Sample records for aot water reverse

  1. Positron studies on reverse micellar systems of AOT/isooctane/water


    Ferreira Marques, M.; Lopes Gil, C.; Lima, A.; Burrows, H.; Da GraÇa Miguel, M.


    AOT/Isooctane and water/AOT/Isooctane systems have been studied by positron annihilation techniques. Studies of the binary system show that AOT is a strong positron scavenger and support the idea of polydisperse aggregates. Results, for the ternary system, indicate the presence of monomers, even when aggregates are present, and show that Ps is in a water-free region. The effects of the addition of nitrobenzene, sodium nitrobenzoate and 4-phenylbutyric acid to the ternary system are studied. P...

  2. Reversible switching of electrical conductivity in an AOT-isooctane-water microemulsion via photoisomerization of azobenzene. (United States)

    Bufe, Markus; Wolff, Thomas


    The electrical conductivity of microemulsions composed of aerosol OT (AOT), isooctane, and water as a function of temperature was studied in the absence and presence of azobenzene, and consequences of an in situ trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene were investigated. A conductivity onset upon raising the temperature of a water-in-oil microemulsion indicates percolation. Small amounts (0.1-5% w/w) of solubilized azobenzene induce higher percolation temperatures T(p) (by up to 19 K), and photoisomerization of azobenzene shifts T(p) back to values that may be below T(p) in the absence of azobenzene. Consequently, the microemulsion can be switched from nonconducting to conducting by exposing samples to UV-light at lambda > 310 nm, without varying temperature or composition. The effect reverts within several minutes after turning off the irradiation lamp through thermal reisomerization. By that, reversible switching of electrical conductivity is brought about.

  3. Catalytic activity of lignin peroxidase and partition of veratryl alcohol in AOT/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Huang, Xirong; Li, Yuezhong; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji


    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and the partition of its optimum substrate veratryl alcohol (VA) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles were studied in this paper to understand the microheterogeneous effect of the medium on the catalytic properties of LiP hosted in the reverse micelle. Results showed that LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium could express its activity in the reverse micelles, but its activity depended, to a great extent, on the composition of the reverse micelles. Optimum activity occurred at a molar ratio of water to AOT (omega0) of 11, a pH value of 3.6, and a volume ratio of isooctane to toluene of 7-9. Under optimum conditions, the half-life of LiP was circa 12 h. The dependence of LiP activity on the volume fraction of water in the medium (theta), at a constant omega0 value of 11, indicated that VA was mainly solubilized in the pseudophase of the reverse micelle. Based on the pseudobiphasic model and the corresponding kinetic method, a linear line can be obtained in a plot of apparent Michaelis constant of VA vs theta, and the partition coefficient of VA between the pseudophase and the organic solvent phase was determined to be 35.8, which was higher than that (22.3) between bulk water and the corresponding mixed organic solvent. H2O2 inhibited LiP at concentrations higher than 80 microM; this concentration value seems to be different from that in aqueous solution (about 3 mM). The differences mentioned above should be ascribed to the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle.

  4. Integral physicochemical properties of reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Shubenkova, E. G.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Lutaeva, I. A.


    The effect the degree of hydration has on optical and electrophysical properties of water/AOT/ n-hexane system is studied. It is found that AOT reverse micelles form aggregates whose dimensions grow along with the degree of hydration and temperature. Aggregation enhances their electrical conductivity and shifts the UV spectrum of AOT reverse emulsions to the red region. Four states of water are found in the structure of AOT reverse micelles.

  5. Stability and comparative analysis of AOT/water/isooctane reverse micelle system using dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Vasquez, V R; Williams, B C; Graeve, O A


    We use molecular dynamics (MD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements to analyze the size of reverse micellar structures in the AOT-water-isooctane system at different water-to-surfactant ratios at ambient temperature and pressure. We find good qualitative agreement for the size and morphology behavior of the reverse micelle structures between molecular dynamics calculations and DLS measurements; however, the average values for the reverse micelle size distributions are systematically larger for the DLS measurements. The latter tends to capture the average hydrodynamic size of the structures based on self-diffusion rather than the average physical size as measured in MD simulations, explaining the systematic deviations observed. The combination of MD with DLS allows a better interpretation of the experimental results, in particular for conditions where the structures are nonspherical, commonly observed at lower water-to-surfactant ratios. We also present and analyze the effect of zirconyl chloride on the micellar size distributions in this system. These type of salts are common for reverse micellar synthesis processes. We find that zirconyl chloride affects significantly the size distributions.

  6. Positive cooperativity in substrate binding of human prostatic acid phosphatase entrapped in AOT-isooctane-water reverse micelles. (United States)

    Luchter-Wasylewska, Ewa; Iciek, Małgorzata


    The kinetics of 1-naphthyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate hydrolysis, catalyzed by human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) entrapped in AOT-isooctane-water reverse micelles, has been studied over surfactant hydration degree (w0) range 5 to 35. Continuous spectrophotometric acid phosphatase assays, previously prepared, were employed. PAP was catalytically active over the whole w0 studied range. In order to determine steady-state reaction constants the experimental data were fitted to Hill rate equation. Positive cooperativity in substrate binding was observed, as it was earlier found in aqueous solutions. The extent of cooperativity (expressed as the value of the Hill cooperation coefficient h) increased from 1 to 4, when the micellar water-pool size was growing, at fixed enzyme concentration. In the plots of catalytic activity (kcat) versus w0, the maxima have been found at w0=10 (pH 5.6) and 23 (pH 3.8). It is suggested that catalytically active monomeric and dimeric PAP forms are entrapped in reverse micelles of w0=10 and 23, respectively.

  7. Fluorescence dynamics of green fluorescent protein in AOT reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uskova, M.A.; Borst, J.W.; Hink, M.A.; Hoek, van A.; Schots, A.; Klyachko, N.L.; Visser, A.J.W.G.


    We have used the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to investigate the properties of surfactant-entrapped water pools in organic solvents (reversed micelles) with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods. The surfactant used was sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and the

  8. Kinetic Studies on the Lignin Peroxidase Catalyzed Oxidation of Veratryl Alcohol by H2O2 in AOT/Isooctane/Toluene/Water Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-Ting; HUANG Xi-Rong; GAO Pei-ji


    The steady state kinetics of the lignin peroxidase (LIP) catalyzed oxidation of veratryl alcohol (VA) by H2O2 in a sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micellar medium was studied and a comparison with the corresponding aqueous medium was made to understand the effect of the reverse micellar medium on the catalytic mechanism and kinetic parameters. Results indicated that the model reaction in the AOT medium were the same as those in bulk aqueous medium, but the kinetic parameters except Km,H2O2 were greatly different in the two media. The kcat and Ki values in the reverse micelle were approximately 2 and 20 times smaller than the corresponding values in the aqueous solution, but the Michaelis constant of VA was approximately 100times greater than that in the aqueous solution. The above mentioned differences in the kinetic parameters were caused by the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle, which resulted in the partitioning of VA and H2O2, and by the changes of the conformation of LiP and the reactivity of the substrates.

  9. Development of the simple and sensitive method for lipoxygenase assay in AOT/isooctane reversed micelles. (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Yu Na; Choi, Seung Jun; Chang, Pahn-Shick


    In this study, we investigated the possibility of reversed micelles, widely used as an enzyme reactor for lipases, for the determination of lipoxygenase activity. Although it is rapid and simple, reversed micelles have some limitations, such as interference by UV-absorbing materials and surfactant. Lipoxygenase activity in the reversed micelles was determined by reading the absorbance of the lipid hydroperoxidation product (conjugated diene) at 234 nm. Among surfactants and organic media, AOT and isooctane were most effective for the dioxygenation of linoleic acid in reversed micelles. The strong absorbance of AOT in the UV region is a major obstacle for the direct application of the AOT/isooctane reversed micelles to lipoxygenase activity determination. To prevent interference by AOT, we added an AOT removal step in the procedure for lipoxygenase activity determination in reversed micelles. The lipoxygenase activity was dependent on water content, and maximum activity was obtained at an R-value of 10.

  10. A computational component analysis of dielectric relaxation and THz spectra of water/AOT reverse micelles with different water loading (United States)

    Schmollngruber, Michael; Braun, Daniel; Steinhauser, Othmar


    In this computational study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of water/aerosol-OT/isooctane reverse micelles with different water loading. We compare these systems in terms of a detailed analysis of dielectric relaxation spectra and water librations in the THz region. The spectra are decomposed into contributions by molecular species and contributions from individual water solvation shells. Additionally, micellar tumbling motion is shown to have a profound influence on the observed dielectric relaxation spectra, if relaxation by internal reorganization and micellar tumbling occurs within similar time scales. A formalism to directly quantify the effect of micellar tumbling motion on a recorded dielectric spectrum is developed. Since micellar rotational diffusion obeys the laws of hydrodynamics, this method is applicable in an experimental context as well, only knowing the viscosity of the outside medium and the average volume of the reverse micelle.

  11. Spectroscopic probing of the effect of alkanols on the properties of the head group region in reverse micelles of AOT-heptane-water. (United States)

    Abuin, Elsa; Lissi, Eduardo; Cerón, Angela; Rubio, María Angélica


    The effects of addition of alkanols (ethanol, n-hexanol, and 3-ethyl-3-pentanol) on the micropolarity and microviscosity of the head group region in reverse micelles of AOT-heptane-water have been investigated by fluorescence probing methods (ANS fluorescence yield and TMADPH fluorescence anisotropy), complemented by the use of the solvatochromic probe E(T)(30) in absorption spectroscopy. For all the alkanols considered, ANS fluorescence in AOT reverse micelles (at W=3) is quenched by additive incorporation, being the effect elicited almost independent of the alkanol chain length and topology. As sensed by the E(T)(30) parameter, the micropolarity of the micelle surface increases, remains unmodified, and decreases upon addition of ethanol, 3-ethyl-3-pentanol, and hexanol, respectively. While ethanol barely modifies the fluorescence anisotropy of TMADPH, 3-ethyl-3-pentanol and n-hexanol addition strongly decrease it. The similarity of the tendencies of ANS data to TMADPH anisotropies and the differences between ANS data and E(T)(30) values would indicate that, at least for 3-ethyl-3-pentanol and n-hexanol, microviscosity, rather than micropolarity, must be considered to interpret the effect of the alkanols upon the fluorescent behavior of ANS.

  12. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail:


    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  13. Interactions between crystal violet and AOT in aqueous solutions and in AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiaojuan; AN Xueqin; CHEN Zhiyun; SHEN Weiguo


    The absorbance of crystal violet (CV) in a series of aqueous solutions and a series of sodium bis(2-ethyl- hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/water microemulsions has been determined. Association models have been used to analyse the experimental data to obtain the association constants of CV and AOT in the above two media. It was found that about up to 57% CV was associated by AOT in AOT/ isooctane/water microemulsions, which reduced the reaction rate of alkaline fading of crystal violet in the microemulsions.

  14. Effects of bile salts on percolation and size of AOT reversed micelles. (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Erford, Karen; Kiserow, Douglas J; McGown, Linda B


    The effects of two trihydroxy bile salts, sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and 3-[(3-cholamidylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), on the size, shape and percolation temperature of reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane were studied. The percolation temperature of the reversed micelles decreased upon inclusion of bile salts, indicating increased water uptake. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed consistent enlargement of reversed micelles upon addition of the bile salts; the hydrodynamic radius increased sixfold in the presence of 10 mM CHAPS and doubled in the presence of 5 mM NaTC. Inclusion of the enzyme yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) increased the percolation temperature and distorted the spherical structure of the AOT reversed micelles. The spherical structure was restored upon addition of bile salt. These results may help to explain the increase in activity of YADH in AOT reversed micelles upon addition of bile salts.

  15. Volumetric properties of water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions. (United States)

    Du, Changfei; He, Wei; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo


    The densities of AOT/isooctane micelles and water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions with the molar ratios R of water to AOT being 2, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, and 40 were measured at 303.15 K. The apparent specific volumes of AOT and the quasi-component water/AOT at various concentrations were calculated and used to estimate the volumetric properties of AOT and water in the droplets and in the continuous oil phase, to discuss the interaction between the droplets, and to determine the critical micelle concentration and the critical microemulsion concentrations. A thermodynamic model was proposed to analysis the stability boundary of the microemulsion droplets, which confirms the maximum value of R being about 65 for the stable AOT/water/isooctane microemulsion droplets.

  16. Size and diffusion phenomena of AOT/alcohol/water system in the presence of morin by dynamic light scattering. (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, Hanna


    Presented paper is a continuation of our studies on morin interaction with AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) reversed micelles solutions in two solvents: ethanol and n-decanol. Now we focused on morin influence on size and diffusion phenomena in the system morin/solvent/AOT/water. In this paper precise measurements of dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the effects of temperature, solvents (alcohols), water on the size and diffusion of AOT reversed micelles in the morin/AOT/alcohol/water system are reported. The concentrations of AOT were varied from 0.51 to 0.78mol/L. Morin concentration in during auto-correlation function registration was not the same in each solvent because of its different solubility depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=(H2O)/(AOT) and was equal 0 and 30 in ethanol, and 0 in n-decanol. DLS measurements were done at 298.15 and 308.15K. DLS experiment involved on detection two relaxation modes (fast and slow) in the systems containing AOT reversed micelles, water, morin and solvents (ethanol and n-decanol). The DLS data clearly show the solvent influence as well as morin presence on AOT reversed micelles size and consequently their diffusion coefficients. Contrary to n-decanol strong competition between morin and ethanol molecules in AOT reversed micelles palisade layer has been found. It suggests that morin molecules replaced ethanol in AOT reversed micelles and locate in their palisade layer strongly increasing AOT reversed micelles size. Furthermore, it was found a sharp increase in correlation radii of slow modes of AOT reversed micelles containing morin molecules and their diffusion coefficients diminishing.

  17. Application of Multiple Linear Regression and Extended Principal-Component Analysis to Determination of the Acid Dissociation Constant of 7-Hydroxycoumarin in Water/AOT/Isooctane Reverse Micelles. (United States)

    Caselli; Daniele; Mangone; Paolillo


    The apparent pK(a) of dyes in water-in-oil microemulsions depends on the charge of the acid and base forms of the buffers present in the water pool. Extended principal-component analysis allows the precise determination of the apparent pK(a) and of the spectra of the acid and base forms of the dye. Combination with multiple linear regression increases the precision. The pK(a) of 7-hydroxycoumarin (umbelliferone) was spectrophotometrically measured in a water/AOT/isooctane microemulsion in the presence of a series of buffers carrying different charges at various different water/surfactant ratios. The spectra of the acid and base forms of the dye in the microemulsion are very similar to those in bulk water in the presence of Tris and ammonia. The presence of carbonate changes somewhat the spectrum of the acid form. Results are discussed taking into account the profile of the electrostatic potential drop in the water pool and the possible partition of umbelliferone between the aqueous core and the surfactant. The pK(a) values corrected for these effects are independent of w(0) and are close to the value of the pK(a) in bulk water. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromocresol green and cresol red in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micelles by multiple linear regression and extended principal component analysis. (United States)

    Caselli, Maurizio; Mangone, Annarosa; Paolillo, Paola; Traini, Angela


    The pKa of 3',3",5',5"tetrabromo-m-cresolsulfonephtalein (Bromocresol Green) and o-cresolsulphonephtalein (Cresol Red) was spectrophotometrically measured in a water/AOT/isooctane microemulsion in the presence of a series of buffers carrying different charges at different water/surfactant ratios. Extended Principal Component Analysis was used for a precise determination of the apparent pKa and of the spectra of the acid and base forms of the dye. The apparent pKa of dyes in water-in-oil microemulsions depends on the charge of the acid and base forms of the buffers present in the water pool. Combination with multiple linear regression increases the precision. Results are discussed taking into account the profile of the electrostatic potential in the water pool and the possible partition of the indicator between the aqueous core and the surfactant. The pKa corrected for these effects are independent of w0 and are close to the value of the pKa in bulk water. On the basis of a tentative hypothesis it is possible to calculate the true pKa of the buffer in the pool.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cytochrome c un-folding in AOT Reverse Micelles: the first steps

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Stéphane; Marchi, Massimo


    This paper explores the reduced form of horse cytochrome c confined in reverse micelles (RM) of so-dium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane by molecular dynamics simulation. RMs of two sizes were constructed at a water content of Wo = [H2O]/[AOT] = 5.5 and 9.1. Our results show that the protein secondary structure and the heme conformation both depend on micellar hydration. At low hydration, the protein structure and the heme moiety remain stable, whereas at high water content the protein becomes unstable and starts to unfold. At Wo = 9.1, according to the X-ray structure, conforma-tional changes are mainly localized on protein loops and around the heme moiety, where we observe a partial opening of the heme crevice. These findings suggest that within our time window (10 ns), the structural changes observed at the heme level are the first steps of the protein denaturation process, pre-viously described experimentally in micellar solutions. In addition, a specific binding of AOT molecules to a ...

  20. Spectrometric study of AOT-hydrolysis reaction in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions using phenolphthalein as a chemical probe. (United States)

    Mao, Shiyan; Chen, Zhiyun; Fan, Dashuang; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo


    The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions has been studied by monitoring the absorbance change of the phenolphthalein in the system with time. The apparent first-order rate constant k(obs) has been obtained and found to be dependent on both the molar ratio of water to AOT ω and the temperature. The dependences of k(obs) on ω have been analyzed by a pseudophase model which gives the true rate constants k(i) of the AOT-hydrolysis reaction on the interface and the partition coefficients K(wi) for the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases at various temperatures; the latter is almost independent of the temperature and ω. The temperature dependences of the reaction rate constants k(obs) and k(i) have been analyzed to obtain enthalpy ΔH(≠), entropy ΔS(≠), and energy E(a) of activation, which indicate that the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases increases ΔS(≠) but makes no contribution to E(a) and ΔH(≠). The influence of the overall concentration of AOT in the system on the rate constant has been examined and found to be negligible. It contradicts with what was reported by García-Río et al. (1) but confirms that the first-order reaction of the AOT-hydrolysis takes place on the surfactant interface. The study of the influence of AOT-hydrolysis on the kinetics of the alkaline fading of crystal violet or phenolphthalein in the water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions suggests that corrections for the AOT-hydrolysis in these reactions are required.

  1. AOT/异辛烷反胶团体系提取细胞色素C%The Extraction of Cytochrome C by AOT/isooctane Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艳春; 刘德峥; 陈正民; 郑纯智; 李咏梅


    AOT/异辛烷反胶团溶液提取水溶液中的细胞色素C.研究了pH值、离子强度、相体积比、搅拌速度、AOT浓度等因素对提取率的影响.结果表明,通过调节pH值、离子强度等工艺条件,可以使细胞色素C的提取率达到97%,且不需加助提取剂.%The extraction of Cytochrome C by AOT/isooctane reverse micelles system is studied with discussions made on the effects of pH value, salt concentration of water phase, stir speed,AOT concentration and phase volume ratio on the extraction rate. Results show that by adjusting the pH values and the ionic strength etc.,the extraction rate of Cytochnome C comes up to 100%,and the extraction does not need any additional cosurfactants.

  2. Effect of compressed CO2 on the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number of AOT reverse micelles in isooctane. (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing; Feng, Xiaoying; Hou, Minqiang; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhaofu


    The effect of compressed CO2 on the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and aggregation number of sodium bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles in isooctane solution was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in the temperature range of 303.2-318.2 K and at different pressures or mole fractions of CO2 (X(CO2)). The capacity of the reverse micelles to solubilize water was also determined by direct observation. The standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaGo(m)), standard enthalpy (DeltaHo(m)), and standard entropy (DeltaSo(m)) for the formation of the reverse micelles were calculated by using the cmc data determined. It was discovered that the cmc versus X(CO2) curve and the DeltaGo(m) versus X(CO2) curve for a fixed temperature have a minimum, and the aggregation number and water-solubilization capacity of the reverse micelles reach a maximum at the X(CO2) value corresponding to that minimum. These results indicate that CO2 at a suitable concentration favors the formation of and can stabilize AOT reverse micelles. A detailed thermodynamic study showed that the driving force for the formation of the reverse micelles is entropy.

  3. The forward and backward transport processes in the AOT/hexane reversed micellar extraction of soybean protein. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Fengliang; Wang, Xianchang; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ao, Qiang


    Soybean protein was taken as a model protein to investigate two aspects of the protein extraction by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles: (1) the forward protein extraction from the solid state, and the effect of pH, AOT concentration, alcohol and water content (W0) on the transfer efficiency; (2) the back-transfer, the capability of the protein to be recovered from the micellar solution. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the highest forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein was reached at AOT concentration 180 mmol l(-1), aqueous pH 7.0, KCl concentration 0.05 mol l(-1), 0.5 % (v/v) alcohol, W0 18. Under these conditions, the forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein achieved 70.1 %. It was noted that the percentage of protein back extraction depended on the salt concentration and pH value. Around 92 % of protein recovery was obtained after back extraction.

  4. Thermostability of Cromobacterium viscosum lipase in AOT/isooctane reverse micelle. (United States)

    Talukder, M M R; Zaman, M M; Hayashi, Y; Wu, J C; Kawanishi, T


    The thermostability of Cromobacterium viscosum lipase (EC entrapped in AOT (sodium bis-[2-ethylhexyl] sulfosuccinate) reverse micelles was increased by the addition of short-chain polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Two different approaches were considered: (1) the determination of half-life time and (2) the mechanistic analysis of deactivation kinetics. The half-life of lipase entrapped in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles with PEG 400 at 60 degrees C was 28 h, ninefold higher than that in reverse micelles without PEG 400. The lipase entrapped in both reverse micellar systems followed a series-type deactivation mechanism involving two first-order steps. The deactivation constant for the first step at 60 degrees C in PEG containing reverse micelles was 0.055 h!1, 11-fold lower than that in reverse micelles without PEG, whereas it remained almost constant for the second step. The inactivation energy of the lipase entrapped in reverse micelles with and without PEG 400 was 88.12 and 21.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  5. Activity, stability and kinetic parameters for -chymotrypsin catalysed reactions in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles with nonionic and zwitterionic mixed surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar Verma; Kallol K Ghosh


    Reverse micelles (RMs) of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate (AOT) in nonpolar organic solvents are widely known to have very high solubilization power for water. The method is applied to the hydrolysis of -nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) catalysed by -chymotrypsin (-CT) in AOT/isooctane/buffer RMs. The increase in -CT activity and stability was an optimum at wo ([H2O]/[AOT]) = 10, z [Isooctane]/[AOT]) = 5. Three typical surfactants were selected based on their head group charges: a non-ionic surfactant Triton-X 100 and two zwitterionic sulphobetaine surfactants of the type CH2+1N+Me2 (CH2)3 SO$^{−}_{3}$ (n = 10; SB3-10, n = 16; SB3-16). The kinetic parameters (such as cat and M) of the -CT at 27°C were determined and compared in the absence and presence of three surfactants. The effect of chain length of zwitterionic surfactant (SB3-10 and SB3-16) on the enzymatic efficacy of -CT as a function of mixed surfactant addition has been investigated in AOT/isooctane RMs at pH 7.75.

  6. Characterization of patatin esterase activity in AOT-isooctane reverse micelles. (United States)

    Jiménez, M; Escribano, J; Gandía-Herrero, F; Chazarra, S; Cabanes, J; García-Carmona, F; Pérez-Gilabert, M


    Patatin is a family of glycoproteins that accounts for 30-40% of the total soluble protein in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. This protein has been reported not only to serve as a storage protein but also to exhibit lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity. In this study patatin is characterized in AOT-isooctane reverse micelles. The influence on the enzymatic activity of characteristic parameters of reverse micelles, w(o) (= H(2)O/AOT), and the percentage of H(2)O, theta, were investigated. The results obtained show that patatin esterase activity varies with w(o) but remains constant throughout the range of theta values studied. The variation with w(o) showed that the activity follows an S-shaped behavior pattern, reaching a maximum at about w(o) = 20 for 2% H(2)O. Patatin esterase activity was compared with p-nitrophenyl (PNP) fatty acid esters of different chain lengths. The activity was much higher for PNP-caprylate. The pH optimum was 6.0, different from the value obtained when patatin esterase activity was measured in mixed micelle systems. The optimal temperature was 35 degrees C, above which the activity decreased to almost zero. The kinetic parameters were also evaluated (K(m) = 10 mM, V(m) = 158 microM/min, V(m)/K(m) = 15.8 x 10(-3) min(-1)). This paper shows the suitability of reverse micelles for measuring patatin esterase activity, since it allows the study of the enzyme in similar conditions to that prevailing in vivo.

  7. AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系W0调控及萃取大豆蛋白研究%Research on W0 control and soybean protein extraction technology of AOT reverse micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光胜; 陈复生; 张丽芬; 布冠好; 刘昆仑; 徐卫河


    该文对影响丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠(AOT)反胶束体系W0的各因素进行了研究,结果表明:随着加水量的增大,反胶束体系W0增大;而离子强度与AOT浓度增大,反胶束体系W0反而减小。采用AOT反胶束体系萃取大豆蛋白质,可得到最佳前萃取工艺为:缓冲溶液pH 6.5、W015、萃取温度45℃、离子强度0.05 mol/L。%The properties of the reverse micelles formed by AOT,isooctane and water was studied. The result showed with the amount of water increases,the W0 value increases;but with the ionic strength increases,the W0 value decreases;with the AOT concentration increases,the volume of water which can be solubilized in the system increases. Sulphosuccinic acid bis(2–ethylhexyl)estersodium salt(AOT),isooctane and KCl solution reverse micelle system was used to backward extract soy protein,the experimental results lead to the conclusion that the highest forward extraction efficiency of soybean protein was reached at the pH 6.5,W0 value 15,temperature 45 ℃,KCl concentration 0.05 mol/L.

  8. Thermal deactivation kinetics of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles. (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kwon, Chang Woo; Choi, Seung Jun; Son, Young-Hwan; Lim, Seokwon; Yoo, Yoonjung; Chang, Pahn-Shick


    Thermostability of the lipase (EC was found to be increased by the enzyme-entrapment in 50 mM AOT/isooctane reverse micelles. The half-life (15.75 h) of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in reverse micelles at 70 °C was 9.72- and 11.41-fold longer than those solubilized in a glycerol pool or in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), respectively. The enzyme deactivation model considering a two-step series-type was employed, and deactivation constants for the second step (k₂) at all temperatures were drastically decreased after the lipase was entrapped in reverse micelles. In particular, k₂ (0.0354 h⁻¹) at 70 °C in reverse micelles was 12.33- and 13.14-fold lower than in a glycerol pool or in the phosphate buffer, respectively. The deactivation energies (from k₁, k₂) for the lipase entrapped in the reverse micelles, solubilized in a glycerol pool, or in the aqueous buffer were 7.51, 26.35 kcal/mol, 5.93, 21.08 kcal/mol, and 5.53, 17.57 kcal/mol, respectively.

  9. A reliable and reproducible method for the lipase assay in an AOT/isooctane reversed micellar system: modification of the copper-soap colorimetric method. (United States)

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Choi, Seung Jun; Chang, Pahn-Shick


    The copper-soap method, which is based on the absorbance of a fatty acid-copper complex at 715 nm, is a widely used colorimetric assay to determine the lipase activity in reversed micellar system. However, the absorbance of the bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)-copper complex prevents the use of an AOT/isooctane reversed micellar system. An extraction step was added to the original procedure to remove AOT and eliminate interference from the AOT-copper complex. Among the solvents tested, acetonitrile was determined to be the most suitable because it allows for the generation of a reproducible calibration curve with oleic acid that is independent of the AOT concentrations. Based on the validation data, the modified method, which does not experience interference from the AOT-copper complex, could be a useful method with enhanced accuracy and reproducibility for the lipase assay.

  10. The effect of water on the microstructure and properties of benzene/[bmim][AOT]/[bmim][BF4] microemulsions. (United States)

    Bai, Tingting; Ge, Rile; Gao, Yanan; Chai, Jinling; Slattery, John M


    In the present contribution, results concerning the role of small amounts of water in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis 2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate ([bmim][AOT]) based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4])-in-benzene reverse microemulsions are emphasized. The microemulsion aggregates have demonstrated features in common with traditional aqueous systems, such as a normal microemulsion droplet size and decreased stability due to the addition of a polar component. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the size change of microemulsion with added water depends on the loaded [bmim][BF4] content in the microemulsion: when the [bmim][BF4] content is low, the microemulsion diameter first decreases and then increases, while the size remains about the same for microemulsions with a moderate [bmim][BF4] loading and a successive increase in size was found for high-loaded [bmim][BF4] microemulsions. (1)H NMR along with two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) revealed that water molecules formed wide interactions with both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]) and bis 2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate ([AOT]), leading to a decrease in the headgroup area of [bmim][AOT], i.e. α value, which will decrease the microemulsion size. On the other hand, addition of water can simultaneously swell the microemulsions, causing an increase in the diameter. It is also deduced that the Coulomb forces between the [AOT] and [bmim] should be one of the main driving forces for the formation of [bmim][BF4]-in-benzene microemulsions.

  11. Validation and divergence of the activation energy barrier crossing transition at the AOT/lecithin reverse micellar interface. (United States)

    Narayanan, S Shankara; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Sarkar, Rupa; Pal, Samir Kumar


    In this report, the validity and divergence of the activation energy barrier crossing model for the bound to free type water transition at the interface of the AOT/lecithin mixed reverse micelle (RM) has been investigated for the first time in a wide range of temperatures by time-resolved solvation of fluorophores. Here, picosecond-resolved solvation dynamics of two fluorescent probes, ANS (1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonic acid, ammonium salt) and Coumarin 500 (C-500), in the mixed RM have been carefully examined at 293, 313, 328, and 343 K. Using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, the size of the mixed RMs at different temperatures was found to have an insignificant change. The solvation process at the reverse micellar interface has been found to be the activation energy barrier crossing type, in which interface-bound type water molecules get converted into free type water molecules. The activation energies, Ea, calculated for ANS and C-500 are 7.4 and 3.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively, which are in good agreement with that obtained by molecular dynamics simulation studies. However, deviation from the regular Arrhenius type behavior was observed for ANS around 343 K, which has been attributed to the spatial heterogeneity of the probe environments. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay of the probes has indicated the existence of the dyes in a range of locations in RM. With the increase in temperature, the overall anisotropy decay becomes faster revealing the lability of the microenvironment at elevated temperatures.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the cutinase-catalyzed transesterification of oils in AOT reversed micellar system. (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S


    The kinetics of the enzymatic transesterification between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol for biodiesel production in a bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reversed micellar system, using recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi as a catalyst, was investigated. In order to describe the results that were obtained, a mechanistic scheme was proposed, based on the literature and on the experimental data. This scheme includes the following reaction steps: the formation of the active enzyme-substrate complex, the addition of an alcohol molecule to the complex followed by the separation of a molecule of the fatty acid alkyl ester and a glycerol moiety, and release of the active enzyme. Enzyme inhibition and deactivation effects due to methanol and glycerol were incorporated in the model. This kinetic model was fitted to the concentration profiles of the fatty acid methyl esters (the components of biodiesel), tri-, di- and monoglycerides, obtained for a 24 h transesterification reaction performed in a stirred batch reactor under different reaction conditions of enzyme and initial substrates concentration.

  13. Influence of anionic surfactants on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions. (United States)

    García-Río, L; Mejuto, J C; Pérez-Lorenzo, M; Rodríguez-Alvarez, A; Rodríguez-Dafonte, P


    A study was carried out concerning the influence of sodium alkyl sulfonates on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions ([AOT] = 0.5 M and W = [H2O]/[AOT] = 22.2). An important effect was observed with regard to the percolation temperature caused by the addition of small quantities of alkyl sulfonates (rho = [alkyl sulfonate]/[AOT] = 0.01). The short chain alkyl sulfonates (C3-C5) cause an increase in the percolation temperature, which in turn is reduced as we increase the chain length of the additive until we obtain a percolation temperature which is lower than that which is observed in the absence of an additive (C6-C8). For hydrocarbon chains of a greater length we can observe a new increase in the percolation temperature (C10-C18). This behavior has been explained as a consequence of (i) the incorporation of the additives at the interphase of the microemulsion and (ii) the geometric parameters of the different surfactants added to the microemulsion.

  14. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectra studies of protein in reverse micelles: effect of AOT/isooctane on the secondary structure of alpha-chymotrypsin. (United States)

    Chang, Q; Liu, H; Chen, J


    The amide I region Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of alpha-chymotrypsin have been studied in deuterium oxide (D2O) solution and also in reverse micellar solution of AOT/isooctane. The Fourier second derivative was applied to all spectra, revealing that the amide I band of alpha-chymotrypsin in D2O and in reverse micellar solution consists of nine components. The band frequencies are assigned to alpha-helix, beta-sheet, random and turn structure. The second derivative spectra of alpha-chymotrypsin have been shifted in the reverse micellar solution of AOT/isooctane in comparison with its spectra in D2O. This shift has also changed the intensity of each band. Through accurate measurement of the band intensities, the relative amount of different structure of alpha-chymotrypsin can be estimated. The comparison of the calculated results obtained in D2O with those obtained in reverse micellar solution provides the possibility to analyze the effect of reverse micellar solution of AOT/isooctane on the secondary structure of alpha-chymotrypsin. The results indicate that the reverse micellar solution has decreased the amount of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structure and increased the amount of random and turn structure in alpha-chymotrypsin. The increase of the amount of random structure might loosen the structure of alpha-chymotrypsin and change the activity of the enzyme.

  16. Degradation of carbofuran derivatives in restricted water environments: basic hydrolysis in AOT-based microemulsions. (United States)

    Morales, Jorge; Manso, José A; Cid, Antonio; Lodeiro, Carlos; Mejuto, Juan Carlos


    The effect of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane/water microemulsions on the stability of 2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (carbofuran, CF), 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (3-hydroxycarbofuran, HCF) and 3-keto-2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate (3-ketocarbofuran, KCF) in basic media has been studied. The presence of these microheterogeneous media implies a large basic hydrolysis of CF and HCF on increasing surfactant concentration and, also, on increasing water content in the microemulsion. The hydrolysis rate constants are approximately 2- and 10-fold higher than those in pure water for HCF and CF, respectively. In contrast, a steep descent in the rate of decomposition for KCF was observed. These behaviours can be ascribed to the presence of CF derivatives both in the hydrophilic phase and in the lipophilic phase, while the hydroxyl ions are only restricted to the water pool of the microemulsion (hydrophilic phase). The kinetic rate constants for the basic hydrolysis in AOT-based microemulsions have been obtained on the basis of a pseudophase model. Taking into account that an important part of soils are colloids, the possibility of the presence of restricted water environments implies that soil composition and its structure will play an important role in the stability of these carbamates. In fact, we observed that the presence of these restricted aqueous media in the environment, in particular in watersheds and in wastewaters, could reduce significantly the half-life of these pesticides (33% and 91% for HCF and CF, respectively).

