptake of the targeted micelles at temperatures above the LCST was much higher than that at temperatures below the LCST. This complex polymeric micelle with reversible targeting property could be a promising alternative for drug delivery.

  16. The Production of Nanoparticulate Ceria Using Reverse Micelle Sol-Gel Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, S.; Holliman, P.; Kalaji, M.; Klusoň, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2009), s. 3517-3522 ISSN 0959-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ceria * reverse micelles * alkoxide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.795, year: 2009

  17. CTAB/water/chloroform reverse micelles: a closed or open association model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíčová, L.; Šebej, P.; Štacko, P.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Bogomolova, Anna; Padilla, M.; Klán, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 43 (2012), s. 15185-15192 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : CTAB * reverse micelles * AFM Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  18. Small angle X-ray scattering studies to access the influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and carbonic anhydrase (Boca) on the size and interaction among Aerosol-O T reversed micelles as a function of the micellar hydration degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, W.; Duarte, E.L.; Itri, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Reversed micelles (RMs) of AOT (sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate) has constitute an efficient system to investigate membrane interaction and physical chemical behavior of short biologically active peptides, proteins and enzymes in water controlled environment and apolar medium. Information may be obtained from protein-membrane interaction, including solubilization, binding location, conformational changes, activity size droplet-dependent, and changes in the properties of RM environment, useful in studies in biocatalysis and bioseparation systems [1]. In this work, changes in the structural features and interactive forces among AOT RMs in hexane were monitored in several stages of micellar hydration W (= [buffer]/[0.1M AOT]), and in the presence of BSA (66.5 kDa) and BCA (30 Kda), by SAXS. The interactive forces between the RMs with proteins were analyzed within the framework of repulsion and attractive interaction potentials through the pairing stick hardsphere (PSHS) model [2]. In this way, the spherical core radius to the system of pure AOT RMs at W = 4, 10, 20 and 30 were respectively 15, 22, 33 and 43 A (20% of polydispersity), evaluated from the particle form factor P(q) modeling [1]. The PSHS analysis from SAXS curves of AOT RMs with BSA and BCA at smaller droplets size of 4 and 10, showed, respectively, an interplay between attractive and repulsive interactions between the micelles (attractive component in S(q) was predominant) with the preservation of the discrete RM radius in the presence of protein. On the other hand, for protein confined in the bigger RM droplet size with W=30, the attractive inter micellar forces were of minor importance for BSA and the appearing of a predominant repulsive hard sphere component in SAXS curves accompanied by a decreasing of the micellar radius to 36 A were detected. For BCA, however, at higher W (30), a phase separation was observed probably associated to the formation of unstable large BCA aggregates

  19. Structural investigation of diglycerol monolaurate reverse micelles in nonpolar oils cyclohexane and octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Structure of diglycerol monolaurate (abbreviated as C 12 G 2 ) micelles in nonpolar oils cyclohexane and n-octane as a function of compositions, temperatures, and surfactant chain length has been investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS data were evaluated by the generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method and real-space structural information of particles was achieved. Conventional poly(oxyethylene) type nonionic surfactants do not form reverse micelles in oils unless a trace water is added. However, present surfactant C 12 G 2 formed reverse micelle (RM) in cyclohexane and n-octane without addition of water at normal room temperature. A clear signature of one dimensional (1-D) micellar growth was found with increasing C 12 G 2 concentration. On the other hand, increasing temperature or hydrocarbon chain length of surfactant shorten the length of RM, which is essentially a cylinder-to-sphere type transition in the aggregate structure. Drastic changes in the structure of RM, namely, transition of ellipsoidal prolate to long rod-like micelles was observed upon changing oil from cyclohexane to octane. All the microstructural transitions were explained in terms of critical packing parameter. (author)

  20. Photolithography and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy used to examine the rates of exchange in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Zach; Mawson, Cara; Johnson, Kyron; Kessler, Sarah; Rebecca, Anne; Wolf, Nathan; Lim, Michael; Nucci, Nathaniel

    Reverse micelles are molecular complexes that encapsulate a nanoscale pool of water in a surfactant shell dissolved in non-polar solvent. These complexes have a wide range of applications, and in all cases, the degree to which reverse micelles (RM) exchange their contents is relevant for their use. Despite its importance, this aspect of RM behavior is poorly understood. Photolithography is employed here to create micro and nano scale fluidic systems in which mixing rates can be precisely measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Micro-channel patterns are etched using reactive ion etching process into a layer of silicon dioxide on crystalline silicon substrates. Solutions containing mixtures of reverse micelles, proteins, and fluorophores are placed into reservoirs in the patterns, while diffusion and exchange between RMs is monitored using a FCS system built from a modified confocal Raman spectrometer. Using this approach, the diffusion and exchange rates for RM systems are measured as a function of the components of the RM mixture. Funding provided by Rowan University.

  1. Anisotropic reversed micelles with fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid surfactants in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagisaka, Masanobu; Ono, Shinji; James, Craig; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Mohamed, Azmi; Guittard, Frédéric; Enick, Robert M; Rogers, Sarah E; Czajka, Adam; Hill, Christopher; Eastoe, Julian

    2017-12-15

    Previous work (M. Sagisaka, et al. Langmuir 31 (2015) 7479-7487), showed the most effective fluorocarbon (FC) and hydrocarbon (HC) chain lengths in the hybrid surfactants FCm-HCn (sodium 1-oxo-1-[4-(perfluoroalkyl)phenyl]alkane-2-sulfonates, where m = FC length and n = HC length) were m and n = 6 and 4 for water solubilization, whereas m 6 and n 6, or m 6 and n 5, were optimal chain lengths for reversed micelle elongation in supercritical CO 2 . To clarify why this difference of only a few methylene chain units is so effective at tuning the solubilizing power and reversed micelle morphology, nanostructures of water-in-CO 2 (W/CO 2 ) microemulsions were investigated by high-pressure small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements at different water-to-surfactant molar ratios (W 0 ) and surfactant concentrations. By modelling SANS profiles with cylindrical and ellipsoidal form factors, the FC6-HCn/W/CO 2 microemulsions were found to increase in size with increasing W 0 and surfactant concentration. Ellipsoidal cross-sectional radii of the FC6-HC4/W/CO 2 microemulsion droplets increased linearly with W 0 , and finally reached ∼39 Å and ∼78 Å at W 0  = 85 (close to the upper limit of solubilizing power). These systems appear to be the largest W/CO 2 microemulsion droplets ever reported. The aqueous domains of FC6-HC6 rod-like reversed micelles increased in size by 3.5 times on increasing surfactant concentration from 35 mM to 50 mM: at 35 mM, FC6-HC5 formed rod-like reversed micelles 5.3 times larger than FC6-HC6. Interestingly, these results suggest that hybrid HC-chains partition into the microemulsion aqueous cores with the sulfonate headgroups, or at the W/CO 2 interfaces, and so play important roles for tuning the W/CO 2 interfacial curvature. The super-efficient W/CO 2 -type solubilizer FC6-HC4, and the rod-like reversed micelle forming surfactant FC6-HC5, represent the most successful cases of low fluorine content additives

  2. Dynamic and spectroscopic studies of nano-micelles comprising dye in water/ dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate /decane droplet microemulsion at constant water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, Abbas; Almasi-Kashi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, the dynamic and spectroscopic properties of water-in-decane dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) microemulsions comprising dye, Rhodamine B (RB), were studied by varying content of decane at the constant water content (W = 20), by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV/visible, and fluorescence techniques. The characterization results of DLS of AOT micelles showed that by decreasing concentration of Rhodamine B in the water/AOT/decane microemulsion, the inter-droplet interactions changed from attractive to repulsive as the mass fraction of nano-droplets (MFD) increased. A deviation in the absorption spectra of Rhodamine B from the Beer's law at the high Rhodamine B concentration (0.001) was observed in the AOT reversed micelles. The Quenching in the emission intensity of AOT droplets comprising Rhodamine B and red shift in λmax of fluorescence of dye was observed as a function of concentration of RB in AOT RMs. The Stokes shift of AOT droplets containing the high concentration of RB, increased with mass fraction of nano-droplet (MFD), whereas at the low Rhodamine B concentration, its variation remained constant up to MFD = 0.07, and then increased.

  3. Effect of urea on bovine serum albumin in aqueous and reverse micelle environments investigated by small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itri, Rosangela; Caetano, Wilker; Barbosa, Leandro R.S.; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence that urea has on the conformation of water-soluble globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), exposed directly to the aqueous solution as compared to the condition where the macromolecule is confined in the Aerosol-OT (AOT - sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)/n-hexane/water reverse micelle (RM) is addressed. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of aqueous BSA solution in the absence and in the presence of urea (3M and 5M) confirm the known denaturing effect of urea in proteins. The loss of the globular native structure is observed by the increase in the protein maximum dimension and gyration radius, through the Trp emission increase and maximum red-shift as well as the decrease in helix content. In RMs, the Trp fluorescence and CD spectra show that BSA is mainly located in its interfacial region independently of the micellar size. Addition of urea in this BSA/RM system also causes changes in the Trp fluorescence (emission decrease and maximum red-shift) and in the BSA CD spectra (decrease in helix content), which are compatible with the denaturation of the protein and Trp exposition to a more apolar environment in the RM. The fact that urea causes changes in the protein structure when it is located in the interfacial region (evidenced by CD) is interpreted as an indication that the direct interaction of urea with the protein is the major factor to explain its denaturing effect. (author)

  4. Effect of surfactants on the properties of hydrotalcites prepared by the reverse micelle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgado, Patricia H.; Holgado, María J.; San Román, María S.; Rives, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. The layer cations were Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ in all cases and the interlayer anion was carbonate. We have studied the effect of the surfactant used (with linear chains of different lengths, or cyclic) and the effect of the pH on the properties of the solids formed. These have been characterized by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction, FT-IR and Vis–UV spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the samples prepared at pH 9 are more crystalline than those prepared at pH 11 and their crystallite sizes are always larger than for samples prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size, probably because the water pool vesicle where the crystallite grows is larger due to sterical hindrance of the organic chains. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure with Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ cations in the layers have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. Different surfactants were used at different pH synthesis. Samples prepared at pH 9 are higher crystalline than those prepared at pH 11. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size. - Highlights: • Hydrotalcites were prepared by the micelles reverse method. • Straight alkyl or cyclic chain surfactants were used. • All hydrotalcites are well crystallized at pH = 9 and 11. • The crystallite size depends on the linear/cyclic nature of the surfactant chain

  5. Mixed reverse micelles facilitated downstream processing of lipase involving water-oil-water liquid emulsion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowal, Saibal; Priyanka, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work for the first time demonstrated that liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) containing reverse micelles could be successfully used for the downstream processing of lipase from Aspergillus niger. In the present work, we have attempted to increase the extraction and purification fold of lipase by using mixed reverse micelles (MRM) consisting of cationic and nonionic surfactants in LEM. It was basically prepared by addition of the internal aqueous phase solution to the organic phase followed by the redispersion of the emulsion in the feed phase containing enzyme, which resulted in globules of water-oil-water (WOW) emulsion for the extraction of lipase. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase recovery (100%) and purification fold (17.0-fold) were CTAB concentration 0.075 M, Tween 80 concentration 0.012 M, at stirring speed of 500 rpm, contact time 15 min, internal aqueous phase pH 7, feed pH 9, KCl concentration 1 M, NaCl concentration 0.1 M, and ratio of membrane emulsion to feed volume 1:1. Incorporation of the nonionic surfactant (e.g., Tween 80) resulted in remarkable improvement in the purification fold (3.1-17.0) of the lipase. LEM containing a mixture of nonionic and cationic surfactants can be successfully used for the enhancement in the activity recovery and purification fold during downstream processing of enzymes/proteins. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Simulations of the confinement of ubiquitin in self-assembled reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianhui; García, Angel E.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the effects of confinement on the structure, hydration, and the internal dynamics of ubiquitin encapsulated in reverse micelles (RM). We performed molecular dynamics simulations of the encapsulation of ubiquitin into self-assembled protein/surfactant reverse micelles to study the positioning and interactions of the protein with the RM and found that ubiquitin binds to the RM interface at low salt concentrations. The same hydrophobic patch that is recognized by ubiquitin binding domains in vivo is found to make direct contact with the surfactant head groups, hydrophobic tails, and the iso-octane solvent. The fast backbone N-H relaxation dynamics show that the fluctuations of the protein encapsulated in the RM are reduced when compared to the protein in bulk. This reduction in fluctuations can be explained by the direct interactions of ubiquitin with the surfactant and by the reduced hydration environment within the RM. At high concentrations of excess salt, the protein does not bind strongly to the RM interface and the fast backbone dynamics are similar to that of the protein in bulk. Our simulations demonstrate that the confinement of protein can result in altered protein dynamics due to the interactions between the protein and the surfactant.

  7. 1-Monoglyceride production from lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid in reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D G; Gulari, E

    1991-08-20

    Glycerol-fatty acid esterification has been conducted with lipase from R. delemar in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micellar media, with the major product being 1-monoglyceride, a useful food-emulsifier. 1,3-diglyceride was also synthesized, but to a much lesser extent. For a given set of initial conditions, the reaction productivity, measured in terms of the initial product formation rate, V(0), and the final or equilibrium concentration of product, is optimal for a particular concentration of each surfactant, fatty acid, glycerol, and water. Many of these optimal values correlate well with a "critical" region on the phase diagram. Also, results indicate lipase-catalyzed esterification stops due to the achievement of kinetic equilibrium expect for a few cases where enzyme deactivation is severe. Dynamic light scattering was employed to examine the influence of water, glycerol, and fatty acid on micellar and interfacial structure. Results from this technique indicate enzyme kinetic are linked to interfacial phenomena and the presence of substrates at the interfacial region.

  8. Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos C. Marhuenda-Egea; Sonsoles Piera-Velázquez; Chiquinquirá Cadenas; Eduardo Cadenas

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase) from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium) was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic “solvation–stabilization hypothesi...

  9. Reverse micelle-based microencapsulation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride into poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Lee, Beom-Jin; Sah, Hongkee

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to solubilize oxytetracycline hydrochloride (HCl) in reverse micelles to prepare poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres and to explore parameters affecting its encapsulation efficiency. Oxytetracycline HCl was dissolved in the reverse micelles consisting of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, water, and ethyl formate. A PLGA polymer was then dissolved in the reverse micellar solution, and a modified solvent quenching procedure was carried out to prepare PLGA microspheres. Encapsulation efficiencies of oxytetracycline HCl ranged from 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 24.9 +/- 4.6%, depending on experimental conditions. Important parameters affecting its encapsulation efficiency included the amounts of water used to prepare the reverse micelles and PLGA polymer. With regard to microsphere morphology, the reverse micellar process produced the microspheres with smooth and pore-free surfaces. In particular, their internal matrices did not possess hollow cavities that were frequently observed when a typical double emulsion technique was used to make microspheres. In summary, it was possible to encapsulate oxytetracycline HCl into PLGA microspheres via the ethyl formate-based reverse micellar technique. We also anticipate that the use of ethyl formate could avoid environmental and human toxicity issues associated with methylene chloride.

  10. Molecular characterization of water and surfactant AOT at nanoemulsion surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer K; Carpenter, Andrew P; Ciszewski, Regina K; Schabes, Brandon K; Kittredge, Clive T; Moore, Fred G; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2017-12-19

    Nanoemulsions and microemulsions are environments where oil and water can be solubilized in one another to provide a unique platform for many different biological and industrial applications. Nanoemulsions, unlike microemulsions, have seen little work done to characterize molecular interactions at their surfaces. This study provides a detailed investigation of the near-surface molecular structure of regular (oil in water) and reverse (water in oil) nanoemulsions stabilized with the surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). Vibrational sum-frequency scattering spectroscopy (VSFSS) is used to measure the vibrational spectroscopy of these AOT stabilized regular and reverse nanoemulsions. Complementary studies of AOT adsorbed at the planar oil-water interface are conducted with vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS). Jointly, these give comparative insights into the orientation of interfacial water and the molecular characterization of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of AOT at the different oil-water interfaces. Whereas the polar region of AOT and surrounding interfacial water molecules display nearly identical behavior at both the planar and droplet interface, there is a clear difference in hydrophobic chain ordering even when possible surface concentration differences are taken into account. This chain ordering is found to be invariant as the nanodroplets grow by Ostwald ripening and also with substitution of different counterions (Na:AOT, K:AOT, and Mg:AOT) that consequently also result in different sized nanoparticles. The results paint a compelling picture of surfactant assembly at these relatively large nanoemulsion surfaces and allow for an important comparison of AOT at smaller micellar (curved) and planar oil-water interfaces.

  11. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Dong,1 Yan Yan,2 Pengchong Wang,2 Xianpeng Shi,2 Lu Zhang,2 Ke Wang,2 Jianfeng Xing,2 Yalin Dong1 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 2School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA and a multidrug resistance (MDR reversal agent (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS. The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG and stearic acid (SA. The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE. Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in

  12. Synthesis, characterisation, photo-physic and photochemistry properties of nanometer particles synthesised 'in situ' in reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of inverse micelles as chemical micro-reactors for the synthesis of semiconductors of nano-metric size. The author first presents the properties of the inverse micellar system made of water, AOT and oil, and then describes electronic properties of semiconductors with respect to their size. After a bibliographical study on three semiconductors (CdS, AgI, Ag 2 S), the author highlights the presence of at least two types of water in the aqueous core of inverse micelles. She reports the study of the influence of the addition of a surfactant (CTAC, cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) on droplet properties, on the interaction between droplets, on reaction kinetics, and on crystallite size depending on the considered semiconductor (CdS, AgI or Ag 2 S) [fr

  13. Stability of reverse micelles in rare-earth separation: a chemical model based on a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushu; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-03-08

    Molecular complexes formed in the organic phase during solvent extraction may self-assemble as reverse micelles, and therefore induce a supramolecular organization of this phase. In most of the cases, water molecules play an essential role in the organization of this non polar medium. The aim of this work is to investigate the speciation of the aggregates formed in the organic phase during solvent extraction, and especially to assess their stability as a function of the number of water molecules included in their polar core. We have focused on malonamide extractants that have already been investigated experimentally. Different stoichiometries of reverse micelles in the organic phase have been studied by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the equilibrium constant (K°) representing the association/dissociation pathways of water molecules in the aggregates and the corresponding reaction free energies (Δ r G°).

  14. Investigation of laundering and dispersion approaches for silica and calcium phosphosilicate composite nanoparticles synthesized in reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakovic, Amra

    Nanotechnology, the science and engineering of materials at the nanoscale, is a booming research area with numerous applications in electronic, cosmetic, automotive and sporting goods industries, as well as in biomedicine. Composite nanoparticles (NPs) are of special interest since the use of two or more materials in NP design imparts multifunctionality on the final NP constructs. This is especially relevant for applications in areas of human healthcare, where the use of dye or drug doped composite NPs is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other serious illnesses. Since the physicochemical properties of NP suspensions dictate the success of these systems in biomedical applications, especially drug delivery of chemotherapeutics, synthetic routes which offer precise control of NP properties, especially particle diameter and colloidal stability, are utilized to form a variety of composite NPs. Formation of NPs in reverse, or water-in-oil, micelles is one such synthetic approach. However, while the use of reverse micelles to form composite NPs offers precise control over NP size and shape, the post-synthesis laundering and dispersion of synthesized NP suspensions can still be a challenge. Reverse micelle synthetic approaches require the use of surfactants and low dielectric constant solvents, like hexane and cyclohexane, as the oil phase, which can compromise the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the final composite NP suspensions. Therefore, appropriate dispersants and solvents must be used during laundering and dispersion to remove surfactant and ensure stability of synthesized NPs. In the work presented in this dissertation, two laundering and dispersion approaches, including packed column high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugation (sedimentation and redispersion), are investigated for silver core silica (Ag-SiO2) and calcium phosphosilicate (Caw(HxPO4)y(Si(OH)zOa) b · cH2O, CPS) composite NP suspensions

  15. Effect of different reversed micelles on autooxidation and photooxidation of stripped corn oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, K.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reversed micelles (RMs in combination with α -tocopherol and Trolox was evaluated on the autooxidation and photooxidation of stripped corn oil. Oxidation was followed by measuring hydroperoxide and hexanal formation. RMs affected the oil oxidation stability to a degree depending on the surfactant used. Lecithin RMs caused a stronger decrease in oxidation than polyglyceryl-3-oleate RMs and methylglucose dioleate RMs. All RMs reduced the inhibition of oxidation when added in combination with external antioxidant.El efecto de miscelas inversas (RMs en combinación con α-tocoferol y Trolox fue evaluado en la autooxidación y fotooxidación de aceite de maíz libre de antioxidantes. La oxidación fue seguida por la medida de la formación de hexanal e hidroperóxido. Las RMs influyeron en la estabilidad de la oxidación del aceite dependiendo del tensioactivo usado. Las RMs de lecitina causaron una mayor disminución en la oxidación que las RMs de poligliceril-3-oleato y las RMs de metilglucosa dioleato. Todas las RMs redujeron la inhibición de la oxidación cuando se añadieron en combinación con antioxidantes externos.

  16. SAXS and SANS studies of surfactants and reverse micelles in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londono, J.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.S.; Wignall, G.D.; Cochran, H.D.

    1997-03-01

    Surfactants promise to extend the applicability of supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC-CO{sub 2}) to processing of insoluble materials such as polymers and aqueous systems. In this short paper the authors summarize the techniques for studying surfactants and reverse micelles in SC-CO{sub 2} using SAXS and SANS; they will describe the scattering instruments and the pressure cells for conducting these studies; they will describe the types of measurement that yield the desired characterizations; they will describe the methods of data analysis and interpretation; and they will provide illustrative results from this laboratory. Industry seeks to replace common organic solvents now used in many reaction and separation processes; SC-CO{sub 2} is a potential solvent substitute widely favored by both government and industry. The currently available surfactants are limited in number and performance. In ongoing work the authors are coupling their SAXS and SANS scattering studies with complementary molecular simulations in efforts to understand, at a molecular level, what surfactant characteristics lead to improved performance. They hope that superior surfactants for use in SC-CO{sub 2} can be designed and synthesized based on this new level of understanding.

  17. Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhuenda-Egea, Frutos C; Piera-Velázquez, Sonsoles; Cadenas, Chiquinquirá; Cadenas, Eduardo

    2002-09-01

    Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase) from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium) was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethyl-ammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as co-surfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic "solvation-stabilization hypothesis" has been used to explain the bell-shaped dependence of pNPPase activity on the water content of reverse micelles, in terms of protein-solvent interactions. According to this model, the stability of the folded protein depends on a network of hydrated ions associated with acidic residues at the protein surface. At low salt concentration and low water content (the ratio of water concentration to surfactant concentration; w0), the network of hydrated ions within the reverse micelles may involve the cationic heads of the surfactant. The bell-shaped profile of the relationship between enzyme activity and w0 varied depending on the concentrations of NaCl and Mn2+.

  18. Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frutos C. Marhuenda-Egea

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic “solvation–stabilization hypothesis” has been used to explain the bell-shaped dependence of pNPPase activity on the water content of reverse micelles, in terms of protein–solvent interactions. According to this model, the stability of the folded protein depends on a network of hydrated ions associated with acidic residues at the protein surface. At low salt concentration and low water content (the ratio of water concentration to surfactant concentration; w0, the network of hydrated ions within the reverse micelles may involve the cationic heads of the surfactant. The bell-shaped profile of the relationship between enzyme activity and w0 varied depending on the concentrations of NaCl and Mn2+.

  19. Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of gold nanoparticles softly coated by AOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, A.; Calandra, P.; Casaletto, M.P.; Giordano, C.; Venezia, A.M.; Liveri, V.Turco

    2006-01-01

    Size-controlled gold nanoparticles/surfactant stable systems were prepared by the combined action of the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique and confinement in anhydrous sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) micellar solution. From liquid samples, by evaporation of the organic solvent, solid gold nanoparticle-surfactant liquid crystals composites were obtained. Sample characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (SAXS and WAXS), XPS spectroscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. All experimental data consistently revealed the coexistence of two gold nanoparticle size populations: bigger nanoparticles (size 20-50 A) and smaller ones (size of few A). The two differently-sized gold nanoparticles can be separated by resuspending the gold/surfactant nanocomposite in n-heptane. This operation causes the slow selective precipitation of the bigger nanoparticles softly coated by surfactant leaving, in the surnatant, only the smaller Au nanoparticles. The latter were found to be entrapped in the core of AOT reversed micelles and stabilised by the surfactant adsorption on their surface. Such nanoparticles, as shown by SAXS data, slowly rearrange to a narrower size distribution giving a surnatant containing stable and finely size-controlled gold nanoparticles

  20. Self-assembly of block copolymer micelles: synthesis via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and aqueous solution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mya, Khine Y; Lin, Esther M J; Gudipati, Chakravarthy S; Gose, Halima B A S; He, Chaobin

    2010-07-22

    Poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) homopolymer was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated living radical polymerization in the presence of cyano-2-propyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) RAFT agent. A block copolymer of PHFBMA-poly(propylene glycol acrylate) (PHFBMA-b-PPGA) with dangling poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) side chains was then synthesized by using CPDB-terminated PHFBMA as a macro-RAFT agent. The amphiphilic properties and self-assembly of PHFBMA-b-PPGA block copolymer in aqueous solution were investigated by dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS) studies, in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although PPG shows moderately hydrophilic character, the formation of nanosize polymeric micelles was confirmed by fluorescence and TEM studies. The low value of the critical aggregation concentration exhibited that the tendency for the formation of copolymer aggregates in aqueous solution was very high due to the strong hydrophobicity of the PHFBMA(145)-b-PPGA(33) block copolymer. The combination of DLS and SLS measurements revealed the existence of micellar aggregates in aqueous solution with an association number of approximately 40 +/- 7 for block copolymer micelles. It was also found in TEM observation that there are 40-50 micelles accumulated into one aggregate and these micelles are loosely packed inside the aggregate.

  1. Selective Reduction of Nitrite to Nitrogen with Carbon-Supported Pd-AOT Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Coronado, A. M.; Calvo, L.; Baeza, J.A.; Palomar, J.; Lefferts, L.; Rodriguez, J-C.; Gilarranz, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic reduction of nitrite in water with hydrogen has been studied using a new strategy to control selectivity. The catalysts used are based on size-controlled Pd-AOT nanoparticles, synthesized via sodium bis[2-ethylhexyl] sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse microemulsion, supported on

  2. Reverse micelle-loaded lipid nano-emulsions: new technology for nano-encapsulation of hydrophilic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Nicolas; Mojzisova, Halina; Porcher, Emilien; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Saulnier, Patrick

    2010-10-15

    This study presents novel, recently patented technology for encapsulating hydrophilic species in lipid nano-emulsions. The method is based on the phase-inversion temperature method (the so-called PIT method), which follows a low-energy and solvent-free process. The nano-emulsions formed are stable for months, and exhibit droplet sizes ranging from 10 to 200 nm. Hydrophilic model molecules of fluorescein sodium salt are encapsulated in the oily core of these nano-emulsion droplets through their solubilisation in the reverse micellar system. As a result, original, multi-scaled nano-objects are generated with a 'hydrophilic molecule in a reverse-micelles-in-oil-in-water' structure. Once fluorescein has been encapsulated it remains stable, for thermodynamic reasons, and the encapsulation yields can reach 90%. The reason why such complex objects can be formed is due to the soft method used (PIT method) which allows the conservation of the structure of the reverse micelles throughout the formulation process, up to their entrapment in the nano-emulsion droplets. In this study, we focus the investigation on the process itself, revealing its potential and limits. Since the formulation of nanocarriers for the encapsulation of hydrophilic substances still remains a challenge, this study may constitute a significant advance in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced conjugation of Candida rugosa lipase onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes using reverse micelles as attachment medium and application in nonaqueous biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Tripti; Vahora, Uzma; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-01-01

    Three liquid phases (viz. aqueous, nonaqueous, and reverse micelles) were scrutinized as medium for attachment of the enzyme Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanotubes were functionalized to attain carboxyl and amino groups on their surfaces before enzyme conjugation. Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic studies were used for characterization of the nanotubes during the course of functionalization. High enzyme loadings associated with the functionalized CNTs were observed when reverse micelles were used as the attachment medium. In addition, high activity in terms of ester synthesis in organic solvents was also observed while using those preparations. The nanobioconjugates prepared using reverse micelles were found to be highly sturdy and exhibited appreciable operational stability of around 95 ± 3% at 20th cycle (in case of carboxylated nanotubes) and 90 ± 5% at 10th cycle (in case of aminated nanotubes) for esterification. This shows the potential application of reverse micelles as the attachment medium for surface active enzymes such as CRL onto CNTs. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. EPR lineshapes and dynamics of TEMPOL solubilized in the aqueous microphase of lecithin/cyclohexane/water reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilangovan, U.; Raghunathan, P.

    1996-12-01

    EPR spectral lineshapes of the spin probe TEMPOL(4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-1-oxyl), dissolved in the aqueous microphase of egg-yolk lecithin/cyclohexane/water reverse micelles, have been studied as a function of the water/lecithin molar ration, R. Although the spectral profiles reveal in general that the spin probe undergoes a 'fast' reorientational motion in the aqueous phase, the actual lineshapes are found to be non-Lorentzian. It is shown that, for an accurate lineshape analysis, the motion-dependent Lorentzian linewidths have to be convoluted with an appropriate motion-invariant Gaussian broadening factor representing unresolved isotropic superhyperfine interactions. Fast reorientational correlation times (τ), assessed from our iterative lineshape fitting procedure, span the range from 6.0 × 10 -10 to 3.0 × 10 -10 s as the R-value is increased.

  5. Blue-Emitting Small Silica Particles Incorporating ZnSe-Based Nanocrystals Prepared by Reverse Micelle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Ando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe-based nanocrystals (ca. 4-5 nm in diameter emitting in blue region (ca. 445 nm were incorporated in spherical small silica particles (20–40 nm in diameter by a reverse micelle method. During the preparation, alkaline solution was used to deposit the hydrolyzed alkoxide on the surface of nanocrystals. It was crucially important for this solution to include Zn2+ ions and surfactant molecules (thioglycolic acid to preserve the spectral properties of the final silica particles. This is because these substances in the solution prevent the surface of nanocrystals from deterioration by dissolution during processing. The resultant silica particles have an emission efficiency of 16% with maintaining the photoluminescent spectral width and peak wavelength of the initial colloidal solution.

  6. Core-Shell Nanocatalysts Obtained in Reverse Micelles: Structural and Kinetic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Tojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to control the metal arrangement in bimetallic nanocatalysts is the key to improving their catalytic activity. To investigate how metal distribution in nanostructures can be modified, we developed a computer simulation model on the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles obtained in microemulsions by a one-pot method. The calculations allow predicting the metal arrangement in nanoparticle under different experimental conditions. We present results for two couples of metals, Au/Pt (Δε=0.26 V and Au/Ag (Δε=0.19 V, but conclusions can be generalized to other bimetallic pairs with similar difference in standard reduction potentials. It was proved that both surface and interior compositions can be controlled at nanometer resolution easily by changing the initial reactant concentration inside micelles. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that the confinement of reactants inside micelles has a strong effect on the reaction rates of the metal precursors. As a result, the final nanocatalyst shows a more mixed core and a better defined shell as concentration is higher.

  7. Micelles of d-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 2000 Succinate (TPGS 2K) for Doxorubicin Delivery with Reversal of Multidrug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tangna; Chen, Dawei; Liu, Kexin; Qi, Yan; Tian, Yan; Sun, Pengyuan; Liu, Yuanhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate (TPGS 2K) micelles to overcome MDR in breast cancer treatment. The DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles exhibited an average size of around 23 nm, a near neutral zeta potential of around 4 mv and high encapsulation efficiency (85.22 ± 1.89%). The TPGS 2K conjugate did not have significant influences on the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the depletion of intracellular ATP level of MCF-7/ADR cells but had an evident effect on the inhibition of Verapamil-induced P-gp ATPase activity. In vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated the DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles, resulting in higher cellular uptake and more significant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7/MDR cells than the free DOX solution. Additionally, the in vivo imaging study revealed DiR-loaded TPGS 2K micelles distributed selectively in MCF-7/ADR tumor-bearing nude mice and had a sufficient residence time. In the anticancer efficacy test with MCF-7/ADR tumor bearing nude mice, the DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles displayed significantly higher antitumor activity compared with free DOX solution at the same DOX dosage but less toxicity evaluated by the change of body weight and histological examination. Therefore, this drug delivery micellar system based on TPGS 2K conjugates can serve as a potential nanomedicine for reversing MDR.

  8. Reverse Micelles Directed Synthesis of TiO2-CeO2 Mixed Oxides and Investigation of Their Crystal Structure and Morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Valeš, V.; Fajgar, Radek; Matěj, Z.; Holý, V.; Šolcová, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 198, FEB (2013), s. 485-495 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1117; GA TA ČR TA01020804 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0785 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania–ceria * cerium titanate * sol-gel preparation * reverse micelle * X-ray diffraction * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2013

  9. Assembly and electroanalytical performance of Prussian blue/polypyrrole composite nanoparticles synthesized by the reverse micelle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yuqing; Liu Jiwei

    2009-01-01

    We report on the characterization, assembly and electroanalytical performance of Prussian blue/polypyrrole (PBPPy) composite nanoparticles synthesized by the reverse micelle method. Scanning electron microscopy suggests the formation of nanosized PBPPy particles with diameters between 40 and 50 nm. Optical absorption confirms that the particles are composed of Prussian blue (PB) and polypyrrole. PB and PBPPy nanoparticles were anchored onto the surface of cysteine-modified Au electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry experiments show that PB- or PBPPy-modified electrodes exhibit intrinsic electrochemical properties and a high electrocatalytic activity towards H 2 O 2 . PBPPy-modified electrodes exhibit a higher sensitivity to H 2 O 2 than PB-modified electrodes. A linear calibration curve in the concentration range 0.99 μM-8.26 mM H 2 O 2 is constructed with a detection limit of 0.23 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Excellent stability is observed for PBPPy-composite-nanoparticle-modified electrodes even in a pH 6 phosphate buffer solution with a high H 2 O 2 concentration (0.99 mM). Glutaraldehyde and Nafion were also employed to immobilize glucose oxidase for the development of PBPPy-based biosensors. The results show that PBPPy composite nanoparticles can be used to develop oxidase-based biosensors.

  10. Xylanase Recovery Using Continuous Extraction With Reversed Micelles-a Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues E.M.G.; Tambourgi E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Xylanase recovery from Penicillium janthinellum with a reversed micellar system consisting of a cationic surfactant using a continuous process was evaluated. A statistical approach applied to the results showed the highest xylanase recovery (43.5%), which was indicated by the model and was attained at an ionic strength of 10 mS/cm and a volumetric flow at 0.5 ml/min.

  11. Synthesis of sol–gel silica particles in reverse micelles with mixed-solvent polar cores: tailoring nanoreactor structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: jbartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach for producing metal oxide nano- and microparticles via sol–gel processing in confined media (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles), in which the chemical and physical properties of the polar aqueous core of the reverse micelles are modulated by the inclusion of a second polar co-solvent. The co-solvents were selected for their capacity to solubilise compounds with low water solubility and included dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. A broad range of processing conditions across the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/cyclohexane/water phase diagram were identified that are suitable for preparing particles with dimensions <50 to >500 nm. In contrast, only a relatively narrow range of processing conditions were suitable for preparing such particles in the absence of the co-solvents, highlighting the role of the co-solvent in modulating the properties of the polar core of the reverse micelles. A mechanism is proposed that links the interactions between the various reactive sites on the polar head group of the surfactant and the co-solvent to the nucleation and growth of the particles.

  12. Manganese ferrite prepared using reverse micelle process: Structural and magnetic properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mane, M.L. [Department of Physics, S.G.R.G. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Paranda 413502, MS (India); Kumar, Shalendra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Prasad, N.K.; Alla, S.K. [Deptartment of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Mohammed, K.A. [Department of Mathematics & Physics Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa (Oman); Şentürk, Erdoğan [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, Esentepe, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Alimuddin [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by Reverse microemulsion process. • Characterization by XRD, SEM, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and dielectric measurements techniques. • Magnetic properties of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} enhanced after Mn{sup 3+} substitution. • The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increased with Mn{sup 3+} substitution. - Abstract: Reverse microemulsion process was employed to prepare of nanocrystalline Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites. The structural, magnetic and dielectric properties were studied for different concentrations of Mn{sup 3+}. The structural and microstructural properties were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The phase identification of the materials was studied by Rietveld refined XRD patterns which reveals single phase with cubic symmetry for the samples. The lattice parameters were ranged in between 8.369 and 8.379 Å and do not show any significant change with the substitution of Mn{sup 3+}. The average particles size was found to be around 11 ± 3 nm. Magnetization results obtained from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirm that the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite caused an increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution has been analyzed. Magnetic behavior of the samples were also studied at field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) mode. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution was also analyzed. All the magnetic characterization shows that Mn{sup 3+} substitution enhance the magnetic behavior of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles.

  13. Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates for the microextraction of bisphenol A from canned vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Amalia; Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2008-06-09

    Decanoic acid reverse micelle-based coacervates were proposed for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from canned vegetables and fruits prior to its determination by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection at lambda(exc) = 276 nm and lambda(em) = 306 nm. The procedure involved the extraction of minute quantities (300-700 mg) of homogenized food sample with an aqueous solution containing 10% of THF and 0.5% of decanoic acid, conditions under which the coacervate (around 340 microL) formed in situ and instantaneously. The overall sample treatment, which included extraction and centrifugation, took about 25-30 min, and several samples could be simultaneously treated using conventional lab equipment. No clean-up or solvent evaporation were required. Extraction efficiencies mainly depended on the decanoic acid and THF concentration in the aqueous solution and were not affected by the pH or the temperature in the ranges studied (1-4 and 20-60 degrees C, respectively). Recoveries in samples ranged between about 81 and 96%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was about 3% and the quantitation limit was around 9 ng g(-1), which was far below the current specific migration limit (SML) set for BPA by the EU Commission (600 ng g(-1)). The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in the solid content of canned fruit salad, peaches in syrup, mango slices, red peppers, sweetcorn, green beans and peas. BPA was present at concentrations in the range from 7.8 to 24.4 ng g(-1) in canned fruits and from 55 to 103 ng g(-1) in canned vegetables.

  14. A Near-Infrared Photothermal Effect-Responsive Drug Delivery System Based on Indocyanine Green and Doxorubicin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Mediated by Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared light (NIR) possesses great advantages for light-responsive controllable drug release, such as deep tissue penetration and low damage to healthy tissues. Herein, a NIR-responsive drug delivery system is developed based on a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), and anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded thermoresponsive block copolymer micelles, in which the drug release can be controlled via NIR irradiation. First, block copolymers, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-block-poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (POEGMA-b-PFMA), are synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by modification with N-octyl maleimide through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction to produce POEGMA-b-POMFMA. The self-assembly of POEGMA-b-POMFMA by nano-precipitation in aqueous solution affords the polymeric micelles which are used to simultaneously encapsulate ICG and DOX. Upon irradiation by NIR light (805 nm), the loaded DOX is released rapidly from the micelles due to partial retro DA reaction and local temperature increase-induced faster drug diffusion by the photothermal effect. Cytotoxicity evaluation and intracellular distribution observation demonstrate significant synergistic effects of NIR-triggered drug release, photothermal, and chemotherapy toward cancer cells under NIR irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of factorial design to the optimization of peroxidase activity in reverse micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate/ isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morna-Gomes, A; Serralheiro, M L; Fevereiro, P S; Aires-Barros, M R

    1999-10-01

    Two cationic peroxidases isolated from Vaccinium myrtillus were encapsulated in reverse micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate/isooctane. By using a central composite design, some relevant parameters for the enzymatic activity, such as surfactant and water concentration, pH, and buffer molarity, were analyzed. With the results obtained from this experimental planning, the response surface curves were established. The maximum specific activity obtained (0.19 mM/min. mM of enzyme) was approximately the same for both peroxidases, but the experimental conditions under which this value was attained differed considerably.

  16. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the size and properties of CdS quantum dots in reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekasova, O.D.; Revina, A.A.; Rusanov, A.L.; Kornienko, E.S.; Kurganov, B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots 1.3–5.6 nm in size have been synthesized in sodium bis(2-ethylhexy1)sulfosuccinate (AOT)–water–isooctane micellar solutions with various [H 2 O]/[AOT] molar ratios (w=2.5, 5.0 or 10). Gamma irradiation method has been used to change the size and optical properties of quantum dots. It has been found that γ-irradiation reduces the size polydispersity of quantum dots in the micellar system and alters their fluorescent properties. Fluorescence intensity is enhanced after γ-irradiation. The average fluorescence lifetime of single quantum dots sized 5.2±0.4 nm increases from 5.14 to 6.39 ns after γ-irradiation at a dose of 7.9 kGy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on fluorescence lifetime of single CdS quantum dots in micellar solution. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation method has been used successfully to change the size and optical properties of CdS quantum dots synthesized in micellar solutions. • γ-Irradiation reduces the size polydispersity of quantum dots in the micellar system. • Fluorescence intensity of CdS quantum dots is enhanced after γ-irradiation. • Fluorescence lifetime of single CdS quantum dots increases after γ-irradiation

  17. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Paracetamol biodegradation by activated sludge and photocatalysis and its removal by a micelle-clay complex, activated charcoal, and reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Abbadi, Jehad; Amro, Ahmad; Qurie, Mohannad; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Ayyash, Fatima; Hamarsheh, Omar; Yaqmour, Reem; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Lerman, Sofia; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the stability of the pain killer paracetamol in Al-Quds activated sludge demonstrated that paracetamol underwent biodegradation within less than one month to furnish p-aminophenol in high yields. Characterizations of bacteria contained in Al-Quds sludge were accomplished. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the bacterium most responsible for the biodegradation of paracetamol to p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. Batch adsorptions of paracetamol and its biodegradation product (p-aminophenol) by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (octadecyltrimethylammonium)-clay (montmorillonite) were determined at 25°C. Adsorption was adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm, and indicated better efficiency of removal by the micelle-clay complex. The ability of bench top reverse osmosis (RO) plant as well as advanced membrane pilot plant to remove paracetamol was also studied at different water matrixes to test the effect of organic matter composition. The results showed that at least 90% rejection was obtained by both plants. In addition, removal of paracetamol from RO brine was investigated by using photocatalytic processes; optimal conditions were found to be acidic or basic pH, in which paracetamol degraded in less than 5 min. Toxicity studies indicated that the effluent and brine were not toxic except for using extra low energy membrane which displayed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value of 80%.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles fabricated by using reverse micelle and sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoyyul; Bae, Dongsik

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a reverse micelle technique combined with metal-alkoxide hydrolysis and condensation. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles could be changed by varying the molar ratio of water to surfactant. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles were examined by using a transmission electron microscope. The average size of synthesized erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles was approximately 20 - 25 nm and that of the erbium particles was 3 - 5 nm. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the molar ratio of water to surfactant, are discussed.

  20. On the formation of new reverse micelles: a comparative study of benzene/surfactants/ionic liquids systems using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, R Darío; Correa, N Mariano; Silber, Juana J

    2009-09-15

    The microenvironment of the polar core generated in different ionic liquid reverse micelle (IL RM) systems were investigated using the solvatochromic behavior of 1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine (QB) as an absorption probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The novel RM systems consist of two different ILs--1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (bmimTf2N)--sequestrated by two different surfactants--Triton X-100 (TX-100) and benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)--in order to make IL/surfactant/benzene RMs. The effect of the variation of Ws (Ws=[IL]/[surfactant]) on the QB spectroscopy was used to characterize these nonaqueous RMs. DLS results confirm the formation of these IL RM systems because increasing Ws increases the droplet sizes. Moreover it is demonstrated that the structure of the sequestrated ILs depends strongly on the type of surfactant use to create the RMs.

  1. Reverse micelle-derived Cu-doped Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S quantum dots and their core/shell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Uk; Kim, Young Kwan; Yang, Heesun

    2010-01-01

    Reverse micelle chemistry-derived Cu-doped Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S quantum dots (QDs) with the composition (x) of 0, 0.5, 1 are reported. The Cu emission was found to be dependent on the host composition of QDs. While a dim green/orange emission was observed from ZnS:Cu QDs, a relatively strong red emission could be obtained from CdS:Cu and Zn(0.5)Cd(0.5)S:Cu QDs. Luminescent properties of undoped QDs versus Cu-doped ones and quantum yields of alloyed ZnCdS versus CdS QDs are compared and discussed. To enhance Cu-related red emission of CdS:Cu and Zn(0.5)Cd(0.5)S:Cu core QDs, core/shell structured QDs with a wider band gap of ZnS shell are also demonstrated.