  17. AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系制备CdTe量子点的研究%Synthesis of CdTe Quantum Dots in AOT/isooctane Reversed Micelle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 王小燕; 罗志敏


    采用反胶束法制备CdTe量子点。反胶束体系由CdTe前驱体、AOT(丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠)、异辛烷组成;CdTe前驱体在水相中以巯基丙酸为稳定剂、按nCd2+:nHTe-:nMPA=3:1:6、pH=9.8的条件合成。考察了反胶束体系中ω(ω=[水]/[表面活性剂])、表面活性剂浓度对合成CdTe量子点的光学性质的影响。试验表明:当AOT的浓度为0.06g.mL-1时,改变ω能合成不同粒径的CdTe量子点,ω从7增加到13荧光发射光谱位移117.2nm。%Quantum Dots were prepared by using reversed micelle.CdTe precursors was formed in aqueous solution with MPA as stabilizer under the following condition: nCd2+: nHTe-: nMPA=3:1:6,ph=9.8.Reversed Micelle System was formed with AOT,isooctane and CdTe precursors.The impact of ω(ω=/[ surfactant]) and concentration of surfactant on the optical properties of synthesized CdTe quantum dots has been examined.The experiment has found that when the concentration of AOT was 0.06g.mL-1,changing ω can synthesize CdTe quantum dots of different particle diameters;when ω was increased from 7 to 13,fluorescent emission spectra shifted for 117.2nm.

  18. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013 (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos


    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  19. Influence of aza crown ethers on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water (w/o) microemulsions. (United States)

    Dasilva-Carvalhal, J; Fernández-Gándara, D; García-Río, L; Mejuto, J C


    A study was carried out on the influence of different aza crown ethers on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions. A dual behavior of the aza crown ethers with regard to the percolative phenomenon was observed: low additive concentration causes an increase in the percolation temperature, whereas at high additive concentration a reduction in the percolation temperature of the system was observed. This dual behavior allowed us to define the compensation concentration, which corresponds the aza crown ether concentration at which there is no effect on the percolative phenomenon. We observed a correlation between the effect exerted by the aza crown ethers and the size of the cavity. This shows the importance of the capacity to complexate Na(+) and solubilize it in the interface and the continuous medium on the electric percolation. We also observed a correlation between the effect of the aza crown ethers on the percolation temperature and their external size. This shows the importance of their inclusion in the interface on the percolative phenomenon. Such an inclusion modifies the properties of the AOT film, facilitating the exchange of matter between droplets. A satisfactory multiparametric correlation between the compensation concentration, the distribution of the aza crown ether between water and 1-octanol, and the number of electron-donor atoms (O and N) in the crown ether was obtained. The effects have been compared with those corresponding to the crown ethers.

  20. Switching electrical conductivity in an AOT-isooctane-water microemulsion through photodimerization of solubilized N-methyl-2-quinolone. (United States)

    Bufe, Markus; Wolff, Thomas


    The electrical conductivity of microemulsions composed of Aerosol OT (AOT), isooctane and water as a function of temperature was studied in the absence and presence of N-methyl-2-quinolone (NMQ), and consequences of an in situ photodimerization of NMQ were investigated. A conductivity increase upon raising the temperature of a water-in-oil microemulsion indicates percolation. Percolation temperatures (Tp) can be influenced specifically by the addition of certain substances. Small amounts of solubilized N-methyl-2-quinolone induce lower Tp (by up to 9 K), and photodimerization of NMQ shifts Tp back to higher values. Consequently, the microemulsion can be switched from conducting to non-conducting without varying temperature or composition by exposing samples to UV light at lambda > 310 nm. The effect can be reverted in part by irradiation at lambda = 250 nm. Coumarin derivatives--structurally related to NMQ--show much slighter effects.

  1. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOTs between 1993 and 2013 (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Pozzer, A.; Chang, D. Y.; Lelieveld, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J.-H.; Lee, J.; Moon, K. J.


    Recently, temporal changes in Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) have been investigated based on model simulations, satellite and ground-based observations. Most AOT trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires. In most of the selected regions of interest, EMAC-simulated trends are mainly attributed to the significant changes of the dominant aerosols; e.g., significant decrease in sea salt and water soluble compounds over Central America, increase in dust over Northern Africa and Middle East, and decrease in black carbon and organic carbon over Australia.

  2. Pre-Extracting Vegetable Protein in SDS - AOT/Isooctane ( Octanol) Complex System of Reverse Micelles%AOT-SDS/异辛烷(正辛醇)复配反胶束体系在植物蛋白前萃取中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玲; 李学琴; 孟宪峰; 薛来奇


    Two anionic sudactants,AOT and SDS,were selected to form a complex-reverse micelles system.The complex-reverse micelles system was applied to extract the protein in soybean meal,chickpea meal and sunflower meal,and the main influence factors on the extraction rate of protein were discussed.By determining the amount of dissolved water (W_0 ) ,the optimal technology conditions for the system were found to be W( isooctane): W(Octanol)= 5:1 and temperature 40℃.The effects of different W_o and meal amount on the extraction rate were also discussed.Finally,the extraction conditions for soybean meal and chickpea meal were optimized through orthogonal tests.Results: The optimal extraction conditions for soybean meal are temperature 40 ℃,W_0 37.6 and meal amount 0.07 g/mL,thus the extraction yield is 87% ; and for chickpea meal are temperature 40 ℃ ,W_0 32.9 and meal amount 0.07 g/m,thus the extraction rate is 85.2%.%选取了AOT/SDS两种阴离子表面活性剂复配形成反胶束体系,讨论了该复配体系用于大豆、鹰嘴豆、葵花籽饼粕蛋白前萃取的主要影响因素.通过对增溶水量W.的测定,确定了溶剂异辛烷与助溶剂正辛醇最佳配比为5:1,最佳萃取温度为40℃;讨论了在不同增溶水量W.和植物饼粕加入量对萃取率的影响;通过正交试验确定大豆合理萃取工艺条件温度为40℃、W.为37.6、豆粉加入量为0.07 g/ml,萃取率为87%,鹰嘴豆合理萃取工艺条件为40℃、W_0为32.9、豆粉加入量为0.07 g/mL,萃取率为85.2%.

  3. AOT-异辛烷反胶束萃取技术分离牛初乳IgG的研究%Study on immunoglobulin G separation from bovine colostrum by AOT-in-isooctane reversed micellar extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹劲松; 段海霞


    在一个琥珀酸二(2-乙基己基)酯磺酸钠(AOT)-异辛烷反胶束体系中,研究了水相pH值、离子强度和有机相表面活性剂AOT浓度等因素对牛初乳乳清蛋白中IgG分离效果的影响.结果表明,在以下两组优化条件:1. pH值为7.668,[Na+]浓度为0.270 mol/L,[AOT]浓度为0.088 mol/L;2. pH值为6.524,[Na+]浓度为0.205 mol/L,[AOT]浓度为0.175 mol/L,水相IgG的残留率或纯度分别达到最大值,分别为90.23%和98.35%.RID分析表明,反胶束萃取过程对原牛初乳乳清IgG的免疫反应活性基本无影响.

  4. FT-IR studies on the conformation and effective head-group area of AOT molecules in W/O microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国伟; 鲍猛; 李干佐; 陈文君


    Using Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy technique, the carbonyl stretching vibration bands of AOT in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/water reverse (W/O) microemulsions system have been investigated by least square curve fitting. The results indicate that an asymmetric adsorbed peak of carbonyl stretching vibration of AOT molecule is situated in (1739 ± 1) and (1725 ± 2) cm-1. The two peaks correspond to different carbonyls in gauche conformation and trans conformation of AOT molecules, respectively. With different water contents (W0), the variations of peak intensity ratio (/= l1739/l1725) reflect the change of the ratio for the two conformation populations and the variations of the effective head-group area of AOT molecule have relations to the ratio of two conformation populations.

  5. FT-IR studies on the conformation and effective head-group area of AOT molecules in W/O microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy technique, the carbonyl stretching vibration bands of AOT in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate(AOT)/isooctane/water reverse(W/O) microemulsions system have been investigated by least square curve fitting. The results indicate that an asymmetric adsorbed peak of carbonyl stretching vibration of AOT molecule is situated in(1739 ± 1) and(1725 ± 2) cm-1. The two peaks correspond to different carbonyls in gau-che conformation and trans conformation of AOT molecules, respectively. With different water contents(W0), the variations of peak intensity ratio(Ir1 = I1739/I1725) reflect the change of the ratio for the two conformation populations and the variations of the effective head-group area of AOT mo-lecule have relations to the ratio of two conformation populations.

  6. Conformational transition and mass transfer in extraction of proteins by AOT--alcohol--isooctane reverse micellar systems. (United States)

    Hong, D P; Lee, S S; Kuboi, R


    We examined quantitatively the effect of alcohols on protein and reverse micellar structure. We used circular dichroism (CD) to compare the effects of various alcohols on the protein structure, and percolation phenomena to evaluate the effects of various alcohols on reverse micellar structure. Upon the addition of alcohols to the bulk aqueous phase, proteins were denatured significantly, depending on the alcohol species and concentration, suggesting that use of alcohol directly to the stripping solution is not effective in back-extraction processes of proteins. In the present study, a new method, a small amount of alcohol is added to the surfactant-organic solution to improve the back-extraction behaviors of proteins. Practically, in the back-extraction process, the alcohols suppressing the cluster formation of reverse micelles (high value of beta1), remarkably improved the back-extraction behavior of proteins. In addition, the same alcohol molecules showed a positive effect on the rate and fraction of protein back-extraction. From a result of the CD measurement of the back-extracted proteins, it was known that the alcohols added to reverse micellar solution allowed the proteins to back-extract safely without causing structural changes. These results show that the values of beta(t), defined by the variation of percolation processes, and the back-extraction behaviors of proteins have a good relationship, suggesting that the back-extraction processes were controlled by the micellar-micellar and protein-micellar interactions.

  7. Study of Ordering for AOT/Water Lamellar Lyotropic Liquid Crystal: Small-angle X-ray Scattering Experiments%小角X射线散射表征AOT/水层状溶致液晶的有序性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文昌; 陈晓; 杨春杰; 王庐岩; 柴永存


    用小角X射线散射研究了AOT/水层状溶致液晶的有序性.通过对散射曲线的解析,讨论了表面活性剂浓度、温度和助表面活性剂等三个方面对溶致液晶层状相结构有序性的影响.在一定的范围内,提高温度,改变表面活性剂浓度和加入少量助表面活性剂可使碳氢链排列由稀疏转变为密实,层状相也相应地由"柔性双层"过渡到更加有序化的"平面双层".基于形状因子和体系内分子间作用力,提出了层状相形成与有序化的机理,同时采用分子模拟的方法展现了不同浓度下的液晶结构.%Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is utilized to study the ordering of AOT/water lamellar phase. As increasing surfactant concentration, temperature or adding cosurfactant in certain range, the arrangement of hydrocarbon chains will change from sparse to dense which results in the structural transformation of lamellar phase from "flexible"to "planar" bilayers. The possible mechanism is proposed based on shape factor and molecular interactions. Molecular simulations are also carried out to testify the obtained results.

  8. Monomer formation and functioning of p hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase in reverse micelles and in dimethylsulfoxide-water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Berkel, van W.J.H.


    It has previously been postulated that the dimeric form of the flavoprotein p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) is important for catalysis. Here it is demonstrated that the monomeric form of PHBH is active. In a water/AOT/isooctane reverse micellar system, the function of the monomeric and dimeric

  9. AOT/异辛烷反胶束后萃花生蛋白动力学的研究%Mass transfer process of peanut protein extracted by AOT/isooctane reverse micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽敏; 陈复生; 刘昆仑; 殷丽君



  10. Extraction of Sesame Residue Protein by AOT/isooctane Reverse Micellar System%AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系在萃取芝麻渣蛋白中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学红; 秦卫东; 马利华; 黄玉华


    [目的]探讨影响芝麻渣蛋白萃取效果的因素,确定最佳萃取工艺.[方法]利用AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系萃取芝麻渣蛋白,以芝麻渣蛋白萃取量为考察指标,通过正交试验设计确定4个因素,即芝麻渣加入量、前萃pH值、KCl浓度以及反萃取时间的最佳组合.[结果]芝麻渣加入量为0.06 g/ml,前萃pH值为3,KCl浓度为1.5 mol/L,反萃时间为20 min时,芝麻渣蛋白的萃取量最大,萃取率达86%.[结论]反胶束萃取体系有利于芝麻渣蛋白的提取.

  11. Distribution characteristics of full-fat peanut protein in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles%花生蛋白在AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系中分配特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽敏; 陈复生; 刘昆仑; 殷丽君


    This study evaluated the distributioncharacteristicsof full–fat peanut protein inAOT/ isooctane reversemicelles.The effectsof KClconcentration,AOTconcentration,pH,ion species andother factorson the forward extraction and backward extraction were investigated.The results showed that the forward extraction rates decreased and the backward extraction rates increased firstly and then decreased becauseof size effect when increased theconcentrationof KCl.The varietyof the concentrationofAOThad no significant effecton the distributioncoefficientof the two phase.The pH affected forward extraction rate and backward extraction through electrostatic interaction.The ion specieshad significant effectson the distributioncharacteristicsof full–fat peanut protein and the effect ofcation species was larger than anion species.%研究了花生蛋白在丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠(AOT)/异辛烷反胶束体系中分配特性,考察了缓冲溶液中盐的浓度、AOT浓度、缓冲溶液的pH、离子种类等条件对花生蛋白前萃率以及后萃的影响。结果表明,KCl浓度增加,前萃率降低,后萃两相分配系数由于“尺寸位阻效应”先增加然后降低;AOT浓度对后萃两相的分配系数影响不显著;缓冲液pH通过静电相互作用影响前萃率和后萃花生蛋白的溶解;不同的离子种类对花生蛋白的分配特性影响差异显著,阳离子的影响大于阴离子。

  12. Factors Affecting Trypsin Extraction by AOT Reversed Micelles and Observation by STM%AOT反胶束萃取胰蛋白酶的STM及主要影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小华; 翁亚军


    In this article, the influence factors of trypsin extracted from crude pancreatin was investigated, and scanning tunneling microscope(STM) was used to observe the image of trypsin in butane-diacid-2-ethyl-hexyl-ester-sulfonic sodium (AOT)/iso-octane reversed micelles. The STM image showed that trypsins bounded in reversed micelles was rigid, which weakened its conjugative effect and caused maximum ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence emissive absorption moving toward blue waves. AOT concentration, pH and cations were the main influence factors of extraction. Specifically, extraction percentage of trypsin decreased with the increase of AOT concentration from 0.01 to 0.1mol·L-1. When pH value is from 5.30 to 10.0, i.e. less than pI of trypsin, the extraction percentage is raised with the different increase of pI-pH, but when the pH value is less than 5.20, the extraction percentage is decreased with the acidity added. Besides, the extraction efficiency is negative, related with the concentrations of Ca2+, Na+,K+ which were in the range of 0.2-1.0mol· L-1, and influence of concentration of Ca2+ is greater than that of Na+, and K+ which has the minimum impact with the same concentration. Finally, optimum conditions to extract trypsin were: AOT reversed micelles 0.05mol·L-1, trypsin concentration in crude pancreatin solution 3mg·ml-1, pH 5.2- 5.3, ratio (by volume) of extraction phase to strip-extraction phase 1:1, and time of 5min. The corresponding percentage of extraction was 22.7% and specific activity was 78.9 N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) U·mg-1 protein, three times than that in crude pancreatin. There was no lipase and amylopsin activity was decreased to 1/5 of crude pancreatin. Partly purifying solution was treated by condition mentioned above with 0.05mol·L-1 ceryl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), total extraction percentage of trypsin was 74.18% and specific activity was 3148.3 BAEE U·mg-1, i.e. 48.16 times purer than that in crude

  13. Ramping of pH Across the Water-Pool of a Reverse Micelle. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Puspal; Gupta, Shradhey; Rafiq, Shahnawaz; Yadav, Rajeev; Jain, Vipin Kumar; Raval, Jayraj; Sen, Pratik


    In this work, we have addressed the problem of "acidity" of the water-pool of a reverse micelle (RM) through the well-known inversion of sucrose reaction as a tool of investigation. This reaction has been performed inside positively and negatively charged RM and the rates are compared with that in bulk water. We propose that the buffer-like action in a water-pool is much stronger than expected earlier. The rate of sucrose hydrolysis slowed down in the negatively charged AOT reverse micelle while it sped up for the positively charged CTAB reverse micelle. However, temperature-dependent measurements showed that the activation energy remained the same for all the cases. It has been concluded that a proton gradient exists inside the water-pool of the reverse micelle and it determines the buffer-like action of the water-pool that persists until about 2 N of HCl in AOT RM of w(0) = 10.5.

  14. Porphyrins in Reverse Micelles:the Side-chain Length and the Triplet-state Lifetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hua YU; Yu Xiang WENG; Xue Song WANG; Lei ZHANG; Bao Wen ZHANG; Yi CAO


    Using bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as surfactant, two amphiphilic porphyrin terminated with imidazole were studied in AOT/iso-octane/water reverse micelles, intending to mimic the relationship between microenvironments in organism and the amphiphilic properties of porphyrins for photodynamic therapy drugs.

  15. Reverse osmosis water purification system (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.


    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  16. Improvement in enzyme activity and stability by addition of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol to sodium bis(2-ethyl-L-hexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane reverse micellar system. (United States)

    Talukder, M M R; Takeyama, T; Hayashi, Y; Wu, J C; Kawanishi, T; Shimizu, N; Ogino, C


    The activity and stability of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase (glycerolester hydrolase, EC olive oil hydrolysis in sodium bis (2-ethyl-l-hexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelles is increased appreciably when low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) is added to the reverse micelles. To understand the effect of PEG 400 on the phase behavior of the reverse micellar system, the phase diagram of AOT/ PEG 400/water/isooctane system was studied. The influences of relevant parameters on the catalytic activity in AOT/PEG 400 reverse micelles were investigated and compared with the results in the simple AOT reverse micelles. In the presence of PEG 400, the linear decreasing trend of the lipase activity with AOT concentration, which is observed in the simple AOT reverse micelles, disappeared. Enzyme entrapped in AOT/PEG reverse micelles was very stable, retaining >75% of its initial activity after 60 d, whereas the half-life in simple AOT reverse micelles was 38 d. The kinetics parameter maximum velocity (Vmax) exhibiting the temperature dependence and the activation energy obtained by Arrhenius plot was suppressed significantly by the addition of PEG 400.

  17. The catalytic efficiency of lipase in a novel water-in-[Bmim][PF6] microemulsion stabilized by both AOT and Triton X-100. (United States)

    Xue, Luyan; Li, Ying; Zou, Feixue; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Yin; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo


    In the water-in-[Bmim][PF(6)] microemulsion stabilized by both AOT and Triton X-100, the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) was investigated to evaluate the catalytic efficiency of lipase in this novel microemulsion. The structural parameters of the microemulsion and the conditions of the enzymatic reaction affect the catalytic activity of lipase, especially the concentration of Tris-HCl buffer. Under optimum conditions, the catalytic activity of lipase in the present microemulsion is much higher than that in H(2)O saturated [Bmim][PF(6)]. When the partitioning of the substrate in the microemulsion is taken into account, the catalytic efficiency of lipase in this novel microemulsion is 14.3 times that in H(2)O saturated [Bmim][PF(6)] due to the significant decrease of the Michaelis constant in the microemulsion. Due to the large interface, high water activity, and probably the activating effect of the imidazolium cation in the water pool, the present microemulsion is demonstrated to be a promising medium for the lipase-catalyzed hydrolytic reaction. To demonstrate an important biocatalytic application in the IL-based microemulsion, the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of the flavoring agent benzyl acetate via transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol was also studied in the medium. Due to the high dispersion of lipase, large interface and removal of the byproduct, a maximum yield of 94% was obtained, indicating that the novel microemulsion is really important and useful.

  18. Temperature control of pattern formation in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-catalyzed BZ-AOT system. (United States)

    McIlwaine, Rachel; Vanag, Vladimir K; Epstein, Irving R


    Using temperature as a control parameter, we observe a transition from stationary Turing patterns at T = 15-20 degrees C to traveling waves at T = 50 degrees C (and above) in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction incorporated into the water nanodroplets of a water-in-oil aerosol OT (AOT) microemulsion. At constant chemical composition, molar ratio and droplet fraction, the transition takes place via a series of stable patterns, including oscillatory Turing patterns (at 35-40 degrees C) and reversed oscillatory Turing patterns (at 50 degrees C). We attribute the pattern transitions to a temperature-induced percolation transition of the BZ-AOT microemulsion, implying a change from isolated water nanodroplets to a system-spanning network of water channels.

  19. AOT/isooctane reverse micelles with a microaqueous core act as protective shells for enhancing the thermal stability of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase. (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Chul; Park, Kyung-Min; Son, Young-Hwan; Jung, Ho-Sup; Kim, Keesung; Choi, Seung Jun; Chang, Pahn-Shick


    According to the different environmental systems for lipase reactions, changes in thermal stability were investigated by employing the Chromobacterium viscosum lipase and a two-step series-type deactivation model. The half-life (6.81 h) of the lipase entrapped in reverse micelles at 70 °C was 9.87- and 14.80-fold longer than that in glycerol pool or in aqueous buffer. The deactivation constants for the first and second step (k1 and k2) at all temperatures drastically decreased when the lipase was entrapped in reverse micelles. In particular, k1 (3.84 h(-1)) at 70 °C in reverse micelles was 1.57-fold lower than that in aqueous buffer (6.03 h(-1)). Based on the fluorescence spectrometry, the amount of excited forms of tryptophan and tyrosine increased markedly during the thermal-treatment in aqueous buffer, whereas no significant fluctuation was noted in the reversed micellar system. These results indicated that the encapsulation in reverse micelles could be favorable for preventing the enzyme from heat-induced denaturation.

  20. Associated electron and proton transfer between Acridine and Triethylamine in AOT reverse micelles probed by laser flash photolysis with magnetic field (United States)

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita


    Laser flash photolysis with magnetic field (MF ˜0.08 T) has been used to study interaction between Acridine (Acr) and Triethylamine (TEA) in reverse micelles with w0 = 2.5-40. Dynamic protonation equilibrium exists between 3Acr and 3AcrH +. The intermediates indicate excited-state proton transfer (PT) between 3AcrH + and TEA. However, application of MF highlights the formation of geminate radical ion pairs (RIPs) with triplet spin-correlation, a signature of latent photoinduced electron transfer between 3AcrH + and TEA co-exists with PT. Magnetic field effect (MFE) is prominent for smaller w0 showing importance of optimum separation between RIP to maximize MFE, whereas PT remains unaltered.

  1. Molecular simulation study of water mobility in aerosol-OT reverse micelles. (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M


    In this work, we present results from molecular dynamics simulations on the single-molecule relaxation of water within reverse micelles (RMs) of different sizes formed by the surfactant aerosol-OT (AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate) in isooctane. Results are presented for RM water content w(0) = [H(2)O]/[AOT] in the range from 2.0 to 7.5. We show that translational diffusion of water within the RM can, to a good approximation, be decoupled from the translation of the RM through the isooctane solvent. Water translational mobility within the RM is restricted by the water pool dimensions, and thus, the water mean-squared displacements (MSDs) level off in time. Comparison with models of diffusion in confined geometries shows that a version of the Gaussian confinement model with a biexponential decay of correlations provides a good fit to the MSDs, while a model of free diffusion within a sphere agrees less well with simulation results. We find that the local diffusivity is considerably reduced in the interfacial region, especially as w(0) decreases. Molecular orientational relaxation is monitored by examining the behavior of OH and dipole vectors. For both vectors, orientational relaxation slows down close to the interface and as w(0) decreases. For the OH vector, reorientation is strongly affected by the presence of charged species at the RM interface and these effects are especially pronounced for water molecules hydrogen-bonded to surfactant sites that serve as hydrogen-bond acceptors. For the dipole vector, orientational relaxation near the interface slows down more than that for the OH vector due mainly to the influence of ion-dipole interactions with the sodium counterions. We investigate water OH and dipole reorientation mechanisms by studying the w(0) and interfacial shell dependence of orientational time correlations for different Legendre polynomial orders.

  2. Absorption Complex between Porphyrin and Phenothiazine in Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interaction between amphiphilic porphyrin and phenothiazine in AOT/isooctane/ water reverse micelle was investigated by UV-Vis spectra. A new absorption complex between the two species is formed in such circumstances, which is ascribed to the enrichment of the components by the reverse micelle. The fluorescence quenching of CHTTP by PTH becomes more efficient after the formation of the absorption complex.

  3. Phase behavior of supercritical CO2 microemulsion with food-grade surfactant AOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongsheng; AN Xueqin; SHEN Weiguo; ZHANG Yinghua


    Phase behavior of scCO2 microemulsion formed with food grade surfactant sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) was studied. Critical microemulsion concentration (cμc) was deduced from the dependence of pressure of cloud points on the concentration of surfactant AOT at constant temperature and water concentration. The results show that there are transition points on the cloud point curve in a very narrow range of concentration of surfactant AOT. The transition points were changed with the temperature and water concentration. These phenomena show that lower temperature is suitable to forming microemulsion droplet and the microemulsion with high water concentration is likely to absorb more surfactants to structure the interface.

  4. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.


    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑艳辉; 钱和


    初步研究了丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠(AOT)浓度、pH值、离子强度、搅拌时间各个因素对豆豉纤溶酶前萃工艺的影响,并确定了各因素的最佳水平,即AOT浓度50 mmol/L、pH7.0、不添加KCl、搅拌时间10min,在此条件下酶活回收率62.9%,纯化倍数8.5.

  6. Studies on Production of Erucic Acid by Enzume-Catalyzed Hydrolysis in AOT/isooctane Reversed Micelle System%反胶束酶水解法生产芥酸的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茂洪; 赵肖为; 吴蓉蓉; 余佳佳


    为了优化酶水解法生产芥酸的工艺条件,在AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系中,选择合适的脂肪酶,并考察其水解的影响因素.结果表明:来源于洋葱假单胞菌(Pseudomonas cepacia)的脂肪酶对于高芥酸菜子油的水解能力强.当反胶束体系含水量为11,pH值为7.0,菜子油浓度为15%(v/v),水解温度为35℃,反应不到1 h,水解率即达到50%;反应24 h,水解完全.

  7. The Analysis Research on Product Component of Soybean Protein Extracted Using Reversed Micelles%AOT/异辛烷反胶束体系制备大豆蛋白产品研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚辉; 张书霞; 陈复生; 张建雄



  8. Characterizing interfacial friction in bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate reverse micelles from photoisomerization studies of carbocyanine derivatives (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V.; Dutt, G. B.


    Photoisomerization of two carbocyanine derivatives has been examined in bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles to understand the factors that govern this process in the interfacial region of organized assemblies. To this effect, fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide and merocyanine 540 have been measured in AOT/isooctane/water and AOT/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar systems as a function of the mole ratio of water to the surfactant, W. The nonradiative rate constants, which have been identified as the rates of photoisomerization for these solutes, were obtained from the experimentally measured parameters. The steady rise and subsequent saturation observed in the nonradiative rate constants upon increasing W has been rationalized in terms of micellar packing. An inverse correlation has been obtained between the nonradiative rate constants and the critical packing parameter, indicating that the interfacial friction experienced by the solute molecule is essentially described by this parameter.

  9. Water dynamics in small reverse micelles in two solvents: Two-dimensional infrared vibrational echoes with two-dimensional background subtraction (United States)

    Fenn, Emily E.; Wong, Daryl B.; Fayer, M. D.


    Water dynamics as reflected by the spectral diffusion of the water hydroxyl stretch were measured in w0 = 2 (1.7 nm diameter) Aerosol-OT (AOT)/water reverse micelles in carbon tetrachloride and in isooctane solvents using ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy. Orientational relaxation and population relaxation are observed for w0 = 2, 4, and 7.5 in both solvents using IR pump-probe measurements. It is found that the pump-probe observables are sensitive to w0, but not to the solvent. However, initial analysis of the vibrational echo data from the water nanopool in the reverse micelles in the isooctane solvent seems to yield different dynamics than the CCl4 system in spite of the fact that the spectra, vibrational lifetimes, and orientational relaxation are the same in the two systems. It is found that there are beat patterns in the interferograms with isooctane as the solvent. The beats are observed from a signal generated by the AOT/isooctane system even when there is no water in the system. A beat subtraction data processing procedure does a reasonable job of removing the distortions in the isooctane data, showing that the reverse micelle dynamics are the same within experimental error regardless of whether isooctane or carbon tetrachloride is used as the organic phase. Two time scales are observed in the vibrational echo data, ~1 and ~10 ps. The slower component contains a significant amount of the total inhomogeneous broadening. Physical arguments indicate that there is a much slower component of spectral diffusion that is too slow to observe within the experimental window, which is limited by the OD stretch vibrational lifetime.

  10. Terahertz absorption spectroscopy of protein-containing reverse micellar solution (United States)

    Murakami, H.; Toyota, Y.; Nishi, T.; Nashima, S.


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been carried out for AOT/isooctane reverse micellar solution with myoglobin at the water-to-surfactant molar ratios ( w0) of 0.2 and 4.4. The amplitude of the absorption spectrum increases with increasing the protein concentration at w0 = 0.2, whereas it decreases at w0 = 4.4. The molar extinction coefficients of the protein-filled reverse micelle, and the constituents, i.e., myoglobin, water, and AOT, have been derived by use of the structural parameters of the micellar solution. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of hydration onto the protein and surfactant in the reverse micelle.

  11. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges. (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe


    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  12. Layers of Metal Nanoparticles on Semiconductors Deposited by Electrophoresis from Solutions with Reverse Micelles (United States)

    Zdansky, K.; Kacerovsky, P.; Zavadil, J.; Lorincik, J.; Fojtik, A.


    Pd nanoparticles were prepared with reverse micelles of water/AOT/isooctane solution and deposited onto silicon or InP substrates by electrophoresis. A large change of capacitance-voltage characteristics of mercury contacts on a semiconductor was found after Pd deposition. This change could be modified when the Pd deposition is followed by a partial removal of the deposited AOT. The deposited Pd nanoparticles were investigated by optical mictroscopy, SIMS and SEM. Finally, Schottky diodes with barrier height as high as 1.07 eV were prepared by deposition of Pd nanoparticles on n-type InP and by a partial removal of superfluous AOT. These diodes are prospective structures for further testing as hydrogen sensors.

  13. Layers of Metal Nanoparticles on Semiconductors Deposited by Electrophoresis from Solutions with Reverse Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtik A


    Full Text Available AbstractPd nanoparticles were prepared with reverse micelles of water/AOT/isooctane solution and deposited onto silicon or InP substrates by electrophoresis. A large change of capacitance-voltage characteristics of mercury contacts on a semiconductor was found after Pd deposition. This change could be modified when the Pd deposition is followed by a partial removal of the deposited AOT. The deposited Pd nanoparticles were investigated by optical mictroscopy, SIMS and SEM. Finally, Schottky diodes with barrier height as high as 1.07 eV were prepared by deposition of Pd nanoparticles on n-type InP and by a partial removal of superfluous AOT. These diodes are prospective structures for further testing as hydrogen sensors.

  14. Micelles and reverse micelles in the nickel bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate/water/isooctane microemulsion. (United States)

    Garza, Cristina; Carbajal-Tinoco, Mauricio D; Castillo, Rolando


    The ternary system Ni(2+)(AOT)(2) (nickel 2-bis[2-ethylhexyl] sulfosuccinate)/water/isooctane presents w/o and o/w microemulsions with a Winsor progression (2Phi-3Phi-2Phi), without the addition of salt; the "fish diagram" was obtained for alpha=0.5 and gamma=0.02-0.22. Using static and dynamic light scattering the micellar size, the ratio of water to surfactant, and the density of micelles for this system were estimated. In addition, the mean interfacial curvature as a function of temperature was obtained.

  15. Droplet polydispersity and shape fluctuations in AOT [bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt] microemulsions studied by contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.


    Microemulsions consisting of AOT water, and decane or iso-octane are studied in the region of the phase diagram where surfactant covered water droplets are formed. The polydispersity and shape fluctuations of the microemulsion droplets are determined and compared in the two different alkane types...... degreesC and the temperature of the AOT/D2O/iso-octane microemulsion is 20 degreesC. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering measurements are performed at these temperatures on systems with volume fractions of 5% D2O+AOT by varying the scattering length density of the alkane. The small......-angle scattering for 11 different contrasts evenly distributed around the match points are studied for each sample. The scattering data for the different contrasts are analyzed using a molecular constrained model for ellipsoidal droplets of water covered by AOT, interacting as polydisperse hard spheres. All...

  16. A small angle neutron scattering study on the mixtures of pluronic L121 and anionic surfactant AOT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ghosh; V K Aswal; D Varade


    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been carried out on the micellar solutions containing mixtures of a hydrophobic triblock copolymer (L121, EO5PO68EO5) and a hydrophobic anionic surfactant (AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate) in water with varying ratio () of AOT to L121 for = 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.6. It is known that either L121 or AOT alone forms vesicles in water, but in the mixture with appropriate ratio of the two components a thermodynamically stable, isotropic solution of apparently small micelle-like aggregates is formed. We find that these micelles are prolate ellipsoidal.

  17. AOT-based microemulsions accelerate the 1,3-cycloaddition of benzonitrile oxide to N-ethylmaleimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J. B. F. N.; Fernandez, E.; Garcia-Rio, L.; Leis, J. R.


    We studied the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of benzonitrile oxide to N-ethylmaleimide in AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions at 25.0 degrees C and found the reaction rate to be roughly 150 and 35 times greater than that in isooctane and pure water, respectively. The accelerating effect of the microemuls

  18. Simulations of Time Reversing Arrays in Shallow Ocean Waters (United States)


    using a customized version of RAM that allows us to recover the amplitude and phase of the computed field. We have also developed Monte-Carlo...Simulations of Time Reversing Arrays in Shallow Ocean Waters David R. Dowling Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics University...1-0628 LONG-TERM GOAL The long term goals of this project are: i) to predict and understand time reversing

  19. Temperature-dependent solvation dynamics of water in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane reverse micelles. (United States)

    Mitra, Rajib Kumar; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Pal, Samir Kumar


    In this paper, for the first time, we report a detailed study of the temperature-dependent solvation dynamics of a probe fluorophore, coumarin-500, in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles (RMs) with varying degrees of hydration (w0) of 5, 10, and 20 at four different temperatures, 293, 313, 328, and 343 K. The average solvation time constant becomes faster with the increase in w0 values at a particular temperature. The solvation dynamics of a RM with a fixed w0 value also becomes faster with the increase in temperature. The observed temperature-induced faster solvation dynamics is associated with a transition of bound- to free-type water molecules, and the corresponding activation energy value for the w0 = 5 system has been found to be 3.4 kcal mol-1, whereas for the latter two systems, it is approximately 5 kcal mol-1. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate an insignificant change in size with temperature for RMs with w0 = 5 and 10, whereas for a w0 = 20 system, the hydrodynamic diameter increases with temperature. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy studies reveal a decrease in the rotational restriction on the probe with increasing temperature for all systems. Wobbling-in-cone analysis of the anisotropy data also supports this finding.