  2. Reverse micelles directed synthesis of TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} mixed oxides and investigation of their crystal structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejova, Lenka, E-mail: matejova@icpf.cas.cz [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i., Department of Catalysis and Reaction Engineering, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vales, Vaclav [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Fajgar, Radek [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i., Department of Aerosols and Laser Studies, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Matej, Zdenek; Holy, Vaclav [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Solcova, Olga [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i., Department of Catalysis and Reaction Engineering, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-02-15

    The synthesis of TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} mixed oxides based on the sol-gel process controlled within reverse micelles of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 in cyclohexane is reported. The crystallization, phase composition, trends in nanoparticles growth and porous structure properties are studied as a function of Ti:Ce molar composition and annealing temperature by in-situ X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and physisorption. The brannerite-type CeTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} crystallizes as a single crystalline phase at Ti:Ce molar composition of 70:30 and in the mixture with cubic CeO{sub 2} and anatase TiO{sub 2} for composition 50:50. At Ti:Ce molar ratios 90:10 and 30:70 the mixtures of TiO{sub 2} anatase, rutile and cubic CeO{sub 2} appear. In these mixtures TiO{sub 2} rutile is formed at higher temperatures than conventionally. Additionally, the amount of a present amorphous phase in individual mixtures was estimated from diffraction data. The porous structure morphology depends both on molar composition and annealing temperature. This is correlated with the presence of carbon impurities of different character. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition of Ti90--Ce10 and Ti50--Ce50 oxide mixtures as a function of annealing temperature. The amount of the amorphous phase was estimated and attributed to TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti/Ce oxides were prepared using reverse micelles of Triton X-114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization of TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2} or CeTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} depends on Ti:Ce molar ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous phase attributed to TiO{sub 2} was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal oxides surface area is influenced by the character of present carbon impurities.

  3. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  4. Synthesis and characterization of aspartic acid-capped CdS/ZnS quantum dots in reverse micelles and its application to Hg(II) determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid, E-mail: mshosseini1336@yahoo.com; Kamali, Mohsen

    2015-11-15

    In this work, CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with aspartic acid (AsA) were synthesized in reverse micelles. The synthesized QDs were characterized by XRD, TEM, IR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that the intensity of CdS/ZnS QDs coated with AsA is much greater than CdS, and CdS/ZnS QDs. The interaction of some heavy metal ions with CdS/ZnS/AsA QDs was investigated at different buffering pH media. Based on the PL quenching of the QDs in the presence of each one of the metal ions, the feasibility of their determinations was examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. The investigations showed that Hg(II) ions can be easily determined in contaminated atmospheric environments with the detection limit of 0.05 mg m{sup −3}. The results were satisfactorily confirmed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric method. - Highlights: • A new CdS/ZnS quantum dot capped with aspartic acid (DDBA) was prepared. • The prepared QDs benefit from a favorable fluorescence. • Interaction of some metal ions with the QDs was examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. • The determination of Hg(II) is feasible in the present of many co-existence metal ions. • The method benefits from a high-speed and considerable simplicity for Hg(II) determination.

  5. Synthesis of visible light driven cobalt tailored Ag2O/TiON nanophotocatalyst by reverse micelle processing for degradation of Eriochrome Black T

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Tajammul

    2013-02-01

    An ultra efficient cobalt tailored silver and nitrogen co-doped titania (TiON/Ag2O/Co) visible nanophotocatalyst is successfully synthesized using modified reverse micelle processing. Composition, phase, distribution of dopants, functional group analysis, optical properties and morphology of synthesized materials are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques and others. Charge states of titanium (Ti) and silver are explored through core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our characterization results showed that the synthesized nanophotocatalyst consisted of anatase phased qausispherical nanoparticles that exhibited homogeneous distribution of dopants, large surface area, high quantum efficiency and enhanced optical properties. At lower content of doped Co ions, the TiON/Ag2O responded with extraordinary photocatalytic properties. The cobalt tailored nanophotocatalyst showed remarkable activity against Eriochrome Black T (EBT). Moreover, comparative degradation behavior of EBT with TiON, Ag2O/TiON and Co/Ag2O/TiON is also investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} Composite Membranes by a Reverse Micelle and Sol-Gel Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Yeong; Son, Jeong Hun; Bae, Dong Sik [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Eng., Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kyu Hong, E-mail: dsbae7@changwon.ac.kr [School of Nano and Advanced Material Eng., Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-29

    Fe doped SiO{sub 2} nano composites powders were synthesized by a reverse micelle and sol-gel process. The average particle size of the mixed sol was below 25 nm and well dispersed in the solution. TEM results show the microstructure of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite was homogeneous and Fe was below 5nm and Fe well dispersed in ceramic nano particles. Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite membranes were fabricated by sol-gel process. It was observed that Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite membranes showed a crack-free microstructure and narrow particle size distribution even after heat treatment up to 500 deg. C. The average particle size of the membrane was 30-40nm, and the pore size of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} nano composite membrane was below 10 nm. The particle size of Pt after heat treatment at 500 deg. C was below 8nm.

  7. Surfactant-Free Vanadium Oxides from Reverse Micelles and Organic Oxidants: Solution Processable Nanoribbons with Potential Applicability as Battery Insertion Electrodes Assembled in Different Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2015-11-17

    Vanadium oxides similar to other metal transition oxides are prototypes of multifunctionality. Implementing new synthesis routes that lead to dry vanadium oxide nanomaterials with good functional and structural properties as well as good processing capabilities is thus of general interest. Here we report a facile method based on reverse micelles for the growth at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of surfactant-free vanadium oxide nanoribbons that retain after drying excellent solution-processable capabilities. Essential for the success of the method is the use of a soluble organic oxidant that acts as oxidant and cosurfactant during the synthesis, and facilitates surfactant removal with a simple washing protocol. Interestingly, this simple surfactant removal protocol could be of general applicability. As a proof-of-concept of the functional, structural, and processing capabilities of the dry vanadium oxide nanoribbons here prepared, we have checked their lithium insertion capabilities as battery cathodes built upon different configurations. Specifically, we show efficient insertion both in dry nanoribbons processed as films using doctor blade and organic solvents and in dry nanoribbons infiltrated in three-dimensional metal collectors from aqueous suspensions.

  8. In situ electrochemical polymerization of a nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite in a reverse micelle electrolyte and its application in a supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Tu, Jiguo; Jiao, Shuqiang; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin; Fray, Derek J

    2012-12-05

    Highly porous nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite films were prepared by in situ electrochemical polymerization onto an ITO substrate in a reverse micelle electrolyte. The morphology and microstructure of the composite films were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope. It was observed that the films were highly porous and the nanorod PANI films were inserted by graphene nanosheets. This indicated that a good conductive network between PANI nanorods and graphene sheets was formed. Further electrochemical tests involved cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 1 mol L(-1) HClO(4) solution. The results showed that the composite film had a favorable capacitance with a high electron transfer rate and low resistance. The highest specific capacitance that could be achieved was as high as 878.57 F g(-1) with the charge loading of 500 mC at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The GCD at different charge loadings showed good cycle stability with a low fading rate of specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. The results demonstrated that the nanorod-PANI-Graphene composite was proved to be of great potential as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. Exploring the Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism and Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Sr/Ni-Doped LaFeO3 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Reverse Micelle Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Khan, Wasi

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the thermal, microstructural, dielectric and magnetic properties of La0.75Sr0.25Fe0.65Ni0.35O3 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized via reverse micelle technique. The thermogravimetric analysis of as-prepared NPs confirmed a good thermal stability of the sample. Powder x-ray diffraction data analyzed with a Rietveld refinement technique revealed single-phase and orthorhombic distorted perovskite crystal structure of the NPs having Pbnm space group. The transmission electron microscopy images show the crystalline nature and formation of nanostructures with a fairly uniform distribution of particles throughout the sample. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of the NPs in accordance with the Kramers-Kronig transformation (KKT) model, universal dielectric response model and jump relaxation model have been discussed. Electrode or interface polarization is likely the cause of the observed dielectric behavior. Due to grain boundaries and Schottky barriers of the metallic electrodes of semiconductors, the depletion region is observed, which gives rise to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and hence high dielectric constants. Magnetic studies revealed the ferromagnetic nature of the prepared NPs upon Sr and Ni doping in LaFeO3 perovskite at room temperature. Therefore, these NPs could be a potential candidate as electrode material in solid oxide fuel cells.

  10. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  11. Charge transport by inverse micelles in non-polar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2017-11-01

    Charged inverse micelles play an important role in the electrical charging and the electrodynamics of nonpolar colloidal dispersions relevant for applications such as electronic ink displays and liquid toner printing. This review examines the properties and the behavior of charged inverse micelles in microscale devices in the absence of colloidal particles. It is discussed how charge in nonpolar liquids is stabilized in inverse micelles and how conductivity depends on the inverse micelle size, water content and ionic impurities. Frequently used nonpolar surfactant systems are investigated with emphasis on aerosol-OT (AOT) and poly-isobutylene succinimide (PIBS) in dodecane. Charge generation in the bulk by disproportionation is studied from measurements of conductivity as a function of surfactant concentration and from generation currents in quasi steady-state. When a potential difference is applied, the steady-state situation can show electric field screening or complete charge separation. Different regimes of charge transport are identified when a voltage step is applied. It is shown how the transient and steady-state currents depend on the rate of bulk generation, on insulating layers and on the sticking or non-sticking behavior of charged inverse micelles at interfaces. For the cases of AOT and PIBS in dodecane, the magnitude of the generation rate and the type of interaction at the interface are very different.

  12. Spectrometric study of AOT-hydrolysis reaction in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions using phenolphthalein as a chemical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shiyan; Chen, Zhiyun; Fan, Dashuang; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

    2012-01-12

    The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions has been studied by monitoring the absorbance change of the phenolphthalein in the system with time. The apparent first-order rate constant k(obs) has been obtained and found to be dependent on both the molar ratio of water to AOT ω and the temperature. The dependences of k(obs) on ω have been analyzed by a pseudophase model which gives the true rate constants k(i) of the AOT-hydrolysis reaction on the interface and the partition coefficients K(wi) for the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases at various temperatures; the latter is almost independent of the temperature and ω. The temperature dependences of the reaction rate constants k(obs) and k(i) have been analyzed to obtain enthalpy ΔH(≠), entropy ΔS(≠), and energy E(a) of activation, which indicate that the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases increases ΔS(≠) but makes no contribution to E(a) and ΔH(≠). The influence of the overall concentration of AOT in the system on the rate constant has been examined and found to be negligible. It contradicts with what was reported by García-Río et al. (1) but confirms that the first-order reaction of the AOT-hydrolysis takes place on the surfactant interface. The study of the influence of AOT-hydrolysis on the kinetics of the alkaline fading of crystal violet or phenolphthalein in the water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions suggests that corrections for the AOT-hydrolysis in these reactions are required.

  13. Evaluation of allowed outage times (AOTS) from a risk and reliability standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the basic risks associated with allowed outage times (AOTS), defines strategies for selecting the risks to be quantified, and describes how the risks can be quantified. This report provides a basis for risk-based approaches for regulatory and plant implementation. The AOT risk evaluations can be applied to proposed one-time AOT changes, or to permanent changes. The evaluations can also be used to quantify risks associated with present AOTs, and in establishing AOTs from a risk perspective. The report shows that the standard way of calculating AOT risks in probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) generally is not sufficient when evaluating all the risks associated with an AOT in order to assess its acceptability. The PRA calculates an average AOT risk which includes the frequency at which the AOT is expected to occur. Other risks associated with an AOT include the single downtime risk, which is the risk incurred when (given) the AOT has occurred. The single downtime risk is generally the most applicable risk in determining the acceptability of the AOT. The single downtime risks are generally much larger than the PRA-averaged risk. For more comprehensive evaluations, both risks should be calculated. The report also describes other risks which can be considered, including personnel and economic risks. Finally, the report discusses the detailed evaluations which are involved in calculating AOT risks, including considerations of uncertainty. (author)

  14. Thermodynamics and Structural Evolution during a Reversible Vesicle-Micelle Transition of a Vitamin-Derived Bolaamphiphile Induced by Sodium Cholate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Nan; Ge, Bing-Qiang; Shen, Yun-Feng; He, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2016-03-09

    Interaction of endogenous sodium cholate (SC) with dietary amphiphiles would induce structural evolution of the self-assembled aggregates, which inevitably affects the hydrolysis of fat in the gut. Current work mainly focused on the interaction of bile salts with classical double-layered phospholipid vesicles. In this paper, the thermodynamics and structural evolution during the interaction of SC with novel unilamellar vesicles formed from vitamin-derived zwitterionic bolaamphiphile (DDO) were characterized. It was revealed that an increased temperature and the presence of NaCl resulted in narrowed micelle-vesicle coexistence and enlarged the vesicle region. The coexistence of micelles and vesicles mainly came from the interaction of monomeric SC with DDO vesicles, whereas micellar SC contributed to the total solubilization of DDO vesicles. This research may enrich the thermodynamic mechanism behind the structure transition of the microaggregates formed by amphiphiles in the gut. It will also contribute to the design of food formulation and drug delivery system.

  15. Pressure-induced structural transition of nonionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increased. On addition of KF, rod-like micelles exist at ambient pressure, which results in rod-like to lamellar structural transition at a much lower pressure in the presence of KF. Micellar structural transitions have been observed to be reversible. Keywords. Micelles; dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering.

  16. Musk Oxen and Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John W.

    1996-09-01

    Musk oxen behavior provides an analogy to micelle formation by amphipathic substances. Mature male musk oxen protect their young and females from wolves by forming a protective circle around them. The males stand with their tails to the inside and their heads facing outward. Amphipathic substances such as soap form micelles. The hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails of the soap are turned to the inside of the micelle and the hydrophilic carboxylate heads are on the outside at the interface with the polar water molecules.

  17. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by self-assembling reverse micelle cores of PS-b-PAA for functional textile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpolat, Leyla Budama; Çakır, Burçin Acar; Topel, Önder, E-mail: ondertopel@akdeniz.edu.tr; Hoda, Numan, E-mail: nhoda@akdeniz.edu.tr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized within poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) micelles. • The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} was coated onto textile fabrics. • UV-protective factor of nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was estimated as 50+. • Nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was found to exhibit a high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (i.e., titanium(IV) oxide, TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been fabricated using a copolymer templating technique in micellar solution of poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid), PS(10912)-b-PAA(4842) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The size and morphology of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been characterized via TEM and XRD measurements. The average size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was determined as 13 ± 3 and 13 ± 4 nm for titanium:copolymer ratios of 20:1 and 33:1, respectively. The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} particles has been coated onto textile fabrics to enhance their UV-blocking and self-cleaning properties. It has been determined that nano TiO{sub 2} coated textile fabrics have very good UV-blocking properties with 50+ of the ultraviolet protecting factor (UPF) and high photocatalytic efficiency with 69.2% of the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  18. A Flow Method for Chemiluminescence Determination of Antimony(III) and Antimony(V) Using a Rhodamine B-Cetyltrimethylammonium Chloride Reversed Micelle System Following On-Line Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanin, Tamer H A; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Ishizaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow method, based on the combination of on-line solvent extraction with reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence (CL) detection using rhodamine B (RB), was developed for the determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in aqueous samples. The on-line extraction procedure involved ion-pair formation of the antimony(V) chloro-complex anion with the protonated RBH(+) ion and its extraction from an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution into toluene, followed by phase separation using a microporous membrane. When in a flow cell of a detector, the ion-pair in the extract driven was mixed with the reversed micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride in 1-hexanol-cyclohexane/water (0.60 mol dm(-3) H2SO4) containing cerium(IV), its uptake by the reversed micelles and the subsequent CL oxidation of RB with Ce(IV) occurred easily, then the produced CL signal was measured. Using the proposed flow method under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (DL) of 0.35 μmol dm(-3) and a linear calibration graph with a dynamic range from DL to 16 μmol dm(-3) were obtained for Sb(V) with a precision of 1.4% relative standard deviation (n = 5) at the Sb(V) concentration of 8.2 μmol dm(-3). The present method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(V) in water samples and to the differential determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in copper electrolyte industrial samples, where total antimony Sb(III) + Sb(V) was determined after oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) with Ce(IV) and Sb(III) was calculated by difference, for which the DL was almost the same as that for Sb(V).

  19. The α-chymotrypsin and its hydrophobic derivatives in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitre, Franck

    1993-01-01

    The α-chymotrypsin is among the most used enzymes, notably and particularly in medicine for therapeutic treatments as well as in biochemistry to determine the amine acid sequence of proteins. This research thesis addresses the study of interactions between a micro-emulsion system and an enzymatic system, and more particularly the behaviour of α-chymotrypsin in AOT inverse micelles. After a brief description of the inverse micellar system and of previously obtained results on the solubilisation of α-chymotrypsin in inverse micelles, the author reports the study of the inverse micellar phase in presence of α-chymotrypsin at the vicinity of the maximum solubility. Various techniques are used for this purpose: UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, conductometry, and X ray scattering. Then, the author describes the chemical modification of α-chymotrypsin, and reports the study of structural as well as reaction modifications introduced during the solubilisation of α-chymotrypsin modified in inverse micelles [fr

  20. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles in AOT microemulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanzhong; Qiao, Xueliang; Chen, Jianguo

    2006-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion using silver nitrate solubilized in the water core of one microemulsion as source of silver ions, hydrazine hydrate solubilized in the water core of another microemulsion as reducing agent, dodecane as the oil phase, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as the surfactant. The UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to trace the growth process and elucidate the structure of the silver nanoparticles. UV-vis spectra show that the Ag4+ intermediates formed at early stages of the reaction and then the clusters grow or aggregate to larger nanoparticles. TEM micrographs confirm that the silver nanoparticles are all spherical. The resulting particles have a very narrow size distribution. Meanwhile, the diameter size of the particles is so small that the smallest mean diameter is only 1.6 nm. IR results show that the surfactant molecules are strongly adsorbed on the surface of silver particles through a coordination bond between the silver atom and the sulfonic group of AOT molecules, which endows the particles with a good stability in oil solvents. As dodecane is used as oil solvent to prepare silver nanoparticles, the formed nano-silver sol is almost nontoxic. As a result, the silver nanoparticles need not be separated from the reaction solution and the silver sol may be directly used in antibacterial fields.

  1. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Synthesis of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs nanocomposites using reverse micelle method: Investigation of their structural, magnetic, electrical, optical and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Charanjit [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Bansal, Sandeep [DST, New Delhi (India); Singhal, Sonal, E-mail: sonal1174@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) nanocomposites have been synthesized via reverse micelle method using functionalized carbon nanotubes. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the cubic spinel structure with Fd-3m space group without interfering the peak of CNTs. The fundamental Raman scattering peaks at 310, 460 and 662 cm{sup −1} have been observed due to different vibrational frequencies of Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} cations. Transmission Electron Micrographs (TEM) confirmed the attachment of nanoferrite particles on the surface of negatively charged CNTs. The saturation magnetization increased with Co{sup 2+} doping, however, no pronounced value of coercivity has been observed suggesting the superparamagnetic character. An increase in conductivity with increase in cobalt ion doping has been observed due to increase in hopping of electron between Co{sup 2+}–Co{sup 3+} ion pair. ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs composite has been found the best suitable visible light driven catalyst for the degradation of Rodhamine B (50 µM) with upto 99% in 5 h.

  3. Orthogonal test design for optimization of suitable conditions to separate C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography using reverse micelle solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Yu, Kun; Zhen, Yuhong; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jinyong; Tan, Aiping

    2011-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied to separate C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis in the article. The suitable conditions were optimized by an orthogonal test design (L(9)(3)(3)), including the stationary phase of reverse micelle solvent system (0.10 g/mL cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB]/isooctane-hexylalcohol), mobile phase A (0.05 mol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 4.0, containing 0.2 mol/L KCl) and mobile phase B (0.05 mol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 0.4 mol/L KCl). Under the selected conditions, 78.7 mg protein was purified from 200 mg crude extract of S. platensis, and the purity of the product was 4.25 based on the absorbance ratio of A(620)/A(280) , which was increased 6.85 times compared with the crude extract. Then, the protein was identified to be C-PC by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis compared with the standard. The application of HSCCC used in the separation of C-PC from S. platensis was first reported in the article. Furthermore, three kinds of tumor cell lines including human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721, human ovarian carcinoma cell line ES-2, and human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPCA-1 were used to evaluate the anticancer activities of the separated product, and the results showed that the separated C-PC had excellent anti-tumor actions with the IC(50) values at 2.998, 4.854, and 8.423 μg/mL, respectively, for 48 h treatment. The outcome indicates that an effective method for C-PC purification by HSCCC has been established. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effects of different factors on the forward extraction of soy protein in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, three kinds of reverse micelle systems, anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelle system, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) reverse micelle system, and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelle system, were used to extract soy protein ...

  5. Validation and empirical correction of MODIS AOT and AE over ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. J. Schutgens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a validation study of Collection 5 MODIS level 2 Aqua and Terra AOT (aerosol optical thickness and AE (Ångström exponent over ocean by comparison to coastal and island AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork sites for the years 2003–2009. We show that MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AOT exhibits significant biases due to wind speed and cloudiness of the observed scene, while MODIS AE, although overall unbiased, exhibits less spatial contrast on global scales than the AERONET observations. The same behaviour can be seen when MODIS AOT is compared against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN data, suggesting that the spatial coverage of our datasets does not preclude global conclusions. Thus, we develop empirical correction formulae for MODIS AOT and AE that significantly improve agreement of MODIS and AERONET observations. We show these correction formulae to be robust. Finally, we study random errors in the corrected MODIS AOT and AE and show that they mainly depend on AOT itself, although small contributions are present due to wind speed and cloud fraction in AOT random errors and due to AE and cloud fraction in AE random errors. Our analysis yields significantly higher random AOT errors than the official MODIS error estimate (0.03 + 0.05 τ, while random AE errors are smaller than might be expected. This new dataset of bias-corrected MODIS AOT and AE over ocean is intended for aerosol model validation and assimilation studies, but also has consequences as a stand-alone observational product. For instance, the corrected dataset suggests that much less fine mode aerosol is transported across the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

  6. SAFARI 2000 AOT and Column Water Vapor, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data presented here include the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and column water vapor measurements taken at sites along the Kalahari Transect using a...

  7. Smart wormlike micelles design, characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yujun; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides an up-to-date overview of smart surfactants and describes a broad spectrum of triggers that induce the formation of wormlike micelles or reversibly tune the morphology of surfactant aggregates from wormlike micelles to another state, or vice versa. Combining the fields of chemistry, physics, polymer science, and nanotechnology, its primary focus is on the design, formulation, and processing of intelligent viscoelastic surfactant solutions, covering the scientific principles governing responsiveness to one or more particular triggers, down to the end-use-driven functions. The first chapter explains why and how surfactants self-assemble into viscoelastic wormlike micellar solutions reminiscent of polymer solutions, while the following chapters show how the response to a given trigger translates into macroscopic rheological changes, including temperature, light, pH, CO2, redox, hydrocarbon, etc. The last chapter demonstrates the applications of these viscoelastic assemblies in oil and gas pro...

  8. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested

  9. Micellization of St/MMA gradient copolymers: a general picture of structural transitions in gradient copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a gradient copolymer of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer living radical polymerization and its micellization behaviors in an acetone and water mixture are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, light scattering, and NMR spectroscopy. Three different kinds of transitions were found to coexist in a single system for the first time: a unimers to micelles transition, a star-like micelles to crew-cut micelles transition resulting from the shrinkage of micelles, and morphological transitions from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles to vesicles. Our findings provide a general picture of structural transitions and relaxation processes in gradient copolymer micelles, which can lead to the development of novel materials and applications based on gradient copolymers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. AOT Retrieval Procedure for Distributed Measurements With Low-Cost Sun Photometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F.; Garrido, C.; Díaz, M.; Rondanelli, R.; Jorquera, S.; Valdivieso, P.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new application of inexpensive light-emitting diode (LED)-based Sun photometers, consisting of measuring the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) with high resolution within metropolitan scales. Previously, these instruments have been used at continental scales by the GLOBE program, but this extension is already covered by more expensive and higher-precision instruments of the AERONET global network. For this we built an open source two-channeled LED-based Sun photometer based on previous developments, with improvements in the hardware, software, and modifications on the calibration procedure. Among these we highlight the use of MODTRAN to characterize the effect introduced by using LED sensors in the AOT retrieval, an open design available for the scientific community and a calibration procedure that takes advantage of a CIMEL Sun photometer located within the city, enables the intercomparison of several LED Sun photometers with a common reference. We estimated the root-mean-square error in the AOT retrieved by the prototypes as 0.006 at the 564 nm and 0.009 at the 408 nm. This error is way under the magnitude of the AOT daily cycle variability measured by us in our campaigns, even for distances closer than 15 km. In addition to inner city campaigns, we also show aerosol-tracing applications by measuring AOT variations from the city of Santiago to the Andes glaciers. Measuring AOT at high spatial resolution in urban areas can improve our understanding of urban scale aerosol circulation, providing information for solar energy planning, health policies, and climatological studies, among others.

  11. Reconciling satellite aerosol optical thickness and surface fine particle mass through aerosol liquid water: ALW AND AOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thien Khoi V. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick New Jersey USA; Ghate, Virendra P. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Carlton, Annmarie G. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine California USA

    2016-11-22

    Summertime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the Southeast U.S. is sharply enhanced over wintertime values. This seasonal pattern is unique and of particular interest because temperatures there have not warmed over the past 100 years. Patterns in surface fine particle mass are inconsistent with satellite reported AOT. In this work, we attempt to reconcile the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT over the U.S. with particle mass measurements at the surface by examining trends in aerosol liquid water (ALW), a particle constituent that scatters radiation affecting the satellite AOT, but is removed in mass measurements at routine surface monitoring sites. We employ the thermodynamic model ISORROPIAv2.1 to estimate ALW mass concentrations at IMRPOVE sites using measured ion mass concentrations and NARR meteorological data. Our findings suggest ALW provides a plausible explanation for the geographical and seasonal patterns in AOT and can reconcile previously noted discrepancies with surface mass measurements.

  12. Investigating the evolution of the phase behavior of AOT-based w/o microemulsions in dodecane as a function of droplet volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, R; Choudhury, N

    2012-04-15

    AOT-based water in oil (w/o) microemulsions are one of the most extensively studied reverse micellar systems because of their rich phase behavior and their ability to form in the absence of any co-surfactant. The aggregation characteristics and interaction of the microemulsion droplets in these systems are known to be governed by AOT-oil compatibility and water to AOT molar ratio (w). In this manuscript by using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and viscometry techniques, we show that droplet volume fraction too plays an important role in shaping the phase behavior of these microemulsions in dodecane. The phase separation characteristics and the evolution of the viscosity and the hydrodynamic radius of the microemulsion droplets on approaching the cloud points have thus been found to undergo complete transformation as one goes from low to high droplet volume fraction even at a fixed 'w'. Modeling of the DLS data attributes this to the weakening of inter droplet attractive interaction caused by the growing dominance of the excluded volume effect with increase in droplet volume fraction. In the literature, the inter droplet attractive interaction driven phase separation in these microemulsions is explained based on gas-liquid type phase transition, conceptualized in the framework of Baxter adhesive hard sphere theory. The modeling of our viscosity data, however, does not support such proposition as the characteristic stickiness parameter (τ(-1)) of the microemulsion droplets in this system remains much lower than the critical value (τ(c)(-1)≈10.25) required to enforce such phase transition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-08-16

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Sulfonsuccinate (AOT Capped Pure and Mn-Doped CdS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS nanoparticles and thin films are well known for their excellent semiconducting properties. When transition metal ions are doped into the CdS, it exhibits magnetic properties in addition to semiconducting properties and they are termed as dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs. In this paper, we discuss the preparation of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl sulfonsuccinate (AOT capped CdS nanoparticles and thin films doped with magnetic impurity Mn. Sodium bis(2-ethulexyl sulfonsuccinate (AOT, capping agent promotes the uniform formation of nanoparticles. Optical characterizations are made using the UV-Vis spectrometer, PL, and FTIR. XRD shows the hexagonal structure of the CdS. SEM images and EDS measurements were made for the thin films. EPR shows the clear hyperfine lines corresponding to Mn2+ ion in the CdS nanoparticles.

  15. AOT-microemulsions-based formation and evolution of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D; Tang Kai Bin; Liang Zhen Hua; Zheng Hua Gui

    2004-01-01

    Anionic surfactant-AOT-microemulsions-assisted formation and evolution of PbWO//4 nanostructures with bundles rodlike, ellipsoidlike, and spherelike prepared at different media conditions were studied by powder X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanisms for the formation of PbWO//4 samples in series of microemulsion systems were discussed. Various comparison experiments show that several experimental parameters, such as the AOT concentration, the water content, and reaction temperature play important roles in the morphological control of PbWO//4 nanostructures. Room-temperature photoluminescence of PbWO//4 samples with different morphologies has also been investigated and the results reveal that all these samples showed similar features with emissions at 480 similar to 510 nm but different luminescence intensity. 40 Refs.

  16. Characterization and optimization of carboxylesterase-catalyzed esterification between capric acid and glycerol for the production of 1-monocaprin in reversed micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kwon, Oh Taek; Ahn, Seon Min; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2010-02-28

    Calotropis procera R. Br. carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1) solubilized in reversed micellar glycerol droplets containing a very small amount of water (less than 5ppm) and stabilized by a surfactant effectively catalyzed the esterification between glycerol and capric acid to produce 1-monocaprin. Reaction variables including surfactant types, organic solvent media, reaction time, G-value ([glycerol]/[capric acid]), R-value ([water]/[surfactant]), pH, temperature, and types of metal ion inhibitors on the carboxylesterase-catalyzed esterification were characterized and optimized to efficiently produce 1-monocaprin. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and isooctane were the most effective surfactant and organic solvent medium, respectively, for 1-monocaprin formation in reversed micelles. The optimum G- and R-values were 3.0 and 0.05, respectively, and the optimum pH and temperature were determined to be 10.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. K(m,app.) and V(max,app.) were calculated from a Hanes-Woolf plot, and the values were 9.64 mM and 2.45 microM/min mg protein, respectively. Among various metal ions, Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) severely inhibited carboxylesterase-catalyzed esterification activity (less than 6.0% of relative activity). Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Small-angle light scattering studies of dense AOT-water-decane microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micali, N.; Trusso, S.; Mallamace, F.; Chen, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is performed extensive studies of a three-component microemulsion system composed of AOT-water-decane using small-angle light scattering (SALS). The small-angle scattering intensities are measured in the angular interval 0.001-0.1 radians, corresponding to a Bragg wave number range of 0.14 μm -1 -1 . The measurements were made by changing temperature and volume fraction φ of the dispersed phase in the range 0.65< φ < 0.75. All samples have a fixed water-to-AOT molar ratio, w [water[/[AOT[ = 40.8, in order to keep the same average droplet size in the stable one-phase region. With the SALS technique it is observed all the phase boundaries of a very complex phase diagram with a percolation line and many structural organizations within it. It is observed at the percolation transition threshold, a scaling behavior of the intensity data. In addition it is described in detail a structural transition from a droplet microemulsion to a bi continuous one a suggested by a recent small-angle neutron scattering experiment. From the data analysis it is show that both the percolation phenomenon and this novel structural transition are described from a large-scale aggregation between microemulsion droplets

  18. DNA-polymer micelles as nanoparticles with recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talom, Renée Mayap; Fuks, Gad; Kaps, Leonard; Oberdisse, Julian; Cerclier, Christel; Gaillard, Cédric; Mingotaud, Christophe; Gauffre, Fabienne

    2011-11-25

    The Watson-Crick binding of DNA single strands is a powerful tool for the assembly of nanostructures. Our objective is to develop polymer nanoparticles equipped with DNA strands for surface-patterning applications, taking advantage of the DNA technology, in particular, recognition and reversibility. A hybrid DNA copolymer is synthesized through the conjugation of a ssDNA (22-mer) with a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(caprolactone) diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PCl). It is shown that, in water, the PEO-b-PCl-ssDNA(22) polymer forms micelles with a PCl hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic corona made of PEO and DNA. The micelles are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy (TEM and cryoTEM) and small-angle neutron scattering. The binding of these DNA micelles to a surface through DNA recognition is monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance and imaged by atomic force microscopy. The micelles can be released from the surface by a competitive displacement event. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene organogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between donor coumarins (C102 and C153) and acceptor Rhodamine 6G were studied in AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene organogels. The gel comprises a three-dimensional network of fiber bundles trapping the m-xylene solvent. Each fiber is an aggregate of several strands, and each strand consists of a central columnar stack of the phenols, surrounded by AOT headgroups. Our acceptor is ionic so that it was concentrated near the polar center of the strand, while the neutral donors were likely distributed over a wider region. With C153 as donor, clear evidence of FRET (time-constant~100 ps) was found, which indicated that the donor and acceptor may reside in neighboring strands within the same fiber. However, with C102 as donor, FRET probably occurred over an ultrashort, sub-picosecond time-scale suggesting that the donor and acceptor in this case resided in close vicinity. Thus, C102 tends to localize near the polar centre of the strands, compared to the more hydrophobic C153, which prefers to occupy the relatively non-polar peripheral regions of the strands and fibers. - Highlights: • FRET between coumarin donors and Rhodamine 6G acceptor studied in AOT organogels. • With Coumarin 153 donor, a ~100 ps FRET component detected in both donor and acceptor fluorescence. • With Coumarin 102 donor, FRET component too short to be detected with a time-resolution of ~70 ps. • The FRET rates reveal crucial differences in donor–acceptor distances for the two coumarin donors

  1. Nanoparticles of [Fe(NH2-trz)3]Br2.3H2O (NH2-trz=2-amino-1,2,4-triazole) prepared by the reverse micelle technique: influence of particle and coherent domain sizes on spin-crossover properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Thibaut; Kaiba, Abdellah; Pechev, Stanislav; Denux, Dominique; Guionneau, Philippe; Etrillard, Céline; Daro, Nathalie; Freysz, Eric; Létard, Jean-François

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes the synthesis of iron(II) spin-crossover nanoparticles prepared by the reverse micelle technique by using the non-ionic surfactant Lauropal (Ifralan D0205) from the polyoxyethylenic family. By changing the surfactant/water ratio, the size of the particles of [Fe(NH2-trz)3]Br2.3H2O (with NH2trz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole) can be controlled. On the macroscopic scale this complex exhibits cooperative thermal spin crossovers at 305 and 320 K. We find that when the size is reduced down to 50 nm, the spin transition becomes gradual and no hysteresis can be detected. For our data it seems that the critical size, for which the existence of a thermal hysteresis can be detected, is around 50 nm. Interestingly, the change of the particle size induces almost no change in the temperature of the thermal spin transition. A systematic determination of coherent domain size carried out on the nanoparticles by powder X-ray diffraction indicates that at approximately 30 nm individual particles consist of one coherent domain.

  2. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    OpenAIRE

    Bender,J. P.; Junges,A.; Franceschi,E.; Corazza,F. C.; Dariva,C.; Oliveira,J. Vladimir; Corazza,M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (L...

  3. Effect of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on light scattering of AOT/D2O/Octane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Soheil

    2016-09-01

    The light scattering technique is used for the study of interaction of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on AOT/D2O/Octane. The collective diffusion of AOT/D2O droplets soluble in Octane mixed with lipid is founded from a correlation function of light scattering. We focus on the variation of the dynamic behavior of droplets as a function of the lipid concentrations and the size of droplets. The increase of concentration of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on microemulsion decreases the dynamic of droplets. The SAXS experiment shows the size and the interaction of the droplets change by increase of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A concentration. A hard sphere model can describe the interaction of lipid with AOT/D2O droplets.

  4. Thermally sensitive dual fluorescent polymeric micelles for probing cell properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Feng, F.; Westphal, A.H.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Dual fluorescent micelles with a hydrophobic probe (HMA) embedded in the micelle core and a hydrophilic probe (TRITC) attached on the micelle corona were prepared. These micelles can act as nanometre-sized thermal sensors. Within a short temperature range, the fluorescent emission of the micelles

  5. Surface decontamination using microemulsion of F-AOT in liquid/supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, C. H.; Gho, M. S.; Park, G. H.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating Conventional chemical decontamination method for surface decontamination cause not only the 2nd radioactive wastes, but also corrosion and defect on the surface of equipment. If CO 2 is used as a solvent for decontamination of radioactive contaminants, the waste can be effectively reduced by recycling of CO 2 where only contaminants are left as wastes during evaporation of CO 2 . Polar material can be dissolved by microemulsion using F-AOT and HNO 3 (1M). We use these two technique for surface decontamination. Cu and Ni specimens made by electroplating on the QCM surface. The QCM was used for the quantitative analysis. In the case of Cu, The 0.054μg/sec and 0.024μg/sec of decontamination efficiency were obtained in LCO 2 /ScCO 2 microemulsion respectively. The 0.066μg/sec of decontamination efficiency was obtained in the case of Ni

  6. Seasonal differences in aerosol water may reconcile AOT and surface mass measurements in the Southeast U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. K. V.; Ghate, V. P.; Carlton, A. M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Summertime aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in the Southeast U.S. is high and sharply enhanced (2-3 times) compared to wintertime AOT. This seasonal pattern is unique to the Southeast U.S. and is of particular interest because temperatures there have not warmed over the past 100 years, contrasting with trends in other U.S. regions. Some investigators hypothesize the Southeast temperature trend is due to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from interactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and anthropogenic emissions that create a cooling haze. However, aerosol measurements made at the surface do not exhibit strong seasonal differences in mass or organic fraction to support this hypothesis. In this work, we attempt to reconcile the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT over the U.S. with surface mass measurements by examining trends in particle-phase liquid water, an aerosol constituent that effectively scatters radiation and is removed from aerosols in mass measurements at routine surface monitoring sites. We employ the thermodynamic model ISORROPIA (v2.1) to estimate surface and aloft aerosol water mass concentrations at locations of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites using measured speciated ion mass concentrations and NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) meteorological data. Results demonstrate strong seasonal differences in aerosol water in the eastern compared to the western part of the U.S., consistent with geographic patterns in AOT. The highest mean regional seasonal difference from 2000 to 2007 is 5.5 μg m-3 and occurs the Southeast, while the lowest is 0.44 μg m-3 and occurs in the dry Mountain West. Our findings suggest 1) similarity between spatial trends in aerosol water in the U.S. and previously published AOT data from the MODIS-TERRA instrument and 2) similar interannual trends in mean aerosol water and previously published interannual AOT trends from MISR, MODIS-TERRA, MODIS

  7. Light-responsive micelles of spiropyran initiated hyperbranched polyglycerol for smart drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Suhyun; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2014-02-10

    Light-responsive polymeric micelles have emerged as site-specific and time-controlled systems for advanced drug delivery. Spiropyran (SP), a well-known photochromic molecule, was used to initiate the ring-opening multibranching polymerization of glycidol to afford a series of hyperbranched polyglycerols (SP-hb-PG). The micelle assembly and disassembly were induced by an external light source owing to the reversible photoisomerization of hydrophobic SP to hydrophilic merocyanine (MC). Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering demonstrated the successful assembly and disassembly of SP-hb-PG micelles. In addition, the critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined through the fluorescence analysis of pyrene to confirm the amphiphilicity of respective SP-hb-PGn (n = 15, 29, and 36) micelles, with CMC values ranging from 13 to 20 mg/L, which is correlated to the length of the polar polyglycerol backbone. Moreover, the superior biocompatibility of the prepared SP-hb-PG was evaluated using WI-38 cells and HeLa cells, suggesting the prospective applicability of the micelles in smart drug delivery systems.

  8. Patchy micelles based on coassembly of block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuzhe; Li, Zhan-Wei; Zhao, Hanying

    2015-04-14

    Patchy particles are a type of colloidal particles with one or more well-defined patches on the surfaces. The patchy particles with multiple compositions and functionalities have found wide applications from the fundamental studies to practical uses. In this research patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were prepared based on coassembly of free block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles. Thiol-terminated and cyanoisopropyl-capped polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block copolymers (PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and chemical modifications. Pyridyl disulfide-functionalized silica particles (SiO2-SS-Py) were prepared by four-step surface chemical reactions. PS-b-PNIPAM brushes on silica particles were prepared by thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and SiO2-SS-Py. Surface micelles on silica particles were prepared by coassembly of PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP and block copolymer brushes. Upon cleavage of the surface micelles from silica particles, patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were obtained. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta-potential measurements demonstrate the preparation of patchy micelles. Gold nanoparticles can be anchored onto the patchy micelles through S-Au bonds, and asymmetric hybrid structures are formed. The thiol groups can be oxidized to disulfides, which results in directional assembly of the patchy micelles. The self-assembly behavior of the patchy micelles was studied experimentally and by computer simulation.

  9. Isomerization of Orthogonal Molecular Switches Encapsulated within Micelles Solubilizing Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreft, Stefanie K.; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of the proximity of the orthogonal dipole-switching moiety dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The switches are introduced into a micelle surrounding the CNTs, thereby achieving very close proximity between the molecules and the CNTs...... of the CNTs and the resulting reversible redshift of the nanotubes' emission by the change of the molecules' conformation....

  10. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  11. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  12. Controlling lipid micelle stability using oligonucleotide headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Samantha E; Sparks, Samuel E; Cowburn, David; Girvin, Mark E; Levy, Matthew

    2015-02-18

    Lipid-based micelles provide an attractive option for therapeutic and diagnostic applications because of their small size (24 h. Using antisense oligonucleotides we demonstrated that disruption of the quadruplex leads to micelle destabilization and cargo release. The ability to use oligonucleotide interactions to control lipid particle stability represents a new approach in the design of programmed nanoscale devices.

  13. Conjugation of Lectin to Poly(ε-caprolactone-block-glycopolymer Micelles for In Vitro Intravesical Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ning Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic poly(ε-caprolactone-block-poly[2-(α-d-mannopyranosyloxy ethyl acrylamide] (PCL-b-PManEA block copolymers were synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization and reactive ester-amine reaction. The PCL-b-PManEA block copolymers can self-assemble into micelles and encapsulate anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX. To enhance mucoadhesive property of the resulting DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA micelles, Concanavalin A (ConA lectin was further conjugated with the micelles. Turbidimetric assay using mucin shows that the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles are mucoadhesive. DOX release from the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles in artificial urine at 37 °C exhibits an initial burst release, followed by a sustained and slow release over three days. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM images indicate that the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles can be effectively internalized by UMUC3 human urothelial carcinoma cells. The DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles exhibit significant cytotoxicity to these cells.

  14. Unimolecular micelles and electrostatic nanoassemblies stemming from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picco, A.; Azzaroni, O.; Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplic, La Plata, BA (Argentina); Silbestri, G.F. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca Bueno (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI) was used as a building block to construct different self-assembled soft nanomaterials. This was accomplished via covalent linkage of carboxylic acids (CA) of different chain lengths to terminal amino groups of HPEI, thus leading to the formation of reverse unimolecular micelles constituted of a hydrophilic core and a hydrophobic shell. On the other hand, acid base interactions in organic solvents between CAs and peripheral amino groups of HPEI also facilitated the formation of electrostatic assemblies with reverse micellar properties. In this work we describe the formation of both structures as well as their characterization using diverse techniques including SAXS, NMR, IR, and fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. Unimolecular micelles were synthesized through the reaction of HPEI (Mn= 10 KDa) and acyl chlorides with different chain lengths (C8, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18). Depending on the chain length, the solvent and the temperature, a broad variety of supra macromolecular assemblies can be observed by SAXS measurements, including structured aggregation, and gelation. Hyperbranched electrostatic assemblies were simply produced by mixing HPEI with selected carboxylic acids (C8, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18) in an appropriate solvent, which dissolves the CA, or both reactants, i.e. chloroform, toluene or THF. The formation of the assemblies was corroborated using FT-IR by monitoring the appearance of the carboxylate bands. SAXS experiments of electrostatically assembled micelles showed globular, core-shell structures, whose characteristics are similar, in many cases, to their covalent counterparts prepared using the same chain length CA shells. (author)

  15. Investigation of W/O microemulsion droplets by contrast variation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The estimated extent of polydispersity index of 17% is found, whereas the ... It is therefore possible to combine water and AOT in such proportions that the average dielectric constant of water plus AOT is the same as that of the n-alkane ..... [6] E B Leodidis, T A Hatton in Structure and reactivity of reverse micelles edited by.