  20. Extraction of lysozyme, alpha-chymotrypsin, and pepsin into reverse micelles formed using an anionic surfactant, isooctane, and water. (United States)

    Chang, Q; Liu, H; Chen, J


    The extraction of lysozyme, alpha-chymotrypsin, and pepsin from buffered salt solutions into reverse micelles was examined at different pH values and surfactant concentrations. The reverse micelles was formed by mixing aqueous buffer supplemented with KCl and an organic phase of isooctane(2,2,4-trimethylpentane), containing the anionic surfactant, Aerosol O. T. (dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid). The technique of dynamic laser scattering was used to measure the size of reverse micelles which were in equilibrium with the aqueous phase. It was found that the size of the reverse micelles decreased with increasing ionic strength but increased with increasing AOT concentration. In the process of extraction, the reverse micelles might have rearranged themselves to host the protein. The sizes of protein-filled and -unfilled reverse micelles were different, and an open equilibrium could be reached between them. Under the extraction conditions, only a small number of micelles were found to contain protein.

  1. AOT-microemulsions-based formation and evolution of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D; Tang Kai Bin; Liang Zhen Hua; Zheng Hua Gui


    Anionic surfactant-AOT-microemulsions-assisted formation and evolution of PbWO//4 nanostructures with bundles rodlike, ellipsoidlike, and spherelike prepared at different media conditions were studied by powder X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanisms for the formation of PbWO//4 samples in series of microemulsion systems were discussed. Various comparison experiments show that several experimental parameters, such as the AOT concentration, the water content, and reaction temperature play important roles in the morphological control of PbWO//4 nanostructures. Room-temperature photoluminescence of PbWO//4 samples with different morphologies has also been investigated and the results reveal that all these samples showed similar features with emissions at 480 similar to 510 nm but different luminescence intensity. 40 Refs.

  2. Reversible photothermal tuning of a salty water microdroplet. (United States)

    Kiraz, A; Karadag, Y; Yorulmaz, S C; Muradoglu, M


    A fully reversible photothermal tuning of an inorganic salt (NaCl)-water microdroplet standing on a superhydrophobic surface is demonstrated. The size change of the microdroplet is caused by a focused infrared laser beam in a humidity-controlled chamber and a fully reversible large spectral tuning up to approximately 40 nm is achieved. The evaporation and growth of the microdroplet are modeled using a lumped system formulation of mass and energy conservations and a good agreement is observed between the experimental and theoretical results.

  3. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)


    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  4. Inhibited phenol ionization in reverse micelles: confinement effect at the nanometer scale. (United States)

    Silva, O Fernando; Fernández, Mariana A; Silber, Juana J; de Rossi, Rita H; Correa, N Mariano


    We found that the absorption spectra of 2-acetylphenol (2-HAP), 4-acetylphenol (4-HAP), and p-nitrophenol (p-NPh) in water/sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane reverse micelles (RMs) at various W(0) (W(0) = [H(2)O]/[surfactant]) values studied changed with time if (-)OH ions were present in the RM water pool. There is an evolution of ionized phenol (phenolate) bands to nonionized phenol absorption bands with time and this process is faster at low W(0) values and with phenols with higher bulk water pK(a) values. That is, in bulk water and at the hydroxide anion concentration used, only phenolate species are observed, whereas in AOT RMs at this fixed hydroxide anion concentration, ionized phenols convert into nonionized phenol species over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, independent of the (-)OH concentration used to prepare the AOT RMs, the nonionized phenols are the more stable species in the RM media. We explain our results by considering that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between phenols and the AOT polar head groups result in the existence of only nonionized phenols at the AOT RM interface. The situation is quite different when the phenols are dissolved in cationic benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride RMs. Therein, only phenolates species are present at the (-)OH concentrations used. The results clearly demonstrate that the classical definition of pH does not apply in a confined environment, such as in the interior of RMs and challenge the general idea that pH can be determined inside RMs.

  5. Molecular Simulation of Reverse Micelles (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka


    Reverse micelles (RM) are surfactant assemblies containing a nanosized water pool dissolved in a hydrophobic solvent. Understanding their properties is crucial for insight into the effect of confinement on aqueous structure, dynamics as well as physical processes associated with solutes in confinement. We perform molecular dynamics simulations for the RM formed by the surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT) in isooctane (2,2,4-trimethyl pentane) in order to study the effect of reverse micelle size on the aqueous phase. The structure of the RM is quantified in terms of the radial and pair density distributions. Dynamics are studied in terms of the mean squared displacements and various orientational time correlation functions in different parts of the RM so as to understand the effect of proximity to the interface on aqueous dynamics. Shape fluctuations of the RM are also analyzed.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Particles in AOT Inverse Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wei; LI Shi-pu; WANG You-fa; CAO Xian-ying; CHEN Xiao-ming


    Nanosized particles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) were synthesized by reacting Ca(H2PO4)2*H2O solution complex with equimolar Ca(OH)2 saturated solution in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane water-in-oil microemulsion.The formation of microemulsion strongly depended on water content w (w=[H2O]/[AOT] molar ratio) and concentration of surfactant and cosurfactant (1-octanol).By the variety of conductivity with w and the partial ternary phase diagram derived from a series of demarcation points,we set the basic component of microemulsions:[AOT]=0.1M(mol/dm3),[1-octanol]=0.1M and w=3-9.Dynamic light scattering (DLS),UV-visible absorbance,TEM analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microemulsion,formation of particles and resulting HAP particles.At low water content(w<9),the water pool radius of the droplet in the Ca(H2PO4)2*H2O microemulsion lineally depended on w.The size of final HAP particles was strongly affected by water content w and reactant concentration.With increasing water content w from 3 to 9,the size of HAP particles increased from 10-20nm to 40-50 nm at reactant concentration [Ca(H2PO4)2*H2O]=12×10-3 mol/dm3.The resulting HAP particles were poorly crystallized and spherical in morphology.

  7. Evaluation of allowed outage times (AOTs) from a risk and reliability standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))


    This report describes the basic risks which are associated with allowed outage times (AOTs), defines strategies for selecting the risks to be quantified, and describes how the risks can be quantified. The report furthermore describes criteria considerations in determining the acceptability of calculated AOT risks, and discusses the merits of relative risk criteria versus absolute risk criteria. The detailed evaluations which are involved in calculating AOT risks, including uncertainty considerations are also discussed. The report also describes the proper ways that risks from multiple AOTs should be considered so that risks are properly accumulated from proposed multiple AOT changes, but are not double-counted. Generally, average AOT risks which include the frequency of occurrence of the AOT need to be accumulated but single downtime risks don't since they apply to individual AOTs. 8 refs., 22 tabs.

  8. Molecular level water and solute transport in reverse osmosis membranes (United States)

    Lueptow, Richard M.; Shen, Meng; Keten, Sinan


    The water permeability and rejection characteristics of six solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polymeric reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate that water flux increases with an increasing fraction of percolated free volume in the membrane polymer structure. Solute molecules display Brownian motion and hop from pore to pore as they pass through the membrane. The solute rejection depends on both the size of the solute molecule and the chemical interaction of the solute with water and the membrane. When the open spaces in the polymeric structure are such that solutes have to shed at least one water molecule from their solvation shell to pass through the membrane molecular structure, the water-solute pair interaction energy governs solute rejection. Organic solutes more easily shed water molecules than ions to more readily pass through the membrane. Hydrogen-bonding sites for molecules like urea also lead to a higher rejection. These findings underline the importance of the solute's solvation shell and solute-water-membrane chemistry in solute transport and rejection in RO membranes. Funded by the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern with computing resources from XSEDE (NSF grant ACI-1053575).

  9. 反胶束体系中猪胰脂肪酶水解橄榄油的动力学研究%Kinetic Study of Porcine Pancreatic Lipase-catalyzed Hydrolysis of Olive Oil in AOT/isooctane Reversed Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宁; 郭军; 陈润杰; 莫凤奎



  10. Characteristics of AOT Microemulsion Structure: a Small Angle X-ray Scattering Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The method of synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SAXS) has been used to obtain structural ;nformation on the system of bis2(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/ H2O/isooctane. By using the Guinier plot (Ln I (q) versus q ) on the data sets in a defined small q range (0.03-0.06A-), the gyration radius at different water/surfactant molar ratio, W0, was obtained. With the increase of W0, the gyration radius (Rg) increased at the range of 23.2~52.7 A.

  11. Water aging reverses residual stresses in hydrophilic dental composites. (United States)

    Park, J W; Ferracane, J L


    Dental composites develop residual stresses during polymerization due to shrinkage. These stresses may change with time because of relaxation and water sorption in the oral environment. This phenomenon is likely dependent on the composition of the materials, specifically their hydrophilic characteristics, and could result in deleterious stresses on restorative materials and tooth structure. The purpose of this experiment was to use the thin ring-slitting method to compare the residual stress generated within composite materials of varying hydrophilicity when aged in wet and dry conditions after polymerization. Water sorption, solubility, elastic modulus, and residual stresses were measured in 6 commercial composites/cements aged in water and dry conditions. The self-adhesive resin cement showed the highest water sorption and solubility. All composites showed initial residual contraction stresses, which were maintained when aged dry. Residual stresses in 2 of the self-adhesive cements and the polyacid-modified composite aged in wet conditions resulted in a net expansion. This experiment verified that residual shrinkage stresses in dental composites can be reversed during aging in water, resulting in a net expansion, with the effect directly related to their hydrophilic properties.

  12. Cationic reverse micelles create water with super hydrogen-bond-donor capacity for enzymatic catalysis: hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate by alpha-chymotrypsin. (United States)

    Moyano, Fernando; Falcone, R Dario; Mejuto, J C; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano


    Reverse micelles (RMs) are very good nanoreactors because they can create a unique microenvironment for carrying out a variety of chemical and biochemical reactions. The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of different RM interfaces on the hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA) by alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT). The reaction was studied in water/benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)/benzene RMs and, its efficiency compared with that observed in pure water and in sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) RMs. Thus, the hydrolysis rates of 2-NA catalyzed by alpha-CT were determined by spectroscopic measurements. In addition, the method used allows the joint evaluation of the substrate partition constant K(p) between the organic and the micellar pseudophase and the kinetic parameters: catalytic rate constant k(cat), and the Michaelis constant K(M) of the enzymatic reaction. The effect of the surfactant concentration on the kinetics parameters was determined at constant W(0)=[H(2)O]/[surfactant], and the variation of W(0) with surfactant constant concentration was investigated. The results show that the classical Michaelis-Menten mechanism is valid for alpha-CT in all of the RMs systems studied and that the reaction takes place at both RM interfaces. Moreover, the catalytic efficiency values k(cat)/K(M) obtained in the RMs systems are higher than that reported in water. Furthermore, there is a remarkable increase in alpha-CT efficiency in the cationic RMs in comparison with the anionic system, presumably due to the unique water properties found in these confined media. The results show that in cationic RMs the hydrogen-bond donor capacity of water is enhanced due to its interaction with the cationic interface. Hence, entrapped water can be converted into "super-water" for the enzymatic reaction studied in this work.

  13. Effect of alpha-lactalbumin on the phase behavior of AOT-brine-isooctane mixtures: role of charge interactions. (United States)

    Shimek, Justin W; Rohloff, Catherine M; Goldberg, Jessica; Dungan, Stephanie R


    We have found that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the ability of the protein alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) to affect the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium bis(ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT, 3.5 wt %) in equivolume mixtures of organic and aqueous solutions. The composition and size of AOT phase structures that form in the presence of 0.35 wt % protein were evaluated as a function of pH and ionic strength. In the absence of protein, AOT forms water-in-oil microemulsion droplets for all pH and salt concentrations studied here. The presence of the protein in the water-in-oil microemulsion phase boosts water solubilization and droplet size, as the spontaneous curvature of the surfactant interface becomes less negative. Aggregates of protein, surfactant, and oil also form in the water-continuous phase. The size and composition of structures in both phases can be tuned in the presence of protein by varying the pH and ionic strength. alpha-LA induces the appearance of an anisotropic surfactant phase at pH <5.8. At intermediate salt concentrations, a third isotropic, viscous aqueous phase appears that contains 55-60% of the protein, 10-14% of the surfactant, and significant amounts of oil. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the protein contains enhanced alpha-helical secondary structure when self-assembling with surfactant, and has a loosened tertiary structure. The protein does not interact with the surfactant as an unfolded random coil. Although the conformation of alpha-LA in aqueous salt solutions is known to depend on pH, when self-assembling with AOT the protein adopts a structure whose features are quite pH insensitive, and likely reflect an intrinsic interaction with the interface.

  14. Folding dynamics of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) inside non-aqueous and aqueous reverse micelles (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhigyan; Gavvala, Krishna; Koninti, Raj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Haribandhu; Hazra, Partha


    Present Letter describes dynamics of FAD in non-aqueous and aqueous reverse micelles (RMs). FAD in non-aqueous reverse micelles (containing MeOH, glycerol, formamide or DMF) shows a prominent rise of quantum yield with increasing solvent loading, whereas in water RM FAD shows a rise in quantum yield only up to w0 = 10 and afterwards drops sharply up to bulk. A relative difference in polarity of dry AOT to solvent loaded RMs can be attributed to the opposite trend of changes in emission. This Letter of FAD in different RMs and its preferential orientation might be useful for understanding FAD dynamics inside flavoproteins.

  15. Spontaneous vesicle formation from DSB/AOT mixed system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wenjun; ZHAI Limin; LI Ganzuo; MENG Xiangguang; ZENG Xiancheng


    Spontaneous vesicles from the aqueous mixtures of dodecyl sulfonate betaine (DSB) and sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) at certain mixingratios have been demonstrated by using calorimetry, freeze-frac- ture transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), negative- staining TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The addition of NaCl will promote vesicle formation and the heat effect of monodisperse vesicle system is greatest. Meanwhile the mechanism was analyzed from the viewpoint of packing parameter f, molecular geometry structure and interaction.

  16. Biosensors with reversed micelle-enzyme sensitive membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effect of reversed micelle on the conformation of enzyme was studied by sensor techniques. By means of measurement of the response current of GOD enzyme membrane electrode, the effects of enzyme embedded in AOT reversed micellar on GOD conformation and catalytic activity are discussed. The results show that the response current increased greatly with decreasing ratio of GOD/AOT, meaning that the catalytic activity and the conformation stability of enzyme were enhanced.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li


    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments

  18. Studies on properties of different reverse micelles%不同反胶束体系特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖莹; 布冠好; 陈复生; 廖志雄


    micelle increase,so viscosity increases,but the difference of two reverse micelle system is mainly due to water soluble ability. Conductivity can also react micelle change behavior,AOT–Tween 85 reverse micelle“pool”diameter is bigger AOT reverse micelle under the same conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li


    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The

  20. Characterization of nanostructured zirconia prepared by hydrolysis and reverse micelle synthesis by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Li, X.; Littrell, K.; Seifert, S.; Csencsits, R.; Loong, C.


    Low temperature techniques such as hydrolysis and reverse micelle syntheses provide the opportunity to determine the relationship between the structural properties and preparation conditions of zirconia powders as well as to tailor their physicochemical properties. The authors have performed small-angle neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) experiments to study the nucleation and organization of zirconia nanoparticles via different preparation routes. First, the formation of reverse micelles in individual and mixed solutions of (ZrOCl{sub 2}+D{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}OH+H{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3} systems at water/AOT molar ratio of 20 was characterized. Second, the aggregation of zirconia gels obtained from the reaction of the reverse micelle solutions after heat treatments was studied. Third, the nanostructure of zirconia powders prepared by the reverse micelle method is compared with the corresponding powders prepared by hydrolysis after different heat treatments.

  1. Characterization of lipase in reversed micelles formulated by Cibacron Blue F-3GA modified Span 85

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Hao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan


    as a model reaction. The micellar hydrodynamic radius results reflected, to some extent, the redistribution of surfactant and water after enzyme addition, and the correlation between surfactant formulation, water content (W0), micellar size, and enzyme activity. An adequate modification density of CB...... was found to be important for the reversed micelles to retain enough hydration capacity and achieve high enzyme activity. Compared with the results in AOT-based reversed micelles, CRL in this micellar system exhibited a different activity behavior versus W0. The optimal pH and temperature...... was found to decrease with increasing surfactant concentration, suggesting an increase of the enzyme affinity for the substrate. Stability of the lipase in the reversed micelles was negatively correlated to W0. Introduction Reversed micelles are nanometer-scale transparent aggregates of water and surfactant...

  2. Doping silver nanoparticles in AOT lyotropic lamellarphases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xiao


    aerosol OT/water/oil system, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 1979, 70: 577-583.[15]Fontell, K., The structure of the lamellar liquid crystalline phase in serosol OT-water system, J. Colloid Interface Sci.,1973, 44: 318-329.[16]Kotlarchyk, M., Sheu, E. Y., Capel, M., Structural and dynamical transformations between neighboring dense microemulsion phases, Phys. Rev. A, 1992, 46: 928-939.[17]Antelmi, D. A., Kekicheff, P., Measurement of the compressibility modulus in a lyotropic lamellar phase stabilized by undulation forces, J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101: 8169-8179.[18]Wang, W., Efrima, S., Regev, O., Directing silver nanoparticles into colloid-surfactant lyotropic lamellar systems, J. Phys.Chem. B, 1999, 103: 5613-5621.[19]Chidichimo, G., La Mesa, C., Ranieri, G. A. et al., NMR investigation of the lamellar mesophase occuring in the system aerosol OT-water, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 1987, 150b: 221-236.[20]Callaghan, P. T., Soderman, O., Examination of the lamellar phase of aerosol OT/water using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, J. Phys. Chem., 1983, 87: 1737-744.


    Membrane use in water treatment has historically focused on desalination. With the development of new membrane materials, attention began to focus on reverse osmosis and pervaporation as alternatives to traditional water treatment processes. This paper addresses the use of reve...

  4. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.


    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  5. Retrieval of Maps of PM2.5 Aerosol in the Problematic California Valleys: Bright, Speckled Reflectances, Thin AOT, but High Pollution (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.


    The San Joaquin Valley suffers from severe episodes of respirable aerosol (PM2.5) in wintertime. We provide maps of aerosol episodes using daily snapshots of PM2.5 and its changing features despite numerous difficulties inherent to sampling the region, with special focus on the DISCOVER-AQ period, Jan-Feb 2013, which had many supporting measurements. Both high pollution and retrieval difficulties tend to occur in many Mediterranean agricultural regions. One difficulty is the relatively bright surfaces with considerable exposed soil. NASA's MAIAC and MODIS Deep Blue retrieval techniques are shown to have considerable skill even at low aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values, as evaluated by concurrent AERONET sunphotometer measurements. More significantly, these AOT values can correspond to high daytime PM2.5 since aerosol mixed layer depth is thin and variable, 200m - 600 m. The thin layers derive from typical subsidence of dry air between more stormy periods. This situation provides an advantage: water vapor column is also almost completely limited to a similar mixed layer depth, and can thus serve as a measure of aerosol dilution. The ratio of AOT to column-water-vapor from MODIS products provides two advantages: (1) it can provide a measure related to particle density, via a mixed-layer proxy, and (2) it can ratio out some errors that crop up in the retrieval of very low AOT, e.g. bidirectional reflectance and other angular dependences. These effects are combined, so we disentangle them using AERONET data. Data from the NASA Langley HSRL-2 lidar and in-situ measurements from DISCOVER-AQ are also helpful. At the time of abstract submission, sporadic errors in the column water estimates provide the greatest limitation. Looking to the near future, we suggest why the use of geostationary TEMPO data will allow multiple sampling opportunities per day, supplementary or alternative information for AOT, aerosol absorption, and even column water.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong


    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to

  7. Activity and stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) entrapped in aerosol OT reverse micelles. (United States)

    Sarcar, S; Jain, T K; Maitra, A


    The activity and stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) entrapped in aerosol OT reverse micellar droplets have been investigated spectrophotometrically. Various physical parameters, e.g., water pool size, w(0), pH, and temperature, were optimized for YADH in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micelles. It was found that the enzyme exhibits maximum activity at w(0) = 28 and pH 8.1. It was more active in reverse micelles than in aqueous buffers at a particular temperature and was denatured at about 307 degrees C in both the systems. At a particular temperature YADH entrapped in reverse micelles was less stable than when it was dissolved in aqueous buffer.

  8. Water structure and dynamics in phosphate fluorosurfactant based reverse micelle: A computer simulation study (United States)

    Senapati, Sanjib; Berkowitz, Max L.


    We performed a molecular dynamics simulation on a system containing a water pool inside the reverse micelle made up of an assembly of phosphate fluorosurfactant molecules dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide. The water molecules in the first solvation shell of the headgroup lose the water to water tetrahedral hydrogen bonded network but are strongly bonded to the surfactant headgroups. This change in inter-water hydrogen bonding in connection with the confined geometry of the reverse micelle slows down the translational and especially the rotational dynamics of water.

  9. Effect of added alpha-lactalbumin protein on the phase behavior of AOT-brine-isooctane systems. (United States)

    Rohloff, Catherine M; Shimek, Justin W; Dungan, Stephanie R


    We have found that the presence of isooctane systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Karl Fischer titration, and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to determine the surfactant, oil, water, and protein content of the organic and aqueous phases as a function of the total surfactant and protein present. As a small amount of alpha-lactalbumin is added to the mixture, there is a substantial increase (up to 80%) in the maximum water solubility in the water-in-oil microemulsion phase. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that this increase is due to a decrease in the magnitude of the (negative) spontaneous curvature of the surfactant monolayer, as droplets swell in size. As the molar ratio of alpha-lactalbumin to AOT surpasses approximately 1:300, the partitioning of water, protein, and surfactant shifts to the excess aqueous phase, where soluble assemblies with positive curvature are detected by dynamic light scattering. Significant amounts of isooctane are solubilized in these aggregates, consistent with the formation of oil-in-water microemulsion droplets. Circular dichroism studies showed that the tertiary structure of the protein in the microemulsion is disrupted while the secondary structure is increased. In light of these findings, the protein most likely expands to a molten-globule type conformation in the AOT interfacial environment, but does not substantially unfold to become an extended chain.

  10. Gray water recycle: Effect of pretreatment technologies on low pressure reverse osmosis treatment (United States)

    Gray water can be a valuable source of water when properly treated to reduce the risks associated with chemical and microbial contamination to acceptable levels for the intended reuse application. In this study, the treatment of gray water using low pressure reverse osmosis (RO) filtration after pre...

  11. Reverse motion characteristics of water-vapor mixture in supercavitating flow around a hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向宾; 李楠; 王国玉; 张敏弟


    The supercavitation has attracted a growing interest because of its potential for high-speed vehicle maneuvering and drag reduction. To better understand the reverse flow characteristics of a water-vapor mixture in supercavitating flows around a hydrofoil, a numerical simulation is conducted using a unified supercavitation model, which combines a modified RNGk-e turbulence model and a cavitation one. By comparing the related experimental results, the reverse motion of the water-vapor mixture is found in the cavitation area in all supercavitation stages. The inverse pressure gradient leads to reverse pressure fluctuations in the cavity, followed by the reverse motion of the water-vapor two-phase interface. Compared with the water-vapor mixture area at the back of the cavity, the pressure in the vapor area is inversely and slowly reduced,a higher-pressure gradient occurs near the cavity boundary.

  12. Validation and empirical correction of MODIS AOT and AE over ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. J. Schutgens


    Full Text Available We present a validation study of Collection 5 MODIS level 2 Aqua and Terra AOT (aerosol optical thickness and AE (Ångström exponent over ocean by comparison to coastal and island AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork sites for the years 2003–2009. We show that MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AOT exhibits significant biases due to wind speed and cloudiness of the observed scene, while MODIS AE, although overall unbiased, exhibits less spatial contrast on global scales than the AERONET observations. The same behaviour can be seen when MODIS AOT is compared against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN data, suggesting that the spatial coverage of our datasets does not preclude global conclusions. Thus, we develop empirical correction formulae for MODIS AOT and AE that significantly improve agreement of MODIS and AERONET observations. We show these correction formulae to be robust. Finally, we study random errors in the corrected MODIS AOT and AE and show that they mainly depend on AOT itself, although small contributions are present due to wind speed and cloud fraction in AOT random errors and due to AE and cloud fraction in AE random errors. Our analysis yields significantly higher random AOT errors than the official MODIS error estimate (0.03 + 0.05 τ, while random AE errors are smaller than might be expected. This new dataset of bias-corrected MODIS AOT and AE over ocean is intended for aerosol model validation and assimilation studies, but also has consequences as a stand-alone observational product. For instance, the corrected dataset suggests that much less fine mode aerosol is transported across the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

  13. Review of Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghoul, M.A.; Poovanaesvaran, P.; Sopian, K.; Sulaiman, M.Y. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)


    Brackish water are any water sources with TDS between 1000 and 15 000 mg/L. Brackish water cannot be consumed by us directly due to its high salinity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), water with salinity below 500 mg/L is acceptable as drinking water. There are quite a large number of research that had been done on BWRO. Each of them has agreed with a common design on optimum BWRO design with a slight modification in order to improve more and make a better BWRO system. BWRO systems which have been tested in real situation agree that the single stage system with module connected to reject water is the most optimum system both economically and environmentally. There is some improvement done to the design by using SWRO membrane at the second stage. This improvement increases recovery rate to about 83% and reduces boron concentration at the same time. Another design is by using hybrid combination of ultra-low and conventional RO membranes. Hybrid improves permeate quality. It is also possible to create a hybrid array by mixing membrane element types within a pressure vessel itself. Co-operating an efficient module arrangement into a complete BWRO system will reduce energy consumption. Energy-recovery device is a component that must be included in any small or large-scale systems. A small-scale RO system, without energy recovery, would typically consume two to three times more energy. This will be more for large-scale systems. While single stage system with module connected to reject water is preferred by researchers who have done real environment testing, simulation prefers to add another membrane to the reject water of the second module. This system is yet to be tested in real environment to prove its standing. (author)

  14. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.


    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  15. Investigation of microbial communities on reverse osmosis membranes used for process water production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Stams, A.J.M.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Nederlof, M.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M.


    In the present study, the diversity and the phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria in a biofouling layer on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were determined. Fresh surface water was used as a feed in a membrane-based water purification process. Total DNA was extracted from attached cells from feed space

  16. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Nijenhuis, M.A.; Ruepert, N.; Bredie, W.L.P.; Kremer, S.


    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from pe

  17. Do the interfacial fluidities of cationic reverse micelles enhance with an increase in the water content? (United States)

    Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.


    The role of cosurfactant and water on the interfacial fluidities of reverse micelles formed with the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been examined by measuring the fluorescence anisotropies of two structurally similar ionic solutes, rhodamine 110 and fluorescein. For this purpose, reverse micellar systems with (CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water) and without a cosurfactant (CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water) have been chosen. In this study, the mole ratio of water to surfactant W has been varied in the region of 4-25. Experimental results indicate that the average reorientation time of the probe, which is a measure of the fluidity near the interfacial region, decreases by a factor of 1.5 and 1.4 for rhodamine 110 and fluorescein, respectively, as W goes up from 5 to 25 in CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system. In contrast, the average reorientation time, remains invariant for both the probe molecules in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water reverse micellar system despite an increase in W from 4 to 24. In case of CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system, the added water binds to bromide counter ions and also the hydroxyl groups of the cosurfactant, 1-pentanol, which results in an increase in the effective head group area. Such an increase in the effective head group area leads to a decrease in the packing parameter, and hence an increase in the interfacial fluidity. On the other hand, in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water system, the added water merely hydrates the bromide ions, thereby leaving the effective head group area unchanged. Thus, the interfacial fluidities remain invariant upon the addition of water in the absence of a cosurfactant.

  18. alpha-lactalbumin-AOT charge interactions tune phase structures in isooctane/brine mixtures. (United States)

    Kim, Jun Y; Dungan, Stephanie R


    Self-assembly of the anionic surfactant AOT with the protein alpha-lactalbumin in isooctane/brine mixtures results in phase structures whose type, size, and shape differ considerably from those formed by the surfactant alone. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the size and shape of these structures for 5.4 < pH < 11.2 and 0.25, 0.33, and 0.4 wt % NaCl. All pH values were above the reported isoelectric point for the protein. The composition of the system (except for salt) was fixed, with 2.5 wt % surfactant in equivolume mixtures of oil and water and either 0 or 0.4 wt % protein. Under these conditions, AOT in the absence of protein always formed spherical, water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion droplets in the organic phase with no self-assembly in the aqueous phase. In the presence of alpha-lactalbumin, self-assembled structures were formed in both aqueous and organic phases, and the size and shape of these was tuned by both pH and [NaCl]. Protein-surfactant interaction was weakest at the most alkaline pH, with protein-free, spherical droplets forming in the organic phase and surfactant-decorated soluble protein clusters forming in the aqueous phase. As pH was decreased, protein increasingly partitioned to the organic phase and droplets became ellipsoidal and much larger in volume, with these effects enhanced at lower salt concentration. Aqueous structures were also strongly affected by pH, shifting from prolate protein/surfactant aggregates at alkaline pH to oil-in-water, oblate microemulsion droplets at neutral pH. At acidic pH and higher salt concentration, self-assembly shifted toward a third, anisotropic aqueous phase, which contained discoid bilayer structures. It is proposed that hydrophobic attraction causes association of the protein with the surfactant monolayer, and pH and [salt] tune the system via the protein by modifying electrostatic repulsion and monolayer curvature.

  19. Dentigerous cyst associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic tumor (AOT A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashri. R. Latti


    Full Text Available Adenomatoid Odontogenic tumor (AOT is a benign (hamartomatous lesion of Odontogenic origin, which is relatively uncommon and affects young individuals with a female predominance, mainly in the second decade. This lesion is most commonly located in the anterior maxilla and is usually associated with an impacted canine tooth. The present case report is a 15year old female patient, who presented with a large AOT in the anterior mandible associated with an impacted canine – a very rare situation.

  20. Effect of the addition of a nonaqueous polar solvent (glycerol) on enzymatic catalysis in reverse micelles. Hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate by alpha-chymotrypsin. (United States)

    Falcone, R Darío; Biasutti, M Alicia; Correa, N Mariano; Silber, Juana J; Lissi, Eduardo; Abuin, Elsa


    The kinetics of hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA) catalyzed by alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT), in reverse micellar solutions formed by glycerol (GY)-water (38% v/v) mixture/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane has been determined by spectroscopic measurements. To compare the efficiency of this reaction with that observed in micelles with water in the core, as well as in the corresponding homogeneous media, the reaction was also studied in water/AOT/n-heptane reverse micellar solutions and in both homogeneous media (water and GY-water, 38% v/v mixture). In every media, alpha-CT was characterized by the absorption and emission spectra, the fluorescence lifetimes, and the fluorescence anisotropy of its tryptophan residues. The effect of AOT concentration on the kinetic parameters obtained in the micellar systems was determined, at a constant molar ratio of the inner polar solvent and surfactant. Moreover, the data obtained allowed the evaluation of the 2-NA partition constant between the organic and the micellar pseudophase. It is shown that the addition of GY to the micelle interior results in an increase in the catalytic properties of alpha-CT. The fluorescence anisotropy studies in the different media show that the addition of GY increases the viscosity as compared with the aqueous systems. It seems that the GY addition to the reverse micellar aggregates results in a decrease of the conformational mobility of alpha-CT, which leads to an increase of the enzyme stability and activity.

  1. Polymerization of o-Phenylenediamine Catalyzed by Hemeproteins Encapsulated in Reversed Micelle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; MAO Lu-yuan; LI Liu-zhu; LIU Xiao-guang; SHI Jun; CAO Shao-kui


    Hemeproteins encapsulated in reversed micelle formulated with di-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT)was found to catalyze the polymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PDA) with hydrogen peroxide, whereas o-PDA catalyzed by hemeproteins dissolved in water could only form its trimers. As the nanostructural environment in reversed micelle acts as a certain orientation surrounding medium, it offers a strong electrostatic field that alters the reductive potential of Fe3+/Fe2+ (Em7) in the heme of hemeproteins and thus increases the catalytic activity of peroxidase accordingly. According to the results of UV-Vis, 1H NMR and FTIR, the polymer catalyzed by hemoglobin(Hb) in reversed micelle was presumed to be constructed of lines and trapeziforms alternatively.

  2. Biochemical synthesis of gold and zinc nanoparticles in reverse micelles (United States)

    Egorova, E. M.


    Gold and zinc nanoparticles were obtained in AOT reverse micelles in isooctane by reduction of the corresponding metal ions by the natural pigment quercetin (the biochemical synthesis technique). Gold and zinc ions were introduced into the micellar solution of quercetin in the form of aqueous solutions, HAuCl4 and [Zn(NH3)4]SO4, to the water to AOT molar ratios 1-3 and 3-4, respectively. The process of nanoparticle formation was investigated by spectrophotometry. Nanoparticle size and shape were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The data obtained allow to conclude that there are two steps in metal ion-quercetin interaction: (1) complex formation, and (2) complex dissociation with subsequent formation of nanoparticles and a second product, presumably oxidized quercetin. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes (spheres, hexahedrons, triangles, and cylinders) and sizes, mainly in the 10-20 nm range; zinc nanoparticles are chiefly spherical and ˜5 nm in size. In both cases, the nanoparticles are stable in the air in micellar solution over long periods of time (from a several months to a several years).

  3. Thermodynamics of the Interaction between Crystal Violet and Aerosol OT in Aerosol OT/Isooctane/Water Microemulsion%AOT/异辛烷/水微乳液中结晶紫与AOT相互作用的热力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志云; 赵继华; 安学勤; 沈伟国



  4. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu


    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  5. On the impact of water activity on reversal tolerant fuel cell anode performance and durability (United States)

    Hong, Bo Ki; Mandal, Pratiti; Oh, Jong-Gil; Litster, Shawn


    Durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells in automotive applications can be severely affected by hydrogen starvation arising due to transients during the drive-cycle. It causes individual cell voltage reversal, yielding water electrolysis and carbon corrosion reactions at the anode, ultimately leading to catastrophic cell failure. A popular material-based mitigation strategy is to employ a reversal tolerant anode (RTA) that includes oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst (e.g., IrO2) to promote water electrolysis over carbon corrosion. Here we report that RTA performance surprisingly drops under not only water-deficient but also water-excess conditions. This presents a significant technical challenge since the most common triggers for cell reversal involve excess liquid water. Our findings from detailed electrochemical diagnostics and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography provide insight into how automotive fuel cells can overcome critical vulnerabilities using material-based solutions. Our work also highlights the need for improved materials, electrode designs, and operation strategies for robust RTAs.

  6. Rejection of Emerging Organic Contaminants by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Effects of Fouling, Modelling and Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali Quintanilla, V.


    The book contains a description of the presence of micropollutants (medicines, hormones, pesticides) in surface water and shows that conventional water treatment poorly removes micropollutants. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are more appropriate technologies; however removals can vary depending

  7. Effect of water matrices on removal of veterinary pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davor Dolar; Arna Vukovi(c); Danijela A(a)perger; Kre(s)imir Ko(s)ulti(c)


    This study explored the removal of five veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) (sulfamethoxazole (SMETOX),trimethopfim (TMP),ciprofloxacin (CIPRO),dexamethasone (DEXA) and febantel (FEBA)) from different water matrices (Milli-Q water,model water,tap water and real pharmaceutical wastewater using four types of nanofiltration (NF) membranes (NF90,NF270,NF and HL) and two reverse osmosis (RO) membranes (LFC-1 and XLE).All VPs were added to different water matrices at a concentration of 10 mg/L.Rejections of VPs and water flux were measured.The rejection increased with increase of molecular weight.The highest rejections were obtained with RO membranes (LFC-1,XLE) and tight NF (NF90) membrane.In general,the rejection of VPs was higher in model water and tap water than in Milli-Q water,but the water flux was lower.This was mainly explained by ion adsorption inside the membranes pores.Narrower pore size counteracted the effect of presence of low concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) in tap water.The NOM was assumed to enhance the adsorption of VPs onto membrane surface,increased the size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion also appeared during the transport.Investigated water matrices had influence on water flux decline due to their complexity.

  8. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A.; Ruepert, Nienke


    , permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect......Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from...... permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters.Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water...

  9. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation. (United States)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie


    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly.

  10. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, I.L. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  11. Desalination of Red Sea water using both electrodialysis and reverse osmosis as complementary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdel-Aal


    Full Text Available Desalination process separates nearly salt free water from sea or brackish water. So, desalination process is becoming a solution for water scarcity all over the world. Two membrane methods of water desalination namely electrodialysis (ED and reverse osmosis (RO are used in this study as complementary methods. The results show that both ED and RO can be used as integrated system. This system is economic and cost effective compared with each individual method provided using the ED system before the RO. In this study, it was approved that seawater can be used as it is an electrolyte. TDS of Red Sea water was decreased from 42070 ppm to 2177 ppm achieving 94.8% removal efficiency using ED for half of its optimum time. Total removal efficiency of 99.4% can be obtained using the combined system of ED and RO.

  12. Evaluation of the use of reverse osmosis to eliminate natural radionuclides from water samples. (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Palomo, Marta; Ruana, Josep; Peñalver, Alejandra; Aguilar, Carme; Borrull, Francesc


    The objective of drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) is to supply the population with tap water that is in optimal condition and in compliance with water quality regulations. In the DWTP of L'Ampolla (Tarragona, Spain), slightly high values of gross alpha activity and the amount of salts in the raw water have been observed. Conventional treatment has reduced these levels only minimally. This study tested a tertiary treatment based on reverse osmosis is tested in an industrial pilot plant (240 m3/day) The efficiency of this pilot plant to reduce the gross alpha and beta activities and the activity of some individual radioisotopes (U(238), U(234), U(235) and Ra(226)) was tested. Results showed that the elimination of alpha emitters was greater than 90%, whereas the elimination of beta emitters was about 35%. Overall, the data provided evidence that the pilot plant is effective for removing different radionuclides that can be present in the incoming water treated. Therefore, tertiary treatment based on reverse osmosis has a positive effect in water quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ، R. Nabizadeh ، S. Nasseri ، K. Naddafi ، S. Nazmara ، A. H. Mahvi


    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  14. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noroozi Karbasdehi


    Full Text Available In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK. The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  15. Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C.


    Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature between the ideal conditions assumed for NPG desalination and the physical environment inherent to reverse osmosis (RO) systems. In particular, the water permeability of NPG has been calculated previously based on very high pressures (1000-2000 bars). Does NPG maintain its ultrahigh water permeability under real-world RO pressures (<100 bars)? Here, we answer this question by drawing results from molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that NPG maintains its ultrahigh permeability even at low pressures, allowing a permeate water flux of 6.0 l/h-bar per pore, or equivalently 1041 ± 20 l/m2-h-bar assuming a nanopore density of 1.7 × 1013 cm-2.

  16. Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature between the ideal conditions assumed for NPG desalination and the physical environment inherent to reverse osmosis (RO) systems. In particular, the water permeability of NPG has been calculated previously based on very high pressures (1000–2000 bars). Does NPG maintain its ultrahigh water permeability under real-world RO pressures (<100 bars)? Here, we answer this question by drawing results from molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that NPG maintains its ultrahigh permeability even at low pressures, allowing a permeate water flux of 6.0 l/h-bar per pore, or equivalently 1041 ± 20 l/m{sup 2}-h-bar assuming a nanopore density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}.

  17. Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor


    The use of energy still remains the main component of the costs of desalting water. Forward osmosis (FO) can help to reduce the costs of desalination, and extracting water from impaired sources can be beneficial in this regard. Experiments with FO membranes using a secondary wastewater effluent as a feed water and Red Sea water as a draw solution demonstrated that the technology is promising. FO coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) was implemented for indirect desalination. The system consumes only 50% (~1.5 kWh/m3) of the energy used for high pressure seawater RO (SWRO) desalination (2.5-4 kWh/m3), and produces a good quality water extracted from the impaired feed water. Fouling of the FO membranes was not a major issue during long-term experiments over 14 days. After 10 days of continuous FO operation, the initial flux declined by 28%. Cleaning the FO membranes with air scouring and clean water recovered the initial flux by 98.8%. A cost analysis revealed FO per se as viable technology. However, a minimum average FO flux of 10.5 L/m2-h is needed to compete with water reuse using UF-LPRO, and 5.5 L/m2-h is needed to recover and desalinate water at less cost than SWRO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nanofiltration in Transforming Surface Water into Healthy Water: Comparison with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Naidu


    Full Text Available The natural surface water, especially available through rivers, is the main source of healthy water for the living beings throughout the world from ancient days as it consists of all essential minerals. With the advent of industrialization, gradually even the most prominent rivers have been polluted in all parts of the world. Although there are lots of technologies, nanofiltration (NF has been chosen to transform river water into healthy water due to its unique advantages of retaining optimum TDS (with essential minerals required for human body, consuming of lower energy, and no usage of any chemicals. The prominent parameters of surface water and macro/microminerals of treated water have been analyzed. It is shown that NF is better in producing healthy water with high flux by consuming low energy.

  19. Effect of water temperature on biofouling development in reverse osmosis membrane systems. (United States)

    Farhat, N M; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Bucs, Sz S; Staal, M


    Understanding the factors that determine the spatial and temporal biofilm development is a key to formulate effective control strategies in reverse osmosis membrane systems for desalination and wastewater reuse. In this study, biofilm development was investigated at different water temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) flow cell. The MFS studies were done at the same crossflow velocity with the same type of membrane and spacer materials, and the same feed water type and nutrient concentration, differing only in water temperature. Spatially resolved biofilm parameters such as oxygen decrease rate, biovolume, biofilm spatial distribution, thickness and composition were measured using in-situ imaging techniques. Pressure drop (PD) increase in time was used as a benchmark as to when to stop the experiments. Biofilm measurements were performed daily, and experiments were stopped once the average PD increased to 40 mbar/cm. The results of the biofouling study showed that with increasing feed water temperature (i) the biofilm activity developed faster, (ii) the pressure drop increased faster, while (iii) the biofilm thickness decreased. At an average pressure drop increase of 40 mbar/cm over the MFS for the different feed water temperatures, different biofilm activities, structures, and quantities were found, indicating that diagnosis of biofouling of membranes operated at different or varying (seasonal) feed water temperatures may be challenging. Membrane installations with a high temperature feed water are more susceptible to biofouling than installations fed with low temperature feed water.

  20. Effect of water temperature on biofouling development in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, N.M.


    Understanding the factors that determine the spatial and temporal biofilm development is a key to formulate effective control strategies in reverse osmosis membrane systems for desalination and wastewater reuse. In this study, biofilm development was investigated at different water temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) flow cell. The MFS studies were done at the same crossflow velocity with the same type of membrane and spacer materials, and the same feed water type and nutrient concentration, differing only in water temperature. Spatially resolved biofilm parameters such as oxygen decrease rate, biovolume, biofilm spatial distribution, thickness and composition were measured using in-situ imaging techniques. Pressure drop (PD) increase in time was used as a benchmark as to when to stop the experiments. Biofilm measurements were performed daily, and experiments were stopped once the average PD increased to 40 mbar/cm. The results of the biofouling study showed that with increasing feed water temperature (i) the biofilm activity developed faster, (ii) the pressure drop increased faster, while (iii) the biofilm thickness decreased. At an average pressure drop increase of 40 mbar/cm over the MFS for the different feed water temperatures, different biofilm activities, structures, and quantities were found, indicating that diagnosis of biofouling of membranes operated at different or varying (seasonal) feed water temperatures may be challenging. Membrane installations with a high temperature feed water are more susceptible to biofouling than installations fed with low temperature feed water.

  1. Determination of water states and the structural parameters of W/O microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The states of water in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/water reverse(W/O) microemulsions system have been investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) technique. The broad peak obtained for hydroxy(O-H) of water has been resolved by least square curve-fitting. It has been observed that the water solubilized in microemulsion droplets has four states, i.e. bound water with sulfo-group, free water, bound water with sodium counterion in the water pool of microemulsion droplets and a small amount of trapped water in the palisade layer of microemulsion droplets. The following have also been determined: the aggregation number (n), the radius of the water pool in the microemulsions(rw), the thickness of the bound water with sulfo-group(d1), the thickness of the bound water with sodium counterion(d2), the total thickness of the bound water ( d ) and the effective area of head groups of AOT(AAOT).

  2. Dynamics of water and solute transport in polymeric reverse osmosis membranes via molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Meng; Lueptow, Richard M


    The Angstrom-scale transport characteristics of water and six different solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, FT-30, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. Results indicate that water transport increases with an increasing fraction of connected percolated free volume, or water-accessible open space, in the membrane polymer structure. This free volume is enhanced by the dynamic structure of the membrane at the molecular level as it swells when hydrated and vibrates due to molecular collisions allowing a continuous path connecting the opposite membrane surfaces. The tortuous paths available for transport of solutes result in Brownian motion of solute molecules and hopping from pore to pore as they pass through the polymer network structure of the membrane. The transport of alcohol solutes decreases for solutes with larger Van der Waals volume, which corresponds to less available percolated free volume, or sol...

  3. The effect of flow and chemical corrosion in reverse osmosis over desalinated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jae [Chunnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Byung Gu [Doosan Heavy Industry Co., Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of)


    Desalinated water produced by a reverse osmosis (RO) filtering method forms about 22% of total production of desalinated water in the world. However, the RO environment is very corrosive due to the presence of various chemicals for water treatment and the flow of sand particles leading to corrosion. Recently, there has been much effort to substitute cheaper and more corrosion resistant stainless steels for copper based alloys as a valve material in RO. Nevertheless, the effects of chemicals and particles on the corrosion of stainless steels have rarely been studied. Erosion phenomenon was detected under the condition with the flow rate of more than 8ms{sup -1} in spite of the absence of sand particles. In seawater containing sand particles, the erosion in stainless steels was accelerated further.

  4. Water hexamer: Self-consistent phonons versus reversible scaling versus replica exchange molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sandra E


    Classical free energies for the cage and prism isomers of water hexamer computed by the self- consistent phonons (SCP) method and reversible scaling (RS) method are presented for several flexible water potentials. Both methods have been augmented with a rotational correction for improved accuracy when working with clusters. Comparison of the SCP results with the RS results suggests a fairly broad temperature range over which the SCP approximation can be expected to give accurate results for systems of water clusters, and complements a previously reported assessment of SCP. Discrepancies between the SCP and RS results presented here, and recently published replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) results bring into question the convergence of the REMD and accompanying replica exchange path integral molecular dynamics results. In addition to the ever-present specter of unconverged results, several possible sources for the discrepancy are explored based on inherent characteristics of the methods used.

  5. An enhanced VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm over land using a global surface reflectance ratio database (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Huang, Jingfeng; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu


    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has been retrieving aerosol optical thickness (AOT), operationally and globally, over ocean and land since shortly after S-NPP launch in 2011. However, the current operational VIIRS AOT retrieval algorithm over land has two limitations in its assumptions for land surfaces: (1) it only retrieves AOT over the dark surfaces and (2) it assumes that the global surface reflectance ratios between VIIRS bands are constants. In this work, we develop a surface reflectance ratio database over land with a spatial resolution 0.1° × 0.1° using 2 years of VIIRS top of atmosphere reflectances. We enhance the current operational VIIRS AOT retrieval algorithm by applying the surface reflectance ratio database in the algorithm. The enhanced algorithm is able to retrieve AOT over both dark and bright surfaces. Over bright surfaces, the VIIRS AOT retrievals from the enhanced algorithm have a correlation of 0.79, mean bias of -0.008, and standard deviation (STD) of error of 0.139 when compared against the ground-based observations at the global AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites. Over dark surfaces, the VIIRS AOT retrievals using the surface reflectance ratio database improve the root-mean-square error from 0.150 to 0.123. The use of the surface reflectance ratio database also increases the data coverage of more than 20% over dark surfaces. The AOT retrievals over bright surfaces are comparable to MODIS Deep Blue AOT retrievals.

  6. Comparison of methods for assessing reverse osmosis membrane treatment of shrimp process water. (United States)

    Casani, Sandra; Hansen, Tina B; Christensen, Jakob; Knøchel, Susanne


    Interest in reuse of process water from the food industry has reinforced the importance of controlling and monitoring the effectiveness and reliability of treatment systems regarding removal of organic matter and microorganisms. The ability of adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence, conductivity, turbidometry, absorbance, and multichannel fluorescence spectroscopy for indirectly monitoring the integrity of a reverse osmosis membrane when treating process water recovered from peeling in a shrimp processing line was evaluated. This study demonstrated that reverse osmosis was capable of removing bacteria (ca. 7 log CFU ml(-1)) to the levels required by the regulatory authorities for water recycling within the same food unit operation. Adenosine triphosphate and turbidometry showed a higher sensitivity for detecting compromising conditions at the treatment system (0.1% concentration of feed in permeate) and a better correlation with the aerobic count at lower levels than the other methods investigated. The sensitivity for assessing membrane integrity of conductivity and multichannel fluorescence was 1% of feed in permeate. Impact of feed variations was best leveled out in the permeates for turbidity measurements. Multichannel fluorescence spectroscopy may require laborious calibration procedures and expertise regarding data analysis and interpretation of results, which are not always available in food industries. Absorbance did not respond to changes in membrane integrity and was not well correlated to the aerobic count because of the poor sensitivity of this method for these purposes.

  7. Integrating tunable anion exchange with reverse osmosis for enhanced recovery during inland brackish water desalination. (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; SenGupta, Arup K


    For inland brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis or RO, concentrate or reject disposal poses a major challenge. However, enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume using RO processes is limited by the solubility of ions present in the feedwater. One of the most common and stubborn precipitate formed during desalination is calcium sulfate. Reducing or eliminating the presence of sulfate would allow the process to operate at higher recoveries without threat to membrane scaling. In this research, this goal is accomplished by using an appropriate mixture of self-regenerating anion exchange resins that selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride prior to the RO unit. Most importantly, the mixed bed of anion exchange resins is self-regenerated with the reject brine from the RO process, thus requiring no addition of external chemicals. The current work demonstrates the reversibility of the hybrid ion exchange and RO (HIX-RO) process with 80% recovery for a brackish water composition representative of groundwater in San Joaquin Valley in California containing approximately 5200 mg/L of total dissolved solids or TDS. Consequently, the reject volume can be reduced by 50% without the threat of sulfate scaling and use of antiscaling chemicals can be eliminated altogether. By appropriately designing or tuning the mixed bed of anion exchange resins, the process can be extended to nearly any composition of brackish water for enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume.

  8. Reverse micelles as suitable microreactor for increased biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Pandey, Ashutosh [Centre of Energy Studies, MNNIT, Allahabad 211004 (India)


    Reverse micelles have been shown to act as efficient microreactors for enzymic reactions and whole cell entrapment in organic (non-aqueous) media wherein the reactants are protected from denaturation by the surrounding organic solvent. These micelles are thermodynamically stable, micrometer sized water droplets dispersed in an organic phase by a surfactant. It has been observed that when whole cells of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides or Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1) are entrapped inside these reverse micelles, the H{sub 2} production enhanced from 25 to 35 folds. That is, 1.71mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1} in case of R. sphaeroides which is 25 fold higher in benzene-sodium lauryl sulfate reverse micelles. Whereas, in case of R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 the H{sub 2} production was increased by 35 fold within AOT-isooctane reverse micelles i.e. 11.5mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The observations indicate that the entrapment of whole cells of microbes within reverse micelles provides a novel and efficient technique to produce hydrogen by the inexhaustible biological route. The two microorganisms R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (a photosynthetic bacteria) and Citrobacter Y19 (a facultative anaerobic bacteria) together are also entrapped within AOT-isooctane and H{sub 2} production was measured i.e. 69mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The nitrogenase enzyme responsible for hydrogen production by R. sphaeroides/R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 cells is oxygen sensitive, and very well protected within reverse micelles by the use of combined approach of two cells (R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and Citrobacter Y19). In this case glucose present in the medium of Citrobacter Y19 serves double roles in enhancing the sustained production rate of hydrogen. Firstly, it quenches the free O{sub 2}liberated as a side product of reaction catalyzed by nitrogenase, which is O{sub 2} labile. Secondly, organic acid produced by this reaction is utilized by the Citrobacter Y19 as organic substrate in

  9. Use of water processed by reverse osmosis For vapor generation in tobacco industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Klimeck Gouvea


    Full Text Available This article presents a study due to the technical use of reverse osmosis to treat the boiler water for steam generation in a plant of tobacco processing in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The monitoring was conducted between the years 2006 to 2008, presenting the results concerning the improvement of water quality with emphasis on environmental and financial gains. Water quality can be observed by the reduction of 90% in silica content and 100% hardness, leading to a reduction of incrustation and corrosion of the system. Moreover, a reduction in the discharges water from the boiler volume reduced the water consumption by approximately 6,000 m3/year and also the consumption of chemicals used in wastewater treatment plant, with a reduction of 32.76 m3/day of effluents to treatment. The reducing of energy with natural gas for water heating replacement was almost 900,000 m3/year (19.45%, because of increased in heat exchange efficiency. The reducing in the CO2 emissions was in order of 1215,65 t/year. Finally, based on the achieved results obtained, can be possible to assume a reducing costs of production as a whole.

  10. Pseudomonas-related populations associated with reverse osmosis in drinking water treatment. (United States)

    Sala-Comorera, Laura; Blanch, Anicet R; Vilaró, Carles; Galofré, Belén; García-Aljaro, Cristina


    Reverse osmosis membrane filtration technology (RO) is used to treat drinking water. After RO treatment, bacterial growth is still observed in water. However, it is not clear whether those microorganisms belong to species that can pose a health risk, such as Pseudomonas spp. The goal of this study is to characterize the bacterial isolates from a medium that is selective for Pseudomonas and Aeromonas which were present in the water fraction before and after the RO. To this end, isolates were recovered over two years and were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. They were then biochemically phenotyped and the population similarity indexes were calculated. The isolates were analysed for their capacity to form biofilms in vitro and antimicrobial susceptibility. There were significant differences between the microbial populations in water before and after RO. Furthermore, the structures of the populations analysed at the same sampling point were similar in different sampling campaigns. Some of the isolates had the capacity to form a biofilm and showed resistance to different antibiotics. A successful level filtration via RO and subsequent recolonization of the membrane with different species from those in the feed water was found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not recovered from among the isolates. This study increases the knowledge on the microorganisms present in water after RO treatment, with focus in one of the genus causing problems in RO systems associated with human health risk, Pseudomonas.

  11. Interaction of fluorescence dyes with 5-fluorouracil: A photoinduced electron transfer study in bulk and biologically relevant water (United States)

    Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Kundu, Niloy; Roy, Arpita; Sarkar, Nilmoni


    The interactions of widely used chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) with coumarin dyes have been investigated for the first time using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The fluorescence quenching along with the decrease in lifetimes of excited state of coumarin derivatives with gradual addition of 5FU is explained by photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. Our studies were performed in bulk water and confined water of AOT (aerosol OT) reverse micelle to investigate the effect of confinement on PET dynamics. The feasibility of PET reaction for coumarin-5FU systems is investigated calculating the standard free energy changes using the Rehm-Weller equation.

  12. TR-ESR Investigation on Reaction of Vitamin C with Excited Triplet of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in Reversed Micelle Solutions (United States)

    Xu, Xin-sheng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Ji, Xue-han; Cui, Zhi-feng


    Time-resolved electron spin resonance has been used to study quenching reactions between the antioxidant Vitamin C (VC) and the triplet excited states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PAQ) in ethylene glycol-water (EG-H2O) homogeneous and inhomogeneous reversed micelle solutions. Reversed micelle solutions were used to be the models of physiological environment of biological cell and tissue. In PAQ/EG-H2O homogeneous solution, the excited triplet of PAQ (3PAQ*) abstracts hydrogen atom from solvent EG. In PAQ/VC/EG-H2O solution, 3PAQ* abstracts hydrogen atom not only from solvent EG but also from VC. The quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is close to the diffusion-controlled value of 1.41 × 108 L/(mol ·s). In hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/EG-H2O and aerosol OT (AOT)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, 3PAQ* and VC react around the water-oil interface of the reversed micelle. Exit of 3PAQ* from the lipid phase slows down the quenching reaction. For Triton X-100 (TX-100)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solution, PAQ and VC coexist inside the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol core, and the quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is larger than those in AOT/EG-H2O and CTAB/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, even a little larger than that in EG-H2O homogeneous solution. The strong emissive chemically induced dynamic electron polarization of As.- resulted from the effective TM spin polarization transfer in hydrogen abstraction of 3PAQ* from VC.

  13. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants. (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga


    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  14. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor


    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and full-scale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used.

  15. Comparison of tertiary treatment by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for water reuse in denim textile industry. (United States)

    Ben Amar, Nihel; Kechaou, Noura; Palmeri, John; Deratani, André; Sghaier, Ali


    The wastewaters resulting from different baths of a dyeing factory specialized in denim fabric are collected and treated by an activated sludge plant. This study investigated the coupling of activated sludge treatment with either nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) to recycle water and reuse it in the process. We first conducted NF experiments with a HL membrane in different configurations: dead end and cross-flow for flat sheets and also in spiral wound form. Results on water permeation and salt rejection show that performances are configuration dependent. Then, for the study of the NF/RO textile wastewater treatment, experiments were conducted with spiral wound membranes in order to be closest to the industrial configuration. After analyzing the removal efficiencies of suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treatment plant, we conducted NF experiments using an HL2514TF spiral wound membrane preceded by ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. We used as well an RO membrane (AG2514TF) to compare performances in water yield and quality for the same pumping costs. The results show that NF allows higher yield, while respecting the Tunisian standard of water reuse (CODreuse of the water in the process.

  16. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoît


    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review


    Gaetan Blandin; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Joaquim Comas; Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda; Pierre Le-Clech


    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be ...

  18. The effect of linoleic acid on pH inside sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles in isooctane and on the enzymic activity of soybean lipoxygenase. (United States)

    Rodakiewicz-Nowak, J; Maślakiewicz, P; Haber, J


    The effective pH of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles (pHrm), containing buffers of different pH (pHst) and various amounts of linoleic acid, was studied within the range of compositions used to study the activity of soybean lipoxygenase in reverse micelles. Significant shifts of pHrm versus pHst were observed for the solutions of relatively higher pHst, dependent on linoleic acid and buffer concentrations. The effect diminished as pHst became closer to 7. When low-ionic-strength buffers were added to AOT solutions in isooctane, a significant buffering effect of linoleic acid in reverse micelles was observed. Solubilization of > 3 mM linoleic acid in micellar solutions containing 25 mM buffers gave the observed pHrm values almost independent of pHst. This effect diminished with the ionic strength of the buffering solution, but did not vanish even at 200 mM buffer. The observed effects result from the balance between ionization of linoleic acid and its partition between the water pool and the micellar interface. The enzymic activity of soybean lipoxygenase in the AOT reverse micellar solutions of the determined pHrm values was also studied. A significant reduction of the kinetics of the enzymic activity was observed, for all studied reverse micellar solutions. Changes of pHrm, caused by the presence of acidic substrate (linoleic acid) do not explain the observed reduction of activity directly through the effect on the enzyme. Due to unfavourable partition of the substrate between the microphases present in the systems, enhanced by reduction of pH at higher total concentrations of linoleic acid, the saturation of the enzyme with the substrate was not observed in the system and is difficult to attain experimentally in reverse micelles. A shift of the lipoxygenase activity/pHrm profile but negligible shift of the activity/pHst profile, with respect to aqueous buffer solutions, were observed. This indicates that either the information given

  19. Mechanisms of Cytochrome C Extraction by Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The extraction of cytochrome C was carried out by means of phase transfer technique with three different reverse micellar systems, i.e., a CTAB micellar solution in n-butyl alcohol-chloroform(volume ratio 4∶1), an AOT micellar solution in isooctane and a SDSS-D2EHPA micellar solution in isooctane. The extraction mechanisms were studied. The results show that the extraction mechanisms for the same proteins with different types of reverse micellar systems can be distinct. The extraction of cytochrome C with CTAB and SDSS-D2EHPA reverse micellar systems are carried out according to the mechanism of electrostatic interaction. However, in the extraction of cytochrome C with the AOT reverse micellar system, the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the surfactant is not important.

  20. Preparation and water desalination properties of POSS-polyamide nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang


    The application of nanotechnology to thin-film nanocomposites (TFN) is a new route to enhance membrane performance in water desalination. Here, the potential of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as the nanofiller in polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis membranes was systematically investigated. Four POSS materials (P-8Phenyl, P-8NH3Cl, P-8NH2 and P-1NH2) were introduced into the selective layer by physical blending or chemical fixation during standard interfacial polymerization. Water flux and NaCl rejection were measured with 2000ppm NaCl solution under 15.5bar pressure, and SEM and TEM images of membrane selective layers were obtained. Membranes prepared without POSS showed water flux of 20.0±0.5L/m2·h and salt rejection of 98.0±0.2%. TFN membranes prepared with 0.4% (w/v) P-8Phenyl in the organic phase showed a 65% increase in water flux compared to the pristine PA membrane while maintaining high salt rejection. The selective layer of this membrane maintained the typical ridge-and-valley structure of aromatic PA. Results with P-8NH3Cl and P-8NH2 added to the organic phase were similar. TFN membranes prepared with monoamine P-1NH2 in the organic phase had poor water flux of 3.2L/m2·h, a smooth and more hydrophobic surface, and a much thicker (~400nm) selective layer. One of the four POSS compounds studied, P-8NH3Cl, is sufficiently soluble in water for incorporation into the selective layer via the aqueous phase. Membranes were prepared with P-8NH3Cl in the aqueous phase at varying reaction time, loading, and additive (triethylamine) concentration. With these parameters optimized, water flux increased to 35.4L/m2·h.

  1. State of the art and review on the treatment technologies of water reverse osmosis concentrates. (United States)

    Pérez-González, A; Urtiaga, A M; Ibáñez, R; Ortiz, I


    The growing demand for fresh water is partially satisfied by desalination plants that increasingly use membrane technologies and among them reverse osmosis to produce purified water. Operating with water recoveries from 35% to 85% RO plants generate huge volumes of concentrates containing all the retained compounds that are commonly discharged to water bodies and constitute a potentially serious threat to marine ecosystems; therefore there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly management options of RO brines. This paper gives an overview on the potential treatments to overcome the environmental problems associated to the direct discharge of RO concentrates. The treatment options have been classified according to the source of RO concentrates and the maturity of the technologies. For the sake of clarity three different sources of RO concentrates are differentiated i) desalination plants, ii) tertiary processes in WWTP, and iii) mining industries. Starting with traditional treatments such as evaporation and crystallization other technologies that have emerged in last years to reduce the volume of the concentrate before disposal and with the objective of achieving zero liquid discharge and recovery of valuable compounds from these effluents are also reviewed. Most of these emerging technologies have been developed at laboratory or pilot plant scale (see Table 1). With regard to RO concentrates from WWTP, the manuscript addresses recent studies that are mainly focused on reducing the organic pollutant load through the application of innovative advanced oxidation technologies. Finally, works that report the treatment of RO concentrates from industrial sources are analyzed as well.

  2. Contaminants of emerging concern in reverse osmosis brine concentrate from indirect/direct water reuse applications. (United States)

    Romeyn, Travis R; Harijanto, Wesley; Sandoval, Sofia; Delagah, Saied; Sharbatmaleki, Mohamadali


    Water shortage is becoming more common due to droughts and global population increases resulting in the increasing popularity of water reuse to create new water sources. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are popular in these applications since they can produce drinking water quality effluent. Unfortunately, RO systems have the drawback of generating concentrate streams that contain contaminants rejected by the membrane including chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). CECs are chemicals such as hormones, steroids, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are used for their intended purpose and then released into wastewater. CECs are believed to be detrimental to aquatic wildlife health and pose an unknown human health risk. This research gathered the existing knowledge on CEC presence in concentrate, available proven concentrate treatment methods, their CEC removal abilities, and current CEC regulations. It was found that 127 CECs have been measured in RO concentrate with 100 being detected at least once. The most potent treatment process available is UV/H2O2 as it offers the highest removal rates for the widest range of chemicals. The less expensive process of ozone/biologically activated carbon offers slightly lower removal abilities. This comprehensive report will provide the groundwork for better understanding, regulating and treating concentrate stream CECs.

  3. Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system. (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D


    An osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) hybrid system integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction was evaluated for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from raw sewage. In this hybrid system, the forward osmosis membrane effectively retained inorganic salts and phosphate in the bioreactor, while the MF membrane periodically bled them out for phosphorus recovery with pH adjustment. The RO process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Results show that phosphorus recuperation from the MF permeate was most effective when the solution pH was adjusted to 10, whereby the recovered precipitate contained 15-20% (wt/wt) of phosphorus. Periodic MF extraction also limited salinity build-up in the bioreactor, resulting in a stable biological performance and an increase in water flux during OMBR operation. Despite the build-up of organic matter and ammonia in the draw solution, OMBR-RO allowed for the recovery of high quality reused water.

  4. Spatiotemporal Spectral Variations of AOT in India’s EEZ over Arabian Sea: Validation of OCM-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Simha


    Full Text Available We report the results of sun-photometric measurements of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT in India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ over the Arabian Sea along with synchronous Ocean Color Monitor (OCM-II derived AOT estimates during December 12, 2009–January 10, 2010. Relatively higher values of Angstrom exponent (α around 1.2 near coast and 0.2–0.8 in the India’s EEZ, observed during the cruise period, indicate the presence of smaller particles near the coast due to anthropogenic activities; and larger particles in the India’s EEZ due to advection of pollutants from Indian subcontinent via long-range transport. Results related to α and its derivative reveal four different aerosol types (urban-industrial, desert-dust, clean-marine, and mixed-type with varying fraction during the study period. Surface radiative forcing due to aerosols is found to be 20 W/m2 over India’s EEZ. OCM-derived AOTs showed good corroboration with in situ measurements with a correlation coefficient of about 0.95. A reasonably good correlation was also observed between AOT and wind speed (R = 0.6; AOT and relative humidity (R = 0.58. The concurrent MODIS AOT data also agree well with those observed by the OCEANSAT (OCM-II satellite during the campaign period.

  5. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad


    The use of forward osmosis (FO) is growing among the researchers for water desalination and wastewater treatment due to use of natural osmotic pressure of draw solute. In this study pressure assisted forward osmosis (PAFO) was used instead of FO to increase the water production rate. In this study a low concentration of draw solution (0.25 M KCl) was applied so that diluted KCl after PAFO operation can directly be used for fertigation. The performance of PAFO was investigated for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a water reclamation plant. The water production in PAFO was increased by 9% and 29% at applied pressure of 2 and 4 bars, respectively, to feed side based on 90 h of experiments. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led to an increase in permeate flux. In addition, GAC pretreatment adsorbed 12 out of 14 organic micropollutants tested from ROC to below detection limit. This application enabled to minimise the ROC volume with a sustainable operation and produced high quality and safe water for discharge or reuse. The draw solution (0.25 M KCl) used in this study was diluted to 0.14 M KCl, which is a suitable concentration (10 kg/m3) for fertigation, due to water transport from feed solution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri


    Membrane distillation (MD) was evaluated as a treatment option of wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate (WWROC) discharged from wastewater reclamation plants (WRPs). A direct contact MD (DCMD), at obtaining 85% water recovery of WWROC showed only 13–15% flux decline and produced good quality permeate (10–15 µS/cm, 99% ion rejection) at moderate feed temperature of 55 °C. Prevalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition on the MD membrane occurred in treating WWROC at elevated concentrations. The combination of low salinity and loose CaCO3 adhesion on the membrane did not significantly contribute to DCMD flux decline. Meanwhile, high organic content in WWROC (58–60 mg/L) resulted in a significant membrane hydrophobicity reduction (70% lower water contact angle than virgin membrane) attributed to low molecular weight organic adhesion onto the MD membrane. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment helped in reducing organic contents of WWROC by 46–50%, and adsorbed a range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic micropollutants. This ensured high quality water production by MD (micropollutants-free) and enhanced its reuse potential. The MD concentrated WWROC was suitable for selective ion precipitation, promising a near zero liquid discharge in WRPs.

  7. Solid phase extraction and determination of carbamate pesticides in water samples by reverse-phase HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, J.; Santos-Delgado, M.J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)


    Solid phase extraction. SPE. using C{sub 1}8 bonded silica cartridges for trace amounts determination of carbaryl, propoxur, thiram, propham and methiocarb in water samples was studied and the breakthrough volume of the cartridges was established. The high enrichment factor and large injection volume admissible in the isocratic reverse-phase HPLC system allows pesticides determination with UV detection at 22o nm even at a concentration lower than 0.05 mug/L. Purified tap natural and underground water samples were spiked with carbamate pesticides in the concentration range 0.16-16.0 mug/L. Large volumes of samples (up to 2L) were passed through available C{sub 1}8, cartridges and eluted with acetonitrile. The preconcentrated samples were analyzed by HPLC using a Spherisorb ODS column with a 42.58 acetonitrile-water mobile phase. From replicate samples, recovery for the pesticides ranged from 79.0 to 103.7% except for thiran which is not retained. Tehe relative standard deviation (n=4 at 0.16 to 1.61 mug/L concetration level) range from 1.1 to 6.8%. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis facilities: Capacity limitation, water quality improvement, and economics

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.


    The use of subsurface intake systems for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants significantly improves raw water quality, reduces chemical usage and environmental impacts, decreases the carbon footprint, and reduces cost of treated water to consumers. These intakes include wells (vertical, angle, and radial type) and galleries, which can be located either on the beach or in the seabed. Subsurface intakes act both as intakes and as part of the pretreatment system by providing filtration and active biological treatment of the raw seawater. Recent investigations of the improvement in water quality made by subsurface intakes show lowering of the silt density index by 75 to 90%, removal of nearly all algae, removal of over 90% of bacteria, reduction in the concentrations of TOC and DOC, and virtual elimination of biopolymers and polysaccharides that cause organic biofouling of membranes. Economic analyses show that overall SWRO operating costs can be reduced by 5 to 30% by using subsurface intake systems. Although capital costs can be slightly to significantly higher compared to open-ocean intake system costs, a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis shows significant cost saving over operating periods of 10 to 30. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. State of the reverse osmosis membrane of sea water corso plant desalination (Algiers) (United States)

    Abdessemed, D.; Hamouni, S.; Nezzal, G.