  16. Olmesartan medoxomil-loaded mixed micelles: Preparation, characterization and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Gendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM is highly lipophilic in nature (log p = 4.31 which attributes to its low aqueous solubility contributing to its low bioavailability 25.6%. OLM was loaded into mixed micelles carriers in a trial to enhance its solubility, thus improving its oral bioavailability. OLM-loaded mixed micelles were prepared, using a Pluronic® mixture of F127 and P123, adopting the thin-film hydration method. Three drug: Pluronic® mixture ratios (1:40, 1:50and 1: 60 and various F127: P123 ratios were prepared. OLM Loaded mixed micelles showed stability up to 12 h. The particle size of the systems varied from 364.00 nm (F3 to 13.73 nm (F18 with accepted Poly dispersity index (PDI values. The in-vitro release studies of OLM from mixed micelles versus drug aqueous suspension were assessed using the reverse dialysis technique in a USP Dissolution tester apparatus (type II. The highest RE% (43% was achieved with OLM-loaded mixed micelles (F8 when compared to (35% of drug suspension.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline materials through reverse micelles: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    organic solvent) (spectrochem) and aqueous solution were prepared. One microemulsion contained 0⋅1 M Ce(NO3)3⋅6H2O solution, 0⋅1 M zirconyl oxychloride and 0⋅1 M zinc nitrate solution for cerium oxalate, zirconium oxalate and zinc ...

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline materials through reverse micelles: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, for financial support. (TA) and (SV) thank CSIR, Govt. of India, for fellowships. The authors also thank Dr Subhasis Ghosh,. JNU, for the optical studies. References. Ahmad T and Ganguli A K 2006 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89 1326. Ahmad T, Ramanujachary K V, Lofland S E and Ganguli ...

  19. Influence of pH and salt concentration on functional properties of walnut protein from different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haifang; Fan, Tao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Sun, Yali; Liu, Hongkai

    2017-08-01

    The effect of pH and NaCl on solubility and functional properties of walnut proteins obtained through AOT reverse micelles, enzyme-assisted reverse micelles and aqueous phase extraction methods was investigated and compared. Extraction yield, foaming properties, water holding capacities of protein obtained through enzyme-assisted reverse micelles at pH 2-12 and NaCl concentration 0.1-1 M were significantly higher than those of the AOT reverse micelles and aqueous phase extracted two. The solubility of proteins by AOT reverse micelles and enzyme-assisted reverse micelles at certain pH and NaCl concentration had no significant difference, but was higher that of the aqueous buffer. Oil holding capacity of three proteins was 2.35, 3.96 and 1.08 cm 3 /g, respectively. At pH 6-12 and NaCl concentration 0.1-1 M, the emulsifying activity of protein from AOT reverse micelles was higher than those of other two methods, while the emulsifying stability of protein from enzyme-assisted reverse micelles was the highest. The functional properties of walnut proteins were affected by extraction methods. It indicated that the walnut protein might be potentially applied in food industry as a food ingredient.

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer...

  1. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over Global Oceans, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.63 micron, which is retrieved from NOAA PATMOS-x level-2B orbital radinace and cloud CDR products. The...

  2. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  3. Polymeric Micelles for Acyclovir Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sawdon, Alicia J.; Peng, Ching-An

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. 1H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-P...

  4. Polymeric micelles for acyclovir drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdon, Alicia J; Peng, Ching-An

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. (1)H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-PCL. Through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and critical micelle concentration (CMC), the synthesized ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were characterized. It was found that the average size of the polymeric micelles was under 200nm and the CMCs of ACV-PCL-MPEG and ACV-PCL-chitosan were 2.0mgL(-1) and 6.6mgL(-1), respectively. The drug release kinetics of ACV was investigated and cytotoxicity assay demonstrates that ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were non-toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. A versatile polymer micelle drug delivery system for encapsulation and in vivo stabilization of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Carie, Adam; Costich, Tara; Burke, Brian; Skaff, Habib; Panicucci, Riccardo; Sill, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used for the treatment of cancer; however, use of these drugs is often associated with patient toxicity and poor tumor delivery. Micellar drug carriers offer a promising approach for formulating and achieving improved delivery of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs; however, conventional micelles do not have long-term stability in complex biological environments such as plasma. To address this problem, a novel triblock copolymer has been developed to encapsulate several different hydrophobic drugs into stable polymer micelles. These micelles have been engineered to be stable at low concentrations even in complex biological fluids, and to release cargo in response to low pH environments, such as in the tumor microenvironment or in tumor cell endosomes. The particle sizes of drugs encapsulated ranged between 30-80 nm, with no relationship to the hydrophobicity of the drug. Stabilization of the micelles below the critical micelle concentration was demonstrated using a pH-reversible crosslinking mechanism, with proof-of-concept demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Described herein is polymer micelle drug delivery system that enables encapsulation and stabilization of a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs in a single platform.

  7. A Versatile Polymer Micelle Drug Delivery System for Encapsulation and In Vivo Stabilization of Hydrophobic Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rios-Doria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used for the treatment of cancer; however, use of these drugs is often associated with patient toxicity and poor tumor delivery. Micellar drug carriers offer a promising approach for formulating and achieving improved delivery of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs; however, conventional micelles do not have long-term stability in complex biological environments such as plasma. To address this problem, a novel triblock copolymer has been developed to encapsulate several different hydrophobic drugs into stable polymer micelles. These micelles have been engineered to be stable at low concentrations even in complex biological fluids, and to release cargo in response to low pH environments, such as in the tumor microenvironment or in tumor cell endosomes. The particle sizes of drugs encapsulated ranged between 30–80 nm, with no relationship to the hydrophobicity of the drug. Stabilization of the micelles below the critical micelle concentration was demonstrated using a pH-reversible crosslinking mechanism, with proof-of-concept demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Described herein is polymer micelle drug delivery system that enables encapsulation and stabilization of a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs in a single platform.

  8. Folding Behaviors of Protein (Lysozyme) Confined in Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Gen; Jiang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2016-04-19

    The folding/unfolding behavior of proteins (enzymes) in confined space is important for their properties and functions, but such a behavior remains largely unexplored. In this article, we reported our finding that lysozyme and a double hydrophilic block copolymer, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)5K-block-poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt)10 (mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10), can form a polyelectrolyte complex micelle with a particle size of ∼30 nm, as verified by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The unfolding and refolding behaviors of lysozyme molecules in the presence of the copolymer were studied by microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Upon complex formation with mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10, lysozyme changed from its initial native state to a new partially unfolded state. Compared with its native state, this copolymer-complexed new folding state of lysozyme has different secondary and tertiary structures, a decreased thermostability, and significantly altered unfolding/refolding behaviors. It was found that the native lysozyme exhibited reversible unfolding and refolding upon heating and subsequent cooling, while lysozyme in the new folding state (complexed with the oppositely charged PLD segments of the polymer) could unfold upon heating but could not refold upon subsequent cooling. By employing the heating-cooling-reheating procedure, the prevention of complex formation between lysozyme and polymer due to the salt screening effect was observed, and the resulting uncomplexed lysozyme regained its proper unfolding and refolding abilities upon heating and subsequent cooling. Besides, we also pointed out the important role the length of the PLD segment played during the formation of micelles and the monodispersity of the formed micelles. Furthermore, the lysozyme-mPEG(5K)-b-PLD10 mixtures prepared in this work were all transparent, without the formation of large aggregates or precipitates in solution as frequently observed in other protein

  9. Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS): A novel approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS) are reverse micelles containing lecithin and a triglyceride, for example, SOFTISAN®142, which is hydrogenated coco glyceride. SRMS transform into a lamellar mesophase after melting on contact with water; this transformation enables controlled release of solubilized drugs.

  10. Shape-designed single-polymer micelles: a proof-of-concept simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    Much effort has been directed towards self-assembling nanostructures. Strong, local interactions between specific building blocks often determine these structures (e.g., globular proteins). We seek to produce designed structures that are instead determined by collective effects of weak interactions (e.g., surfactant self-assembly). Such structures may reversibly change conformation or disassemble in response to changing solvent conditions, and, being soft, have potential to adapt to fluctuating or unknown application-imposed shape requirements. Concretely, we aim to realize such a structure in the form of a single polymer micelle--an amphiphilic polymer exhibiting a condensed, phase-segregated conformation when immersed in solvent. Connecting all amphiphiles into a single chain provides geometric constraints controlling the surface curvature profile, thus dictating a non-trivial shape. We present 2D Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of such soft, shape-designed micelles. Preliminary results demonstrate a stable concave ``dimple'' in a micelle composed of a single A-B multiblock linear copolymer. We discuss both current limitations on shape robustness and effects of block asymmetry, block molecular weights and overall chain length on micelle shape. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  11. Rearrangement of micelle structures during polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatjaroenporn, K.; Baker, R.; FitzGerald, P.; Warr, G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), we studied the shape transition of micelles of 11(methacryloyloxy)undecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MUTAB) as this tail-polymerisable cationic surfactant polymerized. Previous studies of such systems have suggested kinetic 'locking' of the micelle structure during polymerization. However, we found a transition from spheres (unpolymerised) to rods (at intermediate conversions) back to spheres (fully polymerized), see Figure 1. By comparing these results to the micelle shapes formed by the mixtures of 100% polymerized and unpolymerised MUTAB, we show that the shape transitions observed during polymerization are due to equilibrium structures that undergo rearrangement as the composition changes. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that besides the monolayer of unpolymerised MUTAB, the rearranged structures of this surfmer in bulk, when polymerization proceeded, retained their shapes after adsorbing at mica/solution interface, providing potential for the manipulating of thin film structures. This understanding assists design of templating or encapsulating nanostructured materials.

  12. Description and validation of an AOT product over land at the 0.6 μm channel of the SEVIRI sensor onboard MSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG launched in 2003 by EUMETSAT is dedicated to the Nowcasting applications and Numerical Weather Prediction and to the provision of observations for climate monitoring and research. We use the data in visible and near infrared (NIR channels to derive the aerosol optical thickness (AOT over land. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the top of the atmosphere (TOA reflectance increases with the aerosol load. This is a reasonable assumption except in case of absorbing aerosols above bright surfaces. We assume that the minimum in a 14-days time series of the TOA reflectance is, once corrected from gaseous scattering and absorption, representative of the surface reflectance. The AOT and the aerosol model (a set of 5 models is used, are retrieved by matching the simulated TOA reflectance with the TOA reflectances measured by SEVIRI in its visible and NIR spectral bands.

    The high temporal resolution of the data acquisition by SEVIRI allows to retrieve the AOT every 15 min with a spatial resolution of 3 km at sub-satellite point, over the entire SEVIRI disk covering Europe, Africa and part of South America. The resulting AOT, a level 2 product at the native temporal and spatial SEVIRI resolutions, is presented and evaluated in this paper.

    The AOT has been validated using ground based measurements from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET, a sun-photometer network, focusing over Europe for 3 months in 2006. The SEVIRI estimates correlate well with the AERONET measurements, r = 0.64, with a slight overestimate, bias = −0.017. The sources of errors are mainly the cloud contamination and the bad estimation of the surface reflectance. The temporal evolutions exhibited by both datasets show very good agreement which allows to conclude that the AOT Level 2 product from SEVIRI can be used to quantify the aerosol content and to monitor

  13. Preparation of Polymeric Micelles for use as Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, to measure the micelle diameter; by acid-base titration, to determine the percentage of carboxylic groups occupied by the tuberculostatic; by Sudan III solubility tests, to estimate the critical micelle concentration (CMC); and visual control and spectrophotometric ...

  14. Stability of complex coacervate core micelles containing metal coordination polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Drechsler, M.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the stability of complex coacervate core micelles, i.e., C3Ms (or PIC, BIC micelles), containing metal coordination polymers. In aqueous solutions these micelles are formed between charged-neutral diblock copolymers and oppositely charged coordination polymers formed from metal ions and

  15. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on various molecules in micro-heterogeneous media such as micelles,3 cyclodextrins4 and polymer-micelle ... of the micro-heterogenous media such as sodium dode- cyl sulfate (SDS) micelles to enhance the ESPT ...... tations. AD thanks Council of Scientific and Indus- trial Research, New Delhi (CSIR) for junior research.

  16. Statistical crystallography of surface micelle spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The aggregation of the recently reported surface micelles of block polyelectrolytes is analyzed using techniques of statistical crystallography. A polygonal lattice (Voronoi mosaic) connects center-to-center points, yielding statistical agreement with crystallographic predictions; Aboav-Weaire's law and Lewis's law are verified. This protocol supplements the standard analysis of surface micelles leading to aggregation number determination and, when compared to numerical simulations, allows further insight into the random partitioning of surface films. In particular, agreement with Lewis's law has been linked to the geometric packing requirements of filling two-dimensional space which compete with (or balance) physical forces such as interfacial tension, electrostatic repulsion, and van der Waals attraction.

  17. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  18. Switching of charged inverse micelles in non-polar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Strubbe, Filip

    2015-11-15

    The electrodynamics of micellar ions in nonpolar liquids are well understood for the case that a voltage is applied or switched off. In this work, the electrodynamics of charged inverse micelles (CIMs) are studied when the applied voltage is switched to the opposite polarity, which is relevant for applications such as electrophoretic displays and liquid toner printing. Transient current measurements are used to characterize the switching of CIMs formed in a solution of surfactant polyisobutylene succinimide in n-dodecane. For reverse voltages with amplitude below 10V the measurements are in good agreement with a drift and diffusion model, confirming the established understanding of CIMs in nonpolar liquids. When the charge content is high, the reversal current shows a characteristic peak which is explained on the basis of dynamic space-charge effects. However, for reverse voltages larger than 10V, the transient currents are influenced by electrohydrodynamic flow in the liquid causing the CIMs to switch faster than predicted by the model. The occurrence of electrohydrodynamic flow is verified by optical tracking of tracer particles. Also, when the polarizing voltage is applied for longer times, an additional current peak emerges which is due to the accumulation of newly generated charges at the electrodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Micelle depletion-induced vs. micelle-mediated aggregation in nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behavior anionic silica nanoparticle (Ludox LS30) with non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) and cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticle–surfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-micelle system in both the cases lead to the aggregation of nanoparticles. The aggregation is found to be micelle depletion-induced for C12E10 whereas micelle-mediated aggregation for DTAB. Interestingly, it is also found that phase behavior of mixed surfactant (C12E10 + DTAB) system is similar to that of C12E10 (unlike DTAB) micelles with nanoparticles

  20. Micelle depletion-induced vs. micelle-mediated aggregation in nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D., E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The phase behavior anionic silica nanoparticle (Ludox LS30) with non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) and cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticle–surfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-micelle system in both the cases lead to the aggregation of nanoparticles. The aggregation is found to be micelle depletion-induced for C12E10 whereas micelle-mediated aggregation for DTAB. Interestingly, it is also found that phase behavior of mixed surfactant (C12E10 + DTAB) system is similar to that of C12E10 (unlike DTAB) micelles with nanoparticles.

  1. Micelle depletion-induced vs. micelle-mediated aggregation in nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2015-06-01

    The phase behavior anionic silica nanoparticle (Ludox LS30) with non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) and cationic dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticle-surfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-micelle system in both the cases lead to the aggregation of nanoparticles. The aggregation is found to be micelle depletion-induced for C12E10 whereas micelle-mediated aggregation for DTAB. Interestingly, it is also found that phase behavior of mixed surfactant (C12E10 + DTAB) system is similar to that of C12E10 (unlike DTAB) micelles with nanoparticles.

  2. Effects of 1-hexanol on C12E10micelles: a molecular simulations and light scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierros, Sampsa; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2018-02-28

    The micelles of the non-ionic C 12 E 10 surfactant and 1-hexanol as an aqueous solution additives are studied toward the purpose of understanding the role of alcohol additives in tuning the characteristics of alkyl-ethoxylate micellar systems. Our dynamic light scattering and cloud point experiments show that the addition of hexanol induces a response similar to an increase of temperature. We associate the change with increased attraction between the micelles at low to moderate hexanol loadings and a potential increase of the aggregate size at a high hexanol-to-surfactant ratio. Detailed molecular dynamic simulation characterization shows that hexanol solubilizes to a micelle palisade layer when the hexanol-to-C 12 E 10 ratio is less than or equal to 0.5 while swollen micelles, in which a part of hexanol forms an oil core, are present when the ratio increases above approximately 1.5. The simulations indicate that the surface of the micelles is rough. Formation of reverse hexanol structures akin to those found in bulk octanol is observed in the oil core. Molecular simulations associate the increase in attraction between micelles observed via the experiments with decreased chain density in the headgroup region. This density decrease is caused by hexanol molecules solubilized between neighbouring surfactants. Altogether, these findings provide detailed physical characterization of the effect of an archetypal solution additive, hexanol, on an alkyl ethoxylate micelle system. These findings could bear a significance in designing micellar and emulsion based systems with desired solution characteristics or properties for e.g. drug delivery, catalysis, or platforms for green chemistry reactions.

  3. Droplet polydispersity and shape fluctuations in AOT [bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt] microemulsions studied by contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    . Conductivity measurements show that there is a pronounced dependence of the temperature behavior of the microemulsion on the type of alkane used. In both cases the microemulsion droplets start to form larger aggregates when the temperature increases. But in the system with decane this aggregation temperature...... occurs at a temperature about 10 degreesC lower than in a similar system with iso-octane. Aggregation phenomena are avoided and the two systems are at approximately the same reduced temperature with respect to the aggregation temperature when the temperature of the AOT/D2O/decane microemulsion is 10...... degreesC and the temperature of the AOT/D2O/iso-octane microemulsion is 20 degreesC. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering measurements are performed at these temperatures on systems with volume fractions of 5% D2O+AOT by varying the scattering length density of the alkane. The small...

  4. Synthesis and immobilization of polystyreneb-polyvinyltriethoxysilane micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Saisai

    2018-01-31

    Diblock copolymers polystyrene-block-polyvinyltriethoxysilane (PS-b-PVTES) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which self-assembled into spherical micelles in solvent of THF-methanol mixtures. The self-assembled micelles were immobilized by cross-linking reaction of VTES in a shell layer of micelles. The chemical structures of block copolymers and morphology of micelles were characterized in detail. It was found that the size of immobilized micelles was strongly affected by the copolymer concentration, composition of mixture solvent, and block ratios.

  5. SANS analysis of aqueous ionic perfluoropolyether micelles

    CERN Document Server

    Gambi, C M C; Chittofrati, A; Pieri, R; Baglioni, P; Teixeira, J

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary SANS results of ionic chlorine terminated perfluoropolyether micelles in water are given. The experimental spectra have been analyzed by a two-shell ellipsoidal model for the micellar form factor and a screened Coulombic plus hard-sphere repulsion potential for the structure factor. (orig.)

  6. Co-assembly towards Janus micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voets, I.K.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Keizer, de A.; Charlaganov, M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our recent findings concerning the structure of complex coacervate core micelles composed of two types of (complementary) block copolymers. Both copolymers have a polyelectrolyte (one cationic and the other anionic) block combined with a neutral one. The opposite charges

  7. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  8. Hyaluronan polymeric micelles for topical drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmejkalová, D.; Muthný, T.; Nešporová, K.; Hermannová, M.; Achbergerová, E.; Huerta-Angelesa, G.; Marek Svoboda, M.; Čepa, M.; Machalová, V.; Luptáková, Dominika; Velebný, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JAN 20 (2017), s. 86-96 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Skin penetration * Polymeric micelle * Hyaluronan Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.811, year: 2016

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: formation of Janus micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voets, I.K.; Fokkink, R.G.; Hellweg, T.; King, S.M.; Waard, de P.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the preparation and solution properties of Janus micelles, i.e., non-centrosymmetric nanoparticles with compartmentalized shells, via co-assembly of two fully water-soluble block copolymers. They consist of a mixed core of poly(N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium iodide) (P2MVP) and poly(acrylic

  10. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  11. POLYMER MICELLE INTERACTIONS - PHYSICAL ORGANIC ASPECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brackman, J C; Engberts, J B F N

    This review presents a summary of attempts to characterize the morphology of the complexes formed between ionic and non-ionic surfactants and water-soluble polymers. It is now generally accepted that complex formation involves the binding of micelles to the macromolecule. This binding process

  12. Temperature Effect on the Nanostructure of SDS Micelles in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Boualem

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants form micelles when dissolved in water. These are formed of a hydrocarbon core and hydrophilic ionic surface. The small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique was used with deuterated water (D2O) in order to characterize the micelle structure. Micelles were found to be slightly compressed (oblate ellipsoids) and their sizes shrink with increasing temperature. Fits of SANS data to the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) model yielded a calculated micelle volume fraction which was lower than the SDS surfactant (sample mixing) volume fraction; this suggests that part of the SDS molecules do not participate in micelle formation and remain homogeneously mixed in the solvent. A set of material balance equations allowed the estimation of the SDS fraction in the micelles. This fraction was found to be high (close to one) except for samples around 1 % SDS fraction. The micelle aggregation number was found to decrease with increasing temperature and/or decreasing SDS fraction.

  13. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangjing@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Mengfei [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Yuan, Zhefan [Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (China); Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie, E-mail: fengjie@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-10-15

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K{sub 10}), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K{sub 10}, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.Graphical abstractA novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for selective drug delivery in cancerous cells. MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Inhalable Itraconazole Chitosan Based Polymeric Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Moazeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the potential of chitosan based polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier system for pulmonary delivery of itraconazole (ITRA.Methods: Hydrophobically modified chitosan were synthesized by conjugation of stearic acid to the hydrophilic depolymerized chitosan. FTIR and 1HNMR were used to prove the chemical structure and physical properties of the depolymerized and the stearic acid grafted chitosan. ITRA was entrapped into the micelles and physicochemical properties of the micelles were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering andtransmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared micelles. The in vitro pulmonary profile of polymeric micelles was studied by an air-jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger.Results: The polymeric micelles prepared in this study could entrap up to 43.2±2.27 μg of ITRA per milliliter. All micelles showed mean diameter between 120–200 nm. The critical micelle concentration of the stearic acid grafted chitosan was found to be 1.58×10-2 mg/ml. The nebulization efficiency was up to 89% and the fine particle fraction (FPF varied from 38% to 47%. The micelles had enough stability to remain encapsulation of the drug during nebulization process.Conclusions: In vitro data showed that stearic acid grafted chitosan based polymeric micelles has a potential to be used as nanocarriers for delivery of itraconazole through inhalation.

  15. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on gas solubilization in micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bin; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2015-03-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of anionic sodium decylsulfate and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether micelles in water have been performed to examine the impact of hydrostatic pressure on argon solubilization as a function of pressure. The potential-of-mean force between the micelles and argon demonstrates that nonpolar gases are attracted to the interiors of both micelles. The affinity of argon for micelle interiors, however, decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the comparatively higher molar volume of argon inside assemblies. We evaluate solubility enhancement coefficients, which describe the drop in the solute chemical potential as a function of the micellized surfactant concentration, to quantify the impact of micellization on gas solubilization. While argon is similarly attracted to the hydrophobic cores of both micelles, the gas is more effectively sequestered within nonionic micelles compared with anionic micelles as a result of salting out by charged head groups and accompanying counterions. The solubility enhancement coefficients of both micelles decrease with increasing pressure, reflecting the changing forces observed in the potentials-of-mean force. An analytical liquid drop model is proposed to describe the pressure dependence of argon solubilization within micelles that captures the simulation solubility enhancement coefficients after fitting an effective micelle radius for each surfactant.

  16. Thermoresponsive polymer micelles as potential nanosized cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laga, Richard; Janoušková, Olga; Ulbrich, Karel; Pola, Robert; Blažková, Jana; Filippov, Sergey K.; Etrych, Tomáš; Pechar, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2015), s. 2493-2505 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RAFT polymerization * polymer therapeutics * thermo-responsive micelles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.583, year: 2015

  17. SANS study of coated block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleštil, Josef; Kříž, Jaroslav; Koňák, Čestmír; Pospíšil, Herman; Kadlec, Petr; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Grillo, I.; Cubitt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 12 (2005), s. 1206-1215 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0600; GA AV ČR IAA1050201; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * core-shell polymers * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  18. Sucrose monoester micelles size determined by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Sanchez

    Full Text Available One of the several uses of sucrose detergents, as well as other micelle forming detergents, is the solubilization of different membrane proteins. Accurate knowledge of the micelle properties, including size and shape, are needed to optimize the surfactant conditions for protein purification and membrane characterization. We synthesized sucrose esters having different numbers of methylene subunits on the substituent to correlate the number of methylene groups with the size of the corresponding micelles. We used Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS and two photon excitation to determine the translational D of the micelles and calculate their corresponding hydrodynamic radius, R(h. As a fluorescent probe we used LAURDAN (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene, a dye highly fluorescent when integrated in the micelle and non-fluorescent in aqueous media. We found a linear correlation between the size of the tail and the hydrodynamic radius of the micelle for the series of detergents measured.

  19. DO3SE model applicability and O3 flux performance compared to AOT40 for an O3-sensitive tropical tree species (Psidium guajava L. 'Paluma').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Pedro I L S; Alonso, Rocío; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2015-07-01

    Phytotoxic ozone (O3) levels have been recorded in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP). Flux-based critical levels for O3 through stomata have been adopted for some northern hemisphere species, showing better accuracy than with accumulated ozone exposure above a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). In Brazil, critical levels for vegetation protection against O3 adverse effects do not exist. The study aimed to investigate the applicability of O3 deposition model (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange (DO3SE)) to an O3-sensitive tropical tree species (Psidium guajava L. 'Paluma') under the MRSP environmental conditions, which are very unstable, and to assess the performance of O3 flux and AOT40 in relation to O3-induced leaf injuries. Stomatal conductance (g s) parameterization for 'Paluma' was carried out and used to calculate different rate thresholds (from 0 to 5 nmol O3 m(-2) projected leaf area (PLA) s(-1)) for the phytotoxic ozone dose (POD). The model performance was assessed through the relationship between the measured and modeled g sto. Leaf injuries were analyzed and associated with POD and AOT40. The model performance was satisfactory and significant (R (2) = 0.56; P < 0.0001; root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 116). As already expected, high AOT40 values did not result in high POD values. Although high POD values do not always account for more injuries, POD0 showed better performance than did AOT40 and other different rate thresholds for POD. Further investigation is necessary to improve our model and also to check if there is a critical level of ozone in which leaf injuries arise. The conclusion is that the DO3SE model for 'Paluma' is applicable in the MRSP as well as in temperate regions and may contribute to future directives.

  20. Structural properties of self-assembled polymeric micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    1998-01-01

    At present, the thermodynamic understanding of complex copolymer systems is undergoing important developments. Block copolymers aggregate in selective solvents into micelles of various form and size depending on molecular architecture and interaction parameters. The micelles constitute the basis...... for a variety of novel mesophases, including biocontinuous phases and networks of ordered cross-linking micelles. Research has focused on structural studies of block copolymer systems, using small-angle scattering of X-rays and neutrons....

  1. Preparation of Water-soluble Polyion Complex (PIC Micelles Covered with Amphoteric Random Copolymer Shells with Pendant Sulfonate and Quaternary Amino Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Nakahata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An amphoteric random copolymer (P(SA91 composed of anionic sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, S and cationic 3-acrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride (APTAC, A was prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT radical polymerization. The subscripts in the abbreviations indicate the degree of polymerization (DP. Furthermore, AMPS and APTAC were polymerized using a P(SA91 macro-chain transfer agent to prepare an anionic diblock copolymer (P(SA91S67 and a cationic diblock copolymer (P(SA91A88, respectively. The DP was estimated from quantitative 13C NMR measurements. A stoichiometrically charge neutralized mixture of the aqueous P(SA91S67 and P(SA91A88 formed water-soluble polyion complex (PIC micelles comprising PIC cores and amphoteric random copolymer shells. The PIC micelles were in a dynamic equilibrium state between PIC micelles and charge neutralized small aggregates composed of a P(SA91S67/P(SA91A88 pair. Interactions between PIC micelles and fetal bovine serum (FBS in phosphate buffered saline (PBS were evaluated by changing the hydrodynamic radius (Rh and light scattering intensity (LSI. Increases in Rh and LSI were not observed for the mixture of PIC micelles and FBS in PBS for one day. This observation suggests that there is no interaction between PIC micelles and proteins, because the PIC micelle surfaces were covered with amphoteric random copolymer shells. However, with increasing time, the diblock copolymer chains that were dissociated from PIC micelles interacted with proteins.

  2. Diclofenac/biodegradable polymer micelles for ocular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Li, Jie; Sun, Shumao; Weng, Yuhua; Chen, Hao

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelle formulations as promising nano-carriers for poorly water soluble drugs were investigated for the delivery of diclofenac to the eye. Diclofenac loaded MPEG-PCL micelles were prepared by a simple solvent-diffusion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), etc. With the analysis of XRD and DSC, the diclofenac was present as an amorphous state in the formulation. The in vitro release profile indicated a sustained release manner of diclofenac from the micelles. Meanwhile, in vivo studies on eye irritation were performed with blank MPEG-PCL micelles (200 mg ml-1). The results showed that the developed MPEG-PCL micelles were non-irritants to the eyes of rabbits. In vitro penetration studies across the rabbit cornea demonstrated that the micelle formulations exhibited a 17-fold increase in penetration compared with that of diclofenac phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The in vivo pharmacokinetics profile of the micelle parent drug in the aqueous humor of the rabbit was evaluated and the data showed that the diclofenac loaded MPEG-PCL micelles exhibited a 2-fold increase in AUC0-24 h than that of the diclofenac PBS solution eye drops. These results suggest a great potential of our micelle formulations as a novel ocular drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability of the drugs.

  3. Stereocomplex-Reinforced PEGylated Polylactide Micelle for Optimized Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The instability of PEGylated polylactide micelles is a challenge for drug delivery. Stereocomplex interaction between racemic polylactide chains with different configurations provides an effective strategy to enhance the stability of micelles as the nanocarriers of drugs. In this work, a stereocomplex micelle (SCM self-assembled from the amphiphilic triblock copolymers comprising poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, and dextrorotatory and levorotatory polylactides (PDLA and PLLA was applied for efficient drug delivery. The spherical SCM showed the smallest scale and the lowest critical micelle concentration (CMC than the micelles with single components attributed to the stereocomplex interaction between PDLA and PLLA. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT as a model antitumor drug was loaded into micelles. Compared with the loading micelles from individual PDLA and PLLA, the HCPT-loaded SCM exhibited the highest drug loading efficiency (DLE and the slowest drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4, indicating its enhanced stability in circulation. More fascinatingly, the laden SCM was demonstrated to have the highest cellular uptake of HCPT and suppress malignant cells most effectively in comparison to the HCPT-loaded micelles from single copolymer. In summary, the stereocomplex-enhanced PLA–PEG–PLA micelle may be promising for optimized drug delivery in the clinic.

  4. Brij-micelle and polyacrylic acid interaction investigated by Cu 2+-induced pyrene fluorescence: Effect of brij-micelle structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sayan

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence response of pyrene has been studied in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and brij surfactant micelles with Cu 2+ as an ionic quencher. The quenched pyrene emission is completely recovered with the addition of PAA (conc. 2.4 × 10 -4 M) for brij 35 (poly-oxyethylene-23 lauryl ether) micelle indicating PAA-Cu 2+ complex formation at the micelle-water interface. This could be due to the relatively easier accessibility of PAA polymer chains near poly-oxyethylene chain of brij 35 micelle compared to brij 30 (poly-oxyethylene-4 lauryl ether) micelle. The interaction between brij-micelle and polymer is confirmed by turbidimetry and NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Femtosecond water dynamics in reverse-micellar nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, D; Lindner, J; Milder, MTW; Pshenichnikov, MS; Vohringer, P; Wiersma, DA; Milder, Maaike T.W.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Vöhringer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational energy relaxation and ultrafast thermalization following impulsive excitation of the OH-stretching band of water nanodroplets confined to reverse micelles is studied by infrared pump-probe spectroscopy with sub-100 fs time resolution. The self-consistent analysis of experimental data for

  6. Evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of gold and silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tration of HAuCl4 or cyanide ion led to the aggregation of particles (electrolytic effect), which was concluded from red shifting of the peak position. Similar was the case of silver without the need of any trace metal. The evolution, dissolution and reversible generation of. Au and Ag nanoparticles in TX-100 micelle are depicted.

  7. Removal of diclofenac potassium from wastewater using clay-micelle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Quried, Mohannad; Halabieh, Rawan; Makharzeh, Iman; Manassra, Adnan; Abbadi, Jehad; Qtait, Alaa; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio; Nasser, Ahmed; Nir, Shlomo

    2012-06-01

    The presence of an ionized carboxyl group in the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac potassium results in a high mobility of diclofenac and in its low sorption under conditions of slow sand filtration or subsoil passage. No diclofenac degradation was detected in pure water or sludge during one month. Tertiary treatments of wastewater indicated that the effective removal of diclofenac was by reverse osmosis, but the removal by activated carbon was less satisfactory. This study presents an efficient method for the removal of diclofenac from water by micelle-clay composites that are positively charged, have a large surface area and include large hydrophobic domains. Adsorption of diclofenac in dispersion by charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium [ODTMA] and clay [montmorillonite]) was investigated. Analysis by the Langmuir isotherm revealed that charcoal had a somewhat larger number of adsorption sites than the composite, but the latter had a significantly larger binding affinity for diclofenac. Filtration experiments on a solution containing 300 ppm diclofenac demonstrated poor removal by activated carbon, in contrast to very efficient removal by micelle-clay filters. In the latter case the weight of removed diclofenac exceeded half that of ODTMA in the filter. Filtration of diclofenac solutions at concentrations of 8 and 80 ppb yielded almost complete removal at flow rates of 30 and 60 mL min(-1). One kilogram of ODTMA in the micelle-clay filter has been estimated to remove more than 99% of diclofenac from a solution of 100 ppb during passage of more than 100 m3.

  8. Inverted Micelle-in-Micelle Configuration in Cationic/Carbohydrate Surfactant Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saikat; Xu, Wenjin; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Miller, Anne-Frances; Knutson, Barbara L; Rankin, Stephen E

    2017-01-04

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to investigate the relative positions and interactions between cationic and non-ionic carbohydrate-based surfactants in mixed micelles with D 2 O as the solvent. This is accomplished by using relaxation measurements [spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) analysis] and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY). This study focuses on the interactions of n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside (C8G1) and β-d-xylopyranoside (C8X1) with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C 16 TAB). Whereas the interactions between carbohydrate and cationic surfactants are thermodynamically favorable, the NOESY results suggest that both of the sugar head groups are located preferentially at the interior core of the mixed micelles, so that they are not directly exposed to the bulk solution. The more hydrophilic sugar headgroups of C8G1 have more mobility than sugar heads of C8X1 owing to increased hydration. Herein, an inverted carbohydrate configuration in mixed micelles is proposed for the first time and supported by fluorescence spectroscopy experiments. This inverted carbohydrate headgroup configuration would limit the use of these mixed surfactants when access to the carbohydrate headgroup is important, but may present new opportunities where the carbohydrate-rich core of the micelles can be exploited. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis by reverse microemulsion of nano structured ferrite to be utilized in hydrogen production by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellusci, M.; Annunziatini, C.; Alvani, C.; Colella, C.; La Barbera, A.; Padella, F.; Seralessandri, L.

    2005-10-01

    Micelle and reverse micelle microemulsions can be favourably utilized in producing nano sized particles. The paper reports a general description of microemulsions systems, as well as their application in materials synthesis. By using one of the described methods, nano structured manganese ferrite, to be utilized in hydrogen production. was synthesized and the produced material was characterized in terms of morphological, microstructure and thermal properties [it

  10. The thermal signature of wormlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Thiago Heiji; Clinckspoor, Karl Jan; Nunes de Souza, Renato; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Giant micelle formation has a characteristic exothermic profile, for these systems. • The enthalpy of formation is dependent on the planarity of the co-solute. • The affinity is dependent on the enthalpy and critical concentration of the species. • The higher the affinity, the higher thermal stability and size of the micelles. - Abstract: The variations in enthalpy (Δ f H WLM ) and critical concentrations associated with the formation of wormlike micelles (WLMs) from combinations of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C 14 TAB) and various aromatic co-solutes were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Three groups of aromatic molecules were investigated: neutral (phenol), benzoate derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the WLMs (of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C 16 TAB) and the aromatic co-solutes of the three groups were investigated by measuring the temperatures at which the WLMs break and lose their ability to produce hydrodynamic drag reduction. A comparison of the results was used to establish correlations between the spontaneity of WLMs formation, their thermal stability and the molecular structure of the aromatic co-solutes. A characteristic thermal pattern with four steps was observed when WLMs are formed, that depended on the co-solute structure. Micellar growth was found to be an exothermic process, related to the fusion of the end caps allied with the incorporation of more co-solutes. The co-solutes that had negative charge and were able to maintain planar configuration demonstrated stronger interactions and also showed higher thermal stability through drag reduction.

  11. A simple reduction-sensitive micelles co-delivery of paclitaxel and dasatinib to overcome tumor multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jun Li,1,* Ruitong Xu,2,* Xiao Lu,3 Jing He,1 Shidai Jin1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of General Practice, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Changshu No 1 People’s Hospital, Changshu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR is one of the major obstacles in successful chemotherapy. The combination of chemotherapy drugs and multidrug-resistant reversing agents for treating MDR tumor is a good strategy to overcome MDR. In this work, we prepared the simple redox-responsive micelles based on mPEG-SS-C18 as a co-delivery system to load the paclitaxel (PTX and dasatinib (DAS for treatment of MCF-7/ADR cells. The co-loaded micelles had a good dispersity and a spherical shape with a uniform size distribution, and they could quickly disassemble and rapidly release drugs under the reduction environment. Compared with MCF-7 cells, the DAS and PTX co-loaded redox-sensitive micelle (SS-PDNPs showed stronger cytotoxicity and a more improving intracellular drug concentration than other drug formulations in MCF-7/ADR cells. In summary, the results suggested that the simple co-delivery micelles of PTX and DAS possessed significant potential to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy. Keywords: redox responsive, overcoming multidrug resistant, co-delivery, paclitaxel, dasatinib 

  12. IR-780 Loaded Phospholipid Mimicking Homopolymeric Micelles for Near-IR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Yin; Han, Haijie; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-03-23

    IR-780 iodide, a near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent dye, can be utilized as an effective theranostic agent for both imaging and photothermal therapy. However, its lipophilicity limits its further biomedical applications. Herein, we synthesized a phospholipid mimicking amphiphilic homopolymer poly(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl phosphorylcholine) (PMDPC) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The amphiphilic homopolymer PMDPC can be self-assembled into micelles and used for the encapsulation of IR-780. The IR-780 loaded micelles (PMDPC-IR-780) exhibited low cytotoxicity in the dark, whereas remarkable photothermal cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) was observed upon near-IR laser irradiation. We further investigated in vivo biodistribution of PMDPC-IR-780 micelles. Higher accumulation of PMDPC-IR-780 than that of free IR-780 in tumor tissue was verified, which might be ascribed to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and long circulation time benefiting from the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine surface. Therefore, the IR-780 loaded phospholipid mimicking homopolymeric micelles could have great potential for cancer theranostics.

  13. Treating acute cystitis with biodegradable micelle-encapsulated quercetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi Lan; Gao, Xiang; Men, Ke; Qiu, Jinfeng; Yang, Bowen; Gou, Ma Ling; Huang, Mei Juan; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yu Quan

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application. In an attempt to improve water solubility of QU, biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles were used to encapsulate QU by self-assembly methods, creating QU/MPEG-PCL micelles. These QU/MPEG-PCL micelles with DL of 7% had a mean particle size of <34 nm, and could release QU for an extended period in vitro. The in vivo study indicated that intravesical application of MPEG-PCL micelles did not induce any toxicity to the bladder, and could efficiently deliver cargo to the bladder. Moreover, the therapeutic efficiency of intravesical administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles on acute cystitis was evaluated in vivo. Results indicated that QU/MPEG-PCL micelle treatment efficiently reduced the edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bladder in an Escherichia coli-induced acute cystitis model. These data suggested that MPEG-PCL micelle was a candidate intravesical drug carrier, and QU/MPEG-PCL micelles may have potential application in acute cystitis therapy. PMID:22661886

  14. Preparation of Polymeric Micelles for Use as Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and, not infrequently, the low water solubility of the carrier itself, can easily result in the precipitation of the polymer derivative, and often does 5, 6, 7, 8. To overcome this problem, a promising technique is to make polymer drugs that take the form of micelles 5, 6, 7, 8. In line with this approach, micelle-forming polymer.

  15. Structure and Stability of Complex Coacervate Core Micelles with Lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martinus Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA42PAAm417 and

  16. Structure and stability of complex coacervate core micelles with lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Vries, de R.J.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA42PAAm417 and

  17. Structure and stability of complex coacervate core micelles with lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA(42)PAAm(417)

  18. Anthracene functionalized thermosensitive and UV-crosslinkable polymeric micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Yang; Cardoso, Renata M.; Van Nostrum, Cornelus F.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    An anthracene-functionalized thermosensitive block copolymer was synthesized, which formed micelles by heating its aqueous solution above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The micelles were subsequently crosslinked by UV illumination at 365 nm with a normal handheld UV lamp. The

  19. Characterization of Phospholipid Mixed Micelles by Translational Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, James J.; Baber, James L.; Bax, Ad

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the translational self diffusion rate, D s , has been measured for a range of micelle and mixed micelle systems. Use of bipolar gradient pulse pairs in the longitudinal eddy current delay experiment minimizes NOE attenuation and is found critical for optimizing sensitivity of the translational diffusion measurement of macromolecules and aggregates. For low volume fractions Φ (Φ ≤ 15% v/v) of the micelles, experimental measurement of the concentration dependence, combined with use of the D s =D o (1-3.2λΦ) relationship, yields the hydrodynamic volume. For proteins, the hydrodynamic volume, derived from D s at infinitely dilute concentration, is found to be about 2.6 times the unhydrated molecular volume. Using the data collected for hen egg white lysozyme as a reference, diffusion data for dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) micelles indicate approximately 27 molecules per micelle, and a critical micelle concentration of 14 mM. Differences in translational diffusion rates for detergent and long chain phospholipids in mixed micelles are attributed to rapid exchange between free and micelle-bound detergent. This difference permits determination of the free detergent concentration, which, for a high detergent to long chain phospholipid molar ratio, is found to depend strongly on this ratio. The hydrodynamic volume of DHPC/POPC bicelles, loaded with an M2 channel peptide homolog, derived from translational diffusion, predicts a rotational correlation time that slightly exceeds the value obtained from peptide 15 N relaxation data

  20. Block Copolymer Micelles for Photonic Fluids and Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Mikko; Guidetti, Giulia; Gröschel, Tina I; Borisov, Oleg V; Vignolini, Silvia; Ikkala, Olli; Gröschel, Andre H

    2018-03-15

    Block copolymer micelles (BCMs) are self-assembled nanoparticles in solution with a collapsed core and a brush-like stabilizing corona typically in the size range of tens of nanometers. Despite being widely studied in various fields of science and technology, their ability to form structural colors at visible wavelength has not received attention, mainly due to the stringent length requirements of photonic lattices. Here, we describe the precision assembly of BCMs with superstretched corona, yet with narrow size distribution to qualify as building blocks for tunable and reversible micellar photonic fluids (MPFs) and micellar photonic crystals (MPCs). The BCMs form free-flowing MPFs with an average interparticle distance of 150-300 nm as defined by electrosteric repulsion arising from the highly charged and stretched corona. Under quiescent conditions, millimeter-sized MPCs with classical FCC lattice grow within the photonic fluid-medium upon refinement of the positional order of the BCMs. We discuss the generic properties of MPCs with special emphasis on surprisingly narrow reflected wavelengths with full width at half-maximum (fwhm) as small as 1 nm. We expect this concept to open a generic and facile way for self-assembled tunable micellar photonic structures.