    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination is being increasingly emphasized as a strategy for conservation of limited resources of freshwater. Although desalination has been developed for the last few decades, the SWRO operation is still affected by membrane fouling. The membrane fouling of SWRO has a significant impact on operation of desalination plants. We follow the evolution of the permeate conductivity during three months of the sea water Corso (Algiers) plant desalination. The purpose of this work is to conduct an autopsy of fouled membranes in seawater using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled by an analysis EDX. This membrane shows a change of the surface morphology, which justifies the abrupt increase in the conductivity of the permeate in May 2006. In order to identify the nature of the fouling deposit, we analysed this deposit by Xrays diffraction (XRD).

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of the Galvanic Couple Copper-Carbon Steel in Reverse Osmosis Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Carrillo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the electrochemical behaviour of corrosion inhibition of the copper-carbon steel galvanic couple (Cu-CS, exposed to reverse osmosis water (RO used for rinsing of heat exchangers for heavy duty machinery, during manufacture. Molybdate and nitrite salts were utilized to evaluate the inhibition behaviour under galvanic couple conditions. Cu-CS couple was used as working electrodes to measure open circuit potential (OCP, potentiodynamic polarization (PP, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The surface conditions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The most effective concentration ratio between molybdate and nitrite corrosion inhibitors was determined. The morphological study indicated molybdate deposition on the anodic sites of the galvanic couple. The design of molybdate-based corrosion inhibitor developed in the present work should be applied to control galvanic corrosion of the Cu-CS couple during cleaning in the manufacture of heat exchangers.

  11. Reverse water gas shift reaction over Co-precipitated Ni-CeO2 catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Luhui; ZHANG Shaoxing; LIU Yuan


    The Ni-CeO2 catalysts with different Ni contents were prepared by a co-precipitation method and used for Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) reaction. 2wt.%Ni-CeO2 showed excellent catalytic performance in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability for RWGS reaction. Characterizations of the catalyst samples were conducted by XRD and TPR. The results indicated that, in Ni-CeO2 catalysts, there were three kinds of nickel, nickel ions in ceria lattice, highly dispersed NiO and bulk NiO. Oxygen vacancies were formed in CeO2 lattice due to the incorporation of Ni2+ ions into ceria lattice. Oxygen vacancies formed in ceda lattice and highly dispersed Ni were key active components for RWGS, and bulk Ni was key active component for methanation of CO2.

  12. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. (United States)

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat


    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA.

  13. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process. (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan


    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  14. Addressing reverse osmosis fouling within water reclamation--a side-by-side comparison of low-pressure membrane pretreatments. (United States)

    Kent, Fraser C; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow


    A tertiary membrane filtration (TMF) pilot operating on secondary effluent and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were setup in a side-by-side study as pretreatments for two identical reverse osmosis pilot systems. The water quality of the permeate from both low-pressure membrane pretreatment systems and the fouling rate of the reverse osmosis systems were compared to assess the capabilities of the two low-pressure membrane pretreatments to prevent organic fouling of the reverse osmosis systems. Both pretreatment pilots were setup using typical operating conditions (i.e., solids retention time and mixed-liquor suspended solids). A consistent difference in water quality and reverse osmosis performance was demonstrated during the 12-month study. The MBR permeate consistently had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, but higher color and specific UV absorbance compared with the permeate from the TMF pretreatment. The pretreatment with the MBR gave an average reverse osmosis fouling rate over the entire study (0.27 Lmh/bar.month) that was less than half of the value found for the reverse osmosis with TMF pretreatment (0.60 Lmh/bar.month). A correlation of reverse osmosis feed TOC concentration with average reverse osmosis fouling rate also was established, independent of the pretreatment method used. Results from a cleaning analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transformed infrared reflectometry confirmed that the foulants were primarily organic in nature. It is concluded that, for this type of application and setup, MBR systems present an advantage over tertiary membrane polishing of secondary effluent for reverse osmosis pretreatment.

  15. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha


    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use of an MDC as an RO pre-treatment method using a new type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a coulombic efficiency of 68 ± 11%. A higher concentration of acetate (2 g L-1) reduced solution conductivity by 60 ± 7%, and a higher salt concentration (20 g L-1 NaCl) reduced solution conductivity by 50 ± 7%. The use of membranes with increased ion exchange capacities further decreased the solution conductivity by 63 ± 2% (20 g L-1 NaCl). These results demonstrate substantial (43-67%) desalination of water is possible using equal volumes of anode solution and salt water. These results show that MDC treatment could be used to substantially reduce salt concentrations and thus energy demands for downstream RO processing, while at the same time producing electrical power. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Activity and Conformation of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase (YADH) Entrapped in Reverse Micelles. (United States)

    Das; Mozumdar; Maitra


    Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) solubilized in reverse micelles of aerosol OT (i.e., AOT or sodium bis (2-ethyl hexyl) sulfosuccinate) in isooctane has been shown to be catalytically more active than that in aqueous buffer under optimum conditions of pH, temperature, and water content in reverse micelles. Studies of the secondary structure conformational changes of the enzyme in reverse micelles have been made from circular dichroism spectroscopy. It has been seen that the conformation of YADH in reverse micelles is extremely sensitive to pH, temperature, and water content. A comparison has been made between the catalytic activity of the enzyme and the alpha-helix content in the conformation and it has been observed that the enzyme is most active at the maximum alpha-helix content. While the beta-sheet content in the conformation of the entrapped enzyme was found to be dependent on the enzyme-micelle interface interaction, the alpha-helix and random coil conformations are governed by the degree of entrapment and the extent of rigidity provided by the micelle core to the enzyme structure. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Evaluation of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant using electrodialysis reversal technology. (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Gernjak, W; Valero, F; Barceló, A; Petrovic, M; Rodríguez-Roda, I


    Emerging contaminants (EC) have gained much attention with globally increasing consumption and detection in aquatic ecosystems during the last two decades from ng/L to lower ug/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) treating raw water from the Mediterranean Llobregat River. The DWTP combined conventional treatment steps with the world's largest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility. 49 different PhACs, EDCs and related compounds were found above their limit of quantification in the influent of the DWTP, summing up to a total concentration of ECs between 1600-4200 ng/L. As expected, oxidation using chlorine dioxide and granular activated carbon filters were the most efficient technologies for EC removal. However, despite the low concentration detected in the influent of the EDR process, it was also possible to demonstrate that this process partially removed ionized compounds, thereby constituting an additional barrier against EC pollution in the product. In the product of the EDR system, only 18 out of 49 compounds were quantifiable in at least one of the four experimental campaigns, showing in all cases removals higher than 65% and often beyond 90% for the overall DWTP process.

  18. Reverse osmosis integrity monitoring in water reuse: The challenge to verify virus removal - A review. (United States)

    Pype, Marie-Laure; Lawrence, Michael G; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang


    A reverse osmosis (RO) process is often included in the treatment train to produce high quality reuse water from treated effluent for potable purposes because of its high removal efficiency for salinity and many inorganic and organic contaminants, and importantly, it also provides an excellent barrier for pathogens. In order to ensure the continued protection of public health from pathogen contamination, monitoring RO process integrity is necessary. Due to their small sizes, viruses are the most difficult class of pathogens to be removed in physical separation processes and therefore often considered the most challenging pathogen to monitor. To-date, there is a gap between the current log credit assigned to this process (determined by integrity testing approved by regulators) and its actual log removal capability as proven in a variety of laboratory and pilot studies. Hence, there is a challenge to establish a methodology that more closely links to the theoretical performance. In this review, after introducing the notion of risk management in water reuse, we provide an overview of existing and potentially new RO integrity monitoring techniques, highlight their strengths and drawbacks, and debate their applicability to full-scale treatment plants, which open to future research opportunities.

  19. Irreversible catalyst activation enables hyperpolarization and water solubility for NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange. (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Shi, Fan; He, Ping; Yuan, Bingxin; Plunkett, Kyle N; Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V; Waddell, Kevin W; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y


    Activation of a catalyst [IrCl(COD)(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; COD = cyclooctadiene)] for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was monitored by in situ hyperpolarized proton NMR at 9.4 T. During the catalyst-activation process, the COD moiety undergoes hydrogenation that leads to its complete removal from the Ir complex. A transient hydride intermediate of the catalyst is observed via its hyperpolarized signatures, which could not be detected using conventional nonhyperpolarized solution NMR. SABRE enhancement of the pyridine substrate can be fully rendered only after removal of the COD moiety; failure to properly activate the catalyst in the presence of sufficient substrate can lead to irreversible deactivation consistent with oligomerization of the catalyst molecules. Following catalyst activation, results from selective RF-saturation studies support the hypothesis that substrate polarization at high field arises from nuclear cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized (1)H spins of the hydride/orthohydrogen spin bath. Importantly, the chemical changes that accompanied the catalyst's full activation were also found to endow the catalyst with water solubility, here used to demonstrate SABRE hyperpolarization of nicotinamide in water without the need for any organic cosolvent--paving the way to various biomedical applications of SABRE hyperpolarization methods.

  20. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate. (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y


    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density.

  1. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor


    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and fullscale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used. © 2011 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene organogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata, E-mail:


    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between donor coumarins (C102 and C153) and acceptor Rhodamine 6G were studied in AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene organogels. The gel comprises a three-dimensional network of fiber bundles trapping the m-xylene solvent. Each fiber is an aggregate of several strands, and each strand consists of a central columnar stack of the phenols, surrounded by AOT headgroups. Our acceptor is ionic so that it was concentrated near the polar center of the strand, while the neutral donors were likely distributed over a wider region. With C153 as donor, clear evidence of FRET (time-constant~100 ps) was found, which indicated that the donor and acceptor may reside in neighboring strands within the same fiber. However, with C102 as donor, FRET probably occurred over an ultrashort, sub-picosecond time-scale suggesting that the donor and acceptor in this case resided in close vicinity. Thus, C102 tends to localize near the polar centre of the strands, compared to the more hydrophobic C153, which prefers to occupy the relatively non-polar peripheral regions of the strands and fibers. - Highlights: • FRET between coumarin donors and Rhodamine 6G acceptor studied in AOT organogels. • With Coumarin 153 donor, a ~100 ps FRET component detected in both donor and acceptor fluorescence. • With Coumarin 102 donor, FRET component too short to be detected with a time-resolution of ~70 ps. • The FRET rates reveal crucial differences in donor–acceptor distances for the two coumarin donors.

  3. Speech and Language Disorders in a Dialysis Encephalopathy Patient and the Effect of Desferrioxamine and Reverse-Osmosis Water Treatment. (United States)

    Lehtihalmes, Matti; And Others

    Dialysis encephalopathy is a progressive neurological disorder occurring after long-term hemodialysis in some renal failure patients. Accumulation of aluminum in the brain is suspected as its cause, and the use of reverse osmosis of the dialysis water and administration of desferrioxamine to the patient have been successful in reducing the…

  4. Reverse electrodialysis : Performance of a stack with 50 cells on the mixing of sea and river water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.


    The purpose of reverse electrodialysis (RED) is to produce electricity upon the mixing of two solutions. We studied the power density (W/m(2)) and the energy efficiency (the amount of energy produced from specified volumes of river and sea water in relation to the thermodynamic maximum). With a stac

  5. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples (United States)

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since o...

  6. Influence of microwave radiation on the growth of gold nanoparticles and microporous zincophosphates in a reverse micellar system. (United States)

    Doolittle, John W; Dutta, Prabir K


    The water core of reverse micelles has been extensively used as the site for synthesis of a variety of materials. However, water-in-oil reverse micelles have a limited range of temperatures over which they are stable as a single phase. Directing heat to the water cores, the usual site of synthesis without heating the bulk provides added opportunities for synthesis. Microwave radiation is a method for superheating the water cores. In this study, we use an H2O-sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)-heptane reverse micelle system for the synthesis of Au particles by hydrazine reduction of HAuCl4 in the presence and absence of microwave radiation. The duration of the microwave radiation was limited to a 2-min duration at a power of 300 W, thereby ensuring that the reverse micelle phase is maintained during the synthesis. At all hydrazine concentrations studied (0.5-2 M), the presence of microwave radiation led to an increase in the particle size of Au. The second system examined was the growth of microporous zincophosphate-X (ZnPO-X, an analogue of the faujasite structure) synthesized from H2O-dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (DODMAC)-heptane reverse micelle system. Microwave radiation was applied for 1 min at 150 W at various stages of the nucleation and growth process, and did not disrupt the reverse micelle system. Product analysis after 48 h of reaction showed that the 1-min microwave pulse, if applied during the nucleation stage (the first 4 h), promoted the formation of NaZnPO4.H2O over ZnPO-X. The effect of the microwave pulse at the growth stage was to promote the formation of ZnPO-X. Absorption of the microwave radiation by the water core and surrounding polar surfactant molecules leads to a rapid rise in local temperature (predicted to be approximately 150 degrees C/min for the AOT system), increasing the rates of intramicellar reactions.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced reverse water gas shift reaction over oxide supported Au catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, AA; Ro, I; Zeng, X; Kim, HJ; Tejedor, I; Anderson, MA; Dumesic, JA; Huber, GW


    We show that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the catalytic activities of different oxide-supported Au catalysts for the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Oxide-supported Au catalysts showed 30 to 1300% higher activity for RWGS under visible light compared to dark conditions. Au/TiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-precipitation (DP) method with 3.5 nm average Au particle size showed the highest activity for the RWGS reaction. Visible light is converted into chemical energy for this reaction with up to a 5% overall efficiency. A shift in the apparent activation energy (from 47 kJ mol(-1) in dark to 35 kJ mol(-1) in light) and apparent reaction order with respect to CO2 (from 0.5 in dark to 1.0 in light) occurs due to the LSPR. Our kinetic results indicate that the LSPR increases the rate of either the hydroxyl hydrogenation or carboxyl decomposition more than any other steps in the reaction network.

  8. Electro-oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrates generated in tertiary water treatment. (United States)

    Pérez, G; Fernández-Alba, A R; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I


    This work investigates the application of the electro-oxidation technology provided with boron doped diamond (BDD), an electrode material which has shown outstanding properties in oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds, for the treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates generated in tertiary wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium and several anions were measured during the electro-oxidation process, and the influence of the applied current density (20-200A/m(2)) was analysed on process kinetics. Analytical assessment showed that several emerging pollutants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, stimulants, etc.) were presented both in the effluent of the secondary WWTP as well as in the RO concentrate. For this reason, a group of 10 emerging pollutants, those found with higher concentrations, was selected in order to test whether electro-oxidation can be also applied for their mitigation. In the removal of emerging pollutants the electrical current density in the range 20-100A/m(2) did not show influence likely due to the mass transfer resistance developed in the process when the oxidized solutes are present in such low concentrations. Their removal rates were fitted to first order expressions, and the apparent kinetic constants for the anodic oxidation of each compound were calculated. Finally, the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) has been checked; concluding that after selecting the appropriate operational conditions the attained concentration is lower than the standards for drinking water established in European and EPA regulations.

  9. Characterisation and removal of recalcitrants in reverse osmosis concentrates from water reclamation plants. (United States)

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Keller, Jurg; Poussade, Yvan; Batstone, Damien J


    Water reclamation plants frequently utilise reverse osmosis (RO), generating a concentrated reject stream as a by-product. The concentrate stream contains salts, and dissolved organic compounds, which are recalcitrant to biological treatment, and may have an environmental impact due to colour and embedded nitrogen. In this study, we characterise organic compounds in RO concentrates (ROC) and treated ROC (by coagulation, adsorption, and advanced oxidation) from two full-scale plants, assessing the diversity and treatability of colour and organic compounds containing nitrogen. One of the plants was from a coastal catchment, while the other was inland. Stirred cell membrane fractionation was applied to fractionate the treated ROC, and untreated ROC along with chemical analysis (DOC, DON, COD), colour, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) scans to characterise changes within each fraction. In both streams, the largest fraction contained 10 kDa molecules, with 17-34% of organic compounds as COD. Iron coagulation affected a wider size range, with better removal of organics (41-49% as COD) at the same molar dosage. As with iron, adsorption reduced organics of a broader size range, including organic nitrogen (26-47%). Advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) was superior for complete decolourisation and provided superior organics removal (50-55% as COD).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of pilot scale membrane separation system coupled with another pilot scale plate heat exchanger to investigate the possibilities of sweetening seawater from Telok Kalong Beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. Reverse osmosis (RO membrane of a surface area of 0.5 m2 was used during the experimental runs. Experiments were conducted at different transmembrane pressures (TMP ranged from 40 to 55 bars, operation temperature ranged from 35 to 45oC, feed concentration (TDS ranged from 34900 to 52500 ppm and cross flow velocities ranged from 1.4 to 2.1 m/s. The result show that the flux values increased linearly with TMP as well as sodium ion rejection. Permeate flux values increased proportionally with the temperature and the later effect was more significant at high pressures. The temperature changing has also influenced the rejection of sodium ion. The minerals content especially NaCl and total dissolved solid (TDS in the drinking water produced in this research are conforming to the standards of World Health Organization (WHO.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process for In-Situ Propellant Production (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.


    This report focuses on the development of mathematical models and simulation tools developed for the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process. This process is a candidate technology for oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) project. An analysis of the RWGS process was performed using a material balance for the system. The material balance is very complex due to the downstream separations and subsequent recycle inherent with the process. A numerical simulation was developed for the RWGS process to provide a tool for analysis and optimization of experimental hardware, which will be constructed later this year at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Attempts to solve the material balance for the system, which can be defined by 27 nonlinear equations, initially failed. A convergence scheme was developed which led to successful solution of the material balance, however the simplified equations used for the gas separation membrane were found insufficient. Additional more rigorous models were successfully developed and solved for the membrane separation. Sample results from these models are included in this report, with recommendations for experimental work needed for model validation.

  12. LYAPUNOV-Based Sensor Failure Detection and Recovery for the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process (United States)

    Haralambous, Michael G.


    Livingstone, a model-based AI software system, is planned for use in the autonomous fault diagnosis, reconfiguration, and control of the oxygen-producing reverse water gas shift (RWGS) process test-bed located in the Applied Chemistry Laboratory at KSC. In this report the RWGS process is first briefly described and an overview of Livingstone is given. Next, a Lyapunov-based approach for detecting and recovering from sensor failures, differing significantly from that used by Livingstone, is presented. In this new method, models used are in t e m of the defining differential equations of system components, thus differing from the qualitative, static models used by Livingstone. An easily computed scalar inequality constraint, expressed in terms of sensed system variables, is used to determine the existence of sensor failures. In the event of sensor failure, an observer/estimator is used for determining which sensors have failed. The theory underlying the new approach is developed. Finally, a recommendation is made to use the Lyapunov-based approach to complement the capability of Livingstone and to use this combination in the RWGS process.

  13. Effect of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on light scattering of AOT/D2O/Octane (United States)

    Sharifi, Soheil


    The light scattering technique is used for the study of interaction of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on AOT/D2O/Octane. The collective diffusion of AOT/D2O droplets soluble in Octane mixed with lipid is founded from a correlation function of light scattering. We focus on the variation of the dynamic behavior of droplets as a function of the lipid concentrations and the size of droplets. The increase of concentration of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A on microemulsion decreases the dynamic of droplets. The SAXS experiment shows the size and the interaction of the droplets change by increase of Mannosylerythritol lipid-A concentration. A hard sphere model can describe the interaction of lipid with AOT/D2O droplets.

  14. Water in oil microemulsions as reaction media for a Diels-Alder reaction between N-ethylmaleimide and cyclopentadiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, JBFN; Fernandez, E; Garcia-Rio, L; Leis, J.R.


    The Diels-Alder reaction between N-ethylmaleimide and cyclopentadiene in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions, where AOT denotes sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, was studied. The rate of the reaction was found to be higher than that obtained in pure isooctane, irrespective of the particular mi

  15. Risk assessments for forest trees: The performance of the ozone flux versus the AOT concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, P.E. [Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), PO Box 5302, S-400 14, Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Broadmeadow, M. [Environmental Research Branch, Forest Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Elvira, S. [Ecotoxicidad de la Contaminacion Atmosferica, CIEMAT (ed 70), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Emberson, L. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Box 373, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gimeno, B.S. [Ecotoxicidad de la Contaminacion Atmosferica, CIEMAT (ed 70), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Le Thiec, D. [I.N.R.A. Centre de Recherches Forestieres, UMR Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres Equipe Bioclimatologie, 54280 Champenoux (France); Novak, K. [WSL, Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Oksanen, E. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, POB 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Schaub, M. [WSL, Swiss Federal Research Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Uddling, J. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg University, PO Box 461, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Wilkinson, M. [Environmental Research Branch, Forest Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom)


    Published ozone exposure-response relationships from experimental studies with young trees performed at different sites across Europe were re-analysed in order to test the performance of ozone exposure indices based on AOTX (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of X nmol mol{sup -1}) and AF{sub st}Y (Accumulated Stomatal Flux above a threshold of Y nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). AF{sub st}1.6 was superior, as compared to AOT40, for explaining biomass reductions, when ozone sensitive species with differing leaf morphology were included in the analysis, while this was not the case for less sensitive species. A re-analysis of data with young black cherry trees, subject to different irrigation regimes, indicated that leaf visible injuries were more strongly related to the estimated stomatal ozone uptake, as compared to the ozone concentration in the air. Experimental data with different clones of silver birch indicated that leaf thickness was also an important factor influencing the development of ozone induced leaf visible injury. - Ozone stomatal flux based indices were superior, as compared to AOT40, for explaining biomass reductions and leaf visible injury.

  16. Reversible conversion of water-droplet mobility from rollable to pinned on a superhydrophobic functionalized carbon nanotube film. (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao


    Poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared by nitroxide-mediated "living" free-radical polymerization. The product functionalized MWNTs (MWNT-PAA-b-PS) contained 20% by weight PAA-b-PS based on the infrared spectroscopy analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. Such MWNT-PAA-b-PS nanoparticles can be used in spray coating method to fabricate superhydrophobic MWNT films, and water-droplet mobility on the superhydrophobic film can be reversibly converted from rollable to pinned through adjusting the appearance of PAA chains on the topmost surface of the film. Switching mechanism has been discussed in detail. We also directly observed the air-solid-liquid interface from the above of a water droplet by a microscope to confirm the superhydrophobic states, and proved that the transition between the wettability states appeared on the same surface with reversible conversion of water-droplet mobility.

  17. Effects of surface coating process conditions on the water permeation and salt rejection properties of composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Louie, Jennifer Sarah


    The application of polymer surface coatings to improve the fouling resistance of reverse osmosis membranes tends to increase flow resistance across the membrane. This paper presents a systematic analysis on how membrane properties and performance are impacted by the coating process steps, and investigates how such effects could contribute to lower water flux. On one hand, simply pre-soaking dry aromatic polyamide composite membranes in aliphatic alcohols results in a significant increase in water flux, which is attributed to wetting of pores in the selective polyamide layer and to changes in the polymer structure. This flux increase was not readily reversible, based on a 300-h water permeation test. Conversely, drying a wetted membrane led to a decrease in water flux, which we hypothesize is caused by increased interchain hydrogen-bonding in the selective layer. This drop in water flux was not permanent; higher flux was observed if the same wetted/dried membrane was then re-soaked in ethanol prior to the water permeation experiment. An ethanol pre-soaking step also increased water flux of a PEBAX-coated membrane by nearly 70%. In contrast to the reduction in water flux caused by the specific treatment sequence of ethanol-swelling followed by drying, this same sequence actually increased gas transport. The eight- to ten-fold increase in Knudsen diffusion-based gas permeance after this pre-treatment was attributed to an increase in the number or size of membrane defects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Water-Blown Polyurethane Foams Showing a Reversible Shape-Memory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zharinova


    Full Text Available Water-blown polyurethane (PU foams are of enormous technological interest as they are widely applied in various fields, i.e., consumer goods, medicine, automotive or aerospace industries. The discovery of the one-way shape-memory effect in PU foams provided a fresh impetus for extensive investigations on porous polymeric actuators over the past decades. High expansion ratios during the shape-recovery are of special interest when big volume changes are required, for example to fill an aneurysm during micro-invasive surgery or save space during transportation. However, the need to program the foams before each operation cycle could be a drawback impeding the entry of shape-memory polymeric (SMP foams to our daily life. Here, we showed that a reversible shape-memory effect (rSME is achievable for polyurethane water-blown semicrystalline foams. We selected commercially available crystallizable poly(ε-caprolactone-diols of different molecular weight for foams synthesis, followed by investigations of morphology, thermal, thermomechanical and shape-memory properties of obtained compositions. Densities of synthesized foams varied from 110 to 180 kg∙m−3, while peak melting temperatures were composition-dependent and changed from 36 to 47 °C, while the melting temperature interval was around 15 K. All semicrystalline foams exhibited excellent one-way SME with shape-fixity ratios slightly above 100% and shape-recovery ratios from the second cycle of 99%. The composition with broad distribution of molecular weights of poly(ε-caprolactone-diols exhibited an rSME of about 12% upon cyclic heating and cooling from Tlow = 10 °C and Thigh = 47 °C. We anticipate that our experimental study opens a field of systematic investigation of rSMEs in porous polymeric materials on macro and micro scale and extend the application of water-blown polyurethane foams to, e.g., protective covers with zero thermal expansion or even cushions adjustable to a certain body

  19. Characterization of polypyrrole films electrosynthesized onto titanium in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamini, D.O. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    Films of polypyrrole (PPy) were successfully electrosynthesized onto titanium in neutral and alkaline solutions of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) by potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and potentiostatic techniques. Results of the characterization of the films by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion measurements are presented. It was found that the AOT molecule remains entrapped within the polymer matrix. The initial growth of the polymer produces electroactive toroidal deposits whereas for electropolymerization of longer duration the typical globular structure is developed. Adherence to Ti increases with deposition time and this result is interpreted as a consequence of the growth of a composite PPy/Ti oxide.

  20. Handling concentrated water with reverse osmosis technology and economize water%反渗透工艺处理浓水节约水资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀玲; 杨潘溪; 吴华


    反渗透工艺作为一种高效、清洁的脱盐技术在各行各业中广泛应用,但是在生产过程中实际产水率70%左右,会有大约占总进水量30%左右的浓水排放掉,这一点在水资源日趋紧缺的今天造成了水资源的极大浪费,而且也严重污染了环境。现简要介绍对反渗透浓水采用反渗透技术和设备来进一步处理,可以使反渗透浓水的回收率达到80%-85%,回收水可以再利用,节约了水资源。%As a kind of high efficient, clean desalting technology, reverse osmosis technology is widely applied in all walks of life. However, actual rate of out flow is about 70% in production process, the rest 30% of the total water inflow concentrated water is drained off which not only causes a tremendous waste of water resources today when water resource is in short, but also it pollutes environment seriously. This paper briefly introduces adopting reverse osmosis technology and equipments to reverse osmosis concentrated water, which can make the rate of reverse osmosis concentrated water reach 80%-85%, recycled water can be reused and saving water resources.

  1. Application of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes to the salty and polluted surface water. (United States)

    Koyuncu, I; Yazgan, M


    Nanofiltration (NF) (TFC-S) and reverse osmosis (RO) (TFC-HR) membranes were evaluated for the treatment of salty and polluted Kucukcekmece Lake used as a drinking water reservoir for the Istanbul City. A thin film composite type of spiral wound membrane (2 m2 area) was used. Experiments were conducted at different pressures, pH ranges and temperatures. Flowrate was about 300 l/h. The flux decreased with increasing pH. Highest rejections were obtained for all anionic and cationic ions in the pH range of 6.0-8.5. Several permeation runs were carried out for the pressure range of 6-12 bar for TFC-S and TFC-HR membranes. According to the Spiegler-Kedem model, the permeate flux (Jv) is linearly related to the applied hydraulic pressure (deltaP). Lp values were calculated by linear regression. Salt rejection was seen to increase with the increasing of operating pressure due to increase of solvent flux. Na+, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl- and SO4(-2) rejections and z1 and z2 constants have been determined and z values of cations were in the order of zMg > zCa > zNa and similarly those of anions were in the order of zSO4 > zCl. The Spiegler-Kedem model was able to correlate well the experimental data by fitting different best values of P and sigma, respectively for all ions. Best fit values of P and sigma were obtained by regression of the data according to the model.

  2. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates (United States)

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.


    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  3. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles. (United States)

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C


    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs.

  4. Study of using microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane technologies for reclaiming cooling water in the power industry. (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, Z Y; An, H G; Liu, L Q


    A study of using dual membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for reclaiming blowdown of the cooling tower was conducted at ZJK power plant, Hebei province, China. The study shows that the combined MF-RO system can effectively reduce water consumption in the power industry. The results indicate that MF process is capable of producing a filtrate suitable for RO treatment and achieving a silt density index (SDI) less than 2, turbidity of 0.2 NTU. The water quality of RO effluent is very good with an average conductivity of about 40 micros/cm and rejection of 98%. The product water is suitable for injection into the cooling tower to counteract with cooling water intrusion. After adopting this system, water-saving effectiveness as expressed in terms of cycles of concentration could be increased from 2.5-2.8 times to 5 times.

  5. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of liquid water with the explicit use of the SPC/E interatomic potential (United States)

    Pethes, Ildikó; Pusztai, László


    Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of liquid water, based on one neutron and one X-ray diffraction data set, applying also the most popular interatomic potential for water, extended simple point charge (SPC/E), has been performed. The strictly rigid geometry of SPC/E water molecules had to be loosened somewhat, in order to be able to produce a good fit to both sets of experimental data. In the final particle configurations, regularly shaped water molecules and straight hydrogen bonding angles were found to be consistent with diffraction results. It has been demonstrated that the explicit use of interatomic potentials in RMC has a role to play in future structural modeling of water and aqueous solutions.

  6. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 7. Performance Evaluation of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU): reverse Osmosis (RO) Components (United States)


    sieve theory of Schultz and Asunmaa; (5) the dynamic pore theory of Hoenn and co-workers; and (6) various water-clustering theories.46 The same general...globular structure. 46 This led to the barrier models of Schultz and Asunmaa, and Hoenn and co-workers. In the case of the Hoenn model, the 40 Volume 7

  7. TR-ESR Investigation on Reaction of Vitamin C with Excited Triplet of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in Reversed Micelle Solutions%维生素C对菲醌三重激发态的淬灭机理及动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新胜; 史蕾; 刘毅; 季学韩; 崔执凤


    Time-resolved electron spin resonance has been used to study quenching reactions between the antioxidant Vitamin C (VC) and the triplet excited states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PAQ) in ethylene glycol-water (EG-H2O) homogeneous and inhomogeneous reversed micelle solutions. Reversed micelle solutions were used to be the models of physiological environment of biological cell and tissue. In PAQ/EG-H2O homogeneous solution, the excited triplet of PAQ (3PAQ*) abstracts hydrogen atom from solvent EG. In PAQ/VC/EG-H2O solution,3PAQ* abstracts hydrogen atom not only from solvent EG but also from VC. The quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is close to the diffusion-controlled value of 1.41 × 108 L/(mol.s).In hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/EG-H2O and aerosol OT (AOT)/EGH2O reversed micelle solutions; 3PAQ* and VC react around the water-oil interface of the reversed micelle. Exit of 3PAQ* from the lipid phase slows down the quenching reaction.For Triton X-100 (TX-100)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solution, PAQ and VC coexist inside the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol core, and the quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is larger than those in AOT/EG-H2O and CTAB/EG-H2O reversed micetle solutions, even a little larger than that in EG-H2O homogeneous solution. The strong emissive chemically induced dynamic electron polarization of As- resulted from the effective TM spin polarization transfer in hydrogen abstraction of 3PAQ* from VC.

  8. Dialysis water treated by reverse osmosis decreases the levels of C-reactive protein in uremic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé F.S.


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a major complication of chronic renal failure. Microinflammation is involved in atherogenesis and is associated with uremia and dialysis. The role of dialysate water contamination in inducing inflammation has been debated. Our aim was to study inflammatory markers in patients on chronic dialysis, before and 3 to 6 months after switching the water purification system from deionization to reverse osmosis. Patients had demographic, clinical and nutritional information collected and blood drawn for determination of albumin, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in both situations. Acceptable levels of water purity were less than 200 colony-forming units of bacteria and less than 1 ng/ml of endotoxin. Sixteen patients died. They had higher median CRP (26.6 vs 11.2 mg/dl, P = 0.007 and lower median albumin levels (3.1 vs 3.9 g/l, P < 0.05 compared to the 31 survivors. Eight patients were excluded because of obvious inflammatory conditions. From the 23 remaining patients (mean age ± SD: 51.3 ± 13.9 years, 18 had a decrease in CRP after the water treatment system was changed. Overall, median CRP was lower with reverse osmosis than with deionization (13.2 vs 4.5 mg/l, P = 0.022, N = 23. There was no difference in albumin, cytokines, subjective global evaluation, or clinical and biochemical parameters. In conclusion, uremic patients presented a clinically significant reduction in CRP levels when dialysate water purification system switched from deionization to reverse osmosis. It is possible that better water treatments induce less inflammation and eventually less atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Hydrogen production from inexhaustible supplies of fresh and salt water using microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Y.


    There is a tremendous source of entropic energy available from the salinity difference between river water and seawater, but this energy has yet to be efficiently captured and stored. Here we demonstrate that H(2) can be produced in a single process by capturing the salinity driven energy along with organic matter degradation using exoelectrogenic bacteria. Only five pairs of seawater and river water cells were sandwiched between an anode, containing exoelectrogenic bacteria, and a cathode, forming a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell. Exoelectrogens added an electrical potential from acetate oxidation and reduced the anode overpotential, while the reverse electrodialysis stack contributed 0.5-0.6 V at a salinity ratio (seawater:river water) of 50. The H(2) production rate increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m(3)-H(2)/m(3)-anolyte/day for seawater and river water flow rates ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 mL/ min. H(2) recovery, the ratio of electrons used for H(2) evolution to electrons released by substrate oxidation, ranged from 72% to 86%. Energy efficiencies, calculated from changes in salinities and the loss of organic matter, were 58% to 64%. By using a relatively small reverse electrodialysis stack (11 membranes), only ~1% of the produced energy was needed for pumping water. Although Pt was used on the cathode in these tests, additional tests with a nonprecious metal catalyst (MoS(2)) demonstrated H(2) production at a rate of 0.8 m(3)/m(3)/d and an energy efficiency of 51%. These results show that pure H(2) gas can efficiently be produced from virtually limitless supplies of seawater and river water, and biodegradable organic matter.

  10. Thermodynamics of the sorption of water-soluble vitamins in reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (United States)

    Chirkin, V. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Selemenev, V. F.


    The thermodynamics of the sorption of certain water-soluble vitamins on a C18 reverse phase from water-acetonitrile solutions of different compositions is studied. The thermodynamic characteristics of the investigated chromatographic systems are calculated. The dependences of standard molar enthalpy and changes in entropy when the sorbate transfers from the bulk solution to the surface layer on the concentration of the organic component in the mobile phase are analyzed. The boundaries for applying the main retention models describing the sorption of the investigated compounds are discussed.

  11. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bender


    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  12. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides in reclaimed water: Efficiency assessment of a microfiltration-reverse osmosis (MF-RO) pilot plant. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Ricart, Marta; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Guasch, Helena; Bonnineau, Chloe; Proia, Lorenzo; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià


    Water reuse is becoming a common practice in several areas in the world, particularly in those impacted by water scarcity driven by climate change and/or by rising human demand. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not able to efficiently remove many organic contaminants and pathogens, more advanced water treatment processes should be applied to WWTP effluents for water reclamation purposes. In this work, a pilot plant based on microfiltration (MF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was applied to the effluents of an urban WWTP. Both the WWTP and the pilot plant were investigated with regards to the removal of a group of relevant contaminants widely spread in the environment: 28 pharmaceuticals and 20 pesticides. The combined treatment by the MF-RO system was able to quantitatively remove the target micropollutants present in the WWTP effluents to values either in the low ng/L range or below limits of quantification. Monitoring of water quality of reclaimed water and water reclamation sources is equally necessary to design the most adequate treatment procedures aimed to water reuse for different needs.

  13. Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Yuan, Zhuliang; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)


    The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)-isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-benzene and SDS-carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) reverse micelles were analysized. The results revealed that the maximum rate of hydrogen production (R{sub m}) was also suitable to formulate the relationship between hydrogen-producing rate and hydrogen productivity in reverse micelles. (author)

  14. Study on Gaining Fresh Water by Small Scale Reverse Osmosis Membrane with Photovoltaic Energy from Brackish Water


    竹山, 光一


    Under frequent draughts and floods, many rainwater harvests as terraced paddy fields, dam− constructions, reservoirs, ponds, tanks, rivers and underground pools become more important. And the rapid urbanizations changed its water supply with much chlorine, which caused many water purifier users at home tap, and much drinkers of bottle water. And with many water treatments as by hollow fiber membrane, the final method for gaining freshwater becomes populous as desalination of clean sea water w...

  15. Water- and Temperature-Triggered Reversible Structural Transformation of Tetranuclear Cobalt(II) Cores Sandwiched by Polyoxometalates. (United States)

    Kuriyama, Yosuke; Kikukawa, Yuji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka


    Although stimuli-responsive structural transformations of inorganic materials have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use as functional switchable materials, multinuclear metal cores frequently suffer from unexpected dissociation of metal cations and/or irreversible transformations into infinite structures. In this study, we describe the successful demonstration of the water- and temperature-triggered reversible structural transformation between cubane- and planar-type tetranuclear Co(II) cores sandwiched by polyoxometalates. The arrangements and coordination geometries of the Co(II) cations were interconverted by simple hydration and dehydration, resulting in the manipulation of the magnetic and optical properties of these compounds. Moreover, this system showed unique thermochromism through temperature-dependent reversible structural interconversion.

  16. The Development of a Renewable-Energy-Driven Reverse Osmosis System for Water Desalination and Aquaculture Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clark C K Liu


    Water and energy are closely linked natural resources-the transportation, treatment, and distribution of water depends on low-cost energy;while power generation requires large volumes of water. Seawater desalination is a mature technology for increasing freshwater supply, but it is essentially a trade of energy for freshwater and is not a viable solution for regions where both water and energy are in short supply. This paper discusses the development and application of a renewable-energy-driven reverse osmosis (RO) system for water desalination and the treatment and reuse of aquaculture wastewater. The system consists of (1) a wind-driven pumping subsystem, (2) a pressure-driven RO membrane desalination subsystem, and (3) a solar-driven feedback control module. The results of the pilot experiments indicated that the system, operated under wind speeds of 3 m s-1 or higher, can be used for brackish water desalination by reducing the salinity of feedwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) of over 3 000 mg L-1 to product water or permeate with a TDS of 200 mg L-1 or less. Results of the pilot experiments also indicated that the system can remove up to 97%of the nitrogenous wastes from the fish pond effluent and can recover and reuse up to 56%of the freshwater supply for fish pond operation.

  17. Dielectric model and theoretical analysis of cationic reverse micellar solutions in CTAB/isooctane/n-hexanol/water systems. (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Zhao, Kongshuang


    Dielectric relaxation spectra of CTAB reverse micellar solutions, CTAB/isooctane/n-hexanol/water systems with different concentrations of CTAB and different water contents, were investigated in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. Two striking dielectric relaxations were observed at about 10(4) Hz and 10(5) Hz, respectively. Dielectric parameters were obtained by fitting the data using the Cole-Cole equation with two Cole-Cole dispersion terms and the electrode polarization term. These parameters show different variation with the increase of the concentration of CTAB or the water content. In order to explain the two relaxations systematically and obtain detailed information on the systems and the inner surface of the reverse micelles, an electrical model has been constituted. On the basis of this model, the low-frequency dielectric relaxation was interpreted by the radial diffusion of free counterions in the diffuse layer with Grosse model. For the high-frequency dielectric relaxation, Hanai theory and the corresponding analysis method were used to calculate the phase parameters of the constituent phases in these systems. The reasonable analysis results suggest that the high-frequency relaxation probably originated from the interfacial polarization. The structural and electrical information of the present systems were obtained from the phase parameters simultaneously.

  18. Nernst-Planck transport theory for (reverse) electrodialysis: II. Effect of water transport through ion-exchange membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Tedesco, M; Biesheuvel, P M


    Transport of water through ion-exchange membranes is of importance both for electrodialysis (ED) and reverse electrodialysis (RED). In this work, we extend our previous theory [J. Membrane Sci., 510, (2016) 370-381] and include water transport in a two-dimensional model for (R)ED. Following a Maxwell-Stefan (MS) approach, ions in the membrane have friction with the water, pore walls, and one another. We show that when ion-ion friction is neglected, the MS-approach is equivalent to the hydrodynamic theory proposed by Deen for nanofiltration. The model describes all fluxes of ions and water self-consistently as function of the driving forces. After validation against experimental data from literature for ED and RED, the model is also used to analyze single-pass seawater ED and RED with highly concentrated solutions. All fluxes and velocities of water and ions in the membranes are calculated, and the influence of water and coion leakage is investigated under different conditions.

  19. Highly and Stably Water Permeable Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes Doped with MIL-101 (Cr Nanoparticles for Reverse Osmosis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu


    Full Text Available A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF material-MIL-101 (Cr was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA layer on the polysulfone (PS ultrafiltration (UF support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability measurement and reverse osmosis (RO test. The porous structures of MIL-101 (Cr can establish direct water channels in the dense selective PA layer for water molecules to transport through quickly, leading to the increasing water permeance of membranes. With good compatibility between MIL-101 (Cr nanoparticles and the PA layer, the lab made TFN-MIL-101 (Cr membranes integrated tightly and showed a high NaCl salt rejection. MIL-101 (Cr nanoparticles increased water permeance to 2.2 L/m2·h·bar at 0.05 w/v % concentration, 44% higher than the undoped PA membranes; meanwhile, the NaCl rejection remained higher than 99%. This study experimentally verified the potential use of MIL-101 (Cr in advanced TFN RO membranes, which can be used in the diversified water purification field.

  20. Formation of reverse micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide and its thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhen; DANG Zhi; ZONG Minhua; ZHU Zhixin


    The solubilization behavior of methyl orange as a solvation probe in multiple systems composed of supercritical carbon dioxide,surfactants and co-solvents,is studied.It is coneluded that some surfactants,such as sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate(AOT)and isooctyl phenol polyethoxylate (TX-10),could form reverse micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide under the action of butanol.The formation of reverse micelles is a spontaneous process thermodynamically.Specifically for the nonionic surfactant TX-10,the formation of reverse micelles is dependent on the entropy increase in the system,while for the anionic surfactant AOT,the micellization is mainly dominated by the increase in enthalpy at higher temperatures,but by the increase in entropy at lower temperatures.

  1. Reverse micelles extraction of nattokinase: From model system to real system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme, which is homologous to Subtilisin Carlsberg. In this paper, Subtilisin Carlsberg was taken as a model protein of nattokinase. Effects of pH, ionic strength, concentration of isopropanol on the extraction of Subtilisin Carlsberg with AOT/isooctane reverse micelles system were investigated. Further, the process of reverse micelles extraction of nattokinase from fermentation broth was studied. By taking the reverse micelles of AOT/isooctane as extractant to perform a full extraction cycle, it was found that about eighty percent of the total activity of nattokinase in the fermentation broth could be recovered and the purification factor was about 2.5. Homologous protein could be reasonably used as model protein of a target protein.

  2. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre


    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling. PMID:27376337

  3. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Blandin


    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants, FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  4. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R D; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre


    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  5. Local viscosity and solvent relaxation experienced by rod-like fluorophores in AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene organogels (United States)

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata


    Organogels prepared from AOT/4-chlorophenol/m-xylene are immobile in the macroscopic sense, with a well-characterized internal structure. However, the molecular level dynamics inside the gels is not too clear, although a very slow structural relaxation has been reported previously. Using a set of rod-like fluorophores, we find that the rotational mobility of a small guest molecule inside the gel can be extremely fast, indicating presence of sufficiently low-microviscosity domains. These domains consist of m-xylene solvent molecules trapped in the interstices of fiber bundles comprising columnar stacks of 4-chlorophenol surrounded by AOT molecules. However, interstitial trapping of m-xylene does retard its own dynamics, which explains the slow solvent relaxation inside the gels. Hence, the state of m-xylene in the organogel may be characterized as "bound", in contrast to the "free" state in neat m-xylene.

  6. Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Film- And Membrane-Based Photocatalysis For Water Treatment (United States)

    Titanium Oxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, one of the ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness ...

  7. Comparing concentration-based (AOT40) and stomatal uptake (PODY) metrics for ozone risk assessment to European forests. (United States)

    Anav, Alessandro; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Alessandri, Andrea; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Cionni, Irene; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Paoletti, Elena; Sicard, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Vitale, Marcello


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) produces harmful effects to forests and crops, leading to a reduction of land carbon assimilation that, consequently, influences the land sink and the crop yield production. To assess the potential negative O3 impacts to vegetation, the European Union uses the Accumulated Ozone over Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). This index has been chosen for its simplicity and flexibility in handling different ecosystems as well as for its linear relationships with yield or biomass loss. However, AOT40 does not give any information on the physiological O3 uptake into the leaves since it does not include any environmental constraints to O3 uptake through stomata. Therefore, an index based on stomatal O3 uptake (i.e. PODY), which describes the amount of O3 entering into the leaves, would be more appropriate. Specifically, the PODY metric considers the effects of multiple climatic factors, vegetation characteristics and local and phenological inputs rather than the only atmospheric O3 concentration. For this reason, the use of PODY in the O3 risk assessment for vegetation is becoming recommended. We compare different potential O3 risk assessments based on two methodologies (i.e. AOT40 and stomatal O3 uptake) using a framework of mesoscale models that produces hourly meteorological and O3 data at high spatial resolution (12 km) over Europe for the time period 2000-2005. Results indicate a remarkable spatial and temporal inconsistency between the two indices, suggesting that a new definition of European legislative standard is needed in the near future. Besides, our risk assessment based on AOT40 shows a good consistency compared to both in-situ data and other model-based datasets. Conversely, risk assessment based on stomatal O3 uptake shows different spatial patterns compared to other model-based datasets. This strong inconsistency can be likely related to a different vegetation cover and its associated parameterizations.

  8. The influence of water flow (reversal) on bond strength development in young masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Larbi, J.


    Water loss from the fresh mortar is believed to be related to mortar-brick bond strength development in masonry. Recent research on mortar-brick bond has shown that, particularly, effects of water flow on the composition and the hydration conditions of the mortar-brick interface have to be taken int

  9. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis. (United States)

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I


    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources.

  10. Forward osmosis for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate from water reclamation: process performance and fouling control. (United States)

    Kazner, C; Jamil, S; Phuntsho, S; Shon, H K; Wintgens, T; Vigneswaran, S


    While high quality water reuse based on dual membrane filtration (membrane filtration or ultrafiltration, followed by reverse osmosis) is expected to be progressively applied, treatment and sustainable management of the produced reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) are still important issues. Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for maximising water recovery and further dewatering ROC so that zero liquid discharge is produced. Elevated concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds may act as potential foulants of the concentrate desalting system, in that they consist of, for example, FO and a subsequent crystallizer. The present study investigated conditions under which the FO system can serve as concentration phase with the focus on its fouling propensity using model foulants and real ROC. Bulk organics from ROC consisted mainly of humic acids (HA) and building blocks since wastewater-derived biopolymers were retained by membrane filtration or ultrafiltration. Organic fouling of the FO system by ROC-derived bulk organics was low. HA was only adsorbed moderately at about 7% of the initial concentration, causing a minor flux decline of about 2-4%. However, scaling was a major impediment to this process if not properly controlled, for instance by pH adjustment or softening.

  11. Biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes used in river water purification for drinking purposes: analysis of microbial populations. (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Iannelli, Renato; Modeo, Letizia; Bianchi, Veronica; Petroni, Giulio


    Biofouling in water treatment processes represents one of the most frequent causes of plant performance decline. Investigation of clogged membranes (reverse osmosis membranes, microfiltration membranes and ultrafiltration membranes) is generally performed on fresh membranes. In the present study, a multidisciplinary autopsy of a reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was conducted. The membrane, which was used in sulfate-rich river water purification for drinking purposes, had become inoperative after 6 months because of biofouling and was later stored for 18 months in dry conditions before analysis. SSU rRNA gene library construction, clone sequencing, T-RFLP, light microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to identify the microorganisms present on the membrane and possibly responsible for biofouling at the time of removal. The microorganisms were mainly represented by bacteria belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria and by a single protozoan species belonging to the Lobosea group. The microbiological analysis was interpreted in the context of the treatment plant operations to hypothesize as to the possible mechanisms used by microorganisms to enter the plant and colonize the ROM surface.

  12. Improved hydrogen production by coupled systems of hydrogenase negative photosynthetic bacteria and fermentative bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anita [Centre for Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Misra, Krishna [Indo-Russian Center for Bioinformatics, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad 211011 (India)


    Significant improvement in biological hydrogen production is achieved by the use of coupled bacterial cells in reverse micellar systems. Two coupled systems (a) Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009/Citrobacter Y19, and (b) Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1/Citrobacter Y19 bacteria have been immobilized separately in aqueous pool of the reverse micelles fabricated by various surfactants (AOT, CBAC and SDS) and apolar organic solvents (benzene and isooctane). The gene for uptake hydrogenase enzyme has been manipulated further for hydrogen generation. Mutants deficient in uptake hydrogenase (Hup{sup -}) were obtained from R. palustris CGA009 and R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, and entrapped with Citrobacter Y19 in the reverse micellar systems. More than two fold increase in hydrogen production was obtained by the use of Hup{sup -} mutants instead of wild-type photosynthetic bacteria together with Citrobacter Y19. Addition of sodium dithionite, a reducing agent to AOT/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system with the coupled systems of wild-type photosynthetic bacteria and fermentative bacterium Y19 effected similar increase in hydrogen production rate as it is obtained by the use of mutants. CBAC/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system is used for the first time for hydrogen production and is as promising as AOT/H{sub 2}O/isooctane reverse micellar system. All reverse micellar systems of coupled bacterial cultures gave encouraging hydrogen production (rate as well as yield) compared to uncoupled bacterial culture. (author)

  13. Purification of firefighting water containing a fluorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to electrocoagulation-filtration


    Baudequin, Clement; Couallier, Estelle; Rakib, Mohammed; Deguerry, Isabelle; Severac, Romain; Pabon, Martial


    International audience; Extinguishments of large scale solvent fires produce large amounts of water that may contain various fluorinated surfactants depending on the type of fire fighting foam used. Due to their chemical nature, fluorinated parts of fl uorinated compounds are highly resistant to biochemical and advanced oxidation processes. Therefore the current treatment for the degradation of fluorinated surfactant from water used in fire extinguishment is high temperature incineration of t...

  14. Simultaneous Hydrogen Sulphide and Carbon Dioxide Removal from Biogas by Water-Swollen Reverse Osmosis Membrane


    Dolejš, P. (Petr); Poštulka, V. (Václav); Sedláková, Z. (Zuzana); Jandová, V. (Věra); Vejražka, J. (Jiří); Esposito, E.; Jansen, J.C.; Izák, P. (Pavel)


    Biogas is a suitable alternative fuel if unwanted impurities are removed to avoid corrosion of the inner parts of an engine. A recent breakthrough in biogas purification showed that a thin hydrophilic composite membrane can create the selective water swollen barrier able to remove unwanted sour gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide owing to significantly higher water solubility of the latter in comparison to methane. This work presents the use of water–swollen membranes for the...

  15. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source. (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F


    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation.

  16. Pilot-Scale Investigation of Forward/Reverse Osmosis Hybrid System for Seawater Desalination Using Impaired Water from Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ali


    Full Text Available This paper was focused on the investigation of a forward osmosis- (FO- reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process to cotreat seawater and impaired water from steel industry. By using this hybrid process, seawater can be diluted before desalination, hence reducing the energy cost of desalination, and simultaneously contaminants present in the impaired water are prevented from migrating into the product water through the FO and RO membranes. The main objective of this work was to investigate on pilot-scale system the performance of the combined FO pretreatment and RO desalination hybrid system and specifically its effects on membrane fouling and overall solute rejection. Firstly, optimization of the pilot-scale FO process to obtain the most suitable and stable operating conditions for practical application was investigated. Secondly, pilot-scale RO process performance as a posttreatment to FO process was evaluated in terms of water flux and rejection. The results indicated that the salinity of seawater reduced from 35000 to 13000 mg/L after 3 hrs using FO system, while after 6 hrs it approached 10000 mg/L. Finally, FO/RO system was tested on continuous operation for 15 hrs and it was demonstrated that no pollutant was detected neither in draw solution nor in RO permeate after the end of operating time.

  17. Determination of UV active inorganic anions in potable and high salinity water by ion pair reversed phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Sadiq Khan, Sadaf; Riaz, M


    Reversed phase column was dynamically modified into anion exchange column using various types of tetraalkylammonium salts as ion pair reagents (IPRs) for the separation and quantification of toxic anions such as nitrite, bromate, bromide and nitrate in potable and high salinity water. Various chromatographic parameters such as types and concentration of IPRs, concentration of organic modifier, phosphate buffer and mobile phase pH were optimized for the base-line separation of anions. The lowest detection limits (LDLs) were 0.2 for nitrate and nitrite, 0.6 µg ml(-1)for bromate and bromide respectively for potable water samples. NaCl and Na₂SO₄ were incorporated in the mobile phase for the analysis of high salinity water samples to minimize matrix interferences. This has resulted in change in elution order of anions, better tolerance of matrix anions such as chloride and sulphate. The developed method was successfully utilized for analysis of anions in potable, high salinity and sea water samples.

  18. Beads-on-String Structured Nanofibers for Smart and Reversible Oil/Water Separation with Outstanding Antifouling Property. (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Liu, Yang; Hu, Huawen; Guo, Yujuan; Ma, Kaikai; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H


    It is challenging to explore a unified solution for the treatment of oily wastewater from complex sources. Thus, membrane materials with flexible separation schemes are highly desired. Herein, we fabricated a smart membrane by electrospinning TiO2 doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers. The as-formed beads-on-string structure and hierarchical roughness of the nanofibers contribute to its superwetting/resisting property to liquids, which is desirable in oil/water separation. Switched simply by UV (or sunlight) irradiation and heating treatment, the smart membrane can realize reversible separation of oil/water mixtures by selectively allowing water or oil to pass through alone. Most importantly, the as-prepared nanofiber membrane possesses outstanding antifouling and self-cleaning performance resulting from the photocatalytic property of TiO2, which has practical significance in saving solvents and recycling materials. This work provides a route for fabricating cost-effective, easily scaled up, and recyclable membranes for on-demand oil/water separation in versatile situations, which can be of great usage in the new green separation technology.

  19. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  20. Dye-sensitized photo-oxidation of amino acids in reversed micellar membrane mimetic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑波; 张复实; 赵瑜; 赵福群; 唐应武; 宋心琦


    The photochemistry of a novel photosensitizer H[TBC(O’Pr)4P(OH)],and the photo-oxidation of amino acids sensitized by H[TBC(OiPr)4P(OH)] have been investigated in the AOT/H2O/toluene reversed micellar system.Absorption and fluorescence measurements indicate that H[TBC(O’Pr)4P(OH)] can interact with the re versed micelles by adsorption to the micellar surface,resulting in the disaggregation of the sensitizer and the enhance ment of its photoactivity.In micellar solutions,H[TBC(O’Pr)4P(OH)] can efficiently photo-generate O2(Type Ⅱ mechanism) and O2(Type Ⅰ mechanism) as shown by stationary photolysis and ESR spin-trapping techniques Amino acids dissolved in water pools of reversed micelles can be photo-oxidized via Type Ⅱ mechanism as sensitized by H[TBC(O’Pr)4P(OH)].The photo-oxidation of tryptophan follows the first-order kinetics,while that of tyrosine is much slower.Kinetic studies of the photodynamic behavior in this microheterogeneous system shows that the micro-heterogeneity can alter the mechani

  1. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source (United States)

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating NOM with min...

  2. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling. (United States)

    Ayache, C; Manes, C; Pidou, M; Croué, J P; Gernjak, W


    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal.

  3. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.


    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The influence to reverse osmosis of the chemical characteristics of water%水化学对反渗透的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晨; 张晓辉


    I t is importment of the chemical characteristics of water for applying and designing of reverse osmosis I t will be failed when you design and operate reverse osmosisifyou unknown thewater chemical%水的化学特性对反渗透的设计和应用非常重要,不了解水化学将会导致反渗透设计和运行的失败。

  5. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices (United States)


    Insalaco, J.M.; Neuendorff, L.K.; Bevilacqua, V.L.H.; Schenning, A.M.; Reilly, L.M.; Shah , S.S.; Conley, E.K.; Emanuel, P.A.; Zulich, A.W. Evaluation of...mLs of digestate used in the dilution Vb = volume in mLs of acidified blank water used in the dilution Vf = final volume in mLs of diluted

  6. Stronger sexual selection in warmer waters: the case of a sex role reversed pipefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M Monteiro

    Full Text Available In order to answer broader questions about sexual selection, one needs to measure selection on a wide array of phenotypic traits, simultaneously through space and time. Nevertheless, studies that simultaneously address temporal and spatial variation in reproduction are scarce. Here, we aimed to investigate the reproductive dynamics of a cold-water pipefish simultaneously through time (encompassing variation within each breeding cycle and as individuals grow and space (by contrasting populations experiencing distinct water temperature regimes in order to test hypothesized differences in sexual selection. Even though the sampled populations inhabited locations with very different water temperature regimes, they exhibited considerable similarities in reproductive parameters. The most striking was the existence of a well-defined substructure in reproductive activity, where larger individuals reproduce for longer periods, which seemed dependent on a high temperature threshold for breeding rather than on the low temperatures that vary heavily according to latitude. Furthermore, the perceived disparities among populations, such as size at first reproduction, female reproductive investment, or degree of sexual size dimorphism, seemed dependent on the interplay between seawater temperature and the operational sex ratio (OSR. Contrary to our expectations of an enhanced opportunity for sexual selection in the north, we found the opposite: higher female reproductive investment coupled with increased sexual size dimorphism in warmer waters, implying that a prolonged breeding season does not necessarily translate into reduced sexual selection pressure. In fact, if the limited sex has the ability to reproduce either continuously or recurrently during the entire breeding season, an increased opportunity for sexual selection might arise from the need to compete for available partners under strongly biased OSRs across protracted breeding seasons. A more general

  7. An open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shaobo [Guangdong Ocean University, College of Engineering, East Jiefang Rd. No. 40, Xiashan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524006 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhang, Hefei [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)


    This paper presents an open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water, and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used to analyze the cooling of the wet air after compressor and the water used for cooling wet air after compressor. Its refrigeration depends mainly on the sensible heat of air and the latent heat of water vapor, its performance is more efficient than a conventional air-cycle, and the utilization of turbo-machinery makes it possible. The adoption of this cycle will make deep freeze easily and reduce initial cost because very low temperature, about -55 C, air is obtained. The sensitivity analysis of coefficient of performance to the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and the results of the cycle are also given. The simulation results show that the COP of this system depends on the temperature before turbine, the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and varies with the wet bulb temperature of the outdoor air. Humid air is a perfect working fluid for deep freeze with no cost to the user. (author)

  8. Culturable bacterial diversity from a feed water of a reverse osmosis system, evaluation of biofilm formation and biocontrol using phages. (United States)

    Belgini, D R B; Dias, R S; Siqueira, V M; Valadares, L A B; Albanese, J M; Souza, R S; Torres, A P R; Sousa, M P; Silva, C C; De Paula, S O; Oliveira, V M


    Biofilm formation on reverse osmosis (RO) systems represents a drawback in the application of this technology by different industries, including oil refineries. In RO systems the feed water maybe a source of microbial contamination and thus contributes for the formation of biofilm and consequent biofouling. In this study the planktonic culturable bacterial community was characterized from a feed water of a RO system and their capacities were evaluated to form biofilm in vitro. Bacterial motility and biofilm control were also analysed using phages. As results, diverse Protobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified. Alphaproteobacteria was the predominant group and Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium the most abundant genera. Among the 30 isolates, 11 showed at least one type of motility and 11 were classified as good biofilm formers. Additionally, the influence of non-specific bacteriophage in the bacterial biofilms formed in vitro was investigated by action of phages enzymes or phage infection. The vB_AspP-UFV1 (Podoviridae) interfered in biofilm formation of most tested bacteria and may represent a good alternative in biofilm control. These findings provide important information about the bacterial community from the feed water of a RO system that may be used for the development of strategies for biofilm prevention and control in such systems.

  9. 反渗透系统浓水回收利用方案介绍%Introduction of Concentrated Water Recycling Scheme in Reverse Osmosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The application of reverse osmosis system in painting industry and several condense water treatment of reverse osmosis system technology which used broadly in home and abroad were briefly introduced. The recycling using situation of the condense water in reverse osmosis system was introduced, the status was analyzed and the recycling using of the condense water was proposed too.%简要介绍反渗透技术在涂装行业的应用及国内外目前使用较多的几种反渗透系统浓水处置方法,说明当前反渗透系统浓水回收利用情况,分析并提出浓水回收利用方案。

  10. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower. (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C


    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m(-2) current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min(-1) constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  11. Thermal reversible gelation during phase separation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)/water solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾钫[1; 刘新星[2; 童真[3; 杨燕银[4; 吴水珠[5


    By dynamic viscoelastic measurement for PNIPAM/water solution it has been found that below the phase separation temperature (about 32 ℃), the system is homogeneous fluid; while upon being heated to about 32 ℃, the solution undergoes phase separation and the storage modulus G’ increases sharply and exceeds the loss modulus G", indicating the physical network formation during the phase separation. Based on the percolation model, the gel points Tgel, were obtained by applying the dynamic scaling theory (DST) and winter’s criterion. The critical exponent n was also obtained to be 0.79 through DST, which is different from 0.67, the critical point of chemically crosslinked network predicted through DST. The obtained n value reflects the special property of physical network being different from chemical network.

  12. Thermal reversible gelation during phase separation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)/water solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By dynamic viscoelastic measurement for PNIPAM/water solution it has been found that below the phase separation temperature (about 32℃), the system is homogeneous fluid; while upon being heated to about 32℃, the solution undergoes phase separation and the storage modulus G′ increases sharply and exceeds the loss modulus G″, indicating the physical network formation during the phase separation. Based on the percolation model, the gel points Tgel were obtained by applying the dynamic scaling theory (DST) and Winter's criterion. The critical exponent n was also obtained to be 0.79 through DST, which is different from 0.67, the critical point of chemically crosslinked network predicted through DST. The obtained n value reflects the special property of physical network being different from chemical network.

  13. Reversible Covalent and Supramolecular Functionalization of Water-Soluble Gold(I) Complexes. (United States)

    Kemper, Benedict; von Gröning, Maximilian; Lewe, Vanessa; Spitzer, Daniel; Otremba, Tobias; Stergiou, Natascha; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Schmitt, Edgar; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Besenius, Pol


    The ligation of gold(I) metalloamphiphiles with biomolecules is reported, using water-soluble Au(I) -N-alkynyl substituted maleimide complexes. For this purpose, two different polar ligands were applied: 1) a neutral, dendritic tetraethylene glycol-functionalized phosphane and 2) a charged, sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). The retro Diels-Alder reaction of a furan-protected maleimide gold(I) complex, followed by cycloaddition with a diene-functionalized biotin under mild conditions leads to a novel gold(I) metalloamphiphile. The strong streptavidin-biotin binding affinity in buffered aqueous solution of the resulting biotin alkynyl gold(I) phosphane conjugate remains intact. The cytotoxicity of the biotinylated gold(I) complex against a T47D human breast cancer cell line is higher than for cisplatin.

  14. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong


    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  15. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study. (United States)

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U


    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of different microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes used as pretreatment for Red Sea water reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir


    Conventional processes are widely used as pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology since its development. However, these processes require a large footprint and have some limitation issues such as difficulty to maintain a consistent silt density index, coagulation control at low total suspended solids, and management of higher waste sludge. Recently, there has been a rapid growth in the use of low-pressure membranes as pretreatment for RO systems replacing the conventional processes. However, despite the numerous advantages of using this integrated membrane system mainly providing good and stable water quality to RO membranes, many issues have to be addressed. The primary limitation is membrane fouling which reduces the permeate flux; therefore, higher pumping intensity is required to maintain a consistent volume of product. This paper aims to optimize the permeation flux and cleaning frequency by providing high permeate quality. Different low-pressure polyethersulfone membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 0.1 lm to 50 kDa were tested. Eight different filtration configurations have been applied including the variation of coagulant doses aiming to control membrane fouling. Results showed that all the configurations with/without coagulation, provided permeate with excellent water quality which improves the stability of RO performance. However, more stable fluxes with less-energy consumption were achieved by using the 0.1 lm and 100 kDa membranes with 1 mg/L FeCl3 coagulation. The use of UF membranes, having tight pores, without coagulation also proved to be an excellent option for Red Sea water RO pretreatment. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  17. Forward Osmosis/Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis for Water Reuse: Removal of Organic Micropollutants, Fouling and Cleaning

    KAUST Repository

    Linares, Rodrigo


    Forward osmosis (FO) is a natural process in which a solution with high concentration of solutes is diluted when being in contact, through a semipermeable membrane, with a low concentration solution. This osmotic process has been demonstrated to be efficient to recover wastewater effluents while diluting a saline draw solution. Nevertheless, the study of the removal of micropollutants by FO is barely described in the literature. This research focuses on the removal of these substances spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, while diluting water from the Red Sea, generating feed water that can be desalinated with a low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) system. Another goal of this work is to characterize the fouling of the FO membrane, and its effect on micropollutants rejection, as well as the membrane cleaning efficiency of different methods. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% to 95.2%, 48.7% to 91.5% and 96.9% to 98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the surface, related to the foulants. However, when coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis, the rejections for both, the clean and fouled membrane, increased above 98%. The fouling layer, after characterizing the wastewater effluent and the concentrated wastewater after the FO process, proved to be composed of biopolymers, which can be removed with air scouring during short periods

  18. Molecular characterization of the bacterial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale reverse-osmosis water purification plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Nederlof, M.M.; Loosdracht, van M.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.


    The origin, structure, and composition of biofilms in various compartments of an industrial full-scale reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular biological methods. Samples were taken when the RO installation suffered from a substantial pressure drop and decre

  19. Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Nederlof, M.M.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Stams, A.J.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.


    The origin, structure, and composition of biofilms in various compartments of an industrial full-scale reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular biological methods. Samples were taken when the RO installation suffered from a substantial pressure drop and decre

  20. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.


    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…


    Chemical Analysis of Reverse Osmosis Membrane and XAD Resin Adsorption Concentrates of Water Disinfected by Chlorination or Ozonation/Chlorination Processes.J. E. Simmons1, S.D. Richardson2, K.M. Schenck3, T. F. Speth3, R. J. Miltner3 and A. D. Thruston21 NHEE...

  2. 全自动在线血透水处理系统的设计%Design of automatic reverse osmosis water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昕路; 顾伟新


    Objective:To design automatic reverse osmosis water system with new design idea of reverse osmosis water system, to make sure of the procedure. Methods:During the design, using microcomputer technology to control water preparation and disinfection. Results:Using MCU to control preparation of water and disinfection, in order to monitor water quality. If water quality exceeds the standard, the system will alarm and generate records. Conclusion: Using microcomputer technology to design Reverse osmosis water system, not only reducing artificial, but also to improve the safety and controllability, even the quality control of reverse osmosis water system.%目的:运用全新的水处理系统的设计思想,设计全自动血透水处理系统,确定水处理工艺流程。方法:在设计水处理过程中,应用单片机技术,对水处理系统的制水和消毒过程进行实时控制。结果:利用单片机技术在制水和消毒过程中,控制水处理系统,实时监控各个水质指标。当指标超标时系统自动报警并生成记录。结论:将单片机技术应用到水处理系统中,不仅降低了人工损耗,也提高了系统的安全性和可控性,同时对水处理系统进行质量控制。

  3. Feedwater production from river water with ion exchange and reverse osmosis. 10 years operation experience; Kesselspeisewasser-Erzeugung aus Flusswasser durch Ionenaustausch und Umkehrosmose. 10 Jahre Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasel-Nielen, J.; Kluge, H. [InfraServ GmbH und Co. Hoechst KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    Since november 1988 the InfaServ Hoechst KG in Frankfurt am Main processes river water to be used as desalinated feedwater for high pressure steam boilers. Main purposes for the use of reverse osmosis were the reduction of waste water for regeneration and separation of organics contributing to boiler corrosion. Development of a new low pressure membrane reduced the energy demand. Biofouling proofed to be a main problem. Performance and cost are shown.

  4. Fast atmospheric correction algorithm based on the darkest pixel approach for retrieving the aerosol optical thickness: comparison with in-situ AOT measurements (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Alexakis, Dimitrios


    Darkest pixel atmospheric correction is the simplest and fully image-based correction method. This paper presents an overview of a proposed 'fast atmospheric correction algorithm' developed at MATLAB based on the RT equation basics and the darkest pixel approach. The task is to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the application of this atmospheric correction. The effectiveness of this algorithm is performed by comparing the AOT values from the algorithm with those measured in-situ both from MICROTOPS II hand-held sunphotometer and the CIMEL sunphotometer (AERONET).