  1. Different Types of Charged-Inverse Micelles in Nonpolar Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2016-06-14

    Over the last few years, the electrodynamics of charged inverse micelles (CIMs) in nonpolar liquids and the generation mechanism and properties of newly generated CIMs have been studied extensively for the model system of polyisobutylene succinimide in dodecane. However, the newly generated CIMs, which accumulate at the electrodes when a continuous voltage is applied, behave differently compared to the regular CIMs present in equilibrium in the absence of a field. In this work, we use transient current measurements to investigate the behavior of the newly generated CIMs when the field is reduced to zero or reversed. We demonstrate that the newly generated CIMs do not participate in the diffuse double layer near the electrode formed by the regular CIMs but form an interface layer at the electrode surface. A fraction of the newly generated negative CIMs can be released from this interface layer when the field there becomes zero. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of fundamental processes in nonpolar liquids and are relevant for applications such as electronic ink displays and liquid toner printing.

  2. Fluorescence of aminofluoresceins as an indicative process allowing one to distinguish between micelles of cationic surfactants and micelle-like aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Cheipesh, Tatiana A.; Roshal, Alexander D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.

    2016-09-01

    Among the vast set of fluorescein derivatives, the double charged R2- anions of aminofluoresceins are known to exhibit only low quantum yields of fluorescence, \\varphi . The \\varphi value becomes as high as that of the fluorescein dianion when the lone electron pair of the amino group is involved in a covalent bond. According to Munkholm et al (1990 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 2608-12), a much smaller increase in the emission intensity can be observed in the presence of surfactant micelles. However, all these observations refer to aqueous or alcoholic solvents. In this paper, we show that in the non-hydrogen bond donor (or ‘aprotic’) solvents DMSO and acetone, the quantum yields, φ, of the 4‧- (or 5‧)-aminofluorescein R2- species amount to 61-67% and approach that of fluorescein (φ  =  87%), whereas in water φ is only 0.6-0.8%. In glycerol, a solvent with an extremely high viscosity, the φ value is only 6-10%. We report on the enhancement of the fluorescence of the aminofluorescein dianions as an indicative process, which allows us to distinguish between the micelle-like aggregates of cationic dendrimers of low generation, common spherical surfactant micelles, and surfactant bilayers. Some of these colloidal aggregates partly restore the fluorescence of aminofluoresceins in aqueous media. By contrast, other positively charged micellar-like aggregates do not enhance the quantum yield of aminofluorescein R2- species. Results for several related systems, such as CTAB-coated SiO2 particles and reverse microemulsions, are briefly described, and the possible reasons for the observed phenomena are discussed.

  3. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  4. Rate of Molecular Transfer of Allyl Alcohol across an AOT Surfactant Layer Using Muon Spin Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Upali A; Clayden, Nigel J; Steytler, David C; Oganesyan, Vasily S; Peck, Jamie N T; Khasanov, Rustem; Scheuermann, Robert; Stoykov, Alexey

    2016-01-26

    The transfer rate of a probe molecule across the interfacial layer of a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion was investigated using a combination of transverse field muon spin rotation (TF-μSR), avoided level crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-μSR), and Monte Carlo simulations. Reverse microemulsions consist of nanometer-sized water droplets dispersed in an apolar solvent separated by a surfactant monolayer. Although the thermodynamic, static model of these systems has been well described, our understanding of their dynamics is currently incomplete. For example, what is the rate of solute transfer between the aqueous and apolar solvents, and how this is influenced by the structure of the interface? With an appropriate choice of system and probe molecule, μSR offers a unique opportunity to directly probe these interfacial transfer dynamics. Here, we have employed a well characterized w/o microemulsion stabilized by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), with allyl alcohol (CH2═CH-CH2-OH, AA) as the probe. Resonances due to both muoniated radicals, CMuH2-C*H-CH2-OH and C*H2-CHMu-CH2-OH, were observed with the former being the dominant species. All resonances displayed solvent dependence, with those in the microemulsion observed as a single resonance located at intermediate magnetic fields to those present in either of the pure solvents. Observation of a single resonance is strong evidence for interfacial transfer being in the fast exchange limit. Monte Carlo calculations of the ΔM = 0 ALC resonances are consistent with the experimental data, indicating exchange rates greater than 10(9) s(-1), placing the rate of interfacial transfer at the diffusion limit.

  5. Self-assembly of micelles into designed networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatenko Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe EO20PO70EO20(molecular weight 5800 amphiphile as a template is to form dispersed micelle structures. Silver nanoparticles, as inorganic precursors synthesized by a laser ablation method in pure water, are able to produce the highly ordered vesicles detected by TEM micrography. The thickness of the outer layer of a micelle, formed by the silver nanoparticles interacting preferentially with the more hydrophilic EO20block, was around 3.5 nm. The vesicular structure ensembled from micelles is due to proceeding to the mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases.

  6. Probing interaction of charged nanoparticles with uncharged micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2013-02-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have been carried out to study interaction of anionic nanoparticles with uncharged (non-ionic) C12E10 micelles. DLS results show increase in the effective size of nanoparticles on addition of C12E10. Contrast variation SANS confirms the micelles decoration of nanoparticles which is believed to be driven by the hydrogen bonding between them. The number of adsorbed micelles per nanoparticle increases with the increase in the nanoparticle size. Surface number density is also found to be increasing with increase in particle size indicating favored adsorption for larger curvature.

  7. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  8. Logarithmic Exchange Kinetics in Monodisperse Copolymeric Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Daza, Fabián A.; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Mackie, Allan D.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the relaxation kinetics of copolymeric surfactant exchange for micellar systems unexpectedly show a peculiar logarithmic decay. Several authors use polydispersity as an explanation for this behavior. However, in coarse-grained simulations that preserve microscopic details of the surfactants, we find evidence of the same logarithmic behavior. Since we use a strictly monodisperse distribution of chain lengths such a relaxation process cannot be attributed to polydispersity, but has to be caused by an inherent physical process characteristic of this type of system. This is supported by the fact that the decay is specifically logarithmic and not a power law with an exponent inherited from the particular polydispersity distribution of the sample. We suggest that the degeneracy of the energy states of the hydrophobic block in the core, which is broken on leaving the micelle, can qualitatively explain the broad distribution of energy barriers, which gives rise to the observed nonexponential relaxation.

  9. Multicompartmental Microcapsules from Star Copolymer Micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ikjun; Malak, Sidney T.; Xu, Weinan; Heller, William T.; Tsitsilianis, Constantinos; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2013-02-26

    We present the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of amphiphilic heteroarm pH-sensitive star-shaped polystyrene-poly(2-pyridine) (PSnP2VPn) block copolymers to fabricate porous and multicompartmental microcapsules. Pyridine-containing star molecules forming a hydrophobic core/hydrophilic corona unimolecular micelle in acidic solution (pH 3) were alternately deposited with oppositely charged linear sulfonated polystyrene (PSS), yielding microcapsules with LbL shells containing hydrophobic micelles. The surface morphology and internal nanopore structure of the hollow microcapsules were comparatively investigated for shells formed from star polymers with a different numbers of arms (9 versus 22) and varied shell thickness (5, 8, and 11 bilayers). The successful integration of star unimers into the LbL shells was demonstrated by probing their buildup, surface segregation behavior, and porosity. The larger arm star copolymer (22 arms) with stretched conformation showed a higher increment in shell thickness due to the effective ionic complexation whereas a compact, uniform grainy morphology was observed regardless of the number of deposition cycles and arm numbers. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed that microcapsules with hydrophobic domains showed different fractal properties depending upon the number of bilayers with a surface fractal morphology observed for the thinnest shells and a mass fractal morphology for the completed shells formed with the larger number of bilayers. Moreover, SANS provides support for the presence of relatively large pores (about 25 nm across) for the thinnest shells as suggested from permeability experiments. The formation of robust microcapsules with nanoporous shells composed of a hydrophilic polyelectrolyte with a densely packed hydrophobic core based on star amphiphiles represents an intriguing and novel case of compartmentalized microcapsules with an ability to simultaneously store different hydrophilic, charged, and hydrophobic

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the FibPep-ION-Micelle

  11. Photophysical study of a charge transfer oxazole dye in micelles: Role of surfactant headgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Jyotirmay [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Sarkar, Yeasmin; Parui, Partha Pratim [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Sandipan [Department of Microbiology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Biswas, Suman [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Das, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjan.das68@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Photophysics of 5-(4′′-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-(4′-sulfophenyl)oxazole, sodium salt (DMO) which undergoes intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state was studied in micelles. In the cationic and the nonionic micelles, significantly higher fluorescence quantum yield is observed in comparison to the anionic micelles, due to much lower accessibility of DMO to the water molecules in the former micelles than the latter. Time-resolved fluorescence decays were characterized by a fast (τ{sub 1}) and a slow (τ{sub 2}) component of decay in all the micelles. The fast decay component (τ{sub 1}) increases significantly in going from the anionic micelles to the cationic micelles, because of the poorly hydrated headgroup region of the latter micelles compared to the former. Furthermore, much higher value of the slow component of decay (τ{sub 2}) is observed for the cationic and the neutral micelles than the anionic micelles. This is attributed to the increased penetration of water molecules into the micellar core of the anionic micelles compared to the cationic and the neutral micelles. - Highlights: • Photophysics of the fluorophore are remarkably different in the cationic and the anionic micelles. • Differential hydration of the surfactant headgroups gives rise to significantly different fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime in oppositely charged micelles. • Electrostatic interactions fine tune location of the fluorophore in the micelle–water interface of ionic micelles.

  12. Structure and reactivity in amphiphile-water micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Yves

    1985-01-01

    Following a review of the general properties of micelles, this report contains two parts: - A structural study of octylphosphate micelles. Important structural changes have been evidenced by mean of small angle neutron scattering as the electrical charge of the interface is varied. The NMR relaxation study of the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains has shown that the micellar core is disordered in contrast with the interface which is rather structured. The diffusion motions in the interface and the segmental motions of the chains are fast. - Studies on the reactivity in micelles have been carried out. A large micellar effect on the complexation of transition ions by amphiphilic ligands is evidenced. The problem of solute localization in micelles is developed with few examples. (author) [fr

  13. New self-assembled nanocrystal micelles for biolabels and biosensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallant, David Robert; Wilson, Michael C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Leve, Erik W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Gabaldon, John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Scullin, Chessa (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-12-01

    The ability of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to display multiple (size-specific) colors simultaneously during a single, long term excitation holds great promise for their use in fluorescent bio-imaging. The main challenges of using nanocrystals as biolabels are achieving biocompatibility, low non-specific adsorption, and no aggregation. In addition, functional groups that can be used to further couple and conjugate with biospecies (proteins, DNAs, antibodies, etc.) are required. In this project, we invented a new route to the synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible NCs. Our approach is to encapsulate as-synthesized, monosized, hydrophobic NCs within the hydrophobic cores of micelles composed of a mixture of surfactants and phospholipids containing head groups functionalized with polyethylene glycol (-PEG), -COOH, and NH{sub 2} groups. PEG provided biocompatibility and the other groups were used for further biofunctionalization. The resulting water-soluble metal and semiconductor NC-micelles preserve the optical properties of the original hydrophobic NCs. Semiconductor NCs emit the same color; they exhibit equal photoluminescence (PL) intensity under long-time laser irradiation (one week) ; and they exhibit the same PL lifetime (30-ns). The results from transmission electron microscopy and confocal fluorescent imaging indicate that water-soluble semiconductor NC-micelles are biocompatible and exhibit no aggregation in cells. We have extended the surfactant/lipid encapsulation techniques to synthesize water-soluble magnetic NC-micelles. Transmission electron microscopy results suggest that water-soluble magnetic NC-micelles exhibit no aggregation. The resulting NC-micelles preserve the magnetic properties of the original hydrophobic magnetic NCs. Viability studies conducted using yeast cells suggest that the magnetic nanocrystal-micelles are biocompatible. We have demonstrated, for the first time, that using external oscillating magnetic fields to manipulate

  14. A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the

  15. A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the

  16. Polymeric micelles for potentiated antiulcer and anticancer activities of naringin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham Abdelmonem; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Shaaban, Ahmed Abdel Aziz; El-Sheakh, Ahmed Ramadan; Hamed, Mohammed Fawzy; Badria, Farid Abd Elreheem

    2018-01-01

    Naringin is one of the most interesting phytopharmaceuticals that has been widely investigated for various biological actions. Yet, its low water solubility, limited permeability, and suboptimal bioavailability limited its use. Therefore, in this study, polymeric micelles of naringin based on pluronic F68 (PF68) were developed, fully characterized, and optimized. The optimized formula was investigated regarding in vitro release, storage stability, and in vitro cytotoxicity vs different cell lines. Also, cytoprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats and antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice were investigated. Nanoscopic and nearly spherical 1:50 micelles with the mean diameter of 74.80±6.56 nm and narrow size distribution were obtained. These micelles showed the highest entrapment efficiency (EE%; 96.14±2.29). The micelles exhibited prolonged release up to 48 vs 10 h for free naringin. The stability of micelles was confirmed by insignificant changes in drug entrapment, particle size, and retention (%) (91.99±3.24). At lower dose than free naringin, effective cytoprotection of 1:50 micelles against ethanol-induced ulcer in rat model has been indicated by significant reduction in mucosal damage, gastric level of malondialdehyde, gastric expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and interleukin-6 with the elevation of gastric reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase when compared with the positive control group. As well, these micelles provoked pronounced antitumor activity assessed by potentiated in vitro cytotoxicity particularly against colorectal carcinoma cells and tumor growth inhibition when compared with free naringin. In conclusion, 1:50 naringin–PF68 micelles can be represented as a potential stable nanodrug delivery system with prolonged release and enhanced antiulcer as well as antitumor activities. PMID:29497294

  17. Treating acute cystitis with biodegradable micelle-encapsulated quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi Lan Wang1, Xiang Gao1,2, Ke Men1, Jinfeng Qiu1, Bowen Yang3, Ma Ling Gou1, Mei Juan Huang1, Ning Huang2, Zhi Yong Qian1, Xia Zhao1, Yu Quan Wei11State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, 2Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, 3College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application. In an attempt to improve water solubility of QU, biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles were used to encapsulate QU by self-assembly methods, creating QU/MPEG-PCL micelles. These QU/MPEG-PCL micelles with DL of 7% had a mean particle size of ~34 nm, and could release QU for an extended period in vitro. The in vivo study indicated that intravesical application of MPEG-PCL micelles did not induce any toxicity to the bladder, and could efficiently deliver cargo to the bladder. Moreover, the therapeutic efficiency of intravesical administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles on acute cystitis was evaluated in vivo. Results indicated that QU/MPEG-PCL micelle treatment efficiently reduced the edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bladder in an Escherichia coli-induced acute cystitis model. These data suggested that MPEG-PCL micelle was a candidate intravesical drug carrier, and QU/MPEG-PCL micelles may have potential application in acute cystitis therapy.Keywords: nanomedicine, MPEG-PCL, self-assembly

  18. Effects of copolymer component on the properties of phosphorylcholine micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhengzhong Wu,1 Mengtan Cai,1 Jun Cao,2 Jiaxing Zhang,1 Xianglin Luo1,3 1College of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, 3State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Zwitterionic polymers have unique features, such as good compatibility, and show promise in the application of drug delivery. In this study, the zwitterionic copolymers, poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine with disulfide (PCL-ss-PMPC or poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine or without disulfide (PCL-PMPC and with different block lengths in PCL-ss-PMPC, were designed. The designed copolymers were obtained by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transferring radical polymerization. The crystallization properties of these polymers were investigated. The micelles were prepared based on the obtained copolymers with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine as the hydrophilic shell and PCL as the hydrophobic core. The size distributions of the blank micelles and the doxorubicin (DOX-loaded micelles were uniform, and the micelle diameters were <100 nm. In vitro drug release and intracellular drug release results showed that DOX-loaded PCL-ss-PMPC micelles could release drugs faster responding to the reduction condition and the intracellular microenvironment in contrast to PCL-PMPC micelles. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the designed copolymers possessed low cell toxicity, and the inhibiting effect of DOX-loaded phosphorylcholine micelles to tumor cells was related to the components of these copolymers. These results reveal that the reduction-responsive phosphorylcholine micelles with a suitable ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units can serve as promising drug carriers. Keywords: zwitterionic, reduction-sensitive, disulfide, phosphorylcholine

  19. Atomic Model and Micelle Dynamics of QS-21 Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Pedebos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available QS-21 is a saponin extracted from Quillaja saponaria, widely investigated as a vaccine immunoadjuvant. However, QS-21 use is mainly limited by its chemical instability, significant variety in molecular composition and low tolerance dose in mammals. Also, this compound tends to form micelles in a concentration-dependent manner. Here, we aimed to characterize its conformation and the process of micelle formation, both experimentally and computationally. Therefore, molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed in systems containing different numbers of QS-21 molecules in aqueous solution, in order to evaluate the spontaneous micelle formation. The applied methodology allowed the generation of micelles whose sizes were shown to be in high agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. Furthermore, the ester linkage between fucose and acyl chain was less solvated in the micellar form, suggesting a reduction in hydrolysis. This is the first atomistic interpretation of previous experimental data, the first micellar characterization of saponin micelles by SAXS and first tridimensional model of a micelle constituted of saponins, contributing to the understanding of the molecular basis of these compounds.

  20. Structured nanoporous surfaces from hybrid block copolymer micelle films with metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo P; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Bumjoon J; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2015-03-06

    We present a novel method for producing structured nanoporous thin films using block copolymer (BCP) micelles loaded with metallic ions. The BCP micellar thin films containing gold (Au) ions were prepared by spin-coating poly(styrene-block-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) micelle solutions in which Au precursors (AuCl4(-)) were selectively loaded onto the P4VP core. When the micellar films were exposed to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solutions, the Au precursors were selectively extracted from the P4VP domains due to their strong electrostatic interaction with CTAB, leading to the formation of pores in the micelles. Consequently, regularly patterned nanoporous surfaces were formed. By controlling the molecular weight (Mn) of PS-b-P4VP and the amount of Au precursors (λ) that were loaded in the P4VP domains, the pore size and depth could be tuned precisely. In particular, when a sufficient amount of Au precursors was loaded (λ  ≥ 0.3), the porous surface nanostructure was well developed. In addition, the pore size and depth of the nanostructure increased as the λ value increased. For instance, when the λ value increased from 0.3 to 1.0, the pore size increased from 22.8 nm to 28.8 nm, and the pore depth increased from 2.1 nm to 3.2 nm. Interestingly, the transition from the nonporous structures to the porous structures in the micellar film could be reversibly controlled by adding and removing the Au precursors in the film. Moreover, our method for the preparation of nanoporous films can be extended to micellar film by incorporating other metal ions such as silver (Ag) and iron (Fe).

  1. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface....... The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. [S1063-651X...

  2. Basic investigations on LCV micelle gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, S. B.; Rafic, M. K.; Ravindran, P. B.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) based micelle gel dosimeter as a quality assurance tool in radiotherapy applications. Basic properties such as absorption coefficient and diffusion of LCV gel phantom over time were evaluated. The gel formulation consisted of 25 mM Trichloroacetic acid, 1mM LCV, 4 mM Triton X-100, 4% gelatin by mass and distilled water. The advantages of using this gel are its tissue equivalence, easy and less preparation time, lower diffusion rate and it can be read with an optical scanner. We were able to reproduce some of the results of Babic et al. The peak absorption was found to be at 600 nm and hence a matrix of yellow LEDs was used as light source. The profiles obtained from projection images confirmed the diffusion of LCV gel after 6 hours of irradiation. Hence the LCV gel phantom should be read before 6 hours post irradiation to get accurate dose information as suggested previously.

  3. Efficiency of membrane technology, activated charcoal, and a micelle-clay complex for removal of the acidic pharmaceutical mefenamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of a widely used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) mefenamic acid was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration by hollow fibre membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff, activated carbon and a reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of mefenamic acid from spiked wastewater samples. The activated carbon column was the most effective component in removing mefenamic acid with a removal efficiency of 97.2%. Stability study of mefenamic acid in pure water and Al-Quds activated sludge revealed that the anti-inflammatory drug was resistant to degradation in both environments. Batch adsorption of mefenamic acid by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)-clay (montmorillonite) was determined at 25.0°C. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the data with Qmax of 90.9 mg g(-1) and 100.0 mg g(-1) for activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration experiment by micelle-clay columns mixed with sand in the mg L(-1) range revealed complete removal of the drug with much larger capacity than activated carbon column. The combined results demonstrated that an integration of a micelle-clay column in the plant system has a good potential to improve the removal efficiency of the plant towards NSAID drugs such as mefenamic acid.

  4. A Sensitivity Study of Human Errors in Optimizing Surveillance Test Interval (STI) and Allowed Outage Time (AOT) of Standby Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook; Shin, Won Ky; You, Young Woo; Yang, Hui Chang

    1998-01-01

    In most cases, the surveillance test intervals (STIs), allowed outage times (AOTS) and testing strategies of safety components in nuclear power plant are prescribed in plant technical specifications. And, in general, it is required that standby safety system shall be redundant (i.e., composed of multiple components) and these components are tested by either staggered test strategy or sequential test strategy. In this study, a linear model is presented to incorporate the effects of human errors associated with test into the evaluation of unavailability. The average unavailabilities of 1/4, 2/4 redundant systems are computed considering human error and testing strategy. The adverse effects of test on system unavailability, such as component wear and test-induced transient have been modelled. The final outcome of this study would be the optimized human error domain from 3-D human error sensitivity analysis by selecting finely classified segment. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the STI and AOT can be optimized provided human error probability is maintained within allowable range. (authors)

  5. Stable and biocompatible genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles for sustained drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin, E-mail: zhangxj@cug.edu.cn [China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry (China)

    2017-05-15

    To develop the sustained drug release system, here we describe genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles crosslinked via Schiff bases between the amines of amphiphilic linear-hyperbranched polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-branched polyethylenimine-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PEI-PCL) and genipin. The generation of Schiff bases was confirmed by the color changes and UV-Vis absorption spectra of polymeric micelles after adding genipin. The particle size, morphology, stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release behavior of crosslinked micelles as well as non-crosslinked micelles were characterized. The results indicated that genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles had better stability and biocompatibility than non-crosslinked micelles and glutaraldehyde-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles. In addition, genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles were able to improve drug loading capacity, reduce the initial burst release, and achieve sustained drug release.

  6. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  7. Enhanced cytotoxicity of TATp-bearing paclitaxel-loaded micelles in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Rupa R.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) was attached to the distal tips of polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties of polyethyleneglycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles loaded with paclitaxel (PCT). The TATp-modified micelles demonstrated an increased interaction with cancer cells compared to non-modified micelles resulting in a significant increase of the in vitro cytotoxicity to different cancer cells. TATp-modified PCT-loaded micelles were administered intratumorally in mice and the inductio...

  8. Determination of the aggregation number for micelles by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Rene; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has previously been applied to estimate the aggregation number (n), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of micellization. However, some difficulties of micelle characterization by ITC still remain; most micelles have aggregation numbers...... insight into optimal design of titration protocols for micelle characterization. By applying the new method, the aggregation number of sodium dodecyl sulphate and glycochenodeoxycholate was determined at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC)...

  9. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ment of Civil Engineering and is presently the. Chairman of Center for. Sustainable Technologies,. Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research areas include, unsaturated soil behaviour, hazardous waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis,.

  10. Reversible Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  11. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.

    1989-01-01

    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  12. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor targetability and stimuli responsivity of drug delivery systems (DDS) are key factors in cancer therapy. Implementation of multifunctional DDS can afford targetability and responsivity at the same time. Herein, cholesterol molecules (Ch) were coupled to hyaluronic acid (HA) backbones to afford amphiphilic conjugates that can self-assemble into stable micelles. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, were encapsulated by Ch-HA micelles and were selectively released in the presence of hyaluronidase (Hyals) enzyme. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were done using three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7) and one normal cell line (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Synthesis of CaCO3 nanoparticles by carbonation of lime solutions in reverse micellar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.J.; Jain, R.; Mehra, A.; Dagaonkar, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Application of reverse micelles for the synthesis of nano-sized calcium carbonate particles in different solvents (cyclohexane, decane and heptane) has been investigated. The effect of the mole ratio of water-to-surfactant (R) and type of solvent has been studied on the size and nature of the

  14. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  15. Insight into Nanoparticle Charging Mechanism in Nonpolar Solvents To Control the Formation of Pt Nanoparticle Monolayers by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černohorský, Ondřej; Grym, Jan; Yatskiv, Roman; Pham, V. H.; Dickerson, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 30 (2016), s. 19680-19690 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17044S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14111 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : AOT reverse micelles * 3D growth * electrophoretic deposition Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  16. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  17. Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles with hydrophobically modified shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, K.; Uhlík, F.; Limpouchová, Z.; Matějíček, P.; Humpolíčková, J.; Procházka, K.; Tuzar, Zdeněk; Špírková, Milena; Hof, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, 10-11 (2003), s. 655-660 ISSN 0892-7022 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : micelles * conformation * NRET Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2003

  18. Coupled Organoclay/Micelle Action for the Adsorption of Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Tiago; Guégan, Régis

    2016-09-20

    A Na-smectite clay mineral (Na-Mt) was exchanged with various amounts of benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride cationic surfactant (BDTAC) up to four times the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The adsorption properties of these organoclays as well as a coupled micelle/organoclay process were evaluated to remove an anionic pharmaceutical product, the diclofenac (DCF), recognized as a recalcitrant compound for conventional water treatments and to be poorly adsorbed onto untreated clay mineral. The DCF affinity appears to depend on the lipophilic character of organoclays in correlation to the density of intercalated BDTA and is particularly enhanced for sorbent systems with free surfactant or micelle in solution. The combination of both organclay and BDTA in excess or micelle as a one pot adsorption system appears to be the most efficient material for the sequestration of DCF and other pharmaceutical products (PPs) with a KF Freundlich constant of 1.7 L g(-1) and no restriction of the adsorbed DCF amount as the linear adsorption isotherm shows. A BDTA hydrophobic core micelle coupled with a positive electric charge forms an organic complex with DCF that is properly intercalated within the interlayer space of BDTA-Mt organoclays as both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data supported.

  19. Solvent Effects on the Micelle - Influenced Aquation Reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative rates of the micelle-catalyzed/inhibited aquation reactions of the complexes: Fe(Ph2Phen), Fe(Me2Phen) and Fe(MePhen were investigated in ethylene glycol, water and aqueous acetone. The pseudo first oder rate constant, K vs (Triton X-100) profiles reveal that at all the (TX-100) concentration ranges ...

  20. Polymeric micelles in anticancer therapy : Targeting, imaging and triggered release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Chris; Bult, Wouter; Bos, Mariska; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, J. Frank W.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Micelles are colloidal particles with a size around 5-100 nm which are currently under investigation as carriers for hydrophobic drugs in anticancer therapy. Currently, five micellar formulations for anticancer therapy are under clinical evaluation, of which Genexol-PM has been FDA approved for use

  1. In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toxicity of nanocarriers comprised of cationic polymer and lipid components often used in gene and drug delivery, formulated as cationic micelles and liposomes. Rats were injected intravenously with 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg and sacrificed after 24 or 48 h, or 24 h after the las...

  2. Complex coacervate core micelles with a lysozyme-modified corona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danial, M.; Klok, H.A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and enzymatic activity of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PQ2VP-PEO) to which the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme is end-attached.

  3. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with ...

  4. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  5. Complex coacervation core micelles. Colloidal stability and aggregation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgh, van der S.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Complex coacervation core micelles were prepared with various polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged diblock copolymers. The diblock copolymers consist of a charged block and a water-soluble neutral block. Our experimental technique was dynamic light scattering in combination with titrations. At

  6. Counterion condensation in ionic micelles as studied by a combined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report a combined use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the study of counterion condensation in ionic micelles. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out on two surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and ...

  7. Micelle hydrogels for three-dimensional dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, S.; Battista, J.; Jordan, K.

    2009-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels form a transparent and colourless matrix for polymerization or chromic reactions initiated by absorption of ionizing radiation. Generally, hydrogel chemistries have been limited to water soluble reactants. Work to adapt a water insoluble colourless leuco dye to coloured dye conversion reaction in hydrogels, led to the idea that micelles (i.e. tiny aggregates of surfactant molecules) may provide the necessary polar and nonpolar hybrid environment. Both leucomalachite green and leuco crystal violet radiochromic gels have been developed as three-dimensional (3-D) radiochromic dosimeters for optical computed tomography (CT) scanners. It has been found that the post-irradiation diffusion rates strongly correlate with the solubility of the leuco dyes. Since the crystal violet dye is more soluble in the micelle than in the surrounding water, the dose distribution degrades at the slower rate of micelle diffusion, thus yielding stable images of dose. A dosimetric characterization of leucomalachite green and leuco crystal violet gels, respectively, reveals that tissue equivalent micelle hydrogels are promising dosimeters for radiation therapy 3-D dose verification.

  8. Enhanced cytotoxicity of TATp-bearing paclitaxel-loaded micelles in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rupa R; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-06-05

    Cell-penetrating peptide (TATp) was attached to the distal tips of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) moieties of polyethyleneglycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles loaded with paclitaxel (PCT). The TATp-modified micelles demonstrated an increased interaction with cancer cells compared to non-modified micelles resulting in a significant increase of the in vitro cytotoxicity to different cancer cells. TATp-modified PCT-loaded micelles were administered intratumorally in mice and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells was studied after 48h with the Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay using free PCT and TATp-free PCT-loaded PEG-PE micelles as controls. A significant apoptotic cell death was observed in tumors treated with PCT-loaded micelles modified with TATp, while the treatment with free PCT or with non-modified PCT-loaded micelles resulted in much smaller number of TUNEL-positive cells within tumors.

  9. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or the water reaches the tip of every leaf of a plant is due to osmotic pressure. ... concentration and temperature of the solution by a law that is similar to the gas law. ... waste management, water quality and remediation of contaminated water. Keywords. Osmosis, reverse osmosis, desalinatiion, seawater, water purification.

  10. Ozone risk assessment for an Alpine larch forest in two vegetative seasons with different approaches: comparison of POD1and AOT40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Angelo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Chiesa, Maria; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2017-12-01

    The upper vegetation belts like larch forests are supposed to be under great pressure because of climate change in the next decades. For this reason, the evaluation of the risks due to abiotic stressors like ozone is a key step. Two different approaches were used here: mapping AOT40 index by means of passive samplers and direct measurements of ozone deposition.Measurements of ozone fluxes using the eddy-correlation technique were carried out for the first time over a larch forest in Paspardo (I) at 1750 m a.s.l. Two field campaigns were run: the first one in 2010 from July to October and the second one in the following year from June to September. Vertical exchange of ozone, energy, and momentum were measured on a tower platform at 26 m above ground level to study fluxes dynamics over this ecosystem. Since the tower was located on a gentle slope, an "ad hoc" methodology was developed to minimize the effects of the terrain inclination. The larch forest uptake was estimated by means of a two-layer model to separate the understorey uptake from the larch one. Even if the total ozone fluxes were generally high, up to 30-40 nmol O 3  m -2  s -1 in both years, the stomatal uptake by the larch forest was relatively low (around 15% of the total deposition).Ozone risk was assessed considering the POD 1 received by the larch forest and the exposure index AOT40 estimated with both local data and data from the map obtained by the passive samplers monitoring.

  11. Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation potentiates myricetin-induced cytotoxicity in human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Jun Tang,1,* Kuan-Ming Huang,1,* Hui Gui,1,* Jun-Jie Wang,2 Jun-Ti Lu,1 Long-Jun Dai,1,3 Li Zhang,1 Gang Wang2 1Department of Neurosurgery, TaiHe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: As one of the natural herbal flavonoids, myricetin has attracted much research interest, mainly owing to its remarkable anticancer properties and negligible side effects. It holds great potential to be developed as an ideal anticancer drug through improving its bioavailability. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation on myricetin-induced cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying its anticancer properties in human glioblastoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and a real-time cell analyzer. Immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques were used for determining the expression levels of related molecules in protein and mRNA. The results indicated that myricetin-induced cytotoxicity was highly potentiated by the encapsulation of myricetin. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to be involved in myricetin-induced glioblastoma cell death. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway located in the plasma membrane and cytosol and the RAS-ERK pathway located in mitochondria served as upstream and downstream targets, respectively, in myricetin-induced apoptosis. MiR-21 inhibitors interrupted the expression of EGFR, p-Akt, and K-Ras in the same fashion as myricetin-loaded mixed micelles (MYR-MCs and miR-21 expression were dose-dependently inhibited by MYR-MCs, indicating the interaction of miR-21 with MYR-MCs. This study provided evidence

  12. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemann Jensen, A.T.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete reference list is compiled in the end, immediately after the three chapters. This is followed by the supplementary information, divided into appropriate sections. Finally, the two first-authored manuscripts are attached as appendices. Chapter 1. The field of nanoparticulate drug delivery has been hailed as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent-like copolymers, that self-assemble in water. Therapy with nanoparticles is hampered by often poor tumor accumulation, combined with massive uptake by macrophages in the liver and spleen. For this reason, visualizing nanoparticle pharmacokinetics in-vivo is a valuable tool in the on-going research. Such visualization can be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET-isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET-isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool, radiolabeled nanoparticles hold promise as a radiopharmaceutical in themselves, as a means of imaging tumor tissue, aiding in diagnosis and surgery. Chapter 2. A method for labeling liposomes with 18F (97% positron decay, T = 110 min) was investigated. 18F is widely available, but is hampered by a short half-life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A

  13. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... by accounting for the significance of the materials and the equipment that enters into the production of statistics. Key words: Reversible statistics, diverse materials, constructivism, economics, science, and technology....

  14. Two distinct mechanisms of vesicle-to-micelle and micelle-to-vesicle transition are mediated by the packing parameter of phospholipid-detergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, Marc C. A.; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2007-01-01

    The detergent solubilization and reformation of phospholipid vesicles was studied for various detergents. Two distinct mechanisms of vesicle-to-micelle and micelle-to-vesicle transition were observed by turbidimetry and cryo-electron microscopy. The first mechanism involves fast solubilization of

  15. Self-assembly of star micelle into vesicle in solvents of variable quality: the star micelle retains its core-shell nanostructure in the vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nijuan; He, Qun; Bu, Weifeng

    2015-03-03

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions of star polymers in dilute solutions are of fundamental importance for both theoretical interest and hierarchical self-assembly into functional nanostructures. Here, star micelles with a polystyrene corona and a small ionic core bearing platinum(II) complexes have been regarded as a model of star polymers to mimic their intra- and interstar interactions and self-assembled behaviors in solvents of weakening quality. In the chloroform/methanol mixture solvents, the star micelles can self-assemble to form vesicles, in which the star micelles shrink significantly and are homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike the morphological evolution of conventional amphiphiles from micellar to vesicular, during which the amphiphilic molecules are commonly reorganized, the star micelles still retain their core-shell nanostructures in the vesicles and the coronal chains of the star micelle between the ionic cores are fully interpenetrated.

  16. Electrophoresis deposition of metal nanoparticles with reverse micelles onto InP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďánský, Karel; Zavadil, Jiří; Kacerovský, Pavel; Lorinčík, Jan; Vaniš, Jan; Kostka, František; Černohorský, O.; Fojtík, A.; Reboun, J.; Čermák, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1234-1238 ISSN 1862-5282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : semiconductor junctions * nanostructures * semiconductor devices Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  17. Layers of metal nanoparticles on semiconductors deposited by electrophoresis from solutions with reverse micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďánský, Karel; Kacerovský, Pavel; Zavadil, Jiří; Lorinčík, Jan; Fojtík, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 9 (2007), s. 450-454 ISSN 1931-7573. [Semiconducting & Insulating Materials Conference - SIMC /14./. Fayetteville, 15.05.2007-20.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400670651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductor junctions * nanostructured materials * semiconductor devices Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2007

  18. Continuous glycerolysis of olive oil by Chromobacterium viscosum lipase immobilized in liposome in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P S; Rhee, J S; Kim, J J

    1991-12-05

    Chromobacterium viscosum lipase which has adsorbed on liposome and solubilized in microemulsion droplets of glycerol containing a little amount of water could catalyze the glycerolysis of olive oil. Studies on the continuous glycerolysis of olive oil by the immobilized enzyme was done at 37 degrees C in continuous stirred vessel bioreactor with polysulfone membrane. The effect of the flow rate of substrate (olive oil) in isooctane on the conversion and composition of the outlet was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conversion increased with decrease in the flow rate. And we studied the effect of water content in the glycerol-water-lipase solution on the glycerolysis reaction. The conversion to desirable products, mono- and di-olein, was improved without a substantial production of oleic acid at lower water concentrations, i.e., below 8.0% (w/v) which corresponds to a w(o) value of 0.97. At water concentration higher than 8.0% (w/v), the amount of free fatty acid was dramatically increased. Higher operational stability of the enzyme reactor, and the half-line of the enzyme continuous reaction was about 7 weeks.

  19. Optical properties of monodispersed silver nanoparticles produced via reverse micelle microemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danhui; Liu, Xiaoheng; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude

    2011-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles produced by the sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate were stabilized by means of 1-dodecanethiol providing sulfur atom. (n-Dodecyl) trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), which was used as a phase transfer agent in two-phase system involving water and toluene, played a significant role in the formation of monolayer-protected silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), FT-IR spectra and fluorescence. The results indicate that the system is monodispersed and leads to the self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into 0-D quanta-dot arrays.

  20. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete...... as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent‐like copolymers......‐life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A glycerolipid and a cholesteryl ether were synthesized with free primary alcohols and a series of their sulphonates (Ms, Ts, Tf) were...

  1. Characterization of nanoparticles based on block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleštil, Josef; Pospíšil, Herman; Kříž, Jaroslav; Kadlec, Petr; Tuzar, Zdeněk; Cubitt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 21 (2001), s. 6699-6704 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA ČR GA203/00/1317; GA ČR GA203/01/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * nanoparticles * small - angle neutron scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.963, year: 2001

  2. Internal dynamics in SDS micelles: neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Mitra, S; Verma, G; Hassan, P A; Garcia Sakai, V; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2010-12-30

    The molecular dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle has been investigated using high-resolution incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering technique. Data analysis clearly shows presence of two distinct motions: whole micellar motion or global diffusion and faster internal motion of the SDS monomer. The global diffusion associated with the whole micelle is found to be Fickian in nature, and the corresponding diffusion coefficients are found to be consistent with those obtained from dynamic light scattering measurements. The internal motion is described with a model consistent with the structure of the micelle and which accounts for the flexibility of the chains. The SDS monomer consists of a head group, which lies on the surface of the globular micelle, and a tail that hangs from the head toward the center of the globule. Considering various factors like conformational changes of the SDS chains, bending, stretching of the chemical bonds, etc., the dynamics of the SDS molecules is successfully described by a model in which the hydrogen atoms undergo localized translational motion confined within spherical volumes. This volume increases linearly along the SDS chain such that the hydrogen atoms closer to the head group move within smaller spheres with lower diffusion constant than the hydrogen atoms away from the head group. This model is found to be consistent with the data over the whole temperature and concentration range. Diffusivity and the volume of the spheres are also found to increase with temperature. The effect of lowering the SDS concentration is found to be similar to that of increasing the temperature.

  3. Engineering single-polymer micelle shape using nonuniform spontaneous surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles. Our design scheme posits that further shapes are attained by altering the segment lengths. As a first study of the power of this scheme, we demonstrate the capacity to produce long-lived micelles of horseshoe form using conventional bead-spring simulations in two dimensions. Modest changes in the segment lengths produce smooth changes in the micelle's shape and stability.

  4. Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography: A Focus on Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, David P.; Naha, Pratap C.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an X-ray based whole body imaging technique that is widely used in medicine. Clinically approved contrast agents for CT are iodinated small molecules or barium suspensions. Over the past seven years there has been a great increase in the development of nanoparticles as CT contrast agents. Nanoparticles have several advantages over small molecule CT contrast agents, such as long blood-pool residence times, and the potential for cell tracking and targeted imaging applications. Furthermore, there is a need for novel CT contrast agents, due to the growing population of renally impaired patients and patients hypersensitive to iodinated contrast. Micelles and lipoproteins, a micelle-related class of nanoparticle, have notably been adapted as CT contrast agents. In this review we discuss the principles of CT image formation and the generation of CT contrast. We discuss the progress in developing non-targeted, targeted and cell tracking nanoparticle CT contrast agents. We feature agents based on micelles and used in conjunction with spectral CT. The large contrast agent doses needed will necessitate careful toxicology studies prior to clinical translation. However, the field has seen tremendous advances in the past decade and we expect many more advances to come in the next decade. PMID:24470293

  5. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H.; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pKa's in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pKa of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pKa of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. Uniform electroactive fibre-like micelle nanowires for organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wolanin, Piotr J.; Macfarlane, Liam R.; Harniman, Robert L.; Qian, Jieshu; Gould, Oliver E. C.; Dane, Thomas G.; Rudin, John; Cryan, Martin J.; Schmaltz, Thomas; Frauenrath, Holger; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Faul, Charl F. J.; Manners, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Micelles formed by the self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents have attracted widespread attention and have uses in a wide variety of fields, whereas applications based on their electronic properties are virtually unexplored. Herein we describe studies of solution-processable, low-dispersity, electroactive fibre-like micelles of controlled length from π-conjugated diblock copolymers containing a crystalline regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) core and a solubilizing, amorphous regiosymmetric poly(3-hexylthiophene) or polystyrene corona. Tunnelling atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the individual fibres exhibit appreciable conductivity. The fibres were subsequently incorporated as the active layer in field-effect transistors. The resulting charge carrier mobility strongly depends on both the degree of polymerization of the core-forming block and the fibre length, and is independent of corona composition. The use of uniform, colloidally stable electroactive fibre-like micelles based on common π-conjugated block copolymers highlights their significant potential to provide fundamental insight into charge carrier processes in devices, and to enable future electronic applications.

  7. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure formation in binary mixtures of surfactants: vesicle opening-up to bicelles and octopus-like micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    Micelle formation in binary mixtures of surfactants is studied using a coarse-grained molecular simulation. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle, the bicelle, is typically formed. It is found that cup-shaped vesicles and bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and critical micelle concentration. The obtained octopus shape of micelles agree with those observed in the cryo-TEM images reported in [S. Jain and F. S. Bates, Macromol. 37, 1511 (2004).]. Two types of connection structures between the worm-like micelles and the bicelles are revealed.

  9. Structural changes of a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle induced by alcohol molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bermúdez, Jose G; Dominguez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Coarse-grained dynamical simulations have been performed to investigate the behavior of a surfactant micelle in the presence of six different alcohols: hexanol, octanol, decanol, dodecanol, tetradecanol, and hexadecanol. The self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is modified by the alcohol molecules into cylindrical and bilayer micelles as a function of the alcohol/SDS mass ratio. Therefore, in order to understand, from a molecular point of view, how SDS and alcohol molecules self-organize to form the new micelles, different studies were carried out. Analysis of micelle structures, density profiles, and parameters of order were conducted to characterize the shape and size of those micelles. The density profiles revealed that the alcohol molecules were located at the water-micelle interface next to the SDS molecules at low alcohol/SDS mass ratio. At high alcohol/SDS mass ratios, alcohol molecules moved to the middle of the micelle by increasing their size and by producing a structural change. Moreover, micelle structures and sizes were influenced not only by the alcohol/SDS mass ratio but also by the order of the SDS and alcohol tails. Finally, the size of the micelles and enthalpy calculations were used as order parameters to determine a structural phase diagram of alcohol/SDS mixtures in water. Graphical Abstract Structural transition of SDS/alcohol mixtures.

  10. Small angle neutron scattering study of the micelle structure of amphiphilic block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Matsuoka, H.; Sumaru, K.; Hanada, S.

    1994-01-01

    The amphiphilic block copolymers of vinyl ether were prepared by living cationic polymerization. The partially deuterated copolymers for SANS experiments were especially synthesized by introducing deuterated phenyl units in the hydrophobic chain. SANS measurements were performed for aqueous solutions of these copolymers by changing H 2 O/D 2 O ratios. The SANS profiles indicate that the micelles in the present system exhibit a core-shell structure and that the size and shape of micelles are largely dependent on the length of hydrophobic chain. The micelle of shorter hydrophobic chain was found to be nearly spherical, whereas the micelle of longer hydrophobic chain was confirmed to have an ellipsoidal shape

  11. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  12. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-01-01

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX

  13. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  14. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: mfhsieh@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  15. Micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates as an emerging platform for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Yutao; Zhang, Na

    2012-07-01

    During the past decades, polymer-drug conjugates are one of the hottest topics in novel drug development fields. Amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugates in aqueous solution could form micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies. Compared with polymer-drug conjugates and the micelles into which drugs are physically entrapped, micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates bring several additional advantages, including increased drug-loading capacity, enhanced intracellular uptake, reduced systemic toxicity, and improved therapeutic efficacy. This review focuses on recent progress achieved in the research field of micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates. Firstly, properties of polymers, drugs, and linkers which could be used to build polymer-drug conjugate micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies are summarized. Then, the characterization methods are described. Finally, the drug-targeting mechanisms are discussed. Micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates as an emerging platform have the potential to achieve medical treatments with enhanced therapeutic effect. The application of micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates may give new life to old active compounds abandoned due to their low solubility problems. For clinical application, there is a need to further optimize the properties of the polymer, drug, and linker.

  16. Temperature effect on the inter-micellar collision and maximum packaging volume fraction in water/AOT/isooctane micro-emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettari, Moez; Ben Naceur, Imen; Kassab, Ghazi; Tajouri, Tahar

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the viscosity behaviour of water/AOT/isooctane micro-emulsions as a function of the volume fraction of the dispersed phase over a temperature range from the (298.15 to 328.15) K. For all the studied temperature range, a sharp increase of the viscosities is observed when the droplets concentration was varied. Several equations based on hard sphere model were examined to explain the behaviours of micro-emulsions under temperature and concentration effects. According to these equations, the shape factor and the inter-particle interaction parameters were found to be dependent on temperature which is in contradiction with experimental results reported in the literature. A modified Vand equation, taking into account the inter-particle collision time, is used to interpret the results obtained. This deviation is attributed to the aggregation of the droplets which becomes important by increasing temperature. The maximum packaging volume fraction of particles Φ dm and the intrinsic viscosity [η] were determined according to the Krieger and Dougherty equation through the temperature range studied. These two parameters were shown to be dependent on temperature but their product was found to be constant and close to 2 as reported in theory.

  17. Glutathione-responsive core cross-linked micelles for controlled cabazitaxel delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxiong; Gong, Feirong; Sun, Jing; Li, Yueqi; Liu, XiaoFei; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianwen; Shen, Yaling

    2018-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) have recently received attention due to the controlled delivery of drug or gene for application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this work, novel glutathione-responsive PMs were prepared to encapsulate hydrophobic antineoplastic drug, cabazitaxel (CTX), to improve its solubility and toxicity. These CTX-loaded micelles core cross-linked by disulfide bonds (DCL-CTX micelles) were prepared by a novel copolymer, lipoic acid grafted mPEG-PLA. These micelles had regular spherical shape, homogeneous diameter of 18.97 ± 0.23 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The DCL-CTX micelles showed high encapsulation efficiency of 98.65 ± 1.77%, and the aqueous solubility of CTX was improved by a factor of 1:1200. In vitro release investigation showed that DCL-CTX micelles were stable in the medium without glutathione (GSH), whereas the micelles had burst CTX release in the medium with 10 mM GSH. Cell uptake results implied that DCL-CTX micelles were internalized into MCF-7 cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and released cargo more effectively than Jevtana (commercially available CTX) owing to GSH-stimulated degradation. In MTT assay against MCF-7 cells, these micelles inhibited tumor cell proliferation more effectively than Jevtana due to their GSH-responsive CTX release. All results revealed the potency of GSH-responsive DCL-CTX micelles for stable delivery in blood circulation and for intracellular GSH-trigged release of CTX. Therefore, DCL-CTX micelles show potential as safe and effective CTX delivery carriers and as a cancer chemotherapy formulation.

  18. Peptide-conjugated micelles as a targeting nanocarrier for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen Jen, E-mail: wjlin@ntu.edu.tw; Chien, Wei Hsuan [National Taiwan University, School of Pharmacy, Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated micelles possessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting ability for gene delivery. A sequence-modified dodecylpeptide, GE11(2R), with enhancing EGF receptor binding affinity, was applied in this study as a targeting ligand. The active targeting micelles were composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) copolymer conjugated with GE11(2R)-peptide. The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated micelles were 277.0 ± 5.1 and 308.7 ± 14.5 nm, respectively. The peptide-conjugated micelles demonstrated the cellular uptake significantly higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells due to GE11(2R)-peptide specificity. Furthermore, the peptide-conjugated micelles were able to encapsulate plasmid DNA and expressed cellular transfection higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed cells. The EGFR-targeting delivery micelles enhanced DNA internalized into cells and achieved higher cellular transfection in EGFR high-expressed cells.

  19. Comprehensive theory for star-like polymer micelles: combining classical nucleation and polymer brush theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Besseling, N.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive theory is proposed that combines classical nucleation and polymer brush theory to describe star-like polymer micelles. With a minimum of adjustable parameters, the model predicts properties such as critical micelle concentrations and micellar size distributions. The validity of the

  20. Self-consistent field modeling of linear non-ionic micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodar-Reyes, A.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A self-consistent field theory is used to predict structural, mechanical, and thermodynamical properties of linear micelles of selected nonionic surfactants of the type CnEm. Upon increase in surfactant concentration the sudden micelle shape transition from spherical to cylindrical (second critical

  1. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structure factor S(q) is governed by the volume fraction and surface charge of the micelles and the ionic strength of the medium. The ionic strength is fixed by the concentration of unassociated surfactant molecules and counterions arising from added hydrophobic molecules. No accounting of the polydispersity of the micelles.

  2. Modeling the Interaction of Dodecylphosphocholine Micelles with the Anticoccidial Peptide PW2 Guided by NMR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gomes-Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are highly dynamic entities that acquire structure upon binding to a membrane interface. To better understand the structure and the mechanism for the molecular recognition of dodecylphosphocholine (DPC micelles by the anticoccidial peptide PW2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations guided by NMR experimental data, focusing on strategies to explore the transient nature of micelles, which rearrange on a millisecond to second timescale. We simulated the association of PW2 with a pre-built DPC micelle and with free-DPC molecules that spontaneously forms micelles in the presence of the peptide along the simulation. The simulation with spontaneous micelle formation provided the adequate environment which replicated the experimental data. The unrestrained MD simulations reproduced the NMR structure for the entire 100 ns MD simulation time. Hidden discrete conformational states could be described. Coulomb interactions are important for initial approximation and hydrogen bonds for anchoring the aromatic region at the interface, being essential for the stabilization of the interaction. Arg9 is strongly attached with phosphate. We observed a helix elongation process stabilized by the intermolecular peptide-micelle association. Full association that mimics the experimental data only happens after complete micelle re-association. Fast micelle dynamics without dissociation of surfactants leads to only superficial binding.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of SPIO-loaded PEG-b-PS Micelles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    size of SPIO cluster. However, the relaxivity reaches its maximum in the static dephasing regime (SDR); then, it decreased with increasing clustering size in the echo-limiting regime. (ELR). SPIO loaded PEG-b-PS micelles presented similar phenomena in MAR. The r2* values were linearly increased by the size of micelles ...

  4. Effects of gamma-irradiation on some properties of bovine casein micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Zenichi

    1974-01-01

    Sedimentation studies and electron microscopic observations revealed that an association between casein micelles dispersed in water or milk serum was not induced significantly by gamma-irradiation of exposure up to 3 x 10 6 R, whereas a release of nonprotein nitrogen was observed to a certain extent. It was concluded from the results of turbidi-metry and gel filtration using 3 size groups of casein micelles, namely large, medium and small, that an irradiation-induced polymerization or association occurred within individual casein micelles, and strengthend the micelle structure. Thus the irradiated casein micelles resisted, more or less, to the solubilizing effect of NaCl, EDTA, pyrophosphate and urea. Stabilities of casein micelles for ethanol and for acidification to an isoelectric point were decreased and increased, respectively, after irradiation. Gamma irradiation also caused the decrease of glycomacropeptide released from casein micelles by the action of rennin, and this resulted in the delay of rennin-coagulation of casein. There were no essential differences among the 3 size groups of casein micelles concerning the above described tendencies. (auth.)

  5. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactide (mPEG-PLA and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15, were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12. Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  6. Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polymeric Micelle pH Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    at the micelle shell using CuAAC results in a stabilized micelle pH nanosensor. Compared to the postmicelle modification strategy, the mixed-micellization approach increases the control of the overall composition of the nanosensors.Both approaches provide stable nanosensors with similar pKa profiles and thereby...

  7. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  8. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Maling; Shi Huashan; Guo Gang; Men Ke; Zhang Juan; Li Zhiyong; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong; Wei Yuquan; Zheng Lan; Zhao Xia

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ∼ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  9. The role of decorated SDS micelles in sub-cmc protein denaturation and association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto De; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2009-01-01

    . Our data provide key structural insights into decorated micelle complexes with proteins, revealing a remarkable diversity in the different conformations they can stabilize. The data highlight that a minimum decorated micelle size, which may be a key driving force for intermolecular protein association...

  10. Folated Synperonic-Cholesteryl Hemisuccinate Polymeric Micelles for the Targeted Delivery of Docetaxel in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the synthesis of folic acid- (FA- targeted polymeric micelles of Synperonic PE/F 127-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (PF127-Chol for specific delivery of docetaxel (DTX. Targeted or nontargeted micelles loaded with DTX were prepared via dialysis method. The effects of processing variables on the physicochemical properties of targeted micelles were evaluated using a full factorial design. After the optimization of the polymer/drug ratio, the organic solvent type used for the preparation of the micelles, and the temperature of dialyzing medium, the in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the optimized micelles were studied on B16F10 melanoma cells by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The anticancer efficacy of DTX-loaded FA-PF127-Chol was evaluated in mice bearing melanoma tumor. Optimized targeted micelles had the particle size of 171.3 nm, zeta potential of −7.8 mV, PDI of 0.325, and a high encapsulation efficiency that released the drug within 144 h. The MTT assay indicated that targeted micelles carrying DTX were significantly more cytotoxic, had higher cellular uptake, and reduced the tumor volume significantly more than the nontargeted micelles and the free drug. FA-PF127-Chol could be, therefore, a promising biomaterial for tumors overexpressing folate receptors.

  11. Radiolabeling polymeric micelles for in vivo evaluation : a novel, fast, and facile method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, A.C.; Santini, Costanza; Jennings, Laurence; de Jong, Marion; Bernsen, Monique R.; Denkova, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an indispensable tool in the determination of the in vivo fate of polymeric micelles. However, for this purpose, the micelles need to be radiolabeled, and almost all radiolabeling procedures published to date involve the

  12. Radiolabeling polymeric micelles for in vivo evaluation: a novel, fast, and facile method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Laan (Adrianus C.); C. Santini (Costanza); L. Jennings (Laurence); M. De Jong (Marion); M.R. Bernsen (Monique); A.G. Denkova (Antonia G.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an indispensable tool in the determination of the in vivo fate of polymeric micelles. However, for this purpose, the micelles need to be radiolabeled, and almost all radiolabeling procedures published to date involve the

  13. Radiolabeling polymeric micelles for in vivo evaluation : A novel, fast, and facile method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, A.C.; Santini, C.; Jennings, L.; De Jong, M.; Bernsen, M.R.; Denkova, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an indispensable tool in the determination of the in vivo fate of polymeric micelles. However, for this purpose, the micelles need to be radiolabeled, and almost all radiolabeling procedures published to date involve the conjugation of

  14. Self-consistent-field calculations of proteinlike incorporations in polyelectrolyte complex micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Cohen Stuart, Martinus Abraham; Norde, Willem; Leermakers, Frans A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Self-consistent field theory is applied to model the structure and stability of polyelectrolyte complex micelles with incorporated protein (molten globule) molecules in the core. The electrostatic interactions that drive the micelle formation are mimicked by nearest-neighbor interactions using

  15. Thermoresponsive hydrolytically degradable polymer micelles intended for radionuclide delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Koňák, Čestmír; Filippov, Sergey K.; Kučka, Jan; Větvička, David; Macková, Hana; Karlsson, G.; Edwards, K.; Říhová, Blanka; Ulbrich, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2009), s. 1016-1027 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : block-copolymer micelles * drug-delivery * systems Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2009

  16. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...... composition. The data analysis comprises an application from results of conformation space renormalization group theory and a non-linear least-squares fitting procedure based upon a recently developed numerical expression for the scattering function of a worm-like chain with excluded volume effects....

  17. Switchable pH-responsive polymeric membranes prepared via block copolymer micelle assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-05-24

    A process is described to manufacture monodisperse asymmetric pH-responsive nanochannels with very high densities (pore density >2 × 10 14 pores per m2), reproducible in m2 scale. Cylindric pores with diameters in the sub-10 nm range and lengths in the 400 nm range were formed by self-assembly of metal-block copolymer complexes and nonsolvent-induced phase separation. The film morphology was tailored by taking into account the stability constants for a series of metal-polymer complexes and confirmed by AFM. The distribution of metal-copolymer micelles was imaged by transmission electron microscopy tomography. The pH response of the polymer nanochannels is the strongest reported with synthetic pores in the nm range (reversible flux increase of more than 2 orders of magnitude when switching the pH from 2 to 8) and could be demonstrated by cryo-field emission scanning electron microscopy, SAXS, and ultra/nanofiltration experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was

  19. Complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers using living, crystallization-driven polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädt, Torben; Ieong, Nga Sze; Cambridge, Graeme; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Manners, Ian

    2009-02-01

    Block copolymers consist of two or more chemically distinct polymer segments, or blocks, connected by a covalent link. In a selective solvent for one of the blocks, core-corona micelle structures are formed. We demonstrate that living polymerizations driven by the epitaxial crystallization of a core-forming metalloblock represent a synthetic tool that can be used to generate complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers. The use of platelet micelles as initiators enables the formation of scarf-like architectures in which cylindrical micelle tassels of controlled length are grown from specific crystal faces. A similar process enables the fabrication of brushes of cylindrical micelles on a crystalline homopolymer substrate. Living polymerizations driven by heteroepitaxial growth can also be accomplished and are illustrated by the formation of tri- and pentablock and scarf architectures with cylinder-cylinder and platelet-cylinder connections, respectively, that involve different core-forming metalloblocks.

  20. Factors affecting the stability of drug-loaded polymeric micelles and strategies for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weisai; Li, Caibin; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Wenli, E-mail: zwllz@163.com; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: liujianpingljp@hotmail.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China)

    2016-09-15

    Polymeric micelles (PMs) self-assembled by amphiphilic block copolymers have been used as promising nanocarriers for tumor-targeted delivery due to their favorable properties, such as excellent biocompatibility, prolonged circulation time, favorable particle sizes (10–100 nm) to utilize enhanced permeability and retention effect and the possibility for functionalization. However, PMs can be easily destroyed due to dilution of body fluid and the absorption of proteins in system circulation, which may induce drug leakage from these micelles before reaching the target sites and compromise the therapeutic effect. This paper reviewed the factors that influence stability of micelles in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics consist of the critical micelle concentration of block copolymers, glass transition temperature of hydrophobic segments and polymer–polymer and polymer–cargo interaction. In addition, some effective strategies to improve the stability of micelles were also summarized.Graphical Abstract.

  1. Polyion complex micelles prepared by self-assembly of block-graft polycation and hyperbranched polyanion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Wang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2017-09-01

    Polyion complex (PIC) micelles were prepared by self-assembly of block-graft polycation monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)- block-(poly(ɛ-caprolactone)- graft-polyethylenimine) (PEG- b-(PCL- g-PEI)) and hyperbranched polyanion sodium carboxyl-modified hyperbranched polyesters (Hx-COONa, x = 20, 30, 40). The results from commonly used MTT assay indicated that PIC micelles had good biocompatibility. PIC micelles with N/COO- of 8/3 had appropriate size (sub-110 nm) and moderate zeta potential ( 3 mV). PIC micelles were nano-sized spheres, and the average size was about 50 nm. PIC micelles had high drug loading capacity for hydrophilic drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride and released the drugs under the influence of pH and ionic strength.

  2. Proton Relaxation and Spin Label Studies of Papaverine Localization in Ionic Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushmanov, V. E.; Imasato, H.; Perussi, J. R.; Tabak, M.

    The localization of papaverine (PAV) in micelles of zwitterionic N-hexadecyl- N, N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (HPS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in D 2O was studied by 1H NMR and ESR in the presence and absence of 5-doxyl- or 12-doxyl-stearic acid. PAV, surfactants, and spin probes are characterized by restricted anisotropic motion in micelles. The rotational correlation time of doxyl fragment was in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 nanoseconds. Binding of PAV to micelles decreases the mobility of both probes, suggesting the localization of PAV inside the hydrophobic part of micelles near the micelle-water interface. According to the NOE data, the methoxy groups of PAV are located in the vicinity of the nitrogen atom in CTAC and HPS micelles, the methoxy groups of the PAV heterocycle being immersed slightly deeper inside the micelle. The T1 relaxation enhancements by two different spin probes show that the H5 and methoxy substituents of the PAV heterocycle are in close proximity to the α-CH 2 of acyl chains in all types of micelles, whereas H3 and H12 are the most distant from the α-CH 2. No significant differences were found for the protonated and neutral PAV in SDS micelles at pD 4.9 and 11.2. These data show that the geometry of the PAV-micelle complex is practically independent of the PAV charge and surfactant headgroup.

  3. Analyte focusing by micelle collapse in CZE: nanopreparation of neutrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Joselito P

    2009-03-01

    Fundamental studies on the nanopreparation of neutral analytes in CZE by analyte focusing by micelle collapse (AFMC) are presented. The background solution (BGS) is prepared using an electrolyte salt (i.e. sodium or ammonium acetate). The sample solution of the neutral analytes (S) is prepared using SDS at a concentration above the cmc. To induce AFMC, the conductivity of the S must be greater than the BGS. This was achieved by the addition of the electrolyte salt to the S. Dilution of the micellar carrier from the injected S occurs at the BGS zone closest to the boundary between the S and BGS (micellar dilution zone). The dilution of SDS below the cmc causes the collapse of the micelles with subsequent release of previously bound analyte molecules. The continued transport and release causes the analytes to be accumulated at the micellar dilution zone. This nanopreparative technique is compatible with detection using mass spectrometry and can be utilized as a sample injection step for microfluidic devices. The disadvantage of this technique is that the neutral analytes are not separated after concentration. Here, the effect of retention factor of the analyte, conductivity ratio of the S and BGS, SDS concentration in the S, electrolyte salt (i.e. sodium acetate) concentration in the BGS, and organic modifier content in the BGS were examined. A study on the effect of the sample matrix injection prior to the sample injection to the performance of AFMC-CZE to neutral analytes is also presented.

  4. Non-surface activity and micellization behavior of cationic amphiphilic block copolymer synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arjun; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Matsuoka, Hideki; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2011-08-02

    Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(n-butylacrylate)-b-poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PBA-b-PMAPTAC) with various hydrophobic and hydrophilic chain lengths were synthesized by a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process. Their molecular characteristics such as surface activity/nonactivity were investigated by surface tension measurements and foam formation observation. Their micelle formation behavior and micelle structure were investigated by fluorescence probe technique, static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), etc., as a function of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain lengths. The block copolymers were found to be non-surface active because the surface tension of the aqueous solutions did not change with increasing polymer concentration. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the polymers could be determined by fluorescence and SLS measurements, which means that these polymers form micelles in bulk solution, although they were non-surface active. Above the cmc, the large blue shift of the emission maximum of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) probe and the low micropolarity value of the pyrene probe in polymer solution indicate the core of the micelle is nonpolar in nature. Also, the high value of the relative intensity of the NPN probe and the fluorescence anisotropy of the 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) probe indicated that the core of the micelle is highly viscous in nature. DLS was used to measure the average hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the copolymer micelles. The copolymer with the longest PBA block had the poorest water solubility and consequently formed micelles with larger size while having a lower cmc. The "non-surface activity" was confirmed for cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers in addition to anionic ones studied previously, indicating the universality of non-surface activity nature.

  5. Self-Assembly of Calix[4]arene-Based Amphiphiles Bearing Polyethylene Glycols: Another Example of "Platonic Micelles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Fujii, Shota; Takahashi, Rintaro; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    The aggregation number of classical micelles exhibits a certain distribution, which is a recognizable feature of conventional micelles. However, we recently identified perfectly monodisperse calix[4]arene-based micelles whose aggregation numbers agree with the vertex numbers of regular polyhedra, that is, Platonic solids, and thus they are named "Platonic micelles". Regarding our hypothesis of the formation mechanism of Platonic micelles, both repulsive interactions including steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsions among the headgroups are important for determining their aggregation number; however, neither of these is necessarily needed to consider. In this study, we employed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as the nonionic headgroup of calix[4]arene-based amphiphiles to study the effects of only repulsive interactions caused by steric hindrance on the formation of Platonic micelles. The amphiphiles containing relatively low-molecular-weight PEGs (550 or 1000 g mol -1 ) form dodecamer or octamer micelles, respectively, with no variation in the aggregation number. However, relatively high-molecular-weight PEGs (2000 g mol -1 ) produce polydispersed micelles with a range of aggregation number. PEG 2000 exhibits a greater affinity for water than PEG 550 and 1000, resulting in fewer hydrophobic interactions in micelle formation, as indicated by the drastic increase of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value in the PEG 2000 system. The instability of the structure of PEG 2k CaL5 micelles might contribute to the higher mobility of PEG in the micellar shell, resulting in a non-Platonic aggregation number with polydispersity.

  6. Biodegradable self-assembled PEG-PCL-PEG micelles for hydrophobic honokiol delivery: I. Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Changyang; Wei Xiawei; Wang Xiuhong; Wang Yujun; Guo Gang; Mao Yongqiu; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to develop self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles to encapsulate hydrophobic honokiol (HK) in order to overcome its poor water solubility and to meet the requirement of intravenous administration. Honokiol loaded micelles (HK-micelles) were prepared by self-assembly of PECE copolymer in aqueous solution, triggered by its amphiphilic characteristic assisted by ultrasonication without any organic solvents, surfactants and vigorous stirring. The particle size of the prepared HK-micelles measured by Malvern laser particle size analyzer were 58 nm, which is small enough to be a candidate for an intravenous drug delivery system. Furthermore, the HK-micelles could be lyophilized into powder without any adjuvant, and the re-dissolved HK-micelles are stable and homogeneous with particle size about 61 nm. Furthermore, the in vitro release profile showed a significant difference between the rapid release of free HK and the much slower and sustained release of HK-micelles. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results of blank micelles and HK-micelles showed that the PECE micelle was a safe carrier and the encapsulated HK retained its potent antitumor effect. In short, the HK-micelles were successfully prepared by an improved method and might be promising carriers for intravenous delivery of HK in cancer chemotherapy, being effective, stable, safe (organic solvent and surfactant free), and easy to produce and scale up.

  7. Biodegradable self-assembled PEG-PCL-PEG micelles for hydrophobic honokiol delivery: I. Preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ChangYang; Wei, XiaWei; Wang, XiuHong; Wang, YuJun; Guo, Gang; Mao, YongQiu; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to develop self-assembled poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles to encapsulate hydrophobic honokiol (HK) in order to overcome its poor water solubility and to meet the requirement of intravenous administration. Honokiol loaded micelles (HK-micelles) were prepared by self-assembly of PECE copolymer in aqueous solution, triggered by its amphiphilic characteristic assisted by ultrasonication without any organic solvents, surfactants and vigorous stirring. The particle size of the prepared HK-micelles measured by Malvern laser particle size analyzer were 58 nm, which is small enough to be a candidate for an intravenous drug delivery system. Furthermore, the HK-micelles could be lyophilized into powder without any adjuvant, and the re-dissolved HK-micelles are stable and homogeneous with particle size about 61 nm. Furthermore, the in vitro release profile showed a significant difference between the rapid release of free HK and the much slower and sustained release of HK-micelles. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results of blank micelles and HK-micelles showed that the PECE micelle was a safe carrier and the encapsulated HK retained its potent antitumor effect. In short, the HK-micelles were successfully prepared by an improved method and might be promising carriers for intravenous delivery of HK in cancer chemotherapy, being effective, stable, safe (organic solvent and surfactant free), and easy to produce and scale up.

  8. Influence of serum albumin on intracellular delivery of drug-loaded hyaluronan polymeric micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešporová, Kristina; Šógorková, Jana; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Kulhánek, Jaromír; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Kubala, Lukáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-09-10

    Polymeric micelles are attractive drug delivery systems for intravenously administered nonpolar drugs. Although physical parameters like size, shape and loading capacity are considered as the most important for their efficiency, here we demonstrate that the effects of serum protein interaction and characteristics of loaded compound cannot be neglected during the micelle development and design of experimental set up. Polymeric micelles prepared from amphiphilic hyaluronic acid grafted with short (hexanoic) and long fatty acids (oleic) were tested after loading with two different hydrophobic models, Nile red and curcumin. The composition of micelles affected mainly the loading capacity. Both encapsulated compounds behaved differently in the in vitro cell uptake, which was also influenced by serum concentration, where serum albumin was found to be the primary destabilizing component. This destabilization was found to be influenced by polymeric micelle concentration. Thus, the chemical structure of micelle, the properties of non-covalently loaded substance and serum albumin/polymeric micelle ratio modulate the in vitro intracellular uptake of drugs loaded in nanocarriers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Production of Fluconazole-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Membrane and Microfluidic Dispersion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelles with a controlled size in the range between 41 and 80 nm were prepared by injecting the organic phase through a microengineered nickel membrane or a tapered-end glass capillary into an aqueous phase. The organic phase was composed of 1 mg·mL−1 of PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with variable molecular weights, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF or acetone. The pore size of the membrane was 20 μm and the aqueous/organic phase volumetric flow rate ratio ranged from 1.5 to 10. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with Mn ranging from ~9700 to 16,000 g·mol−1 and polymeric micelles were successfully produced from both devices. Micelles produced from the membrane device were smaller than those produced from the microfluidic device, due to the much smaller pore size compared with the orifice size in a co-flow device. The micelles were found to be relatively stable in terms of their size with an initial decrease in size attributed to evaporation of residual solvent rather than their structural disintegration. Fluconazole was loaded into the cores of micelles by injecting the organic phase composed of 0.5–2.5 mg·mL−1 fluconazole and 1.5 mg·mL−1 copolymer. The size of the drug-loaded micelles was found to be significantly larger than the size of empty micelles.

  10. Production of Fluconazole-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Membrane and Microfluidic Dispersion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Chowdhury, Danial; Vladisavljević, Goran T; Koutroumanis, Konstantinos; Georgiadou, Stella

    2016-05-25

    Polymeric micelles with a controlled size in the range between 41 and 80 nm were prepared by injecting the organic phase through a microengineered nickel membrane or a tapered-end glass capillary into an aqueous phase. The organic phase was composed of 1 mg·mL(-1) of PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with variable molecular weights, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or acetone. The pore size of the membrane was 20 μm and the aqueous/organic phase volumetric flow rate ratio ranged from 1.5 to 10. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with Mn ranging from ~9700 to 16,000 g·mol(-1) and polymeric micelles were successfully produced from both devices. Micelles produced from the membrane device were smaller than those produced from the microfluidic device, due to the much smaller pore size compared with the orifice size in a co-flow device. The micelles were found to be relatively stable in terms of their size with an initial decrease in size attributed to evaporation of residual solvent rather than their structural disintegration. Fluconazole was loaded into the cores of micelles by injecting the organic phase composed of 0.5-2.5 mg·mL(-1) fluconazole and 1.5 mg·mL(-1) copolymer. The size of the drug-loaded micelles was found to be significantly larger than the size of empty micelles.

  11. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetelina Gorinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepared and loaded with curcumin by applying the dissolution method. Higher encapsulation efficiency was observed in the micelles formulated with Pluronic® P 123. These micelles were characterized with small size and narrow size distribution. The effects of micellar curcumin were investigated in two in vitro models. First, the capacity of micellar curcumin to inhibit iron/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes was evaluated. Micellar curcumin and free drug showed similar inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Second, micellar curcumin and free curcumin showed protective potential in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The results from both methods indicated preservation of antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of curcumin in micelles. The small micellar size, high loading capacity and preservation of antioxidant activity of curcumin into Pluronic micelles, suggested their further evaluation as a curcumin delivery system.

  12. Microstructural observation of casein micelles in milk by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Takamichi; Ito, Yosiko; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2018-03-02

    Casein micelles are present in bovine milk as colloidal particles with diameters of 20-600 nm, which are complex macromolecular assemblies composed of four distinct types of casein and colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP). Multiple structural models of casein micelles have been proposed based on their biochemical or physical properties and observed using electron microscopy. However, the CCP distribution and crosslinking structure between CCP and casein remain unclear. Therefore, the internal structure of casein micelles in raw milk was observed using cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) with high precision at high resolution. The results confirmed that the average casein micelle diameter was about 140 nm, and that the CCP diameter in casein micelles was about 2-3 nm, with an average diameter of 2.3 nm. The distribution of CCP in casein micelles was not uniform, with an average interval between CCPs of about 5.4 nm. Areas containing no black particles (attributed to CCP) were present, with an average size of about 19.1 nm. Considering previous reports, these areas possibly correspond to pores or cavities filled with water. Based on differences in the density of structures in casein micelles, we estimated that some of the casein aggregates were able to connect with CCP in a string.

  13. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  14. Long circulating micelles of an amphiphilic random copolymer bearing cell outer membrane phosphorylcholine zwitterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chai, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Peng-Fei; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Polymeric micelles with cell outer membrane mimetic structure were prepared in water from amphiphilic random copolymers bearing both the hydrophilic phosphorylcholine zwitterions and hydrophobic octadecyl side chains of cell outer membrane. The polymeric micelles showed sizes ranging from 80 nm to 120 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and zeta-potentials from -6.4 mV to -2.4 mV by dynamic light scattering measurements. The micelles loaded with 6-coumarin as a fluorescence probe were stable to investigate their blood circulation and biodistribution. The in vitro phagocytosis results using murine peritoneal macrophages showed 10-fold reduction compared with a reference micelle. The in vivo blood circulation half-life of the polymeric micelles following intravenous administration in New Zealand Rabbits was increased from 0.55 h to 90.5h. More interestingly, tissue distribution results showed that the concentration of the micelles in the kidney is 4-fold higher than that in the liver and other organs 48 h after administration. The results of this work show great promise for designing more effective stealth drug carriers that can minimize reticuloendothelial system clearance and circulate for long time to reach target by using simple cell membrane mimetic random copolymer micelles. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Amphiphilic, Biodegradable, Biocompatible, Thermo-Responsive ABA Triblock Copolymers Based on PCL and PEG Analogues via a Combination of ROP and RAFT: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sustained Drug Release from Self-Assembled Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined novel, linear, biodegradable, amphiphilic thermo-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers, poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol methacrylate]-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol methacrylate] [P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA-b-PCL-b-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA] (tBPs, were synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP of ε-caprolactone (εCL and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT of MEO2MA and OEGMA comonomers. The chemical structures and compositions of these copolymers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The molecular weights of the copolymers were obtained using gel permeation chromatography (GPC measurements. Thermo-responsive micelles were obtained by self-assembly of copolymers in aqueous medium. The temperature sensitivity and micelllization behavior of amphiphilic triblock copolymers solutions were studied by transmittance, fluorescence probe, surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A hydrophobic drug, anethole, was encapsulated in micelles by using the dialysis method. The average particle sizes of drug-loaded micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering measurement. In vitro, the sustained release of the anethole was performed in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at different temperatures. Results showed that the triblock copolymer’s micelles were quite effective in the encapsulation and controlled release of anethole. The vial inversion test demonstrated that the triblock copolymers could trigger the sol-gel transition which also depended on the temperature, and its sol-gel transition temperature gradually decreased with increasing concentration. The hydrogel system could also be used as a carrier of hydrophobic drugs in medicine.

  16. Backbone-hydrazone-containing biodegradable copolymeric micelles for anticancer drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong, E-mail: pharmsong@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Institute of Pharmacy (China)

    2016-11-15

    Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.

  17. Nanotoxicity comparison of four amphiphilic polymeric micelles with similar hydrophilic or hydrophobic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Xiao-You; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wen-Bing; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Zhen-Lin; Wu, Hou-Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-10-03

    Nanocarriers represent an attractive means of drug delivery, but their biosafety must be established before their use in clinical research. Four kinds of amphiphilic polymeric (PEG-PG-PCL, PEEP-PCL, PEG-PCL and PEG-DSPE) micelles with similar hydrophilic or hydrophobic structure were prepared and their in vitro and in vivo safety were evaluated and compared. In vitro nanotoxicity evaluations included assessments of cell morphology, cell volume, inflammatory effects, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and membrane fluidity. An umbilical vein cell line (Eahy.926) and a kind of macrophages (J774.A1) were used as cell models considering that intravenous route is dominant for micelle delivery systems. In vivo analyses included complete blood count, lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of plasma inflammatory factors and histological observations of major organs after intravenous administration to KM mice. All the micelles enhanced inflammatory molecules in J774.A1 cells, likely resulting from the increased ROS levels. PEG-PG-PCL and PEEP-PCL micelles were found to increase the J774.A1 cell volume. This likely correlated with the size of PEG-PG-PCL micelles and the polyphosphoester structure in PEEP-PCL. PEG-DSPE micelles inhibited the growth of Eahy.926 cells via inducing apoptosis. This might relate to the structure of DSPE, which is a type of phospholipid and has good affinity with cell membrane. No evidence was found for cell membrane changes after treatment with these micelles for 24 h. In the in vivo study, during 8 days of 4 time injection, each of the four nanocarriers altered the hematic phase differently without changes in inflammatory factors or pathological changes in target organs. These results demonstrate that the micelles investigated exhibit diverse nanotoxicity correlated with their structures, their biosafety is different in different cell model, and there is no in vitro and in vivo correlation found. We believe that this study will certainly provide more

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of helical antimicrobial peptides in SDS micelles: what do point mutations achieve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2005-01-01

    We report long time scale simulations of the 18-residue helical antimicrobial peptide ovispirin-1 and its analogs novispirin-G10 and novispirin-T7 in SDS micelles. The SDS micelle serves as an economical and effective model for a cellular membrane. Ovispirin, which is initially placed along...... a micelle diameter, diffuses out to the water-SDS interface and stabilizes to an interface-bound steady state in 16.35 ns of simulation. The final conformation, orientation, and the structure of ovispirin are in good agreement with the experimentally observed properties of the peptide in presence of lipid...

  19. Redox-sensitive Pluronic F127-tocopherol micelles: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuling Liu,1,2,* Sai Fu,1,* Longfei Lin,1 Yuhong Cao,3 Xi Xie,3 Hua Yu,2 Meiwan Chen,2 Hui Li1 1Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: Pluronic F127 (F127, an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, has been shown to have significant potential for drug delivery, as it is able to incorporate hydrophobic drugs and self-assemble into nanosize micelles. However, it suffers from dissociation upon dilution owing to the relatively high critical micelle concentration and lack of stimuli-responsive behavior. Here, we synthesized the α-tocopherol (TOC modified F127 polymer (F127-SS-TOC via a redox-sensitive disulfide bond between F127 and TOC, which formed stable micelles at relatively low critical micelle concentration and was sensitive to the intracellular redox environment. The particle size and zeta potential of the F127-SS-TOC micelles were 51.87±6.39 nm and -8.43±2.27 mV, respectively, and little changes in both particle size and zeta potential were observed within 7 days at room temperature. With 10 mM dithiothreitol stimulation, the F127-SS-TOC micelles rapidly dissociated followed by a significant change in size, which demonstrated a high reduction sensitivity of the micelles. In addition, the micelles showed a high hemocompatibility even at a high micelle concentration (1,000 µg/mL. Low cytotoxicity of the F127-SS-TOC micelles at concentrations ranging from 12.5 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was also found on both Bel 7402 and L02 cells. Overall, our results demonstrated F127-SS-TOC micelles as a stable and safe aqueous formulation with a considerable potential for drug delivery. Keywords: Pluronic F127

  20. Folding of DsbB in mixed micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otzen, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    is sensitive to changes in lipid and detergent composition. As an attempt to overcome this problem, I present a kinetic analysis of the folding of a membrane protein, disulfide bond reducing protein B (DsbB), in a mixed micelle system consisting of varying molar ratios of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS......, when monitored by conventional stopped-flow. The kinetic data indicate that denaturation occurs around 0.3 mole fraction of SDS, in agreement with CD analysis and acrylamide quenching data. The rate constants have been fit to a three-state folding scheme involving the SDS-denatured state, the native...... state and an unfolding intermediate that accumulates only under unfolding conditions at high mole fractions of SDS. The stability of DsbB is around 4.4 kcal/mol in DM, and this is halved upon reduction of the two periplasmic disulfide bonds, and is sensitive to mutagenesis. With the caveat that kinetic...

  1. Cooperative catalysis with block copolymer micelles: A combinatorial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V.

    2015-02-09

    A rapid approach to identifying complementary catalytic groups using combinations of functional polymers is presented. Amphiphilic polymers with "clickable" hydrophobic blocks were used to create a library of functional polymers, each bearing a single functionality. The polymers were combined in water, yielding mixed micelles. As the functional groups were colocalized in the hydrophobic microphase, they could act cooperatively, giving rise to new modes of catalysis. The multipolymer "clumps" were screened for catalytic activity, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. A number of catalyst candidates were identified across a wide range of model reaction types. One of the catalytic systems discovered was used to perform a number of preparative-scale syntheses. Our approach provides easy access to a range of enzyme-inspired cooperative catalysts.

  2. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B

    2014-01-28

    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  3. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  4. Low-density lipoprotein-coupled micelles with reduction and pH dual sensitivity for intelligent co-delivery of paclitaxel and siRNA to breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu WJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wen-jing Zhu,1,* Shu-di Yang,1,* Chen-xi Qu,1 Qiao-ling Zhu,1,2 Wei-liang Chen,1 Fang Li,1 Zhi-qiang Yuan,1 Yang Liu,1 Ben-gang You,1 Xue-nong Zhang1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Gulou Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major obstacle for the clinical therapy of malignant human cancers. The discovery of RNA interference provides efficient gene silencing within tumor cells for reversing MDR. In this study, a new “binary polymer” low-density lipoprotein–N-succinyl chitosan–cystamine–urocanic acid (LDL–NSC–SS–UA with dual pH/redox sensitivity and targeting effect was synthesized for the co-delivery of breast cancer resistance protein small interfering RNA (siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX. In vivo, the co-delivering micelles can accumulate in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect and the specific recognition and combination of LDL and LDL receptor, which is overexpressed on the surface of tumor cell membranes. The siRNA–PTX-loaded micelles inhibited gene and drug release under physiological conditions while promoting fast release in an acid microenvironment or in the presence of glutathione. The micelles escaped from the lysosome through the proton sponge effect. Additionally, the micelles exhibited superior antitumor activity and downregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of breast cancer resistance protein in MCF-7/Taxol cells. The biodistribution and antitumor studies proved that the siRNA–PTX-loaded micelles possessed prolonged circulation time with a remarkable tumor-targeting effect and effectively inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, the novel dual pH/redox-sensitive polymers co-delivering siRNA and PTX with excellent biocompatibility and effective reversal of MDR demonstrate a considerable

  5. Solvation dynamics in triton-X-100 and triton-X-165 micelles: Effect of micellar size and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-09-01

    Dynamic Stokes' shift measurements using coumarin 153 as the fluorescence probe have been carried out to study solvation dynamics in two nonionic micelles, viz., triton-X-100 (TX-100) and triton-X-165 (TX-165). In both the micelles, the solvent relaxation dynamics is biexponential in nature. While the fast solvation time τs1 is seen to be almost similar for both the micelles, the slow solvation time τs2 is found to be appreciably smaller in TX-165 than in TX-100 micelle. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that the TX-165 micelles are substantially smaller in size than that of TX-100. Assuming similar core size for both the micelles, as expected from the similar chemical structures of the nonpolar ends for both the surfactants, the Palisade layer is also indicated to be substantially thinner for TX-165 micelles than that of TX-100. The aggregation number of TX-165 micelles is also found to be substantially smaller than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence spectral studies of C153 dye in the two micelles indicate that the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is more polar than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate that the microviscosity in the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is also lower than that of TX-100 micelles. Based on these results it is inferred that the structure of the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is quite loose and have higher degree hydration in comparison to that of TX-100 micelles. Due to these structural differences in the Palisade layers of TX-165 and TX-100 micelles the solvation dynamics is faster in the former micelles than in the latter. It has been further inferred that in the present systems the collective response of the water molecules at somewhat away from the probes is responsible for the faster component of the solvation time, which does not reflect much of the structural changes of the micellar Palisade layer. On the contrary, the slower solvation time component, which is mainly due to

  6. pH-triggered surface charge-switchable polymer micelles for the co-delivery of paclitaxel/disulfiram and overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Q

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Qiang Huo,1,* Jianhua Zhu,1,2,* Yimin Niu,3 Huihui Shi,2 Yaxiang Gong,2 Yang Li,2 Huihui Song,4 Yang Liu2 1School of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 2School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 4Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group, Taizhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR remains a major challenge for providing effective chemotherapy for many cancer patients. To address this issue, we report an intelligent polymer-based drug co-delivery system which could enhance and accelerate cellular uptake and reverse MDR. The nanodrug delivery systems were constructed by encapsulating disulfiram (DSF, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitor, into the hydrophobic core of poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(l-lysine (PEG-b-PLL block copolymer micelles, as well as 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMA and paclitaxel (PTX were grafted on the side chain of l-lysine simultaneously. The surface charge of the drug-loaded micelles represents as negative in plasma (pH 7.4, which is helpful to prolong the circulation time, and in a weak acid environment of tumor tissue (pH 6.5–6.8 it can be reversed to positive, which is in favor of their entering into the cancer cells. In addition, the carrier could release DSF and PTX successively inside cells. The results of in vitro studies show that, compared to the control group, the DSF and PTX co-loaded micelles with charge reversal exhibits more effective cellular uptake and significantly increased cytotoxicity of PTX to MCF-7/ADR cells which may be due to the inhibitory effect of DSF on the efflux function of P-gp. Accordingly, such a smart pH-sensitive nanosystem, in our opinion, possesses significant potential to achieve combinational drug delivery and overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy. Keywords: pH response, charge reversal, multidrug

  7. Near-infrared light-triggered dissociation of block copolymer micelles for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Huang, Shanshan; Chen, Yuqi; Li, Siwen; Achilefu, Samuel; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    In this manuscript, a new near-infrared (NIR) light-breakable amphiphilic block copolymer containing light-sensitive triggering group on the hydrophobic block was developed. By encapsulating NIR dye cypate inside micelles of poly (N-succinyl-N'-4- (2-nitrobenzyloxy)-succinyl chitosan) and exposing the micellar solution to 765.9 nm light, the photo-cleavage reaction was activated and leading to the dissociation of micelles and release of co-loaded hydrophobic species. The UV-vis absorption spectra, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra of micelles were characterized. Triggered burst release of the payload upon NIR irradiation and subsequent degradation of the micelles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This system represents a general and efficient method to circumvent the need for UV or visible light excitation that is a common drawback for light-responsive polymeric systems developed for potential biomedical applications.

  8. Electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with polyphenolic acids in micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Chemistry, Fatima College, Madurai 625 018 (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628 216 (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India)

    2016-02-15

    The electron transfer in a microhetrogeneous system is a perfect mimic of biological electron transfer. The electron transfer between biologically important phenolic acids and ruthenium (II) complexes is systematically studied in the presence of anionic and cationic micelles. The photophysical properties of these ruthenium (II) complexes with anionic and cationic micelles and their binding abilities with these two type of micelles are also studies using absorption, emission and excited state lifetime spectral techniques. Pseudophase Ion Exchange (PIE) Model is applied to derive mechanism of electron transfer in two types of micelles. - Highlights: • Effect of microhetrogeneous system is studied using ruthenium (II) complexes and gallic acid is studied. • Pseudophase Ion exchange model is applied to derive the mechanism. • Binding constants are in the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} M{sup −1}.

  9. Influence of serum albumin on intracellular delivery of drug-loaded hyaluronan polymeric micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešporová, K.; Sogorková, J.; Smejkalova, D.; Kulhánek, J.; Huerta-Angeles, G.; Kubala, Lukáš; Velebný, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 511, č. 1 (2016), s. 638-647 ISSN 0378-5173 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Polymeric micelle * Hyaluronan * Fatty acid Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.649, year: 2016

  10. Kappa-casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G; May, R P

    1991-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on dilute and concentrated dispersions of kappa-casein micelles in a buffer at pH = 6.7 were made using the D11 diffractometer in Grenoble. Results indicate that the micelles have a dense core with a fluffy outer layer. This outer layer appears to give rise to a steeply repulsive interaction on contact. In fact, the hard-sphere model best fits the measured scattering intensities. Adding chymosin to the dispersion initiated a fractal flocculation of the micelles and consecutively a coalescence of the micelles. This unexpected second process resembled that of spinodal demixing. The dispersion phase thus separates into a water and a protein phase on a time scale of hours. The observed phenomona contribute to the understanding of the cheese-making process.