  5. Synthesizing Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil and Methyl Acetate with Lipase Catalyst in Reverse Micelle System%反胶束体系中脂肪酶催化乙酸甲酯与棉籽油合成生物柴油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晓旭; 李芳芳; 龚春霞; 高剑峰


    The synthesis of biodiesel from cottonseed oil and methyl acetate catalyzed by free lipase in bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate(AOT) reverse micellar systems was studied.The effects of the concentration of AOT,mass ratio of water to AOT(ξ0),lipase dosage,buffer pH,n(methyl acetate):n(cottonseed oil),reaction temperature and rotating speed on the synthesis were investigated.Single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments were carried out to optimize the reaction conditions.The yield of fatty acid methyl ester can reach 65.53% under the optimal conditions of ξ0 7,AOT concentration 40 mmol/L,lipase dosage 10 mg(solution volume 2.5 mL),buffer pH 7,n(dimethyl carbonate):n(cottonseed oil) 3,reaction temperature 35 ℃ and rotating speed 160 r/min.The effects of the conditions arrange in order of buffer pH>reaction temperature>n(methyl acetate):n(cottonseed oil)>lipase dosage> AOT concentration >rotating speed>ξ0.The stability of the lipase with methyl acetate as a receptor is better than those with methanol and dimethyl carbonate.%在丁二酸二酯磺酸钠(AOT)反胶束体系中,采用游离脂肪酶催化棉籽油与乙酸甲酯反应制备生物柴油.考察了AOT浓度、水与AOT的质量比(ζ0)、脂肪酶用量、缓冲溶液pH、乙酸甲酯与棉籽油的摩尔比(r)、反应温度、摇床转速等因素对脂肪酶催化合成生物柴油的影响,并考察了脂肪酶的重复使用性能.经单因素实验及正交实验,得出优化的反应条件:AOT浓度40 mmol/L,ζ0=7,脂肪酶用量10 mg(溶液体积为2.5 mL),缓冲溶液pH=7,r=3,反应温度35℃,摇床转速160 r/min.在优化的反应条件下,产物脂肪酸甲酯的单程收率最高可达65.53%.酯交换制备生物柴油的影响因素大小依次为:缓冲溶液pH>反应温度>r>脂肪酶用量>AOT浓度>摇床转速>ζ0.与甲醇和碳酸二甲酯作为酰基受体相比,乙酸甲酯为酰基受体时脂肪酶的稳定性较好.

  6. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent. (United States)

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  7. Aquifer composition and the tendency toward scale-deposit formation during reverse osmosis desalination - Examples from saline ground water in New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Huff, G.F.


    Desalination is expected to make a substantial contribution to water supply in the United States by 2020. Currently, reverse osmosis is one of the most cost effective and widely used desalination technologies. The tendency to form scale deposits during reverse osmosis is an important factor in determining the suitability of input waters for use in desalination. The tendency toward scale formation of samples of saline ground water from selected geologic units in New Mexico was assessed using simulated evaporation. All saline water samples showed a strong tendency to form CaCO3 scale deposits. Saline ground water samples from the Yeso Formation and the San Andres Limestone showed relatively stronger tendencies to form CaSO4 2H2O scale deposits and relatively weaker tendencies to form SiO2(a) scale deposits than saline ground water samples from the Rio Grande alluvium. Tendencies toward scale formation in saline ground water samples from the Dockum Group were highly variable. The tendencies toward scale formation of saline waters from the Yeso Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Rio Grande alluvium appear to correlate with the mineralogical composition of the geologic units, suggesting that scale-forming tendencies are governed by aquifer composition and water-rock interaction. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.


    Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

  9. Chemical Cleaning Analysis of Concentrated Water Reverse Osmosis Membrane%浓水反渗透膜元件化学清洗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀美萍; 沈洪洋; 郭伟


    RO membrane fouling can cause system performance degradation, component of pressure difference between inlet and outlet, the increase of membrane components replacement. Periodic cleaning for the membrane is effective way to ensure the normal system operation and extend service life of elements of. Through analysis to the reason of concentrated reverse osmosis water system pollution, this article introduces the cleaning of reverse osmosis membrane method, and through two chemical cleaning data of dense water reverse osmosis system, it puts forward the optimal operation measures for concentrated water reverse osmosis system.%反渗透膜的污染会造成系统性能的下降、组件进出口压差的升高、膜元件的更换等。对膜进行定期的清洗是保证反渗透系统的正常运行、延长膜元件使用寿命的有效途径。通过对浓水反渗透系统污染原因的解读分析,讨论了反渗透膜清洗的方法,通过对浓水反渗透系统两次化学清洗数据进行对比分析,提出浓水反渗透系统优化运行的相关措施。

  10. Reverse osmosis, the solution for producing steam from highly saline water; Osmosis inversa, la solucion para la produccion de vapor con aguas de alta salinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujadas, A.


    Based on an exhaustive description of a particular example, the costs of installing an implementing various water treatment solutions for feeding a steam boiler are examined. When the characteristics of the water available indicate that it has a high saline content, i is possible to demonstrate the enormous technical, economic and environmental advantages of reducing its saline level by a system of reverse osmosis compared to the classical ion exchange resins. A list is given of the features to be taken into account in defining the equipment involved in treating the water for feeding steam boilers. (Author)

  11. Ferroelectric switchable behavior through fast reversible de/adsorption of water spirals in a chiral 3D metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Yan; Li, Bo; Ma, Bin-Bin; Li, Shi-Jun; Dong, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Song, You; Hou, Hong-Wei; Mak, Thomas C W


    A polar homochiral 3D MOF [{Co2(L)(bpe)(H2O)}·5H2O]n constructed with cobalt(II) and a new ligand N-(1,3-dicarboxy-5-benzyl)-carboxymethylglycine (H4L) accommodates ordered helical water streams in its helical grooves. It provides the first example of switchable ferroelectric and optical behavior through two-step reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation (SCSC) upon desorption/adsorption of water spirals and coordinated water molecules, respectively.

  12. Photoreactive surfactants: a facile and clean route to oxide and metal nanoparticles in reverse micelles. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo J; Brown, Paul; Correia, Gemima B; Rogers, Sarah E; Heenan, Richard; Grillo, Isabelle; Galembeck, André; Eastoe, Julian


    A new class of photoreactive surfactants (PRSs) is presented here, consisting of amphiphiles that can also act as reagents in photochemical reactions. An example PRS is cobalt 2-ethylhexanoate (Co(EH)(2)), which forms reverse micelles (RMs) in a hydrocarbon solvent, as well as mixed reversed micelles with the standard surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that mixed AOT/PRS RMs have a spherical structure and size similar to that of pure AOT micelles. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) band in the PRSs promotes electron transfer from PRS to associated metal counterions, leading to the generation of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles inside the RMs. This work presents proof of concept for employing PRSs as precursors to obtain nearly monodisperse inorganic nanoparticles: here both Co(3)O(4) and Bi nanoparticles have been synthesized at high metal concentration (10(-2) M) by simply irradiating the RMs. These results point toward a new approach of photoreactive self-assembly, which represents a clean and straightforward route to the generation of nanomaterials.

  13. A Pilot-scale Demonstration of Reverse Osmosis Unit for Treatment of Coal-bed Methane Co-produced Water and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱智; 刘新春; 余志晟; 张洪勋; 琚宜文


    This study presents the first demonstration project in China for treatment of coal-bed methane(CBM) co-produced water and recycling.The work aims to provide a research and innovation base for solving the pollution problem of CBM extraction water.The reverse osmosis(RO) unit is applied to the treatment of CBM co-produced water.The results indicate that system operation is stable,the removal efficiency of the total dissolved solids(TDS) is as high as 97.98%,and Fe,Mn,and F-are almost completely removed.There is no suspended solids(SS) detected in the treated water.Furthermore,a model for the RO membrane separation process is developed to describe the quantitative relationship between key physical quantities-membrane length,flow velocity,salt concentration,driving pressure and water recovery rate,and the water recovery restriction equation based on mass balance is developed.This model provides a theoretical support for the RO system design and optimization.The TDS in the CBM co-produced water are removed to meet the "drinking water standards" and "groundwater quality standards" of China and can be used as drinking water,irrigation water,and livestock watering.In addition,the cost for treatment of CBM co-produced water is assessed,and the RO technology is an efficient and cost-effective treatment method to remove pollutants.

  14. Reverse Logistics


    Kulikova, Olga


    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  15. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties (United States)

    Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Buu, Ngo Quoc; Viet Quang, Dang; Thi Ha, Huynh; Bang, Le Anh; Hoai Chau, Nguyen; Thi Ly, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu


    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO3 was used as a silver ions source, NaBH4 and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles (phiav ~ 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  16. A Novelγ-Alumina Supported Fe-Mo Bimetallic Catalyst for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati; Mohammad Ali Takassi


    In reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction CO2 is converted to CO which in turn can be used to pro-duce beneficial chemicals such as methanol. In the present study, Mo/Al2O3, Fe/Al2O3 and Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts were synthesised using impregnation method. The structures of catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CO chemisorption, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Kinetic properties of all catalysts were investigated in a batch re-actor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that Mo existence in structure of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity as compared to Fe/Al2O3. This enhancement is probably due to better Fe dispersion and smaller particle size of Fe species. Stability test of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO yield for 60 h of time on stream was demonstrated. Fe2(MoO4)3 phase was found in the structures of fresh and used catalysts. TPR results also indicate that Fe2(MoO4)3 phase has low reducibility, therefore the Fe2(MoO4)3 phase significantly inhibits the reduction of the remaining Fe oxides in the catalyst, resulted in high stability of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. Overall, this study introduces Fe-Mo/Al2O3 as a novel catalyst with high CO yield, almost no by-products and fairly stable for RWGS reaction.

  17. Single-crystalline organic-inorganic layered cobalt hydroxide nanofibers: facile synthesis, characterization, and reversible water-induced structural conversion. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodi; Wang, Lianying; Yue, Shuang; Wang, Dongyang; Lu, Yanluo; Song, Yufei; He, Jing


    New pink organic-inorganic layered cobalt hydroxide nanofibers intercalated with benzoate ions [Co(OH)(C6H5COO)·H2O] have been synthesized by using cobalt nitrate and sodium benzoate as reactants in water with no addition of organic solvent or surfactant. The high-purity nanofibers are single-crystalline in nature and very uniform in size with a diameter of about 100 nm and variable lengths over a wide range from 200 μm down to 2 μm by simply adjusting reactant concentrations. The as-synthesized products are well-characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transforms (FFT), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis). Our results demonstrate that the structure consists of octahedral cobalt layers and the benzoate anions, which are arranged in a bilayer due to the π-π stacking of small aromatics. The carboxylate groups of benzoate anions are coordinated to Co(II) ions in a strong bridging mode, which is the driving force for the anisotropic growth of nanofibers. When NaOH is added during the synthesis, green irregular shaped platelets are obtained, in which the carboxylate groups of benzoate anions are coordinated to the Co(II) ions in a unidentate fashion. Interestingly, the nanofibers exhibit a reversible transformation of the coordination geometry of the Co(II) ions between octahedral and pseudotetrahedral with a concomitant color change between pink and blue, which involves the loss and reuptake of unusual weakly coordinated water molecules without destroying the structure. This work offers a facile, cost-effective, and green strategy to rationally design and synthesize functional nanomaterials for future applications in catalysis, magnetism

  18. Comparison of the Extraction Efficiencies of Two Reverse Micelle Systems for Hirudin%两种反胶束体系的水蛭素萃取效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方富永; 苗艳丽; 苏舒华; 宋文东; 黄甫; 陈绍红; 李世杰; 何燕君; 江海良


    . RESULTS The optimal conditions of the reverse micelle system of CTAB with n-octane as extraction solvent and distilled water as anti-extraction solvent were: extraction Ph of 10.0, anti-extraction Ph of 2.0, concentration of extractant NaBr of 30 mmol ? L-1, CTAB concentration of 85 mmol ? L-1, concentration of anti-extractant NaBr of 32 mmol ? L -1, temperature and stirring time for extraction and anti-extraction of 30 ℃ and 5 min, respectively. The optimal conditions of the reverse micelles system of AOT with isooctane as extraction solvent and distilled water as anti-extraction solvent were; extraction Ph of 2.0, anti-extraction Ph of 9.0, concentration of extractant KC1 of 26.5 mmol ? L-1, AOT concentration of 30 mmol ? L-1, concentration of anti-extractant KC1 of 27.5 mmol ? L -1, temperature for extraction and anti-extraction of 30 ℃, stirring time for the twp processes of 5 min and 9 min, respectively. The ATU back extraction rates of the two systems were 82.95% and 85.53% , respectively. The ATU back extraction rates of the two systems in the separation and purification of the crude extracts of hirudin were 80.70% and 82. 15%. The specific activities were 2 389. 54 and 2 459. 98 ATU ? Mg~', respectively. CONCLUSION The two reverse micelle extraction systems of hirudin show good results, in which the latter one is slightly better than the former.

  19. Solvation dynamics of coumarin 153 embedded in AOT + phenol organogels studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsura; Takata, Kei; Watanabe, Keiichi; Shigematsu, Hirotake


    We investigate solvation dynamics of organogel utilizing ps-ns fluorescence spectroscopy. The organogel studied in this Letter comprises bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and p-chlorophenol in the m-xylene solvent, that produce an organogel architecture with self-assembly. Within the organogel, an emitting probe, coumarin 153 (C153), is embedded. We then obtain dynamic response functions of solvation derived from the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of C153. We propose that total energy of the C153-organogel system relaxes with a relaxation time of 3.9 ns, whereas the entire rearrangement of the organogel structure around C153 is achieved with that of 6.1 ns, respectively.

  20. Study on technologies of forward extraction of protein from tomato by reverse micelles%反胶束溶液萃取番茄凝集素的前萃工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱澄云; 王岩; 赵琨; 韩国华; 徐璐; 黄小丽


    Objective To explore the possibility of extraction of tomato lectin by aerosol OT (AOT)isooctane reverse micelles system. Methods The effects of pH, AOT concentration, KC1 concentration on the forward extraction rate were investigated and analyzed. Results At the condition of KC1 concentration 50 mmol·L-1 ,AOT concentration 110 mmol·L-1 and pH 9.0 ,the forward protein extraction rate achieved 46. 51%. Conclusions It is possible to extract tomato lectin using reversed micelles of AOT-isooctane.%目的 探讨用丁二酸二异辛酯磺酸钠(aerosl OT,AOT)-异辛烷反胶束体系萃取番茄凝集素的可能性.方法 考察并分析了反胶束溶液萃取番茄凝集素时的几种因素如pH值、表面活性剂AOT的浓度、KC1的浓度等对蛋白前萃率的影响.结果 在KC1浓度为50 mmol·L-1、AOT浓度为110 mmol·L-1及pH值9.0条件下前萃取率为46.51%.结论 以AOT-异辛烷反胶束溶液萃取番茄凝集素是可行的.

  1. Effects of reverse osmosis preparation deionized water operation factors%影响反渗透制备脱离子水的运行因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 赵世伟; 夏鑫; 吕冰


    Reasons on effects of reverse osmosis preparation deionized water operation factors. Focusing analysis was proceeding, and the prevention measures were put forward.%介绍了影响反渗透装置制备脱离子水的运行因素并进行了有针对性的分析,提出了相应的预防措施。

  2. Reversible Thermoassociation of Water-Soluble Polymers Thermoassociation réversible de polymères hydrosolubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'alloret F.


    Full Text Available In various industrial fields, water soluble polymers are commonly used as thickening agents to control the reology of aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, their properties are weakened as the temperature increases. In order to overcome this problem, the concept of thermoassociativewater soluble polymers was developed. Such new amphilic systems can be obtained by grafting on an hydrophilic backbone, side chains which become non water soluble above a Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Semidilute solutions of these copolymers present reversible thickening properties as the temperature increases and reaches a critical value, close to the side chains LCST. This behaviour can be related to the agregation of the grafts above their LCST, into hydrophobic microdomains , inducing the formation of a three dimensional network. At higher temperature, the viscosity of the solution sheared at a constant rate reaches a maximum value. This can be interpreted in terms of the reorganisation of the physical network under shear, from a structure with mainly intermolecular associationsto a system with an increasing number of intramolecular associations . Owing to the diversity of water soluble polymers exhibiting a phase separation on heating (LCST, different thermoassociativecopolymers were realized [1] and [2], using either polyelectrolyte or neutral hydrophilic backbone. In the aim of applications of such systems in the oilfield industry, copolymers containing 2-acrylamido 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS were developed, using polyethylene oxide (PEO as LCST grafts. A general description of their rheological behaviour will be given here. Their properties can be controlled either by varying the solution characteristic (polymer concentration, salinity, etc. or by modifying the chemical structure of the copolymer (grafting ratio, molecular weight of the backbone, etc. . This rheological study showed the potentiality of the thermoassociativesystem, particularly

  3. Bioluminescence-based method for measuring assimilable organic carbon in pretreatment water for reverse osmosis membrane desalination. (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A; Schneider, Orren D; LeChevallier, Mark W


    A bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the biological growth potential of seawater within the reverse osmosis desalination pretreatment process. The test uses Vibrio harveyi, a marine organism that exhibits constitutive luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a full-scale desalination plant pretreatment.

  4. Comparison of interatomic potentials of water via structure factors reconstructed from simulated partial radial distribution functions: a reverse Monte Carlo based approach (United States)

    Steinczinger, Zsuzsanna; Jóvári, Pál; Pusztai, László


    Neutron- and x-ray weighted total structure factors of liquid water have been calculated on the basis of the intermolecular parts of partial radial distribution functions resulting from various computer simulations. The approach includes reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of these partials, using realistic flexible molecules, and the calculation of experimental diffraction data, including the intramolecular contributions, from the RMC particle configurations. The procedure has been applied to ten sets of intermolecular partial radial distribution functions obtained from various computer simulations, including one set from an ab initio molecular dynamics, of water. It is found that modern polarizable water potentials, such as SWM4-DP and BK3 are the most successful in reproducing measured diffraction data.

  5. Solute and solvent dynamics in confined equal-sized aqueous environments of charged and neutral reverse micelles: a combined dynamic fluorescence and all-atom molecular dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Biswas, Ranjit; Ghorai, Pradip K


    Here a combined dynamic fluorescence and all-atom molecular dynamics simulation study of aqueous pool-size dependent solvation energy and rotational relaxations of a neutral dipolar solute, C153, trapped in AOT (charged) and IGPAL (neutral) reverse micelles (RMs) at 298 K, is described. RMs in simulations have been represented by a reduced model where SPC/E water molecules interact with a trapped C153 that possesses realistic charge distributions for both ground and excited states. In large aqueous pools, measured average solvation and rotation rates are smaller for the neutral RMs than those in charged ones. Interestingly, while the measured average solvation and rotation rates increase with pool size for the charged RMs, the average rotation rates for the neutral RMs exhibit a reverse dependence. Simulations have qualitatively reproduced this experimental trend and suggested interfacial location for the solute for all cases. The origin for the subnanosecond Stokes shift dynamics has been investigated and solute-interface interaction contribution quantified. Simulated layer-wise translational and rotational diffusions of water molecules re-examine the validity of the core-shell model and provide a resolution to a debate regarding the origin of the subnanosecond solvation component in dynamic Stokes shift measurements with aqueous RMs but not detected in ultrafast IR measurements.

  6. Practical design and application of water system in reverse return air conditioning water system%同程式空调水系统的实船设计应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the characteristics of water resistance and the reasons of the hydraulic imbalance in air conditioning system, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of pipeline design for the reverse return and direct return air conditioning water system. Considered the overall layout and the air-conditioning area characteristics of the two ships, a circular reverse return of the chilled (heat) water system and an open reverse return of the cooling water system have been adopted respectively, which obviously improve the hydraulic stability of the system to gain the better air conditioning effect.%分析了空调水系统阻力的特点和水力不平衡的原因,并对同程和异程两种空调水系统管路设计方式的优缺点进行了比较。结合某两型船舶的总体布局和空调区域特点,分别采用环形同程冷热媒水系统和开式同程冷却水系统,显著提高了系统水力稳定性,取得较好的空调效果。

  7. Development and evaluation of a culture-independent method for source determination of fecal wastes in surface and storm waters using reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of FRNA coliphage genogroup gene sequences. (United States)

    A complete method, incorporating recently improved reverse transcriptase-PCR primer/probe assays and including controls for determining interferences to phage recoveries from water sample concentrates and for detecting interferences to their analysis, was developed for the direct...

  8. MesoDyn Simulation Study on Phase Diagram of Aerosol OT/isooctane/water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A simple model, i.e. sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) represented by one-head and two-tail beads tied together by a harmonic spring and water or isooctane by one bead, was put forward via Dissipative Particles Dynamics (DPD) simulation method. Using the changes of interfacial tension between water and oil phase, a ternary phase diagram of AOT/water/isooctane system was drawn. From the simulation, one conclusion is shown that DPD simulation can be considered as an adjunct to experiments.

  9. Utilization of reverse osmosis (RO) for reuse of MBR-treated wastewater in irrigation-preliminary tests and quality analysis of product water. (United States)

    Bunani, Samuel; Yörükoğlu, Eren; Sert, Gökhan; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Ümran; Yüksel, Mithat; Egemen, Özdemir; Pek, Taylan Özgür


    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent collected from a wastewater treatment plant installed at an industrial zone was used for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane tests in the laboratory. For this, two different GE Osmonics RO membranes (AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO) were employed. The results showed that AK-brackish water reverse osmosis (AK-BWRO) and AD-seawater reverse osmosis (AD-SWRO) membranes have almost similar rejection performances regarding analyzed parameters such as conductivity, salinity, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC). On the other hand, these membranes behaved quite differently considering their permeate water flux at the same applied pressure of 10 bar. AD-SWRO membrane was also tested at 20 bar. The results revealed that AD-SWRO membrane had almost the same rejections either at 10 or at 20 bar of applied pressure. Compared with irrigation water standards, AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO gave an effluent with low salinity value and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) which makes it unsuitable for irrigation due to the infiltration problems risi0ng from unbalanced values of salinity and SAR. Combination of MBR effluent and RO effluent at respective proportions of 0.3:0.7 and 0.4:0.6 for AK-BWRO and AD-SWRO, respectively, are the optimum mixing ratios to overcome the infiltration hazard problem. Choice of less-sensitive crops to chloride and sodium ions is another strategy to overcome all hazards which may arise from above suggested mixing proportions.

  10. Observation of three behaviors in confined liquid water within a nanopool hosting proton-transfer reactions. (United States)

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Angulo, Gonzalo; Gil, Michal; Organero, Juan Angel; Sanz, Mikel; Tormo, Laura


    In this contribution, we report on studies of rotational and diffusional dynamics of 7-hydroxyquinoline (7HQ) within a reverse micelle (RM) containing different amounts of water. Analyzed in terms of the wobbling-in-a-cone model, the data reveal structural and dynamical properties of the nanopool. We clearly observed three regions in the behavior of confined water molecules within the RM hosting a double proton-transfer reaction between the probe and water. This observation remarkably reproduces the change of calculated water density within this life-mimicking medium. The number of water molecules per AOT head in the transition regions changes from 2 to 5, the latter being very near to the full solvation number (6) of the RM heads. Moreover, the H-bonds breaking and making within the RM to give new structures of the probe strongly affect the environment fluidization in different extents, reflected in different relaxation times of these structures; however, they are of similar sizes. We discuss the role of RM confinement and the proton-transfer dynamics on the behavior of water and their relationships to the packing of water molecules in the studied range of concentrations.

  11. Reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); S.D.P. Flapper; R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractThis paper gives an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse logistics activities in practice. Over sixty case studies are considered. Based on these studies we are able to indicate critical factors for the practice of reverse logistics. In addi

  12. Pilot study on arsenic removal from groundwater using a small-scale reverse osmosis system-Towards sustainable drinking water production. (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan-André; Gukelberger, Ephraim; Hermann, Mario; Fiedler, Florian; Großmann, Benjamin; Hoinkis, Jan; Ghosh, Ashok; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bundschuh, Jochen


    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10μg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long

  13. Dendrimer-templated Pd nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles synthesized by reverse microemulsions as efficient nanocatalysts for the Heck reaction: A comparative study. (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Hyang; Meijboom, Reinout


    Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a dendrimer-templated method using G4, G5 and G6 PAMAM-OH dendrimers as well as a reverse microemulsion method using the water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (aerosol-OT, AOT) surfactant/isooctane system with water to surfactant ratios (ω0) of 5, 10 and 13. These 6 catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, and XRD. TEM micrographs showed that the average sizes of 2.74-3.32nm with narrower size distribution were achieved by using dendrimer-templated synthetic methods, whereas the reverse microemulsion method resulted in broad size distribution with an average size of 3.87-5.06nm. The influence of various reaction parameters such as base, catalyst dosing, alkene, aryl halide and temperature on the Heck C-C coupling reaction was evaluated. The activation parameters were derived from the reaction rate of each catalyst obtained at various temperatures. A correlation of catalytic activity, enthalpy of activation and particle size is discussed. Particle size changes of each catalyst were investigated after the catalytic reaction. Overall results indicated that dendrimer-templated Pd NP catalysts showed superior activity as compared to the Pd NPs synthesized by reverse microemulsions, with the dendrimer-templated G5-OH(Pd80) showing the best activity. These catalysts were also reusable for 3 cycles, retaining high yield and showing excellent yields under mild conditions. Therefore, the dendrimer-templated Pd NPs are efficient catalyst systems for the ligand-free Heck C-C coupling reaction.

  14. Biogenic nanosilver incorporated reverse osmosis membrane for antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains: an enhanced eco-friendly water disinfection approach. (United States)

    Manjumeena, R; Duraibabu, D; Sudha, J; Kalaichelvan, P T


    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been used extensively in water desalination plants, waste water treatment in industries, agricultural farms and drinking water production applications. The objective of this work is to impart antibacterial and antifungal activities to commercially available RO membrane used in water purification systems by incorporating biogenic silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) synthesized using Rosa indica wichuriana hybrid leaf extract. The morphology and surface topography of uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elemental composition of the AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The functional groups were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Hydrophilicity of the uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed using water contact angle measurements. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The AgNPs incorporated RO membrane exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic bacterial strains such as E. coli, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa and fungal strains such as Candida tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans.

  15. Determination of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate in water matrices by inline matrix elimination liquid chromatography with reversed phase separation and suppressed conductivity detection. (United States)

    Subramanian, N Harihara; Manigandan, P; Wille, Andrea; Radhakrishnan, Ganga


    This work describes a new method for the determination of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water matrices by suppressed conductivity detection. Separation was achieved by isocratic elution on a reversed-phase column thermostated at 45°C using an aqueous mobile phase containing boric acid and acetonitrile. The PFOA and PFOS content in the water matrix were quantified by a pre-concentration technique. For the concentration range of 1 to 15 ng/mL and 2 to 30 ng/mL, the linear calibration curve for PFOA and PFOS yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.9995 and 0.9985, respectively. The relative standard deviations were smaller than 1.5% for PFOA and PFOS. The retention-time precision of four consecutive 12 h injections was smaller than 0.641% and 0.818%, respectively. The presence of common divalent cations, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron in water matrices impairs PFOS recovery. This drawback was overcome by applying inline matrix elimination method. The optimized method was successfully applied for drinking water, ground water, and seawater samples.

  16. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection. (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L


    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  17. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  18. An evaluation of chemical, physical and biological qualities of the inlet and outlet water of desalination plants by reverse osmosis and multistage flash processes in Qeshm Island during

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doleh Mohammad


    Full Text Available Background and aim: One of the most important components of community’s health is providing clean drinking water. The aim of this study is the quality evaluation of inlet and outlet water of desalination plants in Qeshm by reverse osmosis (RO and Multistage flash (MSF processes and also to compare water quality of outlet from both of process with National and International standards of drinking water. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out during 7 months from November 2011 to May 2012. Sampling was carried out once every two months from inlet and outlet water of desalination plants in Qeshm by RO and MSF processes. Parameters were studied included total hardness, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solid (TDS, turbidity, temperature, pH, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulfate and biological parameter (total coliform, fecal coliform. Finally, analytical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 16 using paired T- test. Result: Although theresults of this study showed that total hardness and fluoride concentration in the effluent of the both of the processes (RO and MSF were lower than desirable concentration and chloride concentration in RO process was higher than allowable concentration limit, the rest of parameters (chemical and physical in both of processes were in the acceptable range. There was not observed any coliform contamination in the effluent from the both processes (RO and MSF. Conclusion: Due to low fluoride and hardness concentration in the effluent of the both processes (RO and MSF, it should be compensated by adding fluoride and calcium or magnesium compounds. More importantly, the both processes have high capability in providing safe drinking water quality according to water quality standards.

  19. Lidar Observations of Low-level Wind Reversals over the Gulf of Lion and Characterization of Their Impact on the Water Vapour Variability (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Mancini, Ignazio; Richard, Evelyne; Ducrocq, Véronique; Nuret, Mathieu; Said, Frédérique


    Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) Special Observation Period 1 (SOP1). Low-level wind reversals associated with these transitions are found to have a strong impact on water vapour transport, leading to a large variability of the water vapour vertical and horizontal distribution. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar data allow to monitor the time evolution of the three-dimensional water vapour field during these transitions from predominantly northerly Mistral/Tramontane flow to a predominantly southerly flow, allowing to identify the quite sharp separation between these flows, which is also quite well captured by the mesoscale models.

  20. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Galceran, Ma Teresa [University of Barcelona, Department Analytical Chemistry, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, Francesc, E-mail: [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies {>=}94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: > The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. > Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. > Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  1. Evaluating the Efficiency of Different Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes Used as Pre-treatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination of Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    AlMashharawi, Samer


    . Collectively, results showed that all eight configurations provided permeate with excellent water quality to be fed to reverse osmosis membrane. However, using the 0.1 μm and 100kDa membranes with 1 mg/l FeCl3 concentration, respectively, steadier fluxes correspond to less increment of pumping intensity and better water quality was achieved.

  2. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lee, Tung-Ching, E-mail: [Department of Food Science, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Yue, Tianli, E-mail: [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)


    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability.

  3. Time reversal communication system (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.


    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. Boron as a surrogate for N-nitrosodimethylamine rejection by reverse osmosis membranes in potable water reuse applications. (United States)

    Tu, Kha L; Fujioka, Takahiro; Khan, Stuart J; Poussade, Yvan; Roux, Annalie; Drewes, Jörg E; Chivas, Allan R; Nghiem, Long D


    The results of this study reveal a strong linear correlation (R(2) = 0.95) between the rejections of boron and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by six different reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, suggesting that boron can be used as a surrogate for NDMA rejection. This proposal is based on the premise that the rejection of both boric acid and NDMA is governed by steric hindrance and that they have similar molecular dimensions. The concept proposed here is shown to be valid at pH 8 or below where boron exists as the neutral boric acid species and NDMA is also a neutral solute. Observed changes in the rejections of these two species, as a function of permeate fluxes and feed solution temperatures, were also almost identical. Boron rejection increased from 21 to 79%, and the correlation coefficient of the linear regression between boron and NDMA rejections was 0.99 as the permeate flux increased from 5 to 60 L m(-2)h(-1). Similarly, a linear correlation between boron and NDMA rejections was observed as the feed solution temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. This linear correlation was also validated in a tertiary treated effluent matrix.

  5. Retrieval method of GOCI\\AOT using two stream approximate algorithm and its application%采用二流式算法的GOCI\AOT反演方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玲玲; 张霄宇; 江彬彬


    针对静止海洋水色传感器(GOCI)2.1μm 短波红外通道缺失和高太阳天顶角的特点,采用二流式算法,并考虑气溶胶的折射率、地球曲率等因素,重新计算地表反射率、表观反射率以及反演 GOCI 气溶胶光学厚度(AOT ).结果表明:参数重新计算后的 GOCI\AOT 反演精度明显增高;根据目前广泛使用的实测 AOT (440 nm)>1.00霾判定阈值,采用线性内插方法,建议 GOCI\AOTAOT (555 nm)>0.81作为霾判定阈值;中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)是业务化的极轨卫星,GOCI\AOT 整体略大于 MODIS \AOT ,拟合精度 R2=0.82.以2015年11月27日至同年12月2日华北地区发生的霾事件为例,结合具有大范围观测能力的 MODIS 卫星,多源遥感监测方法有效地反映了该霾事件的动态发展过程.%Aerosol optical thickness (AOT ) of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI ) was retrieved based on the two-stream approximate algorithm considering aerosol refractive index and earth curvature and other causations ,aiming at the lackage of 2 .1 μm short wave infrared band and the high solar zenith angle of GOCI . As specified , the retrieval precision of GOCI \\AOT gets improved after parameters recalculation .According to the widely used groundbase haze threshold of AOT (440 nm) > 1 .00 ,GOCI\\AOT (555 nm) > 0 .81 is proposed as the haze determination threshold based on the linear interpolation method . Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS ) is an operational polar orbiting satellite ,GOCI \\AOT is slightly higher than MODIS \\AOT with R2 of 0 .82 . The haze event from November 27 to December 2 ,2015 was selected as one case and MODIS satellite was combined to realize real-time dynamic monitoring of haze events over North China ,which indicates that the multi satellites remote sensing monitoring method can reflect the dynamic process of haze event effectively .

  6. Simultaneous flame ionization and absorbance detection of volatile and nonvolatile compounds by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a water mobile phase. (United States)

    Bruckner, C A; Ecker, S T; Synovec, R E


    A flame ionization detector (FID) is used to detect volatile organic compounds that have been separated by water-only reversed-phase liquid chromatography (WRP-LC). The mobile phase is 100% water at room temperature, without use of organic solvent modifiers. An interface between the LC and detector is presented, whereby a helium stream samples the vapor of volatile components from individual drops of the LC eluent, and the vapor-enriched gas stream is sent to the FID. The design of the drop headspace cell is simple because the water-only nature of the LC separation obviates the need to do any organic solvent removal prior to gas phase detection. Despite the absence of organic modifier, hydrophobic compounds can be separated in a reasonable time due to the low phase volume ratio of the WRP-LC columns. The drop headspace interface easily handles LC flows of 1 mL/min, and, in fact, compound detection limits are improved at faster liquid flow rates. The transfer efficiency of the headspace interface was estimated at 10% for toluene in water at 1 mL/min but varies depending on the volatility of each analyte. The detection system is linear over more than 5 orders of 1-butanol concentration in water and is able to detect sub-ppb amounts of o-xylene and other aromatic compounds in water. In order to analyze volatile and nonvolatile analytes simultaneously, the FID is coupled in series to a WRP-LC system with UV absorbance detection. WRP-LC improves UV absorbance detection limits because the absence of organic modifier allows the detector to be operated in the short-wavelength UV region, where analytes generally have significantly larger molar absorptivities. The selectivity the headspace interface provides for flame ionization detection of volatiles is demonstrated with a separation of 1-butanol, 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCE), and chlorobenzene in a mixture of benzoic acid in water. Despite coelution of butanol and TCE with the benzoate anion, the nonvolatile benzoate anion

  7. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge. (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed


    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges.