  11. Effect of water on the local electric potential of simulated ionic micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskaya, Elena N.; Vanin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexvanin@yandex.ru [Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-28

    Ionic micelles in an aqueous solution containing single-charged counter-ions have been simulated by molecular dynamics. For both cationic and anionic micelles, it has been demonstrated that explicit description of solvent has strong effect on the micelle’s electric field. The sign of the local charge alters in the immediate vicinity of the micellar crown and the electric potential varies nonmonotonically. Two micelle models have been examined: the hybrid model with a rigid hydrocarbon core and the atomistic model. For three molecular models of water (Simple Point Charge model (SPC), Transferable Intermolecular Potential 5- Points (TIP5P) and two-centered S2), the results have been compared with those for the continuum solvent model. The orientational ordering of solvent molecules has strong effect on the local electric field surprisingly far from the micelle surface.

  12. Nanostructured oxygen sensor--using micelles to incorporate a hydrophobic platinum porphyrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Su

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic platinum(II-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin (PtTFPP was physically incorporated into micelles formed from poly(ε-caprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol to enable the application of PtTFPP in aqueous solution. Micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM to show an average diameter of about 140 nm. PtTFPP showed higher quantum efficiency in micellar solution than in tetrahydrofuran (THF and dichloromethane (CH₂Cl₂. PtTFPP in micelles also exhibited higher photostability than that of PtTFPP suspended in water. PtTFPP in micelles exhibited good oxygen sensitivity and response time. This study provided an efficient approach to enable the application of hydrophobic oxygen sensors in a biological environment.

  13. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    or comicellisation strategy. In this approach, the amphiphilic triblock copolymers synthesized by ATRP were further modified, and conjugated with targeting ligands and fluorophores. The co-micellisation of this functionalized amphiphilic triblock copolymers resulted in functionalized mixed micelle nanosensors. Post......-shellcorona micelle based ratiometric fluorescence pH nanosensor fabrications. Two synthetic strategies such as post micelle modification and mixed micellisation (co-micellisation) were employed for pH nanosensor synthesis. In the post micelle modification strategy, dimensional synthetic modifications on polymer...... synthesized with sensitivity ranges that were appropriate for pH measurements in living cells. The sensitivity ranges of the nanosensors were simply altered by changing the fluorophores conjugated to the shell region. Nanosensors having targeting capabilities were synthesized by mixed micellisation...

  14. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  15. Escape rate of muonium from micelles - as determined by competition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, J.M.; Venkateswaran, K.; Porter, G.B.; Walker, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A competition was established for the reaction of muonium atoms (Mu) between nitrate ions in water and benzene or styrene solubilized in micelles. The nitrate was 3.3 - times more efficient at inhibiting muonated free radical formation with benzene than with styrene as the radical-producing solute. Kinetic analysis of this system indicates that Mu emerges from micelles, on average, at least three times during its short (ns) lifetime, these being medium sized micelles carrying on average 3 benzene molecules. So Mu is certainly not trapped, nor even localized. Its escape rate is estimated to be ∼9x10 8 s -1 , which is commensurate with an ordinary diffusion time. The results were obtained by determining the yield of muonated free radicals formed within the micelles using muon-level-crossing-resonance spectroscopy. (orig.)

  16. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Khamis, Mustafa; Manassra, Adnan; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite) or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI) removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques. PMID:24222757

  17. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Gunjan; Kulshreshtha, S.K.; Hassan, P.A.; Aswal, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, i.e. aniline hydrochloride, o-toluidine hydrochloride and m-toluidine hydrochloride. All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth behavior significantly. However, when the substitution is at meta position micellar growth is favored at lower salt concentration than that is observed for aniline. This can be explained in terms of the difference in the chemical environments of the substituents at the ortho and meta positions. (author)

  18. Micelle Formation of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Film Homopolymers and Homopolymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chelsea; Green, Peter

    2010-03-01

    A-b-B diblock copolymers, at very small concentrations, form micelles in a melt of homopolymer chains of type A or B. In the bulk, the critical micelle concentration, φcmc, is a function of the symmetry of the copolymer chain and exhibits a strong dependence on χN, where χ is the interaction parameter and N is the degree of polymerization of the copolymer. We examined micelle formation in thin film mixtures of: (1) polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-PVP)/polystyrene (PS); (2) PS-b-PVP/ blend of PS and tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate (TMPC); and (3) polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA)/PS. The critical micelle concentration is found to be orders of magnitude larger than the bulk; it is a strong function of film thickness, the substrate/chain segment interactions and the interactions between the different polymeric segments in the system.

  19. Micelle formation during extraction of alkali elements from strongly alkaline mediums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasenko, V.V.; Reznik, A.M.; Bukin, V.I.; Brodskaya, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of potassium, rubidium and cesium by phenol reagents in hydrocarbon solvents from strongly alkakine solutions was considered. Tendency of prepared alkali metal phenolates to form micelles in aqueous and organic phases was revealed. Phenolates tendency to form micelles is dictated mainly by the size and position of hydrocarbon substituent in molecule. It is shown that when micelles form in organic phase, alkali elements can be extracted both according to cation-exchange mechanism and according to micellar one. It is noted that alkai element extraction from strongly alkaline media requires the correct choice of extractant: alkali metal phenolate shouldn't form micelles in aqueous solution. n-Alkyl- and arylphenoldisulfides and polysulfides are most preferable for solvent extraction among considered phenol derivatives

  20. Development and evaluation of N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan micelles containing clotrimazole for oral candidiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Woraphatphadung, Thisirak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2017-03-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) micelles have been developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis treatment. NSCS was synthesized by reductive N-amination and N,O-succinylation. CZ was incorporated into the micelles using various methods, including the dropping method, the dialysis method, and the O/W emulsion method. The size and morphology of the CZ-loaded micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The drug entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, release characteristics, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans were also evaluated. The CZ-loaded micelles prepared using different methods differed in the size of micelles. The micelles ranged in size from 120 nm to 173 nm. The micelles prepared via the O/W emulsion method offered the highest percentage entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. The CZ released from the CZ-loaded micelles at much faster rate compared to CZ powder. The CZ-loaded NSCS micelles can significantly hinder the growth of Candida cells after contact. These CZ-loaded NSCS micelles offer great antifungal activity and might be further developed to be a promising candidate for oral candidiasis treatment.

  1. Use of Magnetic Folate-Dextran-Retinoic Acid Micelles for Dual Targeting of Doxorubicin in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic copolymer of folate-conjugated dextran/retinoic acid (FA/DEX-RA was self-assembled into micelles by direct dissolution method. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs coated with oleic acid (OA were prepared by hydrothermal method and encapsulated within the micelles. Doxorubicin HCl was loaded in the magnetic micelles. The characteristics of the magnetic micelles were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The crystalline state of OA-coated MNPs and their heat capacity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods, respectively. The iron content of magnetic micelles was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used to test the protein binding of magnetic micelles. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin loaded magnetic micelles was studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells using MTT assay and their quantitative cellular uptake by fluorimetry method. TEM results showed the MNPs in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. TGA results confirmed the presence of OA and FA/DEX-RA copolymer on the surface of MNPs and micelles, respectively. The magnetic micelles showed no significant protein bonding and reduced the IC50 of the drug to about 10 times lower than the free drug.

  2. Glucose-installed, SPIO-loaded PEG- b-PCL micelles as MR contrast agents to target prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerasilp, Man; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sungkarat, Witaya; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) bearing glucose analog encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Glu-SPIO micelles) were synthesized as an MRI contrast agent to target cancer cells based on high-glucose metabolism. Compared to SPIO micelles (non-targeting SPIO micelles), Glu-SPIO micelles demonstrated higher toxicity to human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) at high concentration. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of iron in cells. It was found that the iron in cancer cells treated by Glu-SPIO micelles were 27-fold higher than cancer cells treated by SPIO micelles at the iron concentration of 25 ppm and fivefold at the iron concentration of 100 ppm. To implement Glu-SPIO micelles as a MR contrast agent, the 3-T clinical MRI was applied to determine transverse relaxivities ( r 2*) and relaxation rate (1/ T 2*) values. In vitro MRI showed different MRI signal from cancer cells after cellular uptake of SPIO micelles and Glu-SPIO micelles. Glu-SPIO micelles was highly sensitive with the r 2* in agarose gel at 155 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, the higher 1/ T 2* value was found for cancer cells treated with Glu-SPIO micelles. These results supported that glucose ligand increased the cellular uptake of micelles by PC-3 cells with over-expressing glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Thus, glucose can be used as a small molecule ligand for targeting prostate cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporter.

  3. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuling Liu,1,* Yingqi Xu,2,* Minghui Wu,3 Lijiao Fan,1 Chengwei He,2 Jian-Bo Wan,2 Peng Li,2 Meiwan Chen,2 Hui Li11Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mitoxantrone (MIT is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. Keywords: F68, vitamin E

  4. Therapeutic and scintigraphic applications of polymeric micelles: combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih YH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Hsia Shih,1,2 Cheng-Liang Peng,2 Ping-Fang Chiang,1,2 Wuu-Jyh Lin,2 Tsai-Yueh Luo,2,3 Ming-Jium Shieh1,4 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Institute of Radiological Science, Central University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: This study evaluated a multifunctional micelle simultaneously loaded with doxorubicin (Dox and labeled with radionuclide rhenium-188 (188Re as a combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the single photon emission computed tomography, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and pathology of 188Re-Dox micelles in a murine orthotopic luciferase-transfected BNL tumor cells hepatocellular carcinoma model. The single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images showed high radioactivity in the liver and tumor, which was in agreement with the biodistribution measured by γ-counting. In vivo bioluminescence images showed the smallest size tumor (P<0.05 in mice treated with the combined micelles throughout the experimental period. In addition, the combined 188Re-Dox micelles group had significantly longer survival compared with the control, 188ReO4 alone (P<0.005, and Dox micelles alone (P<0.01 groups. Pathohistological analysis revealed that tumors treated with 188Re-Dox micelles had more necrotic features and decreased cell proliferation. Therefore, 188Re-Dox micelles may enable combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: 188Re-Dox micelles, radiotherapeutic, chemotherapeutic, hepatocellular carcinoma

  5. Andrographolide-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles to improve its bioavailability and anticancer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Li, Yingbo; Gao, Wei; Repka, Michael A; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Meiwan

    2014-09-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) isolated from Andrographis paniculata exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but high hydrophobicity and poor bioavailability greatly restricts its clinical application. In this study, ADG was encapsulated in a micelle formulation based on poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) amphiphilic triblock copolymers, in order to enhance the anticancer efficacy and bioavailability in vivo. The physicochemical properties of the ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles were investigated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential and critical micelle concentration. These micelles were further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity, including proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptosis effects against human breast cancer MAD-MB-231 cells, cellular uptake and pharmacokinetics study in rat. ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles had a high encapsulation and loading efficiency of about 92 and 8.4% (w/w), respectively, and a stable particle size of 124.3 ± 6.4 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity testing demonstrated that ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles exhibited higher proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and pro-apoptosis effects in MAD-MB-231 cells, which would be contributed to higher efficiency of cellular uptake and intracellular transport. Further, the plasma AUC(0 - ∞) and mean resident time of ADG-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles were increased by 2.7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared to the raw suspension. All of these investigations suggest that PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles may be a potential drug delivery strategy for improving ADG bioavailability and efficacy in cancer therapy.

  6. Multifunctional polymeric micelles for delivery of drugs and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi M. Jhaveri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelles, self-assembling nano-constructs of amphiphilic copolymers with a core-shell structure have been used as versatile carriers for delivery of drugs as well as nucleic acids. They have gained immense popularity owing to a host of favorable properties including their capacity to effectively solubilize a variety of poorly soluble pharmaceutical agents, biocompatibility, longevity, high stability in vitro and in vivo and the ability to accumulate in pathological areas with compromised vasculature. Moreover, additional functions can be imparted to these micelles by engineering their surface with various ligands and cell-penetrating moieties to allow for specific targeting and intracellular accumulation, respectively, to load them with contrast agents to confer imaging capabilities, and incorporating stimuli-sensitive groups that allow drug release in response to small changes in the environment. Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards designing polymeric micelles which integrate a number of the above functions into a single carrier to give rise to smart, multifunctional polymeric micelles. Such multifunctional micelles can be envisaged as key to improving the efficacy of current treatments which have seen a steady increase not only in hydrophobic small molecules, but also in biologics including therapeutic genes, antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the development of multifunctional polymeric micelles specifically for delivery of drugs and siRNA. In spite of the tremendous potential of siRNA, its translation into clinics has been a significant challenge because of physiological barriers to its effective delivery and the lack of safe, effective and clinically suitable vehicles. To that end, we also discuss the potential and suitability of multifunctional polymeric micelles, including lipid-based micelles, as promising vehicles for both siRNA and drugs.

  7. Improvement of in vivo efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin by encapsulation in PEG–PLA micelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi YN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yanan Shi,1,2,* Wan Huang,1,* Rongcai Liang,1–3 Kaoxiang Sun,2,3 Fangxi Zhang,2,3 Wanhui Liu,2,3 Youxin Li1–31College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Luye Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yantai, China; 3School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: To improve the pharmacokinetics and stability of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO, rhEPO was successfully formulated into poly(ethylene glycol–poly(d,l-lactide (PEG–PLA di-block copolymeric micelles at diameters ranging from 60 to 200 nm with narrow polydispersity indices (PDIs; PDI < 0.3 and trace amount of protein aggregation. The zeta potential of the spherical micelles was in the range of −3.78 to 4.65 mV and the highest encapsulation efficiency of rhEPO in the PEG–PLA micelles was about 80%. In vitro release profiles indicated that the stability of rhEPO in the micelles was improved significantly and only a trace amount of aggregate was found. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed highly enhanced plasma retention time of the rhEPO-loaded PEG-PLA micelles in comparison with the native rhEPO group. Increased hemoglobin concentrations were also found in the rat study. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results demonstrated that rhEPO was successfully encapsulated into the micelles, which was stable in phosphate buffered saline with different pHs and concentrations of NaCl. Therefore, PEG–PLA micelles can be a potential protein drug delivery system.Keywords: rhEPO, PEG–PLA micelle, in vitro, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

  8. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  9. Titration calorimetry of surfactant–drug interactions: Micelle formation and saturation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Laura J.; Hussain, Talib; Parkes, Gareth M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal titration calorimetry can be used to monitor the saturation of micelles with pharmaceutical compounds. ► The number of drug molecules per micelle varies depending on the drug used and the temperature of the calorimeter. ► The change in enthalpy for the saturation of micelles with drugs can be endothermic or exothermic. ► The critical micellar concentration of an anionic surfactant (SDS) does not appear to vary in the presence of drugs. - Abstract: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was employed to monitor the addition of five model drugs to anionic surfactant based micelles, composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), through to the point at which they were saturated with drug. Analysis of the resultant data using this newly developed method has confirmed the suitability of the technique to acquire such data with saturation limits established in all cases. Values for the point at which saturation occurred ranged from 17 molecules of theophylline per micelle at T = 298 K up to 63 molecules of caffeine per micelle at 310 K. Micellar systems can be disrupted by the presence of additional chemicals, such as the drugs used in this study, therefore a separate investigation was undertaken to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC) for SDS in the presence of each drug at T = 298 K and 310 K using ITC. In the majority of cases, there was no appreciable alteration to the CMC of SDS with drug present.

  10. Complete regression of xenograft tumors using biodegradable mPEG-PLA-SN38 block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zheng, Yan; Weng, Shuqiang; Zhu, Wenwei; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Lee, Robert J; Yu, Bo; Jia, Huliang; Qin, Lunxiu

    2016-06-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-comptothecin (SN38) is an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11) and the clinical application of SN38 is limited by its hydrophobicity and instability. To address these issues, a series of novel amphiphilic mPEG-PLA-SN38-conjugates were synthesized by linking SN38 to mPEG-PLA-SA, and they could form micelles by self-assembly. The effects of mPEG-PLA composition were studied in vitro and in vivo. The mean diameters of mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles and mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles were 10-20nm and 120nm, respectively, and mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles showed greater antitumor efficacy than mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the lengths of mPEG and PLA chains had a major impact on the physicochemical characteristics and antitumor activity of SN38-conjugate micelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis study on phase of mixed micelles and its role in transport phenomena of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszwałdowski, Sławomir; Kubáň, Pavel

    2015-03-15

    In the present work comprehensive studies on electrophoretic effects induced by a phase of mixed micelles, that migrates surrounded with background electrolyte (BGE) and is denoted as the BGE/segment of mixed micelles/BGE system, were undertaken using capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity or UV-vis detector. It was established that mixed micelles under electrophoresis are subject of evolution in terms of mobility, peak area and presence of sub-zones enforced by the composition of micellar phase, segment length and applied voltage. Established features allowed us to explain the electrophoretic behavior of nanoparticles in the system BGE/sample containing nanocrystals/segment of mixed micelles/BGE and it was postulated that a pseudomicellar state of nanoparticles can be useful term in analyzing the migration phenomena of nanoparticles within micellar environment. In contrast to the previous works, where transport of nanocrystals (NCs) within micellar segment or between two micellar segments was analyzed, the present work is focused on the transport of NCs from sample of NCs dispersed in BGE to phase of mixed micelles, i.e., to rear boundary between micellar zone and BGE. Based on these results, systematic studies on transport efficiency for nanoparticles in the system BGE/sample containing nanocrystals/segment of mixed micelles/BGE show that the system assures efficient transport of nanoparticles from BGE based sample to micellar phase and their efficient preconcentration at the micellar segment/BGE rear boundary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversible photorheology in solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, salicylic acid, and trans-2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M; Leal, C R; Parola, A J; Scheven, U M

    2010-11-16

    We show photorheology in aqueous solutions of weakly entangled wormlike micelles prepared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), salicylic acid (HSal), and dilute amounts of the photochromic multistate compound trans-2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (Ct). Different chemical species of Ct are associated with different colorations and propensities to reside within or outside CTAB micelles. A light-induced transfer between the intra- and intermicellar space is used to alter the mean length of wormlike micelles and hence the rheological properties of the fluid, studied in steady-state shear flow and in dynamic rheological measurements. Light-induced changes of fluid rheology are reversible by a thermal relaxation process, at relaxation rates which depend on pH and which are consistent with photochromic reversion rates measured by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Parameterizing viscoelastic rheological states by their effective relaxation time τ(c) and corresponding response modulus G(c), we find the light and dark states of the system to fall onto a characteristic state curve defined by comparable experiments conducted without photosensitive components. These reference experiments were prepared with the same concentration of CTAB, but different concentrations of HSal or sodium salicylate (NaSal), and tested at different temperatures.

  13. HIV-1 reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name "retrovirus" derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT.

  14. Polymeric Micelles for Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Preparation and Anticancer Activity In Vitro of Paclitaxel Incorporated into Mixed Micelles Based on Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Lipid Conjugate and Positively Charged Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, JUNPING; MONGAYT, DIMITRY; TORCHILIN, VLADIMIR P.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded mixed polymeric micelles consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine conjugates (PEG-PE), solid triglycerides (ST), and cationic Lipofectin® lipids (LL) have been prepared. Micelles with the optimized composition (PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel = 12/12/2/1 by weight) had an average micelle size of about 100 nm, and zeta-potential of about 26 mV. Micelles were stable and did not release paclitaxel when stored at 4°C in the darkness (just 2.9% of paclitaxel have been lost after 4 months with the particle size remaining unchanged). The release of paclitaxel from such micelles at room temperature was also insignificant. However, at 37°C, approx. 16% of paclitaxel was released from PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel micelles in 72 h, probably, because of phase transition in the ST-containing micelle core. In vitro anticancer effects of PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel and control micelles were evaluated using human mammary adenocarcinoma (BT-20) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cell lines. Paclitaxel in PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles demonstrated the maximum anti-cancer activity. Cellular uptake of fluorescently-labeled paclitaxel-containing micelles by BT-20 cells was investigated using a fluorescence microscopy. It seems that PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles, unlike micelles without the LL component, could escape from endosomes and enter the cytoplasm of BT-20 cancer cells thus increasing the anticancer efficiency of the micellar paclitaxel. PMID:15848957

  15. a Novel Transition from Liquid Microemulsions to Organogels, and Applications of such Microstructured Media to Materials Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Murthy Sathya

    In this dissertation, reversed micelles of the surfactant AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) have been used for the synthesis of various materials. Peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of 4-hydroxythiophenol was conducted along the lines of poly(4-ethylphenol) synthesis. Polymerization in monophasic dioxane/water system without the surfactant seems to cause oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups producing an extensively crosslinked polymer. Polymerization in reversed micelles produces a soluble polymer that is mostly oxidatively coupled monomer units with minimal thiol oxidation. A role for the surfactant AOT is demonstrated in the formation of spherical poly(4-ethylphenol) particles when synthesized in AOT reversed micellar systems. Mature polymer can be refolded from solution with the aid of the surfactant and precipitated as spherical particles. The technique seems to be directly applicable to the synthesis of poly(4-ethylphenol): iron oxide nanocomposites. In nonpolar solvents, dry reversed micelles of AOT transform into a class of organogels upon the addition of suitable phenols. The gels are novel in that they form at very low concentrations of these low molecular weight solutes. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between phenols and the head group of AOT form the basis for such gels. The gel-liquid transition is sharply defined, and occurs over a very narrow temperature range when the gel is warmed or when trace amounts of moisture are absorbed. The underlying molecular architecture of these gels seems to contain strands of stacked and motionally restricted phenol molecules, with the surfactant adsorbed externally. These gels also admit doping with other species leading to the formation of mixed gels. NMR evidence indicates that some of these dopants stack into the gel matrix by "intercalation" into the motionally restricted region of the aromatic strand. Factors such as the molecular shape and proton donor strength (acidity) that determine whether or not a

  16. Reverse logistics - a framework

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, M.P.; Dekker, R.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  17. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral fact...

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of a Micelle-Based pH Nanosensor with an Unprecedented Broad Measurement Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Feldborg, Lise N.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    A new cross-linked micelle pH nanosensor design was investigated. The nanosensor synthesis was based on self-assembly of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-amino ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(coumarin methacrylate) (PEG-b-PAEMA-b-PCMA), which was synthesized by isolated...... macroinitiator atom transfer radical polymerization. Micelles were formed by PEG-b-PAEMA-b-PCMA self-assembly in water, giving micelles with an average diameter of 45 nm. The PCMA core was employed to utilize coumarin-based photoinduced cross-linking in the core of the micelles, which was performed by UV...

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of α-Tocopherol Succinate-Modified Dextran Micelles as Potential Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmou Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, α-tocopherol succinate (TOS conjugated dextran (Dex-TOS was synthesized and characterized by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, dynamic light scattering (DLS and fluorescence spectroscopy. Dex-TOS could form nanoscaled micelles in aqueous medium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC is 0.0034 mg/mL. Doxorubicin (Dox was selected as a model drug. Dox-loaded Dex-TOS (Dex-TOS/Dox micelles were prepared by a dialysis method. The size of Dex-TOS/Dox micelles increased from 295 to 325 nm with the Dox-loading content increasing from 4.21% to 8.12%. The Dex-TOS/Dox micelles were almost spherical in shape, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In vitro release demonstrated that Dox release from the micelles was in a sustained manner for up to 96 h. The cellular uptake of Dex-TOS/Dox micelles in human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma (KB cells is an endocytic process determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Moreover, Dex-TOS/Dox micelles exhibited comparable cytotoxicity in contrast with doxorubicin hydrochloride. These results suggested that Dex-TOS micelles could be a promising carrier for drug delivery.

  20. Drug-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers: a novel approach for controlled delivery of hydrophilic drugs by micelle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danafar, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Davaran, S; Hamidi, M

    2017-12-01

    A conjugate of the antihypertensive drug, lisinopril, with triblock poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymer was synthesized by the reaction of PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer with lisinopril in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and dimethylaminopyridine. The conjugated copolymer was characterized in vitro by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques. Then, the lisinopril conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the micelles formed by the lisinopril-conjugated PLA-PEG-PLA have spherical structure with the average size of 162 nm. The release behavior of conjugated copolymer, micelles and micelles physically loaded by lisinopril were compared in different media. In vitro release study showed that in contrast to physically loaded micelles, the release rate of micelles consisted of the conjugated copolymer was dependent on pH of media where it was higher at lower pH compared to the neutral medium. Another feature of the conjugated micelles was their more sustained release profile compared to the lisinopril-conjugated copolymer and physically loaded micelles.

  1. Interaction between cationic and conventional nonionic surfactants in the mixed micelle and monolayer formed in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabel A. Negm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed micellization and surface properties of cationic and nonionic surfactants dimethyl decyl-, tetradecyl- and hexadecyl phosphineoxide mixtures are studied using conductivity and surface tension measurements. The models of Rubingh, Rosen, and Clint, are used to obtain the interaction parameter, minimum area per molecule, mixed micelle composition, free energies of mixing and activity coefficients. The micellar mole fractions were always higher than ideal values indicating high contributions of cationics in mixed micelles. Activity coefficients were less than unity indicating synergism in micelles. The negative free energies of mixing showed the stability of the surfactants in the mixed micelles.

  2. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  3. pH-sensitive micelles for targeted drug delivery prepared using a novel membrane contactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, Abdallah; Koutroumanis, Konstantinos P; Charcosset, Catherine; Georgiadou, Stella; Fessi, Hatem; Holdich, Richard G; Vladisavljević, Goran T

    2013-09-25

    A novel membrane contactor method was used to produce size-controlled poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymer micelles composed of diblock copolymers with different average molecular weights, Mn (9200 or 10,400 Da) and hydrophilic fractions, f (0.67 or 0.59). By injecting 570 L m(-2) h(-1) of the organic phase (a 1 mg mL(-1) solution of PEG-PCL in tetrahydrofuran) through a microengineered nickel membrane with a hexagonal pore array and 200 μm pore spacing into deionized water agitated at 700 rpm, the micelle size linearly increased from 92 nm for a 5-μm pore size to 165 nm for a 40-μm pore size. The micelle size was finely tuned by the agitation rate, transmembrane flux and aqueous to organic phase ratio. An encapsulation efficiency of 89% and a drug loading of ~75% (w/w) were achieved when a hydrophobic drug (vitamin E) was entrapped within the micelles, as determined by ultracentrifugation method. The drug-loaded micelles had a mean size of 146 ± 7 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.09 ± 0.01, and a ζ potential of -19.5 ± 0.2 mV. When drug-loaded micelles where stored for 50 h, a pH sensitive drug release was achieved and a maximum amount of vitamin E (23%) was released at the pH of 1.9. When a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond was incorporated between PEG and PCL blocks, no significant change in micelle size was observed at the same micellization conditions.

  4. Competitive and Synergistic Interactions between Polymer Micelles, Drugs, and Cyclodextrins: The Importance of Drug Solubilization Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Margarita; Castiglione, Franca; Mele, Andrea; da Silva, Marcelo A; Grillo, Isabelle; González-Gaitano, Gustavo; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2016-12-13

    Polymeric micelles, in particular PEO-PPO-based Pluronic, have emerged as promising drug carriers, while cyclodextrins (CD), cyclic oligosaccharides with an apolar cavity, have long been used for their capacity to form inclusion complexes with drugs. Dimethylated β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) has the capacity to fully breakup F127 Pluronic micelles, while this effect is substantially hindered if drugs are loaded within the micellar aggregates. Four drugs were studied at physiological temperature: lidocaine (LD), pentobarbital sodium salt (PB), sodium naproxen (NP), and sodium salicylate (SAL); higher temperatures shift the equilibrium toward higher drug partitioning and lower drug/CD binding compared to 25 °C ( Valero, M.; Dreiss, C. A. Growth, Shrinking, and Breaking of Pluronic Micelles in the Presence of Drugs and/or β-Cyclodextrin, a Study by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Fluorescence Spectroscopy . Langmuir 2010 , 26 , 10561 - 10571 ). The impact of drugs on micellar structure was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), while their solubilization locus was revealed by 2D NOESY NMR. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, Dynamic and Static Light Scattering were employed to measure a range of micellar properties and drug:CD interactions: binding constant, drug partitioning within the micelles, critical micellar concentration of the loaded micelles, aggregation number (N agg ). Critically, time-resolved SANS (TR-SANS) reveal that micellar breakup in the presence of drugs is substantially slower (100s of seconds) than for the free micelles (<100 ms) ( Valero, M.; Grillo, I.; Dreiss, C. A. Rupture of Pluronic Micelles by Di-Methylated β-Cyclodextrin Is Not Due to Polypseudorotaxane Formation . J. Phys. Chem. B 2012 , 116 , 1273 - 1281 ). These results combined together give new insights into the mechanisms of protection of the drugs against CD-induced micellar breakup. The outcomes are practical guidelines to improve the design of drug delivery systems

  5. Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles: preparation, physico-chemical characterization and in vitro evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Maniscalco, Laura; Licciardi, Mariano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2004-11-20

    Several samples of polymeric micelles, formed by amphiphilic derivatives of PHEA, obtained by grafting into polymeric backbone of PEGs and/or hexadecylamine groups (PHEA-PEG-C(16) and PHEA-C(16)) and containing different amount of Tamoxifen, were prepared. All Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed to increase drug water solubility. TEM studies provided evidence of the formation of supramolecular core/shell architectures containing drug, in the nanoscopic range and with spherical shape. Samples with different amount of encapsulated Tamoxifen were subjected to in vitro cytotoxic studies in order to evaluate the effect of Tamoxifen micellization on cell growth inhibition. All samples of Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity in comparison with free drug, probably attributable to fluidification of cellular membranes, caused by amphiphilic copolymers, that allows a higher penetration of the drug into tumoral cells. To gain preliminary information about the potential use of prepared micelles as Tamoxifen drug delivery systems, studies evaluating drug release ability of micelle systems in media mimicking biological fluids (buffer solutions at pH 7.4 and 5.5) and in human plasma were carried out. These studies, performed evaluating the amount of Tamoxifen that remains in solution as a function of time, showed that at pH 7.4, as well as in plasma, PHEA-C(16) polymeric micelles were able to release lower drug amounts than PHEA-PEG(5000)-C(16) ones, while at pH 5.5, the behavior difference between two kind of micelles was less pronounced.

  6. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Ryan C; Lipfert, Jan; Fox, Daniel A; Lo, Ryan H; Doniach, Sebastian; Columbus, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC) currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  7. Temperature and pressure based NMR studies of detergent micelle phase equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Rohan; Gupta, Shaan; Macdonald, Peter M; Prosser, R Scott

    2014-05-29

    Bulk thermodynamic and volumetric parameters (ΔGmic°, ΔHmic°, ΔSmic°, ΔCp,mic°, ΔVmic°, and Δκmic°) associated with the monomer–micelle equilibrium, were directly determined for a variety of common detergents [sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), n-dodecyl phosphocholine (DPC), n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM), and 7-cyclohexyl-1-heptyl phosphocholine (CyF)] via 1H NMR spectroscopy. For each temperature and pressure point, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was obtained from a single 1H NMR spectrum at a single intermediate concentration by referencing the observed chemical shift to those of pure monomer and pure micellar phases. This permitted rapid measurements of the cmc over a range of temperatures and pressures. In all cases, micelle formation was strongly entropically favored, while enthalpy changes were all positive, with the exception of SDS, which exhibited a modestly negative enthalpy of micellization. Heat capacity changes were also characteristically negative, while partial molar volume changes were uniformly positive, as expected for an aggregation process dictated by hydrophobic effects. Isothermal compressibility changes were found to be consistent with previous measurements using other techniques. Thermodynamic measurements were also related to spectroscopic studies of topology and micelle structure. For example, paramagnetic effects resulting from the addition of dioxygen provided microscopic topological details concerning the hydrophobicity gradient along the detergent chains within their respective micelles as detected by 1H NMR. In a second example, combined 13C and 1H NMR chemical shift changes arising from application of high pressure, or upon micellization, of CyF provided site-specific details regarding micelle topology. In this fashion, bulk thermodynamics could be related to microscopic topological details within the detergent micelle.

  8. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  9. Attractive interactions between reverse aggregates and phase separation in concentrated malonamide extractant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlinger, C.; Belloni, L.; Zemb, T.; Madic, C.

    1999-01-01

    Using small angle X-ray scattering, conductivity, and phase behavior determination, the authors show that concentrated solutions of malonamide extractants, dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), are organized in reverse oligomeric aggregates which have many features in common with reverse micelles. The aggregation numbers of these reverse globular aggregates as well as their interaction potential are determined from absolute scattering curves. An attractive interaction is responsible for the demixing of the oil phase when in equilibrium with excess oil. Prediction of conductivity as well as the formation conditions for the third phase is possible using standard liquid theory applied to the extractant aggregates. The interactions, modeled with the sticky sphere model proposed by Baster, are shown to be due to steric interactions resulting from the hydrophobic tails of the extractant molecule and van der Waals forces between the highly polarizable water core of the reverse micelles. The attractive interaction in the oil phase, equilibrated with water, is determined as a function of temperature, extractant molecule concentration, and proton and neodynium(III) cation concentration. It is shown that van der Waals interactions, with an effective Hamaker constant of 3kT, quantitatively explain the behavior of DMDBTDMA in n-dodecane in terms of scattering as well as phase stability limits

  10. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  11. Self-assembled micelles of amphiphilic poly(L-phenylalanine)-b-poly(L-serine) polypeptides for tumor-targeted delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziming; Wang, Yu; Han, Jin; Wang, Keli; Yang, Dan; Yang, Yihua; Du, Qian; Song, Yuanjian; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize self-assembled micelles based on polypeptides as a potential antitumor drug carrier. Amphiphilic poly(L-phenylalanine)-b-poly(L-serine) (PFS) polypeptides were obtained through the polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride. As a novel hydrophilic segment, poly(L-serine) was utilized to enhance tumor targeting due to a large demand of tumors for serine. PFS could self-assemble into micelles with an average diameter of 110-240 nm and a slightly negative charge. PFS polypeptides adopted random coil in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline and could partly transform to α-helix induced by trifluoroethanol. PFS micelles with a low critical micelle concentration of 4.0 μg mL(-1) were stable in pH 5-9 buffers and serum albumin solution. PFS micelles had a loading capacity of 3.8% for coumarin-6 and exhibited a sustained drug release. Coumarin-6 loaded rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled PFS micelles were incubated with Huh-7 tumor cells to study the correlation between drugs and carriers during endocytosis. The uptake of drugs was consistent with the micelles, illustrating that the intracellular transport of drugs highly depended on the micelles. PFS micelles diffused in whole cytoplasm while coumarin-6 assumed localized distribution, suggesting that the micelles could release the loaded drugs in particular areas. The internalization mechanism of PFS micelles was involved with clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Excess serine inhibited the uptake of PFS micelles, which demonstrated that serine receptors played a positive role in the internalization of PFS. The more interesting thing was that the uptake inhibition impacted on normal cells but not on tumor cells at the physiological concentration of serine. The difference in the uptake of PFS micelles was fourfold as high between the tumor cells and the normal cells, which indicated that PFS micelles had good tumor targeting in vitro. In conclusion, PFS

  12. Cellular internalization of doxorubicin loaded star-shaped micelles with hydrophilic zwitterionic sulfobetaine segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Xie, Xiaoxiong; Lu, Aijing; He, Bin; Chen, Yuanwei; Gu, Zhongwei; Luo, Xianglin

    2014-05-01

    Four arm star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly((N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-r-(N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-methacryloxyethy-N,N-diethylammoniumbetaine)) (4sPCLDEAS) micelles were loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin to track their endocytosis in Hela cancer cell line. The effects of mean diameters and surface charges of the drug loaded micelles on the cellular uptake were studied in details. The results demonstrated that the internalization of micelles was both time and energy dependent process. Endocytic pathways including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were all involved in the internalization; caveolae-mediated endocytosis was the main pathway for the internalization of 4sPCLDEAS micelles. The assays for cell apoptosis and growth inhibition of tumor spheroids identified that these doxorubicin loaded micelles could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor spheroids growth efficiently, which was even equal to free DOX·HCl. This study provided a rational design strategy for fabricating diverse micellar drug delivery systems with high anticancer efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of partition and localization of perfume molecules in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Haiqiu; Strand, Ross; Wang, Yilin

    2016-01-07

    The influence of perfume molecules on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their localization in SDS micelles have been investigated by ζ potential, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), one- and two-dimensional NMR and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). A broad range of perfume molecules varying in octanol/water partition coefficients P are employed. The results indicate that the surface charge, size and aggregation number of the SDS micelles strongly depend on the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity degree of perfume molecules. Three distinct regions along the log P values are identified. Hydrophilic perfumes (log P perfumes (log P > 3.5) are solubilized close to the end of the hydrophobic chains in the SDS micelles and enlarge the micelles with higher ζ potential and a larger aggregation number. The incorporated fraction and micelle properties show increasing tendency for the perfumes in the intermediate log P region (2.0 perfume molecules also affects these properties. The perfumes with a linear chain structure or an aromatic group can penetrate into the palisade layer and closely pack with the SDS molecules. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC show that the binding of the perfumes in the intermediate log P region is more spontaneous than those in the other two log P regions, and the micellization of SDS with the perfumes is driven by entropy.

  14. Hydrazone-Containing Triblock Copolymeric Micelles for pH-Controlled Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilan Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure–activity relationship of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles as nanosized drug delivery system was revealed. Firstly, a biodegradable triblock polymers PEG-DiHyd-PLA containing hydrazone bond was synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization. In this method, PEG-DiHyd-Phenol was used as the initiator and L-lactide as the monomer. Then, the polymeric micelles were formed and used as nano-drug carriers with pH sensitivity. The structure and composition of the polymer were characterized by infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC, we characterized the self-assembling process of the triblock polymers and the pH sensitivity of the micelles by the means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering method (DLS. Doxorubicin (DOX acts as the model drug, and we researched the capacities of drug loading and release in vitro of the micelles. MTT experiments showed that the blank micelles of PEG-DiHyd-PLA were not cytotoxic to tumor cells (HepG-2, MCF-7 and normal cell (L-02 cells, but the DOX loaded ones displayed more toxicity than the ones without hydrazone, which was consistent to the further confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry study.

  15. Titration of fatty acids solubilized in cationic and anionic micelles. Calorimetry and thermodynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderman, Olle; Jönsson, Bengt; Olofsson, Gerd

    2006-02-23

    The electrostatic properties of charged surfactant micelles are investigated through titrations of fatty acid probes solubilized in the micelles. The titration process is followed by means of calorimetric measurements and by determining the pH values as a function of added base. This approach yields a complete thermodynamic description of the titration process. In particular, we find that the process is endothermic at 298 K. This is contrary to the titration of carboxylic acids in water, where DeltaH is approximately 0. To identify the main effect underlying the difference in DeltaH between titration in a micelle and water, a thermodynamic model has been developed which focuses on the transfer properties of charged and uncharged species from bulk water to the surface of a micelle and which incorporates a dielectric discontinuity at the micellar surface. The model relies on the use of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which is solved using a finite element method. Experimental results and the model calculations imply that the dielectric discontinuity at (or near) the micellar surface plays a major role and hence must be included when analyzing the titration behavior of an acid functionality at the surface of a charged micelle.

  16. Polymeric micelles for apoptosis-targeted optical imaging of cancer and intraoperative surgical guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunah Cho

    Full Text Available In a two-step strategy, an intraperitoneal (IP injection of poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEG-b-PCL micelles containing paclitaxel (PTX, cyclopamine (CYP, and gossypol (GSP at 30, 30, and 30 mg/kg, respectively, debulked tumor tissues by 1.3-fold, based on loss of bioluminescence with <10% body weight change, and induced apoptosis in peritoneal tumors when used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT in an ES-2-luc-bearing xenograft model for ovarian cancer. In a second step, a single intravenous (i.v. injection of apoptosis-targeting GFNFRLKAGAKIRFGS-PEG-b-PCL micelles containing a near-infrared (NIR fluorescence probe, DiR (1,1'-dioctadecyltetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide, resulted in increased peritoneal DiR accumulation in apoptosis-induced ES-2-luc tumor tissues (ex vivo by 1.5-fold compared with DiR molecules delivered by methoxy PEG-b-PCL micelles (non-targeted at 48 h after i.v. injection in a second step. As a result, a tandem of PEG-b-PCL micelles enabled high-resolution detection of ca. 1 mm diameter tumors, resulting in resection of approximately 90% of tumors, and a low peritoneal cancer index (PCI of ca. 7. Thus, a tandem of PEG-b-PCL micelles used for NCAT and NIR fluorescence imaging of therapy-induced apoptosis for intraoperative surgical guidance may be a promising treatment strategy for metastatic ovarian cancer.

  17. Effect of micelle interface on the binding of anticoccidial PW2 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Luzineide W.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio C. L.

    2007-01-01

    PW2 is an anticoccidial peptide active against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. We determined the structure of PW2 in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. The structure showed two distinct regions: an amphipathic N-terminal 3 10 helix and an aromatic region containing WWR interface-binding motif. The aromatic region acted as a scaffold of the protein in the interface and shared the same structure in both DPC and SDS micelles. N-terminal helix interacted with DPC but not with SDS interface. Chemical shift change was slow when SDS was added to PW2 in DPC and fast when DPC was added to PW2 in SDS, indicating that interaction with DPC micelles was kinetically more stable than with SDS micelles. Also, DPC interface was able to accommodate PW2, but it maintained the conformational arrangement in the aromatic region observed for SDS micelles. This behavior, which is different from that observed for other antimicrobial peptides with WWR motif, may be associated with the absence of PW2 antibacterial activity and its selectivity for Eimeria parasites

  18. Comparative evaluation of polymersome versus micelle structures as vehicles for the controlled release of drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibolandi, Mona [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Fatemeh, E-mail: sadeghif@mums.ac.ir [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadizadeh, Farzin, E-mail: hadizadehf@mums.ac.ir [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Di-block copolymers composed of two biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(d,l-lactide), were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization for the preparation of doxorubicin-loaded self-assembled nanostructures, including polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) and micelles. The capability and stability of the nanostructures prepared for the controlled release of DOX are discussed in this paper. The in vitro drug release at 37 °C was evaluated up to 6 days at pH 7.4 and 5.5 and in the presence of 50 % FBS. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity effect of both formulations were also evaluated in the MCF-7 cell line. The SEM and AFM images confirmed the hollow spherical structure of the polymersomes and the solid round structures of the micelles. The TEM results also revealed the uniformity in size and shape of the drug-loaded micelle and polymersome nanostructures. The DOX-loaded micelles and polymersomes presented efficient anticancer performance, as verified by flow cytometry and MTT assay tests. The most important finding of this study is that the prepared nanopolymersomes presented significant increases in the doxorubicin encapsulation efficiency and the stability of the formulation in comparison with the micelle formulation. In vitro studies revealed that polymersomes may be stable in the blood circulation and meet the requirements for an effective drug delivery system.

  19. Polymeric topology and composition constrained polyether-polyester micelles for directional antitumor drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Sun, Hai; Ding, Jianxun; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Weiguo; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2013-11-01

    Amphiphilic linear and dumbbell-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA) copolymers were simply synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of lactide and glycolide using PEG or tetrahydroxyl-functionalized PEG as the macroinitiator and stannous octoate as the catalyst. The copolymers spontaneously self-assembled into spherical micelles in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4. The self-assembly behavior was dependent on both the polymeric topology and composition. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antitumor drug, was loaded into micelles through nanoprecipitation. The in vitro release behavior could be adjusted by regulating the topology or composition of the copolymer, or the pH of the release medium. The effective intracellular DOX release from DOX-loaded micelles was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry in vitro. DOX-loaded micelles displayed great cellular proliferation inhibition efficacies after incubation for 24, 48 or 72 h. The hemolysis ratio of DOX was significantly reduced by the presence of copolymer. These properties indicated that the micelles derived from linear or dumbbell-shaped copolymers were promising candidates as smart antitumor drug carriers for malignancy therapy. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Membranes with charged nanopores from the assembly of random copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatekin, Ayse

    In this study, we aimed to prepare synthetic polymer membranes that can separate small molecule solutes based on charge by mimicking biological pores like ion channels: Pores 1-5 nm in diameter, lined with functional groups that interact with the target. We found that random copolymers that combine highly hydrophobic fluorinated repeat units of trifluoroethyl methacrylate with ionizable repeat units of methacrylic acid form micelles and vesicles in methanol. When these micelles are coated onto the surface of a porous support membrane whose pores are smaller than the micelles and then immersed into water, a selective layer of micelles packed together is formed. The gaps between the micelles act as carboxylate-functional nanochannels. The membrane showed charge-based selectivity between organic molecules, rejecting anionic solutes while passing neutral ones. The carboxyl groups can be post-functionalized to alter the selectivity of the membrane for desired separations. This shows the potential of using polymer self-assembly and functionality to design membranes that mimic biological pores while maintaining scalable manufacturing methods. We believe these approaches will eventually lead to novel membranes that can separate molecules of similar size but different chemical structure. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from Tufts University, the Tufts Collaborates program, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. CBET-1553661.

  1. IT-141, a Polymer Micelle Encapsulating SN-38, Induces Tumor Regression in Multiple Colorectal Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carie, Adam; Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Costich, Tara; Burke, Brian; Slama, Richard; Skaff, Habib; Sill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Polymer micelles are promising drug delivery vehicles for the delivery of anticancer agents to tumors. Often, anticancer drugs display potent cytotoxic effects towards cancer cells but are too hydrophobic to be administered in the clinic as a free drug. To address this problem, a polymer micelle was designed using a triblock copolymer (ITP-101) that enables hydrophobic drugs to be encapsulated. An SN-38 encapsulated micelle, IT-141, was prepared that exhibited potent in vitro cytotoxicity against a wide array of cancer cell lines. In a mouse model, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that IT-141 had a much longer circulation time, plasma exposure, and tumor exposure compared to irinotecan. IT-141 was also superior to irinotecan in terms of antitumor activity, exhibiting greater tumor inhibition in HT-29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer xenograft models at half the dose of irinotecan. The antitumor effect of IT-141 was dose-dependent and caused complete growth inhibition and tumor regression at well-tolerated doses. Varying the specific concentration of SN-38 within the IT-141 micelle had no detectible effect on this antitumor activity, indicating no differences in activity between different IT-141 formulations. In summary, IT-141 is a potent micelle-based chemotherapy that holds promise for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  2. IT-141, a Polymer Micelle Encapsulating SN-38, Induces Tumor Regression in Multiple Colorectal Cancer Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Carie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer micelles are promising drug delivery vehicles for the delivery of anticancer agents to tumors. Often, anticancer drugs display potent cytotoxic effects towards cancer cells but are too hydrophobic to be administered in the clinic as a free drug. To address this problem, a polymer micelle was designed using a triblock copolymer (ITP-101 that enables hydrophobic drugs to be encapsulated. An SN-38 encapsulated micelle, IT-141, was prepared that exhibited potent in vitro cytotoxicity against a wide array of cancer cell lines. In a mouse model, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that IT-141 had a much longer circulation time, plasma exposure, and tumor exposure compared to irinotecan. IT-141 was also superior to irinotecan in terms of antitumor activity, exhibiting greater tumor inhibition in HT-29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer xenograft models at half the dose of irinotecan. The antitumor effect of IT-141 was dose-dependent and caused complete growth inhibition and tumor regression at well-tolerated doses. Varying the specific concentration of SN-38 within the IT-141 micelle had no detectible effect on this antitumor activity, indicating no differences in activity between different IT-141 formulations. In summary, IT-141 is a potent micelle-based chemotherapy that holds promise for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  3. Development of plumbagin-loaded phospholipid-Tween® 80 mixed micelles: formulation, optimization, effect on breast cancer cells and human blood/serum compatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothiraja, Chellampillai; Kapare, Harshad S; Pawar, Atmaram P; Shaikh, Karimunnisa S

    2013-10-01

    Phospholipid and Tween(®) 80 mixed micelles were investigated as injectable nanocarriers for the natural anticancer compound, plumbagin (PBG), with the aim to improve anticancer efficiency. PBG-loaded mixed micelles were fabricated by self-assembly; composition being optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Optimized mixed micelles were spherical and 46 nm in size. Zeta potential, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 5.04 mV, 91.21 and 98.38% respectively. Micelles demonstrated sustained release of PBG. Micelles caused a 2.1-fold enhancement in vitro antitumor activity of PBG towards MCF-7 cells. Micelles proved safe for intravenous injection as PBG was stable at high pH; micelle size and encapsulation efficiency were retained upon dilution. Developed mixed micelles proved potential nanocarriers for PBG in cancer chemotherapy.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH MOLECULAR MICELLES AND FREE ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of four systems available from the literature, based on cyclodextrins, dioctylsulfosuccinate, bile salts, and molecular micelles consisting of oligomers of undecylenic acid, the most successful separation system in our hands is based on the molecular micelles, oligomers of sodiu...

  5. pH-Responsive Hyaluronic Acid-Based Mixed Micelles for the Hepatoma-Targeting Delivery of Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Liang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor targetability and stimulus responsivity of drug delivery systems are crucial in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, hepatoma-targeting mixed micelles composed of a hyaluronic acid–glycyrrhetinic acid conjugate and a hyaluronic acid-l-histidine conjugate (HA–GA/HA–His were prepared through ultrasonic dispersion. The formation and characterization of the mixed micelles were confirmed via 1H-NMR, particle size, and ζ potential measurements. The in vitro cellular uptake of the micelles was evaluated using human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. The antitumor effect of doxorubicin (DOX-loaded micelles was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a pH-dependent controlled release and were remarkably absorbed by HepG2 cells. Compared with free DOX, the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a higher cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. Moreover, the micelles effectively inhibited tumor growth in H22 cell-bearing mice. These results suggest that the HA–GA/HA–His mixed micelles are a good candidate for drug delivery in the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  6. Preparation of core-crosslinked linear-dendritic copolymer micelles with enhanced stability and their application for drug solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyuan; Forbes, Robert T; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2017-05-15

    In this study we explore the preparation of core-crosslinked micelles of linear-dendritic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-co-poly(ester-sulfide) (PES) polymers to improve the stability of such polymeric micelle systems against premature disintegration and drug release. A series of MPEG-PES copolymers were synthesised via stepwise reactions of acetylation and thiol-ene photoreaction. Surface tension measurement showed that the copolymers with ethenyl surface groups could self-associate in dilute aqueous solutions to form micelles. Crosslinking within the micelle cores in the presence of dithioerythritol (DTT) linker was initiated under UV radiation. The formation of core-crosslinked micelles was confirmed by HPLC in combination with charged aerosol detection (CAD). The copolymers were found to readily hydrolyse under acidic conditions due to the ester-containing dendrons. Drug solubilisation capacities of the micellar solutions were determined using griseofulvin as a poorly water-soluble model drug. The solubility of griseofulvin showed a 10-fold enhancement in 1% w/v micelle solution and increased with the concentration of the copolymers. Drug release studies indicated that a more sustained release of griseofulvin was achieved for the core-crosslinked micelles compared to the non-crosslinked micelles, attributable to greater stability of the crosslinked core structure. The findings of this study present a new pathway towards developing biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure of the C-terminal Region of the Frizzled Receptor 1 in Detergent Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CongBao Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The C-terminal domains of the Frizzleds (FZDs contain a short conserved motif (KTXXXW. It has been demonstrated that FZDs interacted with the PDZ domain of the cytoplasmic proteins such as Dishevelled through this motif and mutations in this motif disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We carried out structural studies for a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of the FZD1 in different solvents using circular dichroism and solution NMR spectroscopy. Our results showed that this domain was unstructured in an aqueous solution and formed a helical structure in detergent micelles. Fluorescence studies suggested that the tryptophan residue (W630 in the motif interacted with micelles. The solution structure of the peptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was determined and an amphipathic helix was identified. This helix may have similar function to the helix 8 of other G protein-coupled receptors.

  8. Pseudo-biphasic extraction and liquid membrane transport of ionic solutes using micelle-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondre, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    Different aspects between micellar extraction and solvent extraction were discussed. One way of using micellar systems to perform metal ion extraction consists in solubilizing lipophilic complexing agents in the hydrophobic core of the micelles, similarly to their solubilization in the organic phase in classical biphasic extraction. Metal ions dissolved in the continuous phase will be complexed or not, depending on their affinity for the micelle-solubilized extractant, the microscopic micelle/water interface playing a part analogous to the macroscopic organic/water interface in biphasic extraction. The yields of extraction (after ultrafiltration of the micellar pseudo-phase) when parameters such as the extractant/metal ratio or the extractant hydrophobicity are changed, show similar trends as those reported in the case of solvent extraction, but only diluted solutions can be treated that way. 14 refs

  9. Cross-linked self-assembled micelle based nanosensor for intracellular pH measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Windschiegl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A micelle based nanosensor was synthesized and investigated as a ratiometric pH sensor for use in measurements in living cells by fluorescent microscopy. The nanosensor synthesis was based on self-assembly of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, which was chemically cross-linked after micelle......-linked by an amidation reaction using 3,6,9-trioxaundecandioic acid cross-linker. The cross-linked micelle was functionalized with two pH sensitive fluorophores and one reference fluorophore, which resulted in a highly uniform ratiometric pH nanosensor with a diameter of 29 nm. The use of two sensor fluorophores...... provided a sensor with a very broad measurement range that seems to be influenced by the chemical design of the sensor. Cell experiments show that the sensor is capable of monitoring the pH distributions in HeLa cells....

  10. Study of the interaction of potassium ion channel protein with micelle by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, Anil; Talukdar, Keka

    2018-04-01

    Ion channels are proteins forming pore inside the body of all living organisms. This potassium ion channel known as KcsA channel and it is found in the each cell and nervous system. Flow of various ions is regulated by the function of the ion channels. The nerve ion channel protein with protein data bank entry 1BL8, which is basically an ion channel protein in Streptomyces Lividans and which is taken up to form micelle-protein system and the system is analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulation. Firstly, ion channel pore is engineered by CHARMM potential and then Micelle-protein system is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. For some specific micelle concentration, the protein unfolding is observed.

  11. Polymeric micelles as a drug delivery system enhance cytotoxicity of vinorelbine through more intercellular accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fayun; Qin, Lei; Xiao, Fengying; Liang, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Polymeric micelles had been used as an efficacious carrier system for anti-cancer drug delivery. However, it is not clear whether the molecular mechanism of drug encapsulated in micelles is same as free drug. In this study, the mechanism of vinorelbine loaded in glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles (M-Vino) on tumor cells was investigated. Compared with free vinorelbine (Free Vino), M-Vino was more effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells in vitro, inducing G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. M-Vino showed a faster entry and higher accumulation in 4T1 cells than free vinorelbine. Therefore, M-Vino destabilized microtubules, induced cell death, and enhanced its cytotoxicity through more intercellular accumulation of vinorelbine.

  12. Phase behavior of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-05-01

    Dispersions of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide (EPS), obtained from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 EPS, show a phase separation. The phase separation is of the colloidal gas-liquid type. We have determined a phase diagram that describes the separation of skim milk with EPS into a casein-micelle rich phase and an EPS rich phase. We compare the phase diagram with those calculated from theories developed by Vrij, and by Lekkerkerker and co-workers, showing that the experimental phase boundary can be predicted quite well. From dynamic light scattering measurements of the self-diffusion of the casein micelles in the presence of EPS the spinodal could be located and it corresponds with the experimental phase boundary.

  13. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biocompatible poly-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16 conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd via ethylenediamine (ED was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  14. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  15. Morphology, stability, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of iron oxide (Hematite) nanoparticles prepared by micelle nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Tiwari, N.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, considerable effort is being made towards synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this article, we report on the preparation and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) arrays supported on natively oxidized Si(100) surface. The NPs are synthesized by reverse micelle nanolithography technique and are then deposited onto natively oxidized Si(100) surface via spin-coating. Plasma oxidation followed by high temperature annealing results in a unimodal size distribution of pseudohexagonally-ordered array of iron oxide NPs (with ∼14 nm mean diameter and ∼5 nm mean height). High temperature annealing does not fragment the NPs. Particles are sinter-resistant: the unimodal arrays are robust with respect to thermal treatment. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), including X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), reveals that structure of the iron oxide particle resembles closely the hematite α-Fe2O3 structure. Furthermore, with the help of EXAFS spectra, we eliminate the possibility of γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO and FeO(OH) structures for the NPs.

  16. Release, Partitioning, and Conjugation Stability of Doxorubicin in Polymer Micelles Determined by Mechanistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponta, Andrei; Fugit, Kyle D.; Anderson, Bradley D.; Bae, Younsoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To better understand the mechanistic parameters that govern drug release from polymer micelles with acid-labile linkers. Methods A mathematical model was developed to describe drug release from block copolymer micelles composed of a poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a poly(aspartate) core, modified with drug binding linkers for pH-controlled release [hydrazide (HYD), aminobenzoate-hydrazide (ABZ), or glycine-hydrazide (GLY)]. Doxorubicin (Dox) was conjugated to the block copolymers through acid-labile hydrazone bonds. The polymer drug conjugates were used to prepare three polymer micelles (HYD-M, ABZ-M, and GLY-M). Drug release studies were performed to identify the factors governing pH-sensitive release of Dox. The effect of prolonged storage of copolymer material on release kinetics was also observed. Results Biphasic drug release kinetics were observed for all three micelle formulations. The developed model was able to quantify observed release kinetics upon the inclusion of terms for unconjugated Dox and two populations of conjugated Dox. Micelle/water partitioning of Dox was also incorporated into the model and found significant in all micelles under neutral conditions but reduced under acidic conditions. The drug binding linker played a major role in drug release as the extent of Dox release at specific time intervals was greater at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4 (HYD-M > ABZ-M > GLY-M). Mathematical modeling was also able correlate changes in release kinetics with the instability of the hydrazone conjugation of DOX during prolonged storage. Conclusion These results illustrate the potential utility of mechanistic modeling to better assess release characteristics intrinsic to a particular drug/nanoparticle system. PMID:25407546

  17. mPEG-PLA Micelle for Delivery of Effective Parts of Andrographis Paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hailu; Song, Shiyong; Miao, Xiaolu; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Shao, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yu; Han, Guang

    2017-11-19

    Many studies have shown that Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has a good anti-tumor effect, but poor solubility in water and poor bioavailability hinder the modernization of it. To formulate the effective parts (mainly diterpene lactones) of Andrographis paniculata (AEP) into targeting drug delivery system, a series of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D.L-lactic acid)(mPEG-PLA) with different ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segment were synthetized to encapsulate AEP. AEP micelles were prepared by a simple solvent-evaporation method. According to the loading capacity, the best polymer was chosen. mPEG-PLA micelles were characterized in terms of drug entrapping efficiency, loading capacity, size, the crystalline state of AEP, stability and release profile. Meanwhile the cytotoxicity of micelles on mouse breast cancer 4T-1 was investigated. These micelle (mPEG-PLA-AEP) particles had a size of (92.84±5.63) nm and a high entrapping efficiency and loading capacity of (91.00±11.53)% and (32.14±3.02)%(w/w), respectively. The powder DSC showed that drugs were well encapsulated in the core of micelles. mPEG-PLA-AEP had a good stability against salt dissociation, protein adsorption and anion substitution and the solubility of andrographolide (AG) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide(DDAG) in AEP increased 4.51 times and 2.12 times in water, and the solubility of DAG has no difference. mPEG-PLA-AEP had the same release profile in different dissolution medium. Cytotoxicity testing in vitro demonstrated that mPEG-PLA-AEP exhibited higher cell viability inhibition in mouse breast cancer 4T-1 than free AEP. mPEG-PLA micelles offer a promising alternative for TCM therapy with higher solubility and improved antitumor effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Biodegradable micelles enhance the antiglioma activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Songping Zheng,1,* Xiang Gao,1,2,* Xiaoxiao Liu,1 Ting Yu,1 Tianying Zheng,1 Yi Wang,1 Chao You1 1Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Curcumin (Cur, a natural polyphenol of Curcuma longa, has been recently reported to possess antitumor activities. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility and low biological availability, the clinical application of Cur is quite limited. The encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs into nanoparticles is an effective way to improve their pharmaceutical activities. In this research, nanomicelles loaded with Cur were formulated by a self-assembly method with biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactide copolymers (MPEG-PLAs. After encapsulation, the cellular uptake was increased and Cur could be released from MPEG-PLA micelles in a sustained manner. The Cur-loaded MPEG-PLA micelles (Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles exhibited an enhanced toxicity on C6 and U251 glioma cells and induced more apoptosis on C6 glioma cells compared with free Cur. Moreover, the therapy efficiency of Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles was evaluated at length on a nude mouse model bearing glioma. The Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles were more effective on suppressing tumor growth compared with free Cur, which indicated that Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles improved the antiglioma activity of Cur in vivo. The results of immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analysis indicated that the induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, and inhibition of cell proliferation may contribute to the improvement in antiglioma effects. Our data suggested that Cur/MPEG-PLA may have potential clinic applications in glioma therapy. Keywords: curcumin, glioma, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis 

  19. Multicompartment micelles with adjustable poly(ethylene glycol) shell for efficient in vivo photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synatschke, Christopher V; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Förtsch, Melanie; Toh, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Miyazaki, Kozo; Hanisch, Andreas; Schacher, Felix H; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Müller, Axel H E; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-02-25

    We describe the preparation of well-defined multicompartment micelles from polybutadiene-block-poly(1-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium methyl sulfate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (BVqMAA) triblock terpolymers and their use as advanced drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A porphyrazine derivative was incorporated into the hydrophobic core during self-assembly and served as a model drug and fluorescent probe at the same time. The initial micellar corona is formed by negatively charged PMAA and could be gradually changed to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in a controlled fashion through interpolyelectrolyte complex formation of PMAA with positively charged poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PLL-b-PEG) diblock copolymers. At high degrees of PEGylation, a compartmentalized micellar corona was observed, with a stable bottlebrush-on-sphere morphology as demonstrated by cryo-TEM measurements. By in vitro cellular experiments, we confirmed that the porphyrazine-loaded micelles were PDT-active against A549 cells. The corona composition strongly influenced their in vitro PDT activity, which decreased with increasing PEGylation, correlating with the cellular uptake of the micelles. Also, a PEGylation-dependent influence on the in vivo blood circulation and tumor accumulation was found. Fully PEGylated micelles were detected for up to 24 h in the bloodstream and accumulated in solid subcutaneous A549 tumors, while non- or only partially PEGylated micelles were rapidly cleared and did not accumulate in tumor tissue. Efficient tumor growth suppression was shown for fully PEGylated micelles up to 20 days, demonstrating PDT efficacy in vivo.

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of PEGylated α-helical coiled coils and their self-assembled micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sun Young; Lee, Hwankyu

    2014-07-29

    We performed coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations of trimeric α-helical coiled coils grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different sizes and conjugate positions and the self-assembled micelle of amphiphilic trimers. The CG model for the trimeric coiled coil is verified by comparing the α-helical structure and interhelical distance with those calculated from all-atom simulations. In CG simulations of PEGylated trimers, the end-to-end distances and radii of gyration of PEGs grafted to the sides of peptides become shorter than those of free PEGs in water, which agrees with experiments. This shorter size of the grafted PEGs is also confirmed by calculating the thickness of the PEG layer, which is less than the size of the mushroom. These indicate the adsorption of PEG chains onto coiled coils since hydrophobic residues in the exterior sites of coiled coils tend to be less exposed to water and thus interact with PEGs, leading to the compact conformation of adsorbed PEGs. Simulations of the self-assembly of amphiphilic trimers show that the randomly distributed trimers self-assemble to micelles. The outer radius and hydrodynamic radius of the micelle, which were calculated respectively from radial densities and diffusion coefficients, are ∼7 nm, in agreement with the experimental value of ∼7.5 nm, while the aggregation number of amphiphilic molecules per micelle is lower than the experimentally proposed value. These simulations predict the experimentally measured size of PEGs grafted to the trimeric coiled coils and their self-assembled amphiphilic micelles and suggest that the aggregation number of the micelle may be lower, which needs to be confirmed by experiments.

  1. Improving aqueous solubility and antitumor effects by nanosized gambogic acid-mPEG2000 micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai LL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lulu Cai,1,* Neng Qiu,2,* Mingli Xiang,3,* Rongsheng Tong,1 Junfeng Yan,1 Lin He,1 Jianyou Shi,1 Tao Chen,4 Jiaolin Wen,3 Wenwen Wang,3 Lijuan Chen31Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, 2College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, 3State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China; 4Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this paperAbstract: The clinical application of gambogic acid, a natural component with promising antitumor activity, is limited due to its extremely poor aqueous solubility, short half-life in blood, and severe systemic toxicity. To solve these problems, an amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was prepared by attachment of low molecular weight (ie, 2 kDa methoxy poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether (mPEG to gambogic acid (GA-mPEG2000 through an ester linkage and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-mPEG2000 conjugates self-assembled to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of less than 50 nm, and a very narrow particle size distribution. The properties of the GA-mPEG2000 micelles, including morphology, stability, molecular modeling, and drug release profile, were evaluated. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide tests demonstrated that the GA-mPEG2000 micelle formulation had obvious cytotoxicity to tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, GA-mPEG2000 micelles were effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival in subcutaneous B16-F10 and C26 tumor models. Our findings suggest that GA-mPEG2000 micelles may have promising applications in tumor therapy.Keywords: gambogic acid, poly(ethylene glycol-drug conjugate, micelle, antitumor, toxicity

  2. Surface characterization of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soy protein examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Qingjun; Du, Fangling; Ao, Qiang; Liu, Jie

    2011-09-01

    In this study the surface composition of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soybean proteins by aqueous buffer and reverse micelle extractions had been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by XPS revealed that the O and N atomic percentage of 7S and 11S globulin surfaces from bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelle was higher than from aqueous buffer, but the C atomic percentage was lower. The O/C ratio of the 7S globulin powder from aqueous buffer and reverse micelle was similar while significant differences were obtained in the O/C ratio of the 11S globulin powder, N/C atom ratios of the 7S and 11S globulin powders and high-resolution XPS C 1s, N 1s, O 1s spectra. Powder microstructure after reverse micelle treatment showed the presence of small pores, indicating the effect of reverse micelle on the 7S and 11S globulin structure. The obtained results indicated that the reverse micelle could affect the C, O and N components on the surface of soybean proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Supersaturation induced by Itraconazole/Soluplus® micelles provided high GI absorption in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of supersaturation induced by micelle formation during dissolution on the bioavailability of itraconazole (ITZ/Soluplus® solid dispersion. Solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME were compressed into tablets directly with other excipients. Dissolution behavior of ITZ tablets was studied by dissolution testing and the morphology of micelles in dissolution media was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Drug transferring from stomach into intestine was simulated to obtain a supersaturated drug solution. Bioavailability studies were performed on the ITZ tablets and Sporanox® in beagle dogs. The morphology of micelles in the dissolution media was observed to be spherical in shape, with an average size smaller than 100 nm. The supersaturated solutions formed by Soluplus® micelles were stable and no precipitation took place over a period of 180 min. Compared with Sporanox®, ITZ tablets exhibited a 2.50-fold increase in the AUC(0–96 of ITZ and a 1.95-fold increase in its active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ in the plasma of beagle dogs. The results obtained provided clear evidence that not only the increase in the dissolution rate in the stomach, but also the supersaturation produced by micelles in the small intestine may be of great assistance in the successful development of poorly water-soluble drugs. The micelles formed by Soluplus® enwrapped the molecular ITZ inside the core which promoted the amount of free drug in the intestinal cavity and carried ITZ through the aqueous boundary layer (ABL, resulting in high absorption by passive transportation across biological membranes. The uptake of intact micelles through pinocytosis together with the inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in intestinal epithelia contributed to the absorption of ITZ in the gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that HME with Soluplus®, which can induce supersaturation by micelle

  4. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...... scattering experiments indicate that the lattice parameter for the cubic phase is inconsistent with a simple packing of micelles. Whilst insufficient reflections were observed to establish the space group of the cubic phase uniquely, those that were are consistent with two commonly observed space groups...

  5. Enhanced effect of folated pluronic F87-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles on targeted delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiang Yuan; Pan, Xiaoqian; Tao, Long; Cheng, Feng; Li, Zi Ling; Gong, Yan Chun; Li, Yu Ping

    2017-10-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems have great potential to overcome the side effect and improve the bioavailability of conventional anticancer drugs. In order to further improve the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel (PTX) loaded in folated Pluronic F87/poly(lactic acid) (FA-F87-PLA) micelles, D-α-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate (TPGS or Vitamin E TPGS) were added into FA-F87-PLA to form FA-F87-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles. The LE of PTX-loaded mixed micelles (13.5%) was highest in the mass ratio 5 to 3 of FA-F87-PLA to TPGS. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays indicated that the IC50 values for free PTX injections, PTX-loaded FA-F87-PLA micelles and PTX-loaded FA-F87-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles after 72h of incubation were 1.52, 0.42 and 0.037mg/L, respectively. The quantitative cellular uptake of coumarin 6-loaded FA-F87-PLA/TPGS and FA-F87-PLA micelles showed that the cellular uptake efficiency of mixed micelles was higher for 2 and 4h incubation, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies found that the AUC of PTX-loaded FA-F87-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles is almost 1.4 times of that of PTX-loaded FA-F87-PLA micelles. The decreased particle size and inhibition of P-glycoprotein effect induced by the addition of TPGS could result in enhancing the cellular uptake and improving the antitumor efficiency of PTX-loaded FA-F87-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thin TiO2 Films Prepared by Inkjet Printing of the Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2011), s. 371-378 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA ČR GA104/09/0694; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * titanium oxide * inkjet printing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2011

  7. Optical Properties of Titania Coatings Prepared by Inkjet Direct Patterning of a Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmiedová, V.; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Zmeškal, O.; Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2015), s. 14552-14564 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010548; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : material printing * inkjet * ellipsometry Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  8. Reversible Micro- and Nano- Phase Programming of Anthraquinone Thermochromism Using Blended Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-12-22

    Here, we present an approach to generate materials with programmable thermochromic transition temperatures (TTTs), based on the reversible microcrystallization of anthraquinone dyes with the assistance of blended Pluronic block copolymers. At temperatures above block copolymer critical micellization temperature (CMT), hydrophobic anthraquinone dyes, including Sudan blue II, were dispersed in copolymer micelles, whereas at lower temperature, the dyes formed microcrystals driven by dye-dye and dye-Pluronic molecular interactions. The crystallization process altered the optical properties of the dye with bathochromatic shifts detectable by eye and the thermochromic process was fully reversible. Not only could Pluronic reversibly incorporate the anthraquinone dyes into micelles at elevated temperatures, but it also modulated the crystallization process and resulting morphology of microcrystals via tuning the molecular interactions when the temperature was lowered. Crystal melting transition points (and TTTs) were in agreement with the CMTs, demonstrating that the thermochromism was dependent on block copolymer micellization. Thermochromism could be readily programmed over a broad range of temperatures by changing the CMT by using different types and concentrations of Pluronics and combinations thereof.

  9. The structure of P85 pluronic block copolymer micelles determined by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.; Gerstenberg, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    a spherical core of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) with some water surrounded by a corona of the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block. The latter are non-interacting and obey Gaussian statistics, but are expelled from the core region. The analysis shows that the micelles are fairly concentration and temperature...

  10. Molecular variations in aromatic cosolutes: critical role in the rheology of cationic wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Thiago H; Miranda, Paulo C M L; Morgon, Nelson H; Heerdt, Gabriel; Dreiss, Cécile A; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2014-10-07

    Wormlike micelles formed by the addition to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) of a range of aromatic cosolutes with small molecular variations in their structure were systematically studied. Phenol and derivatives of benzoate and cinnamate were used, and the resulting mixtures were studied by oscillatory, steady-shear rheology, and the microstructure was probed by small-angle neutron scattering. The lengthening of the micelles and their entanglement result in remarkable viscoelastic properties, making rheology a useful tool to assess the effect of structural variations of the cosolutes on wormlike micelle formation. For a fixed concentration of CTAB and cosolute (200 mmol L(-1)), the relaxation time decreases in the following order: phenol > cinnamate> o-hydroxycinnamate > salicylate > o-methoxycinnamate > benzoate > o-methoxybenzoate. The variations in viscoelastic response are rationalized by using Mulliken population analysis to map out the electronic density of the cosolutes and quantify the barrier to rotation of specific groups on the aromatics. We find that the ability of the group attached to the aromatic ring to rotate is crucial in determining the packing of the cosolute at the micellar interface and thus critically impacts the micellar growth and, in turn, the rheological response. These results enable us for the first time to propose design rules for the self-assembly of the surfactants and cosolutes resulting in the formation of wormlike micelles with the cationic surfactant CTAB.

  11. Block and Gradient Copoly(2-oxazoline) Micelles: Strikingly Different on the Inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Sergey K; Verbraeken, Bart; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Angelov, Borislav; Vishnevetskaya, Natalya S; Papadakis, Christine M; Rogers, Sarah; Radulescu, Aurel; Courtin, Tim; Martins, José C; Starovoytova, Larisa; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Kravchenko, Vitaly S; Potemkin, Igor I; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-08-17

    Herein, we provide a direct proof for differences in the micellar structure of amphiphilic diblock and gradient copolymers, thereby unambiguously demonstrating the influence of monomer distribution along the polymer chains on the micellization behavior. The internal structure of amphiphilic block and gradient co poly(2-oxazolines) based on the hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx) and the hydrophobic poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (PPhOx) was studied in water and water-ethanol mixtures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Contrast matching SANS experiments revealed that block copolymers form micelles with a uniform density profile of the core. In contrast to popular assumption, the outer part of the core of the gradient copolymer micelles has a distinctly higher density than the middle of the core. We attribute the latter finding to back-folding of chains resulting from hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions, leading to a new type of micelles that we refer to as micelles with a "bitterball-core" structure.

  12. The pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the composition and size of casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjie; Jin, Shaoming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-04-15

    The effects of lactose on the changes in the composition and size of casein micelles induced by high-pressure treatment and the related mechanism of action were investigated. Dispersions of ultracentrifuged casein micelle pellets with 0-10% (w/v) lactose were subjected to high pressure (400 MPa) at 20 °C for 40 min. The results indicated that the level of non-sedimentable caseins was positively related to the amount of lactose added prior to pressure treatment, and negatively correlated to the size. A mechanism for the pressure-induced, lactose-dependent changes in the casein micelles is proposed. Lactose inhibits the hydrophobic interactions between the micellar fragments during or after pressure release, through the hydrophilic layer formed by their hydrogen bonds around the micellar fragments. In addition, lactose does not favour the association between calcium and the casein aggregates after pressure release. Due to these two functions, lactose inhibited the formation of larger micelles after pressure treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventing Small Molecule Nucleation and Crystallization by Sequestering in a Micelle Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziang; Johnson, Lindsay; Ricarte, Ralm; Yao, Letitia; Hillmyer, Marc; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    We exploited a blend of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) to improve the solubility and dissolution of a rapidly crystallizing model drug molecule phenytoin and observed synergistic effect in vitro at constant drug loading by varying the blending ratio. Dynamic and static light scattering experiments showed that PNIPAm self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. We believe that adding these PNIPAm micelles inhibited both nucleation and crystal growth of phenytoin based on the polarized light micrographs taken from the dissolution media. The drug-polymer intermolecular interaction was revealed by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and further quantified by diffusion ordered spectroscopy. We found that the phenytoin molecules were sequestered in aqueous solution by partitioning into the corona of the micelle. The blend strategy through the use of self-assembled micelles showcased in this study offers a new platform for designing advanced excipients for oral drug delivery. This study was funded by The Dow Chemical Company through Agreement 224249AT with the University of Minnesota.

  14. Micelle-Mediated Extraction and Cloud Point Pre-concentration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Micelle-Mediated Extraction and Cloud Point. Pre-concentration for the Spectrophotometric. Determination of Phenol in Water Samples. Ali Reza Zarei*, Forouzan Gholamian and Soheila Chalavi. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Materials, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Received 6 September ...

  15. Terbium Functionalized Micelle Nanoprobe for Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of Anthrax Spore Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ke; Meng, Ruiqian; Shan, Changfu; Cao, Jing; Jia, Jianguo; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2018-03-06

    Rapid, sensitive, and selective quantitative detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acid (DPA) as biomarker of anthrax spores is in great demand since anthrax spores are highly lethal to human beings and animals and also potential biological warfare agents. Herein, we prepared a ratiometric fluorescence lanthanide functionalized micelle nanoprobe by "one-pot" self-assembly, with an amphiphilic ligand containing β-diketone derivative which can "immobilize" terbium ions through the coordination interaction and a fluorophore as fluorescence reference (FR). The detection strategy was ascribed to Tb 3+ ions in lanthanide functionalized micelle, which can be sensitized to emit the intrinsic luminescence upon addition of DPA due to the presence of energy transfer when DPA chromophore coordinated with Tb 3+ ion. The fluorescence intensity of FR remained essentially constant, leading to ratiometric fluorescence response toward DPA. The results demonstrate that the terbium functionalized micelle was able to sensitively detect DPA with a linear relation in the range of 0 μM to 7.0 μM in aqueous solution, which also showed remarkable selectivity to DPA over other aromatic ligands. Our work paves a new way in the design of ratiometric fluorescence lanthanide functionalized micelle nanoprobes which can be promising for selective and sensitive detection of bacterial spores or biomolecules.

  16. Hydrolytically degradable polymer micelles for drug delivery: a SAXS/SANS kinetic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filippov, Sergey K.; Franklin, J. M.; Konarev, P. V.; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Bogomolova, Anna; Dyakonova, M.; Papadakis, C. M.; Radulescu, A.; Ulbrich, Karel; Štěpánek, Petr; Svergun, D. I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 11 (2013), s. 4061-4070 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA * micelles * drug release Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2013

  17. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H.; Moreira Junior, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag ) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y aq ] and [Y aq ] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles (γ ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I 1 /I 3 vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  18. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  19. Specific interactions within micelle microenvironment in different charged dye/surfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana Petcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of two ionic dyes, Crystal Violet and Methyl Orange, with different charged surfactants and also with a nonionic surfactant were investigated using surface tension measurements and visible spectroscopy in pre-micellar and post-micellar regions. It was found that for the water dominant phase systems the dye was localized between the polar heads, at the exterior of the direct micelle shells for all the systems. For the oil dominant phase systems, in case of the same charged dye/surfactant couples, the dye was localized in the micelle shell between the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant nearby the hydrophilic head groups while for nonionic surfactant and oppositely charged dye/surfactant, localization of dye was between the oxyethylenic head groups towards the interior of the micelle core. Mixed aggregates of the dye and surfactant (below the critical micellar concentration of cationic surfactant, dye-surfactant ion pair and surfactant-micelles were present. The values of equilibrium constants (for TX-114/MO and TX-114/CV systems were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, partition coefficients between the micellar and bulk water phases and standard free energy (for the nonionic systems were −12.59 kJ/mol for MO and −10.97 kJ/mol for CV were calculated for all the studied systems. The partition processes were exothermic and occurred spontaneously.

  20. Photoenhanced gene transfection by a curcumin loaded CS-g-PZLL micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Tao; Pan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Jia; Su, Jia-Min; Li, Tong; Zou, Ying; Wang, Guan-Hai

    2017-09-01

    The codelivery of drug and gene is a promising method for cancer treatment. In our previous works, we prepared a cationic micelles based on chitosan and poly-(N-3-carbobenzyloxylysine) (CS-g-PZLL), but transfection ratio of CS-g-PZLL to Hela cell was low. Herein, to improve the transfection efficiency of CS-g-PZLL, curcumin was loaded in the CS-g-PZLL micelle. After irradiation, the obtained curcumin loaded micelle showed a better transfection, and the p53 protein expression in Hela cells was higher. The apoptosis assay showed that the complex could induce a more significant apoptosis to Hela cells than that of curcumin or p53 used alone, and the curcumin loaded micelle inducing apoptosis was best after irradiation. Therefore, CS-g-PZLL is a safe and effective carrier for the codelivery of drug/gene, and curcumin could be used as a photosensitizer to induce a photoenhanced gene transfection, which should be encouraged in improving transfection and tumor therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in Simulated Pore Solution in the Presence of Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Kolev, H.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results on the investigation of the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in model alkaline medium in the presence of very low concentration of polymeric nanoaggregates [0.0024 wt % polyethylene oxide (PEO)113-b-PS70 micelles]. The steel electrodes were investigated in chloride

  2. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  3. Micelles versus Ribbons: How Congeners Drive the Self-Assembly of Acidic Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasaiyan, Prabhu; Le Griel, Patrick; Roelants, Sophie; Redant, Emile; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Prevost, Sylvain; Prasad, B L V; Baccile, Niki

    2017-03-17

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a class of microbially derived biosurfactants, are reported by different research groups to have different self-assembled structures (either micelles or giant ribbons) under the same conditions. Here we explore the reasons behind these contradictory results and attribute these differences to the role of specific congeners that are present in minute quantities. We show that a sample composed of a majority of oleic acid (C18:1) sophorolipid in the presence of only 0.5 % (or more) of congeners with stearic acid (C18:0) or linoleic acid (C18:2) results in the formation of micelles that are stable over long periods of time. Conversely, the presence of only 10 to 15 % of congeners with a stearic acid chain gives fibrillar structures instead of micelles. To study the mechanisms responsible, oleic acid SLs devoid of any other congeners were prepared. Very interestingly, this sample can self-assemble into either micelles or fibers depending on minute modifications to the self-assembly conditions. The findings are supported by light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and NMR spectroscopy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An application of micelle solubilization spectrophotometry in the determination of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Changhai; Zeng Xiaoming

    1988-01-01

    In this review article the characteristics of the analytical method of Th by means of micelle solubilization spectrophotometry are described and the mechanism of the solubilization and chemical reactions involved is discussed. Also the various color-developing reagents that have been used for this determination are described and compared

  5. Detergent properties influence the stability of the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer in lysophosphatidylcholine micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Michael; Veerappan, Anbazhagan; Kroeger, Anja; Vogel, Peter; Schneider, Dirk

    2012-12-19

    Detergents might affect membrane protein structures by promoting intramolecular interactions that are different from those found in native membrane bilayers, and fine-tuning detergent properties can be crucial for obtaining structural information of intact and functional transmembrane proteins. To systematically investigate the influence of the detergent concentration and acyl-chain length on the stability of a transmembrane protein structure, the stability of the human glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer has been analyzed in lyso-phosphatidylcholine micelles of different acyl-chain length. While our results indicate that the transmembrane protein is destabilized in detergents with increasing chain-length, the diameter of the hydrophobic micelle core was found to be less crucial. Thus, hydrophobic mismatch appears to be less important in detergent micelles than in lipid bilayers and individual detergent molecules appear to be able to stretch within a micelle to match the hydrophobic thickness of the peptide. However, the stability of the GpA TM helix dimer linearly depends on the aggregation number of the lyso-PC detergents, indicating that not only is the chemistry of the detergent headgroup and acyl-chain region central for classifying a detergent as harsh or mild, but the detergent aggregation number might also be important. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Admixed Micelles on the Microstructure Alterations of Reinforced Mortar Subjected to Chloride Induced Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the main results from the influence of the initially admixed nano-aggregates (0.5 g/l PEO113-b-PS70 micelles previously dissolved in demi-water) on microstructural alterations of the reinforced mortar subjected to chloride induced corrosion. The morphology of hydration/corrosion

  7. Novel Brassinosteroid-Modified Polyethylene Glycol Micelles for Controlled Release of Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quiñones, Javier; Brüggemann, Oliver; Kjems, Jørgen; Shahavi, Mohammad Hassan; Peniche Covas, Carlos

    2018-02-21

    Two synthetic analogues of brassinosteroids (DI31 and S7) exhibit good plant growth enhancer activity. However, their hydrophobicity and quick metabolism in plants have limited their application and benefits in agriculture. Our objective was to prepare novel brassinosteroid-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) micelles to achieve controlled release with extended stability while retaining agrochemical activity. Spectroscopic studies confirmed quantitative disubstitution of studied PEGs with the brassinosteroids, while elemental analysis assessed purity of the synthesized conjugates. Conjugates were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Dynamic and static light scattering showed stable and homogeneous approximately spherical micelles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 22-120 nm and almost neutral ζ potential. Spherical 30-140 nm micelles were observed by electron microscopy. Sustained in vitro releases at pH 5.5 were extended up to 96 h. Prepared PEG micelles showed good agrochemical activity in the radish seed bioassay and no cytotoxicity to the human microvascular endothelial cell line in the MTS test.

  8. Light scattering evidence of selective protein fouling on biocompatible block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giacomelli, F. C.; Štěpánek, Petr; Schmidt, V.; Jäger, Eliezer; Jäger, Alessandro; Giacomelli, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 15 (2012), s. 4504-4514 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : copolymer micelles * protein fouling * light scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.233, year: 2012

  9. Internal structural characterization of triblock copolymer micelles with looped corona chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giacomelli, F. C.; Riegel, I. C.; Petzhold, C. L.; Silveira, N.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2009), s. 3487-3493 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/2078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymers * micelles * angle neutron - scattering Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  10. Cylindrical micelles of a POSS amphiphilic dendrimer as nano-reactors for polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Ting; Yeh, Tso-Fan; Samuel, Ashok Zachariah; Huang, Yi-Fan; Sie, Jyun-Hao; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Peng, Chi-How; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2018-02-15

    A low generation amphiphilic dendrimer, POSS-AD, which has a POSS core and eight amphiphilic arms, was synthesized and used as a nano-reactor to produce well-defined polymer nano-cylinders. Confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman and NMR spectrometry, monodispersed cylindrical micelles that contain a hydrophilic cavity with a diameter of 2.09 nm and a length of 4.26 nm were produced via co-assembling POSS-AD with hydrophilic liquids, such as H 2 O and HEMA in hydrophobic solvents. Taking the HEMA/POSS-AD cylindrical micelles as nano-reactors, polymerization of HEMA within the micelles results in polymer nano-cylinders (POSS-ADNPs) with a diameter of 2.24 nm and a length of 5.02 nm. The study confirmed that despite the inability to maintain specific shape in solution, low generation dendrimers form well-defined nano-containers or nano-reactors, which relies on co-assembling with hydrophilic guest molecules. These nano-reactors are robust enough to maintain their shape during the polymerization of the guest molecules. Polymer nano-cylinders with dimensions less than 10 nm can thus be produced from the HEMA/POSS-AD micelles. Since the chemical structure of low-generation dendrimers and the contents of the co-assembled nano-reactors can be easily adjusted, the concept holds the potential for the further developments of low-generation amphiphilic dendrimers.

  11. Salt-Induced Disintegration of Lysozyme-Containing Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Voorhaar, Lenny; de Vries, Renko; Schweins, Ralf; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem

    2009-01-01

    The salt-induced disintegration of lysozyme-filled polyelectrolyte complex micelles, consisting of positively charged homopolymers (PDMAEMA(150)), negatively charged diblock copolymers (PAA(42)-PAAm(417)) and lysozyme, has been Studied with dynamic light scattering (DL) and small-angle neutron

  12. Salt-Induced Disintegration of Lysozyme-Containing Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Vries, de R.J.; Schweins, R.; Voorhaar, L.

    2009-01-01

    The salt-induced disintegration of lysozyme-filled polyelectrolyte complex micelles, consisting of positively charged homopolymers (PDMAEMA150), negatively charged diblock copolymers (PAA42-PAAm417), and lysozyme, has been studied with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron

  13. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, ... Novel Materials and Structural Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic ...

  14. RELATION BETWEEN SURFACTANT STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF SPHERICAL MICELLES - 1-ALKYL-4-ALKYLPYRIDINIUM HALIDE SURFACTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NUSSELDER, JJH; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed study of the properties of spherical micelles formed from 18 1-alkyl-4-alkylpyridinium iodides. Structural variations in the surfactants include (i) branching of the 4-alkyl chain while keeping the number of carbons in the chain invariant and (ii) variation of the

  15. Analysis of small-angle scattering data from micelles and microemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The free-form methods for analyzing small-angle scattering data have, during the last years, found more widespread use for micelles and microemulsions. Recent developments have made them applicable also to systems with size polydispersity and particle correlations, however, model fitting still...