  8. Synthesis of CuNi/C and CuNi/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts for the Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lortie


    Full Text Available A new polyol synthesis method is described in which CuNi nanoparticles of different Cu/Ni atomic ratios were supported on both carbon and gamma-alumina and compared with Pt catalysts using the reverse water gas shift, RWGS, reaction. All catalysts were highly selective for CO formation. The concentration of CH4 was less than the detection limit. Cu was the most abundant metal on the CuNi alloy surfaces, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, measurements. Only one CuNi alloy catalyst, Cu50Ni50/C, appeared to be as thermally stable as the Pt/C catalysts. After three temperature cycles, from 400 to 700°C, the CO yield at 700°C obtained using the Cu50Ni50/C catalyst was comparable to that obtained using a Pt/C catalyst.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of water/BHDC cationic reverse micelles. structural characterization, dynamical properties, and influence of solvent on intermicellar interactions. (United States)

    Agazzi, Federico M; Correa, N Mariano; Rodriguez, Javier


    We report results obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) experiments of benzylhexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC) cationic reverse micelles (RMs). In particular we analyzed equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of water/BHDC RMs in pure benzene, at two different water/BHDC ratios (W0 = 5 and W0 = 10). The RMs appear as elliptical aggregates with eccentricities close to ∼0.9. Analysis of the different spatial correlations reveals three different spatial domains in the RMs: a water inner pool, the surfactant interface, and the external solvent. The calculated accessible surface areas for the aqueous inner cores suggest a strong penetration of solvent molecules within the micellar interface domains. Comparison between the density profiles of both RMs shows an increment of the broadness in the distributions of all species at the interface, along with an increasing overlap between the tail segments of the surfactant and benzene molecules as one considers larger micelles. For the dynamical side, the rotational characteristic time scale for the confined water was found to be 1 order of magnitude larger than that of the bulk water. A similar effect was also observed for hydrogen bond dynamics. Both retardation effects diminish with the size of the aggregate. To the estimate the influence of the external solvent on the intermicellar interactions, free energy profiles for the coalescence process between RMs of similar size in pure benzene and in a n-heptane/benzene mixture were also investigated. The results indicate that the association process is facilitated by the presence of n-heptane in the external nonpolar phase. Comparison with previous theoretical and experimental results is also carried out.

  10. Validation and scopolamine-reversal of latent learning in the water maze utilizing a revised direct platform placement procedure. (United States)

    Malin, David H; Schaar, Krystal L; Izygon, Jonathan J; Nghiem, Duyen M; Jabitta, Sikirat Y; Henceroth, Mallori M; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Daggett, Jenny M; Ward, Christopher P


    The Morris water maze is routinely used to explore neurobiological mechanisms of working memory. Humans can often acquire working memory relevant to performing a task by mere sensory observation, without having to actually perform the task followed by reinforcement. This can be modeled in the water maze through direct placement of a rat on the escape platform so that it can observe the location, and then assessing the subject's performance in swimming back to the platform. However, direct placement procedures have hardly been studied for two decades, reflecting a controversy about whether direct placement resulted in sufficiently rapid and direct swims back to the platform. In the present study, utilizing revised training methods, a more comprehensive measure of trajectory directness, a more rigorous sham-trained control procedure and an optimal placement-test interval, rats swam almost directly back to the platform in under 4s, significantly more quickly and directly than sham-trained subjects. Muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms, which are inactivated by scopolamine, are essential to memory for standard learning paradigms in the water maze. This experiment determined whether this would also be true for latent learning. ANOVA revealed significant negative effects of scopolamine on both speed and accuracy of trajectory, as well as significant positive effects of direct placement training vs. sham-training. In a probe trial, placement-trained animals without scopolamine spent significantly more time and path length in the target quadrant than trained rats with scopolamine and sham-trained rats without scopolamine. Scopolamine impairments are likely due to effects on memory, since the same dose had little effect on performance with a visible platform. The revised direct placement model offers a means of further comparing the neural mechanisms of latent learning with those of standard instrumental learning.

  11. Reversible Computing (United States)


    will have been introduced. 9. Reversible celular autemata We shall assume the reader to have some familiarity with the concept of cel- lular...10003 Mr. Kin B. Thcmpson 1 copy Technical Director Information Systems Divisia.i Naval Research Laboratory (OP-91T) Technical Information Division


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修仁; 秦旭达; 哈鼎文


    本文介绍了一种模糊控制器,应用于反渗透水处理设备中,可实现电导率实时自动控制,提高了反渗透水处理过程中设备工作效率和水的利用率。%This paper introduces a fuzzy controller that authors designed. It was applied to reverse osmosis water treatment unit, realizing the conductivity auto-controlled and raising the working efficiency of the equipment and the utilization ratio of water remarkably in the reverse osmosis process.

  13. Structure-retention and mobile phase-retention relationships for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of several hydroxythioxanthone derivatives in binary acetonitrile-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Ali Asghar; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Safavi, Afsaneh; Sharghi, Hashem; Beni, Ali Reza Salimi [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:


    The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) behavior of some newly synthesized hydroxythioxanthone derivatives using binary acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phase has been examined. First, the variation in the retention time of each molecule as a function of mobile phase properties was studied by Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic equations. Then, the influences of molecular structure of the hydroxythioxanthone derivatives on their retention time in various mobile phase mixtures were investigated by quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis. Finally, a unified model containing both the molecular structure parameters and mobile phase properties was developed to describe the chromatographic behavior of the systems studied. Among the solvent properties, polarity/polarizability parameter ({pi}{sup *}) and hydrogen-bond basicity ({beta}), and among the solute properties, the most positive local charge (MPC), the sum of positive charges on hydrogen atoms contributing in hydrogen bonding (SPCH) and lipophilicity index (log P) were identified as controlling factors in the RP-HPLC behavior of hydroxythioxanthone derivatives in actonitrile-water binary solvents.

  14. Nitrogen and water recovery from animal slurries by a new integrated ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold stripping process: a case study. (United States)

    Ledda, C; Schievano, A; Salati, S; Adani, F


    The correct management of livestock manure represents one of the major challenge for the agricultural sector development, as it may ensure environmental and economic sustainability of livestock farming. In this work, a new treatment process called N-Free(®), was monitored on two plants treating digested cattle manure (DCM) and digested swine manure (DSM). The process is characterized by sequential integration of solid/liquid separations, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and cold ammonia stripping. Solid and liquid streams were characterized regarding TS, TKN, N-NH4(+), P and K content allowing to draw a complete mass balance. The main results were a substantial reduction of initial digestate volume (38 and 51% in DCM and DSM respectively) as clean water and a high N-NH4(+) removal percentage (47 and 71% in DCM and DSM respectively), through cold ammonia stripping, allowing the production of up to 1.8 m(3) concentrated ammonium sulfate, every 100 m(3) of treated digestate. The concentrated streams, rich in either organic or mineral N, P and K, can be efficiently used for land application. The N-Free(®) technology demonstrated to be a valuable candidate for the path toward nutrient and water recycle, in a new sustainable agriculture and farming concept.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin and in situ product separation in thermally induced reversible phase-separation of ionic liquids/water mixture. (United States)

    Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo


    Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid, key intermediate for the production of semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics, is one of the most relevant example of industrial implementation of biocatalysts. The hydrolysis reaction is traditionally carried out in aqueous buffer at pH 7.5-8. However, the aqueous rout exhibits several drawbacks in enzyme stability and product recovery. In this study, several ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as media for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G. The results indicated that hydrophobic ILs/water two-phase system were good media for the reaction. In addition, a novel aqueous two-phase system based on the lower critical solution temperature type phase changes of amino acid based ILs/water mixture was developed for in situ penicillin G hydrolysis and product separation. For instance, hydrolysis yield of 87.13% was obtained in system containing 30 wt% [TBP][Tf-ILe] with pH control (pH 7.6). Since the phase-separation of this medium system can be reversible switched from single to two phases by slightly changing the solution temperature, enzymatic hydrolytic reaction and product recovery were more efficient than those of aqueous system. In addition, the ILs could be reused for at least 5 cycles without significant loss in hydrolysis efficiency.

  16. Preparation of ZrO2 nano-particles by the hydrolysis of ZrOCl2 solution in the reverse micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Tongxiang Liang; Tianyong Luo


    Zirconia nano-particles have been produced by the hydrolysis of ZrOGl2 solution in the reverse micelles of a liquid-liquid two-phase system, in which sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinite (AOT) and toluene were chosen as the surfactant and organic phase, respectively. The reverse micelles prevented the aggregation of primary particles and reduced the diameters of zirconia nanoparticles. Superfine zirconia powders soft-aggregated by the zirconia nano-particles were obtained. The diameters of zirconia nanoparticles were influenced by the quantity of the surfactant.

  17. Application of Multivariate Calibration Techniques to Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper and Iron Using 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol in AOT Micellar Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Multivariate calibration models(PCR and PLS)were developed for simultaneous determination of Fe(Ⅲand Cu(Ⅱ)with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and AOT as chromogenic reagent and micellizing agent,respectively.In the presence of AOT the spectrum of Fe(Ⅲ)-PAN complex was shifted to higher wavelength and the overlapping with Cu-PAN spectrum decreased.It seems that this anionic surfactant enters the structure of the Fe-PAN complex to cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of it.The parameters controlling behavior of the systems were investigated and optimum conditions were selected.Sixteen ternary mixtures were selected as the calibration set.To select the number of factors in PCR and PLS algorithms,a cross validation method,leaving out one sample at a time,was employed.The calibration models were validated with 8 synthetic mixtures containing the metal ions in different proportions that were randomly designed.The best calibration model was obtained by using PLS regression.The method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of copper and iron in biological samples.


    KAUST Repository

    Maugin, Thomas


    Providing pretreatment prior RO filtration is essential to avoid biofouling and subsequent loss of membrane performances. Chlorine is known to degrade polymeric membrane, improving or reducing membrane efficiency depending on oxidation conditions. This study aimed to assess the impact of alternative disinfectant, NH2Cl, as well as secondary oxidants formed during chloramination of seawater, e.g. HOBr, HOI, or used in water treatment e.g. ClO2, O3, on membrane structure and performances. Permeability, total and specific rejection (Cl-, SO4 2-, Br-, Boron), FTIR profile, elemental composition were analyzed. Results showed that each oxidant seems to react differently with the membrane. HOCl, HOBr, ClO2 and O3 improved membrane permeability but decreased rejection in different extent. In comparison, chloramines resulted in identical trends but oxidized membrane very slowly. On the contrary, iodine improved membrane rejection e.g. boron, but decreased permeability. Reaction conducted with chlorine, bromine, iodine and chloramines resulted in the incorporation of halogen in the membrane structure. All oxidant except iodine were able to break amide bonds of the membrane structure in our condition. In addition, chloramine seemed to react with membrane differently, involving a potential addition of nitrogen. Chloramination of seawater amplified membrane performances evolutions due to generation of bromochloramine. Moreover, chloramines reacted both with NOM and membrane during oxidation in natural seawater, leading to additional rejection drop.

  19. Using the reversible inhibition of gastric lipase by Orlistat for investigating simultaneously lipase adsorption and substrate hydrolysis at the lipid-water interface. (United States)

    Bénarouche, Anaïs; Point, Vanessa; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François


    The lipolysis reaction carried out by lipases at the water-lipid interface is a complex process including enzyme conformational changes, adsorption/desorption equilibrium and substrate hydrolysis. Mixed monomolecular films of the lipase inhibitor Orlistat and 1,2-dicaprin were used here to investigate the adsorption of dog gastric lipase (DGL) followed by the hydrolysis of 1,2-dicaprin. The combined study of these two essential catalysis steps was made possible thanks to the highest affinity of DGL for Orlistat than 1,2-dicaprin and the fact that the inhibition of DGL by Orlistat is reversible. Upon DGL binding to mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayers, an increase in surface pressure reflecting lipase adsorption was first recorded. Limited amounts of Orlistat allowed to maintain DGL inactive on 1,2-dicaprin during a period of time that was sufficient to determine DGL adsorption and desorption rate constants. A decrease in surface pressure reflecting 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis and product desorption was observed after the slow hydrolysis of the covalent DGL-Orlistat complex was complete. The rate of 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis was recorded using the surface barostat technique. Based on a kinetic model describing the inhibition by Orlistat and the activity of DGL on a mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayer spread at the air-water interface combined with surface pressure measurements, it was possible to monitor DGL adsorption at the lipid-water interface and substrate hydrolysis in the course of a single experiment. This allowed to assess the kcat/KM* ratio for DGL acting on 1,2-dicaprin monolayer, after showing that mixed monolayers containing a low fraction of Orlistat were similar to pure 1,2-dicaprin monolayers.

  20. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Civil e Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)


    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects. (author)

  1. Reversible and Irreversible Adsorption Energetics of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Sorbitan Poly(ethoxylate) at a Water/Alkane Interface. (United States)

    Huston, Kyle J; Larson, Ronald G


    We simulate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers and model Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) molecules at water/alkane interfaces. Using the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), including an extension of WHAM to two reaction coordinates to remove hysteresis, we calculate interfacial potentials of mean force (PMFs) for PEG and Tween 80 using three force fields: the atomistic GROMOS 53a6OXY+D and two coarse-grained (CG) MARTINI force fields. Because the force fields have not yet been validated for PEO adsorption to hydrophobic interfaces, we calculate PMFs for alcohol ethoxylates C12E2 and C12E8 and find that they agree with semiempirical results of Mulqueen and Blankschtein [Langmuir 2002, 18 (2), 365-376] for the GROMOS 53a6OXY+D force field, whereas for both MARTINI force fields, PEO adsorbs too weakly to a clean hydrophobic interface. One MARTINI force field incorrectly shows depletion rather than adsorption to a clean hydrophobic interface. We find that the adsorption free energy for PEG oligomers at a clean, planar water/alkane interface is around 1.3 kBT per monomer for the atomistic force field but is less than half of this for the two CG force fields. With the newly validated GROMOS 53a6OXY+D force field, we bracket the dilute adsorption free energy for a model Tween 80 molecule at the clean water/squalane interface. We also calculate the pressure-area isotherm. We exploit these data with the Nikas-Mulqueen-Blankschtein (NMB) theory and a simple transport model to demonstrate a transition from irreversible to reversible adsorption with increasing surface coverage, consistent with experimental results of Reichert and Walker [Langmuir 2013, 29 (6), 1857-1867].

  2. Linear modeling of the soil-water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon content by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. (United States)

    Andrić, Filip; Šegan, Sandra; Dramićanin, Aleksandra; Majstorović, Helena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka


    Soil-water partition coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (KOC) is one of the crucial properties influencing the fate of organic compounds in the environment. Chromatographic methods are well established alternative for direct sorption techniques used for KOC determination. The present work proposes reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) as a simpler, yet equally accurate method as officially recommended HPLC technique. Several TLC systems were studied including octadecyl-(RP18) and cyano-(CN) modified silica layers in combination with methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phases. In total 50 compounds of different molecular shape, size, and various ability to establish specific interactions were selected (phenols, beznodiazepines, triazine herbicides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Calibration set of 29 compounds with known logKOC values determined by sorption experiments was used to build simple univariate calibrations, Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) models between logKOC and TLC retention parameters. Models exhibit good statistical performance, indicating that CN-layers contribute better to logKOC modeling than RP18-silica. The most promising TLC methods, officially recommended HPLC method, and four in silico estimation approaches have been compared by non-parametric Sum of Ranking Differences approach (SRD). The best estimations of logKOC values were achieved by simple univariate calibration of TLC retention data involving CN-silica layers and moderate content of methanol (40-50%v/v). They were ranked far well compared to the officially recommended HPLC method which was ranked in the middle. The worst estimates have been obtained from in silico computations based on octanol-water partition coefficient. Linear Solvation Energy Relationship study revealed that increased polarity of CN-layers over RP18 in combination with methanol-water mixtures is the key to better modeling of

  3. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  4. Reversible ion exchange and structural stability of garnet-type Nb-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 in water for applications in lithium batteries (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Rui, Kun; Shen, Chen; Badding, Michael E.; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Wen, Zhaoyin


    H+/Li+ ion exchange and structural stability of the high ionic conductivity Nb-doped Zr-garnet Li6.75La3Nb0.25Zr1.75O12 (LLNZO) are investigated in this study. Relationships between ion exchange and Li-population per unit cell, which are necessary to establish the practical framework of garnet electrolytes, are deduced for garnet oxides within ion-exchange process. H+/Li+ ion exchange of cubic LLNZO powder is performed continuously in distilled water and products with various exchange levels are obtained via this simple method. FTIR spectra show the evolution of H-O bonding through the ion-exchange process. A maximum of 74.8% exchange of Li+ by H+ was found, consistent with a preferential replacement of octahedrally coordinated Li. The cubic garnet phase is maintained throughout all levels of proton exchange observed. The formation of garnet-type solid solution of Li6.75-xHxLa3Nb0.25Zr1.75O12 is indicated by well-resolved lattice fringes as well as the linear evolution of crystal lattice parameters with the ion exchange level. The reverse ion exchange of H+ by Li+ is successfully achieved in Li+ containing aqueous solutions, demonstrating its high structural stability and good compatibility for promising applications in lithium batteries.

  5. Performance Comparison of Two Newly Developed Bimetallic (X-Mo/Al2O3, X=Fe or Co) Catalysts for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati


    The performance of the two newly developed bimetallic catalysts based on the precursor, Mo/Al2O3, was com-pared for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The structures of the precursor and the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spec-trometry (ICP-AES), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The activity of Fe-Mo and Co-Mo catalysts was compared in a ifxed bed reactor at different temperatures. It is shown that the Co-Mo catalyst has higher CO2 conversion at all temperature level. The time-on-stream (TOS) analysis of the activity of catalysts for the RWGS reaction was carried out over a continuous period of 60 h for both catalysts. The Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good stability within a period of 60 h, however, the Co-Mo/Al2O3 is gradually deactivated after 50 h of reaction time. Existence of Fe2(MoO4)3 phase in Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst makes this catalyst more stable for RWGS reaction.

  6. Analyses of gibberellins in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by partial filling-micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry with reversal of electroosmotic flow. (United States)

    Ge, Liya; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Hua, Lin; Ong, Eng Shi


    In this paper, we present the results of simultaneous screening of eight gibberellins (GAs) in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by MEKC directly coupled to ESI-MS detection. During the development of MEKC-MS, partial filling (PF) was used to prevent the micelles from reaching the mass spectrometer as this is detrimental to the MS signal, and a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, was added to the electrolyte to reverse the EOF. On the basis of the resolution of the neighboring peaks, different parameters (i.e., the pH and concentration of buffer, surfactant concentrations, length of the injected micellar plug, organic modifier, and applied separation voltage) were optimized to achieve a satisfactory PF-MEKC separation of eight GA standards. Under optimum conditions, a baseline separation of GA standards, including GA1, GA3, GA5, GA6, GA7, GA9, GA12, and GA13, was accomplished within 25 min. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of precision (RSD of migration time below 0.9%), sensitivity (LODs in the range of 0.8-1.9 microM) and linearity (R2 between 0.981 and 0.997). MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection was carried out to obtain sufficient selectivity. PF-MEKC-MS/MS allowed the direct identification and confirmation of the GAs presented in coconut water (CW) sample after SPE, while, the quantitative analysis of GAs was performed by PF-MEKC-MS approach. GA1 and GA3 were successfully detected and quantified in CW. It is anticipated that the current PF-MEKC-MS method can be applicable to analyze GAs in a wide range of biological samples.

  7. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell


    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维利; 王建友; 费兆辉; 樊改肖


    在常规电去离子(EDI)的浓缩室中采取与淡水室相同的树脂填充策略构成频繁倒极电去离子(EDIR)过程,以模拟苦咸水为处理对象,重点考察了阴阳树脂比例、树脂粒径、隔板厚度、树脂填充方式对EDI苦咸水淡化过程的影响.结果表明,在阴阳树脂体积比4∶6、树脂粒径0.45~0.71mm、采用隔板厚度3mm以及树脂均匀混合填充时,可获得最低的产水能耗.对于3000mg/L的进水含盐量,EDIR的脱盐率可达90%以上,耗电量1.95kWh/m3,过程运行稳定.EDIR有望成为具备较强竞争力的苦咸水淡化新技术.%In this paper, the electrodeionization process with frequent polarity reversal (EDIR) process, using the same resin filling strategy both in the dilute and concentrate compartments, was carried out for brackish water desalination. With the feed of simulated brackish water, the influences of volume ratio of anion-cation resins, resin particle size distribution, compartment thickness and resin filling pattern on the separation performances of the EDIR were investigated. The results showed that at a resin ratio of 4:6 (anion to cation), resin particle range of 0.45 to 0.71 mm and the compartment thickness of 3 mm, the lowest power Consumption was achieved when the even mixing pattern of resin filling was adopted. When the feed TDS was 3 000 mg/L, the EDIR can give a salt rejection of 90% while the power consumption was 1.95 kWh/m3 with good stability. The EDIR was hopeful to be a new choice for brackish water desalination with potential superiorities.

  9. Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria and Interactions between Droplets in Water-in-Oil Microemulsions. (United States)

    Yin, Tianxiang; Wang, Mingjie; Tao, Xiaoyi; Shen, Weiguo


    The liquid-liquid phase equilibria of [water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-decane] with the molar ratio w0 of water to AOT being 37.9 and [water/AOT/ethoxylated-2,5,8,11-tetramethyl-6-dodecyne-5,8-diol(Dynol-604)/n-decane] with w0 = 37.9 and the mole fraction α of Dynol-604 in the total surfactants being 0.158 were measured in this study. From the data collected in the critical region, the critical exponent β corresponding to the width of the coexistence curve was determined, which showed good agreement with the 3D-Ising value. A thermodynamic approach based on the Carnahan-Starling-van der Waals type equation was proposed to describe the coexistence curves and to deduce the interaction properties between droplets in the microemulsions. The interaction enthalpies were found to be positive for the studied systems, which evidenced that the entropy effect dominated the phase separations as the temperature increased. The addition of Dynol-604 into the (water/AOT/n-decane) microemulsion resulted in the decrease in the critical temperature and the interaction enthalpy. Combining the liquid-liquid equilibrium data for (water/AOT/n-decane) microemulsions with various w0 values determined previously, it was shown that the interaction enthalpy decreased with w0 and tended to change its sign at low w0, which coincided with the results from the isothermal titration calorimetry investigation. All of these behaviors were interpreted by the effects of entropy and enthalpy and their competition, which resulted from the release of solvent molecules entrapped in the interface of microemulsion droplets and were dependent on the rigidity of the surfactant layers and the size of the droplet.

  10. Sorption-induced reversible oxidation of Fe(2) at the smectite/water interface under strictly anoxic conditions. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, A.; Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT), Universite de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gehin, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR-CNRS 6087, 72 - Le Mans (France); Brendle, J. [Universite de Haute Alsace, Lab. des Materiaux Mineraux (LMM), 68 - Mulhouse (France); Rancourt, D.G. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ontario (Canada)


    not been polymerized, but is present as cations. This result shows that sorption at the clay-water interface occurs in a two steps mechanism: sorption of individual Fe(II) cations, followed by an oxidation of some of them. As a first hypothesis, water could be the oxidizing agent. However in this case, the reversibility of the phenomenon cannot be explained. Thus we proposed, as a second hypothesis, that as pH is increased, protons H{sup +} is removed from the clay surface and, more and more of highly reactive sites acquire steric properties that stabilize Fe(III) relative to Fe(II). This differential affinity induces in turn an Fe-to-clay particle electron transfer. The change in surface site local environment is shown by observed large pH induced change in the sorbed Fe(II) quadrupole splitting distributions. (authors)

  11. Determination of Methanol Increment in Mobile Phase Consisting of Methanol and Water by On-line UV Spectrometry in Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG,Xin-Du(耿信笃); REGNIER,Fred E(弗莱德 依 瑞格涅尔)


    An on-line UV spectrometric method for the quantitative determination of methanol increment of methanol-water in the mobile phase(i.e., ofgreater concentration than that of the mobile phase ) by frontal analysis (FA) of insulin in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was presented. When the methanol increment concentration ranged from 0.05% to 0.50%, V( CH3OH)/ V(H2O), a set of elution curves could be obtained at 198 nm by a diode-array detector in the presence of 47% methanol, V(CH3OH)/V(H2O) containing 0.03% hydrochloric acid, V ( CH3OH-H2O ) / V ( HCl ) in the mobile phase. The plateau height of the elution curves of the methanol increment was found to be proportional to the methanol increment in the mobile phase. The methanol increment could be determined on a quantitative basis. When the method was used to investigate the elution curve of insulin by FA in RPLC, a small plateau, being the methanol increment,was detected before the usual insulin plateau of each elution curve. In this case the methanol increment was found to vary with insulin concentration in the mobile phase. When that concentration was between 0.025 mg/mL and 0.30 mg/mL,the methanol increment could be determined in the range from 0.03% to0.19% with a deviation of ±0.02% and a relative deviation of ± 10%. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR) was also employed to confirm the obtained result. A methodology with a very rigorous experimental procedure for obtaining results of such accuracy is also included.The presented result may be used to prove that a displacement process definitely occurs as insulin is adsorbed by the RPLC stationary phase inFA.

  12. Effect of precipitants on Ni-CeO2 catalysts prepared by a co-precipitation method for the reverse water-gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王路辉; 刘辉; 刘源; 陈英; 杨淑清


    A series of Ni-CeO2 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method with Na2CO3, NaOH, and mixed precipitant (Na2CO3:NaOH;1:1 ratio) as precipitant, respectively. The effect of the precipitants on the catalytic performance, physical and chemical properties of Ni-CeO2 catalysts was investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brumauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), Fou-rier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TG), and H2-TPR characterizations. The Ni-CeO2 catalysts were exam-ined with respect to their catalytic performance for the reverse water-gas shift reaction, and their catalytic activities were ranked as:Ni-CeO2-CP (Na2CO3:NaOH=1:1)>Ni-CeO2-CP(Na2CO3)>Ni-CeO2-CP(NaOH). Correlating to the characteristic results, it was found that the catalyst prepared by co-precipitation with mixed precipitant (Na2CO3:NaOH; 1:1 ratio) as precipitant had the most amount of oxygen vacancies accompanied with highly dispersed Ni particles, which made the corresponding Ni-CeO2-CP(Na2CO3:NaOH=1:1) catalyst exhibit the highest catalytic activity. While the precipitant of Na2CO3 or NaOH resulted in less or no oxygen vacancies in Ni-CeO2 catalysts. As a result, Ni-CeO2-CP(Na2CO3) and Ni-CeO2-CP(NaOH) catalysts presented poor catalytic performance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文君; 何新玲


    介绍了反渗透-混床除盐系统处理锅炉补给水时的运行经验。经4年的实践表明:(1)采用机械搅拌澄清池和三级过滤的系统,可以达到反渗透组件对进水水质的要求;(2)反渗透组件的脱盐率每年约降低1%~2%,在设计中必须考虑;(3)一般情况下,反渗透装置的出水应经过除碳器再送入混床;(4)混床的出力必须有足够的余量,以免影响供水。%Operational experience of boiler make-up water treatment by using reverse osmosis-mixed bed demin-eralizing system has been described. Practice during the period of four years shows: (1) Settled water pond and three-stage filtration system with mechanical agitation can meet the requitments of reverse-osmosis components to the inlet water quality; (2) It must be considered in the design that the demineralization efficiency of reverse-osmosis components will be decreased about 1%~2% in every year; (3) In normal case, the outlet water from reverse-osmosis equipment shall enter into mixed bed via a decarbonator; (4) The output capacity of the mixed bed must have a sufficient surplus, to avoid its influence on the water supply.

  14. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.


    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  15. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  16. Ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis)-reversible but fluorescence-irreversible chemosensor for copper in water and its application in living cells. (United States)

    Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Yang, Yu-Tao; Su, Jing; Chao, Jian-Bin; Liu, Dian-Sheng


    An ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis)-reversible but fluorescence-irreversible chemosensor was developed for the detection of copper. Coordination between the probe, 2-pyridylaldehyde fluorescein hydrazone (FHP), and Cu(2+) gave a reversible UV-Vis response, Storage of the probe-Cu complex resulted in hydrolytic cleavage of the N═C bond, which released the fluorophore (ring-opened fluorescein hydrazine) and gave irreversible fluorescence. Thus, FHP becomes a multifunctional chemosensor, and its reversibility can be controlled by the reaction time. Cu(2+) in living cells could be detected using FHP and general fluorescence methods.

  17. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  18. Application of reverse osmosis technology in new water treatment station of Baogang CSP plant%反渗透技术在包钢薄板厂新水处理站工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟延孝; 袁慧


    为满足包钢薄板厂连铸连轧生产线和二炼钢对水源水质量的要求,采用常规处理-活性炭过滤预处理-一级反渗透系统-二级反渗透系统这一新型水处理技术,以黄河新水为原水,经运行过程的改进完善,处理出水能够满足水质水量的使用要求,工艺系统实现了安全稳定高效的运行效果,操作维护方便.%In order to meet the requirement of raw water quality for continuous casting and rolling production line and N0.2 steel making works in Baogang CSP plant, a novel technology composed by the processes of conventional treatment, activated carbon filtration pretreatment, single-stage reverse osmosis system and two-stage reverse osmosis system was adopted for the water treatment. Taking new water from Yellow River as the raw water, the effect of the said technology on water treatment was tested. The results indicated that, the quality and quantity of the effluent water satisfied the usage requirement, the operation of the technical system was safe, stable and efficient, and the system manipulation and maintenance was convenient.

  19. Effect of water temperature on reverse osmosis unit and countermeasures%水温对反渗透装置运行的影响及对策措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乾荣; 何驹; 娄伦武; 王启延


    This paper sketches obvious effects of water temperature on operation pressure, desalination rate, pressure drop and producing water capacity, it also introduces producing water capacity in winter appears linear decrease with reduction of water temperature in reverse osmosis plants, through heating reverse osmosis feedwater with steam condensate, on condition of no-adding new device and energy consumption which solves producing water capacity low in winter, guaranteed efficiently water demand for follow-up devices.%简述了进水温度对反渗透装置的运行压力、脱盐率、压降以及产水能力影响极为明显,介绍该公司反渗透装置出现了冬季产水量随着水温降低而呈现线性下降的情况,通过换热装置用蒸汽冷凝液加热反渗透进水,在不增加新装置和能耗的前提下解决了冬季产水量少的问题,有效保障了后续装置的用水需求。

  20. On softened water reverse osmosis centralized control scheme and common defect analysis%软化水反渗透系统集控方案及常见故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了软化水反渗透系统的主要包含部分及功能,着重对该系统常见的故障进行了原因分析,主要有RO增压泵不工作、计量泵不工作、反渗透产水量下降等问题,以制定出有效的解决措施,保证系统的正常运行。%The paper introduces the main parts and functions of the softened water reverse osmosis system,analyzes reasons for common defects of the system,including the insufficiency in the RO booster pump and metering pump,and lower water yield of the reverse osmosis,so as to make the effective solutions and ensure the common operation of the system.

  1. Analysis on Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Systems in Reuse Process for Blowdown of Circulating Water%循环水排污水回用工艺中反渗透系统污堵原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙潇; 何彩燕; 石景燕; 侯文龙; 张宝山; 吴海峰


    The circulation water waste water reuse treatment process of a Hebei power plant was briefly introduced. A detailed test for the rapid rising pressure difference of security filter and the problem of reverse osmosis (RO) system fouling was made. The analysis results show that the local acid concentration of the reverse osmosis water plus acid point is too high. The high concentration result in the precipitation of the circulating water quality stabilizer, which plug in the security filter core surface. Thereby the micro-organisms breed, which lead to the rapid fouling in reverse osmosis system security filter. By adjusting the acid point, the phenomenon of the reverse osmosis fouling was eliminated and the system can operate normally.%简要介绍河北某电厂循环水排污水回用处理工艺.针对反渗透系统污堵及保安过滤器压差迅速上升问题进行了详细试验,逐一排查.分析结果表明,反渗透进水加酸点局部酸浓度过高,造成循环水中的水质稳定剂析出,堵在保安过滤器滤芯表面,进而引起微生物滋生,导致反渗透系统保安过滤器迅速污堵.经调整加酸点后再未出现反渗透污堵现象,系统运行正常.

  2. Fuzzy logic: applications to the pretreatment of brackish feed water in reverse osmosis treatment plants; Logica difusa: aplicaciones al pretratamiento del agua salobre de elimentacion de plantas desalladoras por osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluss Contino, J.; Simon Ruiz, J. L.; Hernandez, A.; Menendez Martinez, A.; Yaglian Steiner, E.; Menendez Fernandez, A.; Marcelo Cano, F.


    Frequently physical and chemical alteration that can suffer feed water composition and membranes behaviour of reverse osmosis desalination plants (RODP), define a vague nature system from the point of view of decision make process. In this work, we proposes the utilization of the approximate reasoning associated with the fuzzy logic, as an alternative to approach this problem and to make possible early corrective actions, that is, to do a proactive maintenance with Condition-based maintenance (CBM) technology. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Application of Electric Pulse-coagulation Treatment Method in Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Water Treatment%电脉冲-混凝处理法在反渗透浓水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玥; 邓柏杰


    文章以炼油厂反渗透浓缩水为研究对象,采用电脉冲—混凝法处理炼油厂反渗透浓水。选择聚环氧乙烷作为助凝剂,采用电脉冲—聚环氧乙烷混凝处理反渗透浓水,确定优化参数,分析和讨论实验现象和实验结果。%Taking reverse osmosis concentrated water as the research object in refinery,reverse osmosis concentrated water is treated by electric pulse-coagulation treatment in refinery.The choice of polyethylene oxide as a coagulant,the electric pulse-polyethylene oxide coagulation treatment of concentrated water reverse osmosis,determining the optimal parameter;the experimental phenomena and experimental results are analyzed and discussed in the paper.

  4. OP-7/氯仿反胶束体系的制备及其增溶水量的研究%Study on preparation of OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle systems and their water solubilization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群; 陈怡秀; 朱青; 沈炎冰; 邓龙根; 马超; 阎克路


    The novel OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle system have been prepared by substituting chloroform for the alkanes of traditional reverse micelle systems,and the water solubilization behaviors of the systems have been investigated.The impact of OP-7' s concentration and the type of cosurfactant on the water solubilization amount of reverse micelle systems and the relationship between the water solubilization amount and the size and the conductivity of the systems were studied.The results showed that both the dosage of OP-7,the type and the concentration of the alcohol as cosufactant affect the water solubilization amount ; at the same time,the size and conductivity of the systems increased with increasing water solubilization amount,the OP-7/n-octanol/chloroform has the maximum water solubilization amount.%以氯仿代替传统的烃类溶剂,制备新型OP-7(非离子表面活性剂)/氯仿反胶束体系,并对该体系的增溶行为进行研究.考察了OP-7的浓度和不同的助表面活性剂对该体系增溶水量的影响及增溶水量与体系的粒径、电导率的关系.结果表明,OP-7的浓度、助表面活性剂醇的种类和用量都影响着体系的增溶水量;同时增溶水量增加,体系的粒径和电导率随之增加,OP-7/正辛醇/氯仿反胶束体系增溶水量最大.

  5. Study on preparation of D5 reverse micelle systems and their water solubilization performance%D5反胶束体系的制备及其增溶特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万伟; 刘今强; 李莎; 鲁凤鸣; 王际平; 张玉高


    以对生态环境友好的D5(十甲基环五硅