  16. Study of the emission oxidative reactions of ruthenium (II) complex by cationic compounds in anionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilha, J.B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidative quenching of the emission of the tetraanionic complex tris (4,4' dicarboxylate - 2,2' - bipyridine ruthenium (II) in aqueous solution, by both organic and inorganic compounds in presence of anionic detergents, above and below the critical micelle concentration is studied. The organic cations, the inorganic ion and detergents used are shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  17. Thermodynamic profiling of Peptide membrane interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry: a search for pores and micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2011-01-01

    in mixed peptide-lipid micelles. We have investigated the mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan-X using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results show that mastoparan-X induces a range of structural transitions of POPC/POPG (3...

  18. Micelle System Based on Molecular Economy Principle for Overcoming Multidrug Resistance and Inhibiting Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan; Qin, Xianya; Yang, Conglian; Wu, Tingting; Qiao, Qi; Song, Qingle; Zhang, Zhiping

    2018-03-05

    The high mortality of cancer is mainly attributed to multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastasis. A simple micelle system was constructed here to codeliver doxorubicin (DOX), adjudin (ADD), and nitric oxide (NO) for overcoming MDR and inhibiting metastasis. It was devised based on the "molecular economy" principle as the micelle system was easy to fabricate and exhibited high drug loading efficiency, and importantly, each component of the micelles would exert one or more active functions. DOX acted as the main cell killing agent supplemented with ADD, NO, and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). MDR was overcome by synergistic effects of mitochondria inhibition agents, TPGS and ADD. A TPGS-based NO donor can be used as a drug carrier, and it can release NO to enhance drug accumulation and penetration in tumor, resulting in a positive cycle of drug delivery. This DOX-ADD conjugate self-assembly system demonstrated controlled drug release, increased cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, enhanced accumulation at tumor site, and improved in vivo metastasis inhibition of breast cancer. The micelles can fully take advantage of the functions of each component, and they provide a potential strategy for nanomedicine design and clinical cancer treatment.

  19. Intrinsically active nanobody-modified polymeric micelles for tumor-targeted combination therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talelli, M.; Oliveira, S.; Rijcken, C. J. F.; Pieters, E. H. E.; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; van Nostrum, R. C. F.; Storm, G.; Hennink, W. E.; Lammers, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2013), s. 1255-1260 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500806; GA ČR GAP301/11/0325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymeric micelle * doxorubicin * active targeting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.312, year: 2013

  20. Core-cross-linked polymeric micelles: a versatile nanomedicine platform with broad applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad applicability of the nanomedicine platform core-cross-linked polymeric micelles (CCL-PMs) composed of thermosensitive mPEG-b-pHPMAmLacn block copolymers. In Chapter 1, a general introduction to nanomedicines is provided, with a particular focus on polymeric

  1. Tailoring the physicochemical properties of core-crosslinked polymeric micelles for pharmaceutical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hu, Q.; Rijcken, C. J. F.; van Gaal, E.; Brundel, P.; Kostková, Hana; Etrych, Tomáš; Weber, B.; Barz, M.; Kiessling, F.; Prakash, J.; Storm, G.; Hennink, W. E.; Lammers, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 244, Part B (2016), s. 314-325 ISSN 0168-3659. [European Symposium on Controlled Drug Delivery /14./. Egmond aan Zee, 13.04.2016-15.04.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanomedicine * drug targeting * polymeric micelles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  2. Core-crosslinked polymeric micelles with controlled release of covalently entrapped doxorubicin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talelli, M.; Iman, M.; Varkouhi, A. K.; Rijcken, C. J. F.; Schiffelers, R. M.; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; van Nostrum, C. F.; Lammers, T.; Storm, G.; Hennink, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 30 (2010), s. 7797-7804 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA AV ČR IAA400500806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : doxorubicin * cancer therapy * polymeric micelle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.883, year: 2010

  3. Radiation-induced crosslinking of polymeric micelles as nanoparticle for immobilization of bioactive compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Kamaruddin Hashim; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Maznah Ismail; Mek Zah Salleh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the bioactive-loaded polymeric nanoparticle by radiation-induced crosslinking technique. The polymeric micelles consist of acrylated palm oil (APO), anionic surfactant and aqueous solution was prepared for immobilization of bioactive compound for example the Thymoquinone (TQ). The TQ-loaded APO micelle was subjected to ionizing radiation to induce crosslinked polymeric structure of the TQ-loaded APO nanoparticle. The formation of TQ-loaded APO micro micelle and nano particle were evaluated by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for characterization the size, the shape, the chemical structure and the irradiation effect of the micelle and the nano particle. The results indicate that the size of APO micro and nano particles varies from 120 to 270 nanometer (nm) upon gamma irradiation at doses ranging from 1 to 25 kilo gray (kGy). In addition, size of the particle was found decreasing upon irradiation due to the crosslinking interaction. The study demonstrated that the APO micro-and nanoparticle can retained and controlled the release rate of the thymoquinone at up to 24 hours as determined using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. These findings suggested that the ionizing radiation method can be utilized to prepare nano-size APO particles, with the presence of TQ. (author)

  4. Polymeric Micelle-Mediated Delivery of DNA-Targeting Organometallic Complexes for Resistant Ovarian Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaopin; Liu, Demin; Chan, Christina; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-26

    Three half-sandwich iridium and ruthenium organometallic complexes with high cytotoxicity are synthesized, and their anticancer mechanisms are elucidated. The organometallic complexes can interact with DNA through coordination or intercalation, thereby inducing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation of resistant cancer cells. The organometallic complexes are then incorporated into polymeric micelles through the polymer-metal coordination between poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(glutamic acid) [PEG-b-P(Glu)] and organometallic complexes to further enhance their anticancer effects as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The micelles with particle sizes of ≈60 nm are more efficiently internalized by cancer cells than the corresponding complexes, and selectively dissociate and release organometallic anticancer agents within late endosomes and lysosomes, thereby enhancing drug delivery to the nuclei of cancer cells and facilitating their interactions with DNA. Thus, the micelles display higher antitumor activity than the organometallic complexes alone with a lack of the systemic toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer. These results suggest that the polymeric micelles carrying anticancer organometallic complexes provide a promising platform for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer and other hard-to-treat solid tumors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biotoxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Liu, Chunyan; Zeng, Xinying; Xin, Qiao; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Yangwu; Dong, Wei

    2017-06-01

    A recent work has shown that hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in the micelle phase of some nonionic surfactants present substrate toxicity to microorganisms with increasing bioavailability. However, in cloud point systems, biotoxicity is prevented, because the compounds are solubilized into a coacervate phase, thereby leaving a fraction of compounds with cells in a dilute phase. This study extends the understanding of the relationship between substrate toxicity and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds solubilized in nonionic surfactant micelle phase and cloud point system. Biotoxicity experiments were conducted with naphthalene and phenanthrene in the presence of mixed nonionic surfactants Brij30 and TMN-3, which formed a micelle phase or cloud point system at different concentrations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unable to degrade these compounds, was used for the biotoxicity experiments. Glucose in the cloud point system was consumed faster than in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase, indicating that the solubilized compounds had increased toxicity to cells in the nonionic surfactant micelle phase. The results were verified by subsequent biodegradation experiments. The compounds were degraded faster by PAH-degrading bacterium in the cloud point system than in the micelle phase. All these results showed that biotoxicity of the hydrophobic organic compounds increases with bioavailability in the surfactant micelle phase but remains at a low level in the cloud point system. These results provide a guideline for the application of cloud point systems as novel media for microbial transformation or biodegradation.

  6. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of quinine sulfate dication bound to sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Fluorescent complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D., E-mail: ddpant@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    Interaction of quinine sulfate dication (QSD) with anionic, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant has been studied at different premicellar, micellar and postmicellar concentrations in aqueous phase using steady state, time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. At premicellar concentrations of SDS, the decrease in absorbance, appearance of an extra fluorescence band at lower wavelengths and tri-exponential decay behavior of fluorescence, are attributed to complex formation between QSD molecules and surfactant monomers. At postmicellar concentrations the red shift in fluorescence spectrum, increase in quantum yield and increase in fluorescence lifetimes are attributed to incorporation of solute molecules to micelles. At lower concentrations of SDS, a large shift in fluorescence is observed on excitation at the red edge of absorption spectrum and this is explained in terms of distribution of ion pairs of different energies in the ground state and the observed fluorescence lifetime behavior corroborates with this model. The temporal fluorescence anisotropy decay of QSD in SDS micelles allowed determination of restriction on the motion of the fluorophore. All the different techniques used in this study reveal that the photophysics of QSD is very sensitive to the microenvironments of SDS micelles and QSD molecules reside at the water-micelle interface. -- Highlights: • Probe molecule is very sensitive to microenvironment of micelles. • Highly fluorescent ion-pair formation has been observed. • Modulated photophysics of probe molecule in micellar solutions has been observed. • Probe molecules strongly bind with micelles and reside at probe–micelle interface.

  7. Sub-20 nm Stable Micelles Based on a Mixture of Coiled-Coils: A Platform for Controlled Ligand Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, JooChuan; Ma, Dan; Jung, Benson T; Keten, Sinan; Xu, Ting

    2017-11-13

    Ligand-functionalized, multivalent nanoparticles have been extensively studied for biomedical applications from imaging agents to drug delivery vehicles. However, the ligand cluster size is usually heterogeneous and the local valency is ill-defined. Here, we present a mixed micelle platform hierarchically self-assembled from a mixture of two amphiphilic 3-helix and 4-helix peptide-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid hybrid conjugates. We demonstrate that the local multivalent ligand cluster size on the micelle surface can be controlled based on the coiled-coil oligomeric state. The oligomeric states of mixed peptide bundles were found to be in their individual native states. Similarly, mixed micelles indicate the orthogonal self-association of coiled-coil amphiphiles. Using differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence recovery spectroscopy, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the distribution of coiled-coil bundles within the mixed micelles and observed migration of coiled-coils into nanodomains within the sub-20 nm mixed micelle. This report provides important insights into the assembly and formation of nanophase-separated micelles with precise control over the local multivalent state of ligands on the micelle surface.

  8. Bioreducible Micelles Self-Assembled from Poly(ethylene glycol-Cholesteryl Conjugate As a Drug Delivery Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsu Baek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of polymeric micelles to self-assemble into nanosized particles has created interest in their application as potential anticancer drug delivery systems. A poly(ethylene glycol-cholesteryl conjugate (Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol connected by cleavable disulfide linkages was synthesized and used as a nanocarrier for in vitro release of doxorubicin (DOX. Owing to its amphiphilic structure, Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol was able to self-assemble into micelles with an average diameter 18.6 nm in aqueous solution. The micelles formed large aggregates due to the shedding of the PEG shell through cleavage of disulfide bonds in a reductive environment. The in vitro release studies revealed that Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol micelles released 80% and approximately 9% of the encapsulated DOX within 6 h under reductive and non-reductive conditions, respectively. The glutathione (GSH-mediated intracellular drug delivery was investigated in a KB cell line. The cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles indicated a higher cellular anti-proliferative effect against GSH-pretreated than untreated KB cells. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM measurement demonstrated that Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol micelles exhibited faster drug release in GSH-pretreated KB cells than untreated KB cells. These results suggest the potential usefulness of disulfide-based polymeric micelles as controlled drug delivery carriers.

  9. Formation of polyol-fatty acid esters by lipases in reverse micellar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D G; Gulari, E

    1992-06-05

    The synthesis of polyol-fatty acid esters has strong implications in such industries as foods, cosmetics, and polymers. We have investigated these esterification reactions employing the polyols ethylene glycol, 2-monoglyceride, and sugars and their derivatives with the biocatalyst lipase in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micellar media. For the first reaction, 50-60% conversion was achieved and product selectivity toward the monoester over the diester shown possible by employing lipase from Rhizopus delemar. A simple kinetic model based on the formation of acyl-enzyme intermediate accurately predicted the effect of polyol concentration but not the effect of fatty acid or water concentration probably due to the model exclusion of partitioning effects. The success of this reaction in reverse micellar media is due greatly to its capacity to solubilize large quantities of glycol despite the media's overall hydrophobicity. The second reaction, investigated for its potential for production of "mixed" glycerides, also achieved about 50% conversion but had only a small portion of triglyceride in its product distribution. Also, isomerization of the 2-monoglyceride to 1-monoglyceride, followed by hydrolysis of the latter, unfortunately occurred to a significant extent. Attempts at esterification with hexoses and their derivatives such as glucose and mannitol produced no conversion.

  10. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  11. Effects of temperature on the rheological behavior of worm-like micelles in a mixed nonionic surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizaki, Kaname; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on the rheological behavior of worm-like micelles in a nonionic surfactant system consisting of polyoxyethylene (10) phytosterol (PhyEO(10))/glyceryl monocaprylate (GFA-C(8))/Water. First, the phase diagram of a PhyEO(10)/GFA-C(8)/Water system was examined when the weight ratio, R, of GFA-C(8) to the total surfactants was changed keeping the total concentration of the surfactants at 5 wt%. The formation of worm-like micelles was confirmed over a wide temperature range. Next, the effect of temperature on the rheological properties of the worm-like micelles was examined. From steady-flow viscosity measurements of the worm-like micelles, it was found that the zero-shear viscosity (eta(0)) gave a maximum value more than 1,000 times greater than the minimum value in the temperature range 20-50 degrees C. Further, the temperature at which the maximum eta(0) was observed decreased with increasing R value. These results indicate that there is an optimal temperature at which the entanglement of worm-like micelles is at its greatest. From dynamic viscoelasticity measurements, it was shown that the viscoelastic behavior observed for the worm-like micelles was consistent with the Maxwell model, which is the basic model for a viscoelastic body. In addition, the plateau modulus (G(0)), which reflects the volume fraction of entangled worm-like micelles, gradually increased with increasing temperature, while the relaxation time (tau), which reflects the disentanglement time of the worm-like micelles, rapidly decreased with increasing temperature. From these results, it was clarified that, for a nonionic worm-like micelle, tau influences the change in eta(0) more strongly than G(0).

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of the aggregation state of amphotericin B during loading, freeze-drying, and reconstitution of polymeric micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica; Kwon, Glen S

    2004-11-22

    To investigate the relative aggregation state of amphotericin B (AmB) during loading and reconstitution of polymeric micelles. Hexanoate and stearate derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp) were prepared. The polymers and AmB were dissolved in methanol (MeOH). Milli-Q water was then added slowly, and the MeOH was removed via rotary evaporation. The solutions were freeze-dried in the presence of trehalose. During micelle preparation, the aggregation state of AmB was assessed using absorption spectroscopy. Upon reconstitution, the samples were analyzed using vapor-pressure osmometry, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and absorption spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of AmB in the presence of the block copolymers was compared to that of AmB alone under the same conditions. AmB was loaded into micelles prepared from acyl derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp). Absorption spectroscopy indicated that the aggregation state was preserved during the loading process. AmB exists in a self-aggregated state in polymeric micelles containing hexanoate ester cores and in a relatively monomeric state in polymeric micelles containing stearate ester cores. Vapor-pressure osmometry confirmed the isotonicity of the formulations, while SEC indicated that the micelles were approximately 10(6) g/mol. Depending on the polymer structure and assembly conditions, it is possible to encapsulate AmB in a relatively nonaggregated or aggregated state in micelles prepared from acyl derivatives of PEO-b-p (L-Asp). In polymeric micelles containing stearate side chains, AmB was loaded in a nearly monomeric state, possibly due to interaction with the stearate side chains. The final aggregation state of the drug is preserved during lyophilization and reconstitution of polymeric micelles prepared by a novel solvent evaporation procedure.

  13. The effect of block copolymer structure on the internalization of polymeric micelles by human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of hydrophilic/hydrophobic block chain lengths on the internalization of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micelles by cancer cells. PEO-b-PCL block copolymers with varied PEO and PCL chain lengths were synthesized, assembled to polymeric micelles and loaded with a hydrophobic fluorescent probe (DiI) through a co-solvent evaporation method of physical encapsulation. The slow release of the fluorescent probe from the micellar structure was evidenced following DiI transfer to lipid vesicles. The extent of micellar uptake by cancer cells was investigated through their incubation with MCF-7 cells followed by measurement of the fluorescent emission intensity of DiI (lambda=550 nm) in separated lysed cells. Cellular internalization of polymeric micelles was confirmed by laser scanning microscopy. The mechanism of micellar uptake was investigated by pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with chlorpromazine and cytochalasin B. Encapsulation of DiI in PEO-b-PCL micelles lowered the extent and rate of hydrophobic probe internalization by cancer cells. For polymeric micelles with 5000 gmol(-1) of PCL and varied PEO molecular weights of 2000, 5000 and 13,000 gmol(-1), maximum uptake was observed at a PEO molecular weight of 5000 gmol(-1). For polymeric micelles with 5000 gmol(-1) of PEO and varied PCL molecular weights of 5000, 13,000 and 24,000 gmol(-1), maximum uptake was observed at 13,000 gmol(-1) of PCL. Chlorpromazine reduced the cellular uptake of PEO-b-PCL micelles independent from the block copolymer structure, pointing to the involvement of clathrin mediated endocytosis mechanisms in the uptake of polymeric micelles by cancer cells. Inhibition of cellular uptake of PEO-b-PCL micelles by cytochalasin B, on the other hand, was found to be dependent on the chemical structure of the core/shell forming blocks.

  14. Anticancer effect and mechanism of polymer micelle-encapsulated quercetin on ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Bilan; Wei, Xiawei; Men, Ke; Zheng, Fengjin; Zhou, Yingfeng; Zheng, Yu; Gou, Maling; Huang, Meijuan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-10-01

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.

  15. PSMA ligand conjugated PCL-PEG polymeric micelles targeted to prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jin

    Full Text Available In this content, a small molecular ligand of prostate specific membrane antigen (SMLP conjugated poly (caprolactone (PCL-b-poly (ethylene glycol (PEG copolymers with different block lengths were synthesized to construct a satisfactory drug delivery system. Four different docetaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (DTX-PMs were prepared by dialysis with particle sizes less than 60 nm as characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Optimization of the prepared micelles was conducted based on short-term stability and drug-loading content. The results showed that optimized systems were able to remain stable over 7 days. Compared with Taxotere, DTX-PMs with the same ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic chain length displayed similar sustained release behaviors. The cytotoxicity of the optimized targeted DTX-PCL12K-PEG5K-SMLP micelles (DTX-PMs2 and non-targeted DTX-PCL12K-mPEG5K micelles (DTX-PMs1 were evaluated by MTT assays using prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA positive prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP. The results showed that the targeted micelles had a much lower IC50 than their non-targeted counterparts (48 h: 0.87 ± 0.27 vs 13.48 ± 1.03 µg/ml; 72 h: 0.02 ± 0.008 vs 1.35 ± 0.54 µg/ml. In vitro cellular uptake of PMs2 showed 5-fold higher fluorescence intensity than that of PMs1 after 4 h incubation. According to these results, the novel nano-sized drug delivery system based on DTX-PCL-PEG-SMLP offers great promise for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

  16. Sodium deoxycholate mediated enhanced solubilization and stability of hydrophobic drug Clozapine in pluronic micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Pankaj; Singh, Onkar; Chabba, Shruti; Aswal, V. K.; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the solubilization behaviour of a hydrophobic drug Clozapine (CLZ) in micellar suspensions of pluronics having different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) ratios viz. P84, F127 and F108 in the absence and presence of bile salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC) has been studied. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been exploited to determine the solubilization capacity of the investigated micellar systems in terms of drug loading efficiency, average number of drug molecules solubilized per micelle (ns), partition coefficient (P) and standard free energy of solubilization (Δ G°). The morphological and structural changes taking place in pluronics in different concentration regimes of SDC and with the addition of drug CLZ has been explored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The SANS results revealed that aggregation behaviour of pluronic-SDC mixed micelles gets improved in the presence of drug. The micropolarity measurements have been performed to shed light on the locus of solubilization of the drug in pure and mixed micellar systems. The compatibility between CLZ and drug carriers (pluronics and SDC) was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Among the investigated systems, P84-SDC mixed system was found to be highly efficient for CLZ loading. The long term stability data indicated that CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micellar formulation remained stable for 3 months at room temperature. Further, it was revealed that the CLZ loaded P84-SDC mixed micelles are converted into CLZ loaded pure P84 micelles at 30-fold dilutions which remain stable up to 48-fold dilutions. The results from the present studies suggest that P84-SDC mixed micelles can serve as suitable delivery vehicles for hydrophobic drug CLZ.

  17. Radiochromic leuco dye micelle hydrogels: II. Low diffusion rate leuco crystal violet gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babic, Steven; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program at London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2009-11-21

    Radiation-sensitive hydrogels offer the capability of verifying intricate dose distributions in three-dimensional (3D) space conveniently in a single measurement with sub-millimetre spatial resolution. In this study, a new radiochromic hydrogel called leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel is introduced. Upon irradiation, LCV converts to crystal violet (CV{sup +}). Triton X-100 micelles are used to provide the required hybrid-interfacing environment to dissolve LCV. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV gel has been measured to be 0.036 {+-} 0.001 mm{sup 2} h{sup -1}, which is a factor of 25 times less than the standard radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gel; LCV gels without Triton X-100 micelles have a diffusion coefficient of 0.33 {+-} 0.02 mm{sup 2} h{sup -1}. The LCV gel formulation contains: 1 mM LCV, 25 mM trichloroacetic acid, 4 mM Triton X-100 and 4% w/w gelatin. The primary innovative feature of this 3D hydrogel is that the radiation-induced CV{sup +} dye is more soluble in the Triton X-100 micelles than in the surrounding water which consequently leads to more stable post-irradiation dose distributions. A dosimetric characterization revealed that the dose response is reproducible to within 1% over three separate batches, independent of energy, dose rate and dose fractionation but is affected by the temperature ({approx}4% per deg. C) during irradiation. LCV micelle gels scanned optically with a yellow light source are a promising system for 3D dose verification. They may prove to be, especially, useful for scanning large volume dosimeters (i.e. 20 cm) since they are easily manufactured, transparent and near colourless prior to irradiation.

  18. Radiochromic leuco dye micelle hydrogels: II. Low diffusion rate leuco crystal violet gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Steven; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Radiation-sensitive hydrogels offer the capability of verifying intricate dose distributions in three-dimensional (3D) space conveniently in a single measurement with sub-millimetre spatial resolution. In this study, a new radiochromic hydrogel called leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel is introduced. Upon irradiation, LCV converts to crystal violet (CV+). Triton X-100 micelles are used to provide the required hybrid-interfacing environment to dissolve LCV. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV gel has been measured to be 0.036 ± 0.001 mm2 h-1, which is a factor of 25 times less than the standard radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gel; LCV gels without Triton X-100 micelles have a diffusion coefficient of 0.33 ± 0.02 mm2 h-1. The LCV gel formulation contains: 1 mM LCV, 25 mM trichloroacetic acid, 4 mM Triton X-100 and 4% w/w gelatin. The primary innovative feature of this 3D hydrogel is that the radiation-induced CV+ dye is more soluble in the Triton X-100 micelles than in the surrounding water which consequently leads to more stable post-irradiation dose distributions. A dosimetric characterization revealed that the dose response is reproducible to within 1% over three separate batches, independent of energy, dose rate and dose fractionation but is affected by the temperature (~4% per °C) during irradiation. LCV micelle gels scanned optically with a yellow light source are a promising system for 3D dose verification. They may prove to be, especially, useful for scanning large volume dosimeters (i.e. 20 cm) since they are easily manufactured, transparent and near colourless prior to irradiation.

  19. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other factors. Success rates may be as high as 80 percent or as low as near 40 percent depending on your circumstances. Tubal ligation reversal is abdominal surgery, which carries a risk of infection, bleeding and ...

  20. A molecular dynamics study of local pressures and interfacial tensions of SDS micelles and dodecane droplets in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabata, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Yoshii, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-06-14

    To obtain the radial (normal) and lateral (transverse) components of the local pressure tensor, PN(R) and PT(R), respectively, and the interfacial tension of micelles, molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were performed for spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The local pressure tensor was calculated as a function of radial distance R using the Irving-Kirkwood formula. Similar MD calculations were also carried out for an n-dodecane droplet in water to compare the differences in the local pressure and interfacial tension values with those of the micelles. The calculated interfacial tensions were 20 ± 5 and 44 ± 10 mN/m for the SDS micelles and dodecane droplets, respectively. The excess free energies due to the interfacial tension were 340 and 1331 kJ/mol for the SDS micelle and dodecane droplet, respectively. The micelles are stabilized by 991 kJ/mol by covering their hydrophobic cores with hydrophilic groups. The dodecane droplet has a large interfacial tension caused by the zero or positive values of PN(R) - PT(R) at all values of R. In contrast, the small interfacial tension in the SDS micelles comes from the negative PN(R) - PT(R) values over a wide range of R. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the oil droplet and its interfacial tension well satisfies the Laplace equation. However, the hydrophobic core of the SDS micelle is quite different from the liquid alkane, and the SDS micelles do not follow Laplace's picture. Decomposing the interfacial tension into contributions from various interactions, it is found that those between charged and polar groups dominate the interfacial tension of the SDS micelles. The positive electrostatic potential (1.3 V) on the micelle surface and the negative potential (-0.15 V) on the oil droplet contribute to the interfacial tensions by 19 and 0.5 mN/m, respectively. Thus, the interfacial tension of the SDS micelles is produced by electrostatic interactions, in contrast to the dodecane

  1. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  2. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...

  3. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  4. Complement monitoring of Pluronic 127 gel and micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, Islam; Hunter, A Christy; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    Poloxamer 407 is a non-ionic polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polypropylene oxide (PPO) block copolymer, which exhibits reversible thermogelation properties. Poloxamer gel has attracted many applications for controlled release of therapeutic agents as well as in surgical interventions such as controlled......, which may have been responsible for triggering complement. Since poloxamer 407 administration has been reported to cause significant changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels we further examined the role of lipoproteins in poloxamer-mediated complement activation. Our results show...... above its cmc) with human LDL, which could have played a significant role in regulating complement activation. These observations are in line with the suggested modulatory role of lipoproteins in host defence and inflammatory processes. A better understanding of block copolymer interaction...

  5. Quantitative correlation between counterion (X binding affinity to cationic micelles and X – Induced micellar growth for substituted iodobenzoates (X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Saadah M. Yusof

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new semi-empirical kinetic (SEK method has been used to calculate the values of KXBr or RXBr (X represents substituted iodobenzoates, with KX and KBr representing CTABr micellar binding constants of counterions X− (in the presence of either spherical or non-spherical micelles and Br− (in the presence of only spherical micelles, respectively. Steady-shear rheological properties of mixed 0.015 M CTABr/[MX] aqueous solutions reveal the presence of flexible wormlike micelles where MX represents sodium 3- and 4-iodobenzoates. The maxima of the plots of viscosity vs. [MX] at 0.015 M CTABr for MX representing sodium 3- and 4-iodobenzoates support the presence of long linear and entangled wormlike micelles.

  6. Structure of polymer micelles close to the solid interface. A grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M; Magerl, A; Zabel, H

    2005-02-01

    Block copolymers are widely used in industry. For scientific interests their aqueous solutions offer a model system for the investigation of crystallisation as the macromolecules agglomerate for elevated concentrations into micelles, which crystallise when a critical volume fraction is reached. We report on grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) or near surface small angle neutron scattering (NS-SANS) as an experimental tool to investigate the micelle crystallisation close to interfaces with different chemical termination. We find that in general crystallization is suppressed at a repulsive surface and favoured at an attractive one. Furthermore we show that the crystallization close the interface can be controlled by the micelle stability, resulting from the different composition and length of the monomers. The effect of the interface is found more important for a high micelle stability, whereas for a low stability it is shadowed by adsorbed monomers.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of nuclear localization signal-conjugated glycol chitosan micelles for improving the nuclear delivery of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jingmou Yu,1 Xin Xie,1 Meirong Zheng,1 Ling Yu,2 Lei Zhang,1 Jianguo Zhao,1 Dengzhao Jiang,1 Xiangxin Che11Key Laboratory of Systems Biology Medicine of Jiangxi Province, College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, 2Division of Nursing, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Yichun University, Yichun, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Supramolecular micelles as drug-delivery vehicles are generally unable to enter the nucleus of nondividing cells. In the work reported here, nuclear localization signal (NLS-modified polymeric micelles were studied with the aim of improving nuclear drug delivery.Methods: In this research, cholesterol-modified glycol chitosan (CHGC was synthesized. NLS-conjugated CHGC (NCHGC was synthesized and characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug with an intracellular site of action in the nucleus, was chosen as a model drug. DOX-loaded micelles were prepared by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The cellular uptake of different DOX formulations was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxicity of blank micelles, free DOX, and DOX-loaded micelles in vitro was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in HeLa and HepG2 cells.Results: The degree of substitution was 5.9 cholesterol and 3.8 NLS groups per 100 sugar residues of the NCHGC conjugate. The critical aggregation concentration of the NCHGC micelles in aqueous solution was 0.0209 mg/mL. The DOX-loaded NCHGC (DNCHGC micelles were observed as being almost spherical in shape under transmission electron microscopy, and the size was determined as 248 nm by dynamic light scattering. The DOX-loading content of the DNCHGC micelles was 10.1%. The DOX-loaded micelles showed slow drug-release behavior within 72 hours in vitro. The DNCHGC micelles exhibited greater

  8. Solubilized delivery of paliperidone palmitate by D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate micelles for improved short-term psychotic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Sahu, Ashish K; Sonali; Abdulla, Allabakshi; Kaklotar, Dhansukh; Rajesh, Chellappa V; Singh, Sanjay; Pandey, Bajarangprasad L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate paliperidone palmitate-loaded d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) micelles for improved antipsychotic effect during short-term management of psychotic disorders. Vitamin E TPGS micelles containing paliperidone palmitate were prepared by the solvent casting method and control paliperidone palmitate formulations were prepared by simple sonication method. The prepared micelles and control paliperidone palmitate formulations were evaluated for different parameters. Particle sizes of prepared micelles, control paliperidone palmitate formulations were determined at 25 °C by dynamic light scattering technique and external surface morphology was determined by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by spectrophotometery. In-vitro release studies of micelles and control formulations were carried out by dialysis bag diffusion method. The particle sizes of the paliperidone palmitate-loaded TPGS micelles were 26.5 nm. About 92% of drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved with micelles. The drug release from paliperidone palmitate-loaded TPGS micelles was sustained for more than 24 h with 40% of drug release. The TPGS product, i.e. paliperidone palmitate-loaded micelles, resulted in nano-sized delivery, solubility enhancement and permeability of the micelles which provided an improved and prolonged anti-psychotic effect in comparison to control paliperidone palmitate formulation.

  9. Comparison of bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles in solubilization to sterols and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Q

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Qin Guo,1,* Jie Cai,1,2,* Pengyu Li,1 Dongling Xu,1 Xiaomin Ni,1 Hui Wen,3 Dan Liu,3 Suizhen Lin,3 Haiyan Hu1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Guangzhou Cellprotek Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Science Park, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM. All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading. It is found that the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles is quite different, which might be related to the change in critical micelle concentration (CMC after incorporating drugs. SGC/EPC and SGC/soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC remain transparent under accelerated conditions and manifest a decreased CMC (dropping from 0.105 to 0.056 mg/mL and from 0.067 to 0.024 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, swine bile acid-sodium salt (SBA-Na/PC and sodium deoxycholate (SDC/PC are accompanied by drug precipitation and reached the maximum CMC on the first and the third days, respectively. Interestingly, the variation of CMC under accelerated testing conditions highly matches the drug-precipitating event in the primary stability experiment. In brief, the bile salt/phosphatidylcholine system exists as a potential strategy of improving sterol drug solubility. CMC variation under accelerated testing conditions might be a simple and easy method to predict the stability of

  10. TNYL peptide functional chitosan-g-stearate conjugate micelles for tumor specific targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen FY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Ying Chen,1 Jing-Jing Yan,1 Han-Xi Yi,2 Fu-Qiang Hu,2 Yong-Zhong Du,2 Hong Yuan,2 Jian You,2 Meng-Dan Zhao1 1Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nowadays, a real challenge in cancer therapy is to design drug delivery systems that can achieve high concentrations of drugs at the target site for improved therapeutic effect with reduced side effects. In this research, we designed and synthesized a homing peptide-(TNYLFSPNGPIA, TNYL modified chitosan-g-stearate (CS polymer micelle (named T-CS for targeting delivery. The peptide displayed specific binding affinity to EphB4 which is a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine protein kinases. The amphiphilic polymer T-CS can gather into micelles by themselves in an aqueous environment with a low critical micelle concentration value (91.2 µg/L and nano-scaled size (82.1±2.8 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency reached 86.43% after loading the hydrophobic drug doxorubicin (DOX. The cytotoxicity of T-CS/DOX against SKOV3 cells was enhanced by approximately 2.3-fold when compared with CS/DOX. The quantitative and qualitative analysis for cellular uptake indicated that TNYL modification can markedly increase cellular internalization in the EphB4-overexpressing SKOV3 cell line, especially with a short incubation time. It is interesting that relatively higher uptake of the T-CS/DOX micelles by SKOV3 cells (positive-EphB4 than A549 cells (negative-EphB4 was observed when the two cells were co-incubated. Furthermore, in vivo distribution experiment using a bilateral-tumor model showed that there was more fluorescence accumulation in the SKOV3 tumor than in the A549 tumor over the whole experiment. These results suggest that TNYL-modified CS micelles may be promising drug carriers as targeting therapy for the EphB4-overexpressing

  11. Micelle size modulation and phase behavior in MEGA-10/Triton X-100 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naous, M., E-mail: elzahraadz@yahoo.fr; Molina-Bolívar, J.A.; Ruiz, C. Carnero, E-mail: ccarnero@uma.es

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • The size of micelles was studied as a function of the micellar composition, NaCl addition and temperature. • Cloud point can be modulated by changing both micellar composition and NaCl addition. • The energetic quantities at the cloud point were evaluated and discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of temperature and NaCl addition on micelle size and phase behavior in mixtures of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and p-tert-octyl-phenoxy polyethylene (9.5) ether (Triton X-100 or TX100). The size of mixed micelles, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to increase with temperature but to be less pronounced at higher proportions of MEGA-10 in the solution. The cloud point was found to increase with an initial increase in the percentage of sugar-based surfactant in the mixture. This phase separation was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution, which induced a cloud point depression, thereby suggesting that the presence of electrolyte produces a marked alteration of the hydration layer of micelles. A thermodynamic analysis was performed assuming the clouding phenomenon to be a liquid–liquid phase-separation process. The resulting ΔG{sub CP}{sup 0} values were positive for all solutions. The cloud point process was exothermic in nature for the mixed micellar system, as proven by the negative value of ΔH{sub CP}{sup 0}. The process was more exothermic as the proportion of sugar-based surfactant in the mixed micelle increased (with and without NaCl in the solution). Furthermore, the negative values of ΔS{sub CP}{sup 0} indicate that the association of micelles in the clouding phenomenon is entropically unfavorable. It was observed from the enthalpy–temperature plots that the change in heat capacity is negative, thus indicating the important role played by dehydration in this thermodynamic process. This study found that the enthalpy–entropy compensation relationship holds for this

  12. Glioma-targeting micelles for optical/magnetic resonance dual-mode imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Q

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Qing Zhou,1,* Ketao Mu,2,* Lingyu Jiang,1 Hui Xie,3 Wei Liu,1 Zhengzheng Li,1 Hui Qi,1 Shuyan Liang,1 Huibi Xu,1 Yanhong Zhu,1 Wenzhen Zhu,2 Xiangliang Yang11National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, 2Radiology Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Information Processing, China Patent Information Center, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Surgical resection is the primary mode for glioma treatment, while gross total resection is difficult to achieve, due to the invasiveness of the gliomas. Meanwhile, the tumor-resection region is closely related to survival rate and life quality. Therefore, we developed optical/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI bifunctional targeted micelles for glioma so as to delineate the glioma location before and during operation. The micelles were constructed through encapsulation of hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs with polyethylene glycol-block-polycaprolactone (PEG-b-PCL by using a solvent-evaporation method, and modified with a near-infrared fluorescent probe, Cy5.5, in addition to the glioma-targeting ligand lactoferrin (Lf. Being encapsulated by PEG-b-PCL, the hydrophobic SPIONs dispersed well in phosphate-buffered saline over 4 weeks, and the relaxivity (r2 of micelles was 215.4 mM–1·s–1, with sustained satisfactory fluorescent imaging ability, which might have been due to the interval formed by PEG-b-PCL for avoiding the fluorescence quenching caused by SPIONs. The in vivo results indicated that the nanoparticles with Lf accumulated efficiently in glioma cells and prolonged the duration of hypointensity at the tumor site over 48 hours in the MR image compared to the nontarget group. Corresponding with the MRI results, the margin of the glioma was clearly demarcated in the fluorescence image

  13. Micelle-vesicle-micelle transition in aqueous solution of anionic surfactant and cationic imidazolium surfactants: Alteration of the location of different fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rupam; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Pavel; Kundu, Sangita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2017-03-15

    The presence of different surfactants can alter the physicochemical behaviors of aqueous organized assemblies. In this article, we have investigated the location of hydrophobic molecule (Coumarin 153, C153) and hydrophilic molecule (Rhodamine 6G perchlorate, R6G) during micelle-vesicle-micelle transition in aqueous medium in presence of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and cationic imidazolium-based surfactant, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C n mimCl; n=12, 16). Initially, the physicochemical properties of anionic micellar solution of SDBS has been investigated in presence of imidazolium-based surfactant, C n mimCl (n=12, 16) in aqueous medium by visual observation, turbidity measurement, zeta potential (ζ), dynamics light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential (ζ) measurement clearly indicates that the incorporation efficiency of C 16 mimCl in SDBS micelle is better than the other one due to the involvement of strong hydrophobic as well as electrostatic interaction between the two associated molecules. Turbidity and DLS measurements clearly suggest the formation of vesicles over a wide range of concentration. Finally, the rotational motion of C153 and R6G has also been monitored at different mole fractions of C n mimCl in SDBS-C n mimCl (n=12, 16) solution mixtures. The hydrophobic C153 molecules preferentially located in the bilayer region of vesicle, whereas hydrophilic R6G can be solubilized at surface of the bilayer, inner water pool or outer surface of vesicles. It is observed that rotational motion of R6G is altered significantly in SDBS-C n mimCl solution mixtures in presence of different mole fractions of C n mimCl. Additionally, the translational diffusion motion of R6G is monitored using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) techniques to get a complete scenario about the location and translational diffusion of R6G. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  15. Biochemical characterization of the interactions between doxorubicin and lipidic GM1 micelles with or without paclitaxel loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Leonhard,1,2 Roxana V Alasino,1,2 Ismael D Bianco,1–3 Ariel G Garro,1 Valeria Heredia,1 Dante M Beltramo1,2,4 1Centro de Excelencia en Productos y Procesos de Córdoba (CEPROCOR, Córdoba, Argentina; 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 3Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de La Rioja, La Rioja, Argentina; 4Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina Abstract: Doxorubicin (Dox is an anthracycline anticancer drug with high water solubility, whose use is limited primarily due to significant side effects. In this study it is shown that Dox interacts with monosialoglycosphingolipid (GM1 ganglioside micelles primarily through hydrophobic interactions independent of pH and ionic strength. In addition, Dox can be incorporated even into GM1 micelles already containing highly hydrophobic paclitaxel (Ptx. However, it was not possible to incorporate Ptx into Dox-containing GM1 micelles, suggesting that Dox could be occupying a more external position in the micelles. This result is in agreement with a higher hydrolysis of Dox than of Ptx when micelles were incubated at alkaline pH. The loading of Dox into GM1 micelles was observed over a broad range of temperature (4°C–55°C. Furthermore, Dox-loaded micelles were stable in aqueous solutions exhibiting no aggregation or precipitation for up to 2 months when kept at 4°C–25°C and even after freeze–thawing cycles. Upon exposure to blood components, Dox-containing micelles were observed to interact with human serum albumin. However, the amount of human serum albumin that ended up being associated to the micelles was inversely related to the amount of Dox, suggesting that both could share their binding sites. In vitro studies on Hep2 cells showed that the cellular uptake and cytotoxic activity of Dox and Ptx from the

  16. Competitive and Synergistic Interactions between Polymer Micelles, Drugs, and Cyclodextrins:The Importance of Drug Solubilization Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Margarita; Castiglione, Franca; Mele, Andrea; Da Silva, Marcelo A.; Grillo, Isabelle; González-Gaitano, Gustavo; Dreiss, Cécile A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric micelles, in particular PEO-PPO-based Pluronic, have emerged as promising drug carriers, while cyclodextrins (CD), cyclic oligosaccharides with an apolar cavity, have long been used for their capacity to form inclusion complexes with drugs. Dimethylated β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) has the capacity to fully breakup F127 Pluronic micelles, while this effect is substantially hindered if drugs are loaded within the micellar aggregates. Four drugs were studied at physiological temperature: li...

  17. Effect of the additives on clouding behavior and thermodynamics of coenzyme Q10-Kolliphor HS15 micelle aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Chao; Pan, Hong-chun; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Herein we investigate the effect of different additives (electrolytes, amino acids, PEG, and sugars) on the cloud points (CP) of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) - Kolliphor HS15 (HS15) micelle aqueous solutions. The CP values were decreased with the increase of electrolytes and sugars, following: CPAl3+ reduced the CP. A depression of CP for CoQ10-HS15 micelle solution with PEG was molecular weight of PEG dependent. The significant thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and discussed.

  18. Preparation of stable micelle-like particles with rigid backbones based on pyridyl-terminated poly (aryl ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Lingzhi; Zhang, Limei; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Guibin, E-mail: wgb@jlu.edu.cn [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-10-15

    A new pyridyl-containing phenol (3-(2-hydroxyphenylimine) pyridine, PY-PH) and pyridyl-terminated poly(aryl ether ketone) (PAEK-py) were first synthesized. Furthermore, micelle-like particles were successfully prepared in a selective solvent (water, H{sub 2}O) based on the graft-like complexes formed by hydrogen-bonding interactions between pyridyl groups of rigid PAEK-py and carboxyl groups of flexible poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in their common solvent (tetrahydrofuran, THF), as proven by the measurements of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface tension. The diameters of the resulted micelle-like particles with PAEK-py as the inner core and PAA as the outer shell were about 100-350 nm. It was found that the formation and size of micelle-like particles depended on pH value and weight ratio of PAEK-py to PAA, respectively. The structure of the micelle-like particles could be stabilized by the cross-linking reaction between pyridyl groups of PAEK-py and 1,4-dibromobutane, and the diameters of the micelle-like particles obviously decreased after the cross-linking reaction due to falling off of the PAA shell of the micelle-like particles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new pyridyl-terminated poly(aryl ether ketone) (PAEK-py) were first synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micelle-like particles based on rigid PAEK-py and flexible PAA were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the micelle-like particles could be stabilized by the cross-linking reaction.

  19. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected...... to the start-up of elongation for three Hencky strain units and subsequently the reversed flow. The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept agrees with the experiments. In the experiments the Hencky strain at which the str~ss becomes zero (the recovery strain......) in the reversed flow has been identified. The recovery strain is found to increase with elongational rate, and has a maximum value of approximately 1.45. The Doi Edwards model using any stretch evolution equation is not able to predict the correct level of the recovery strain....

  20. Bioavailability Enhancement of Paclitaxel via a Novel Oral Drug Delivery System: Paclitaxel-Loaded Glycyrrhizic Acid Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Heng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel (PTX, taxol, a classical antitumor drug against a wide range of tumors, shows poor oral bioavailability. In order to improve the oral bioavailability of PTX, glycyrrhizic acid (GA was used as the carrier in this study. This was the first report on the preparation, characterization and the pharmacokinetic study in rats of PTX-loaded GA micelles The PTX-loaded micelles, prepared with ultrasonic dispersion method, displayed small particle sizes and spherical shapes. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC thermograms indicated that PTX was entrapped in the GA micelles and existed as an amorphous state. The encapsulation efficiency was about 90%, and the drug loading rate could reach up to 7.90%. PTX-loaded GA micelles displayed a delayed drug release compared to Taxol in the in vitro release experiment. In pharmacokinetic study via oral administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→24 h of PTX-loaded GA micelles was about six times higher than that of Taxol (p < 0.05. The significant oral absorption enhancement of PTX from PTX-loaded GA micelles could be largely due to the increased absorption in jejunum and colon intestine. All these results suggested that GA would be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of PTX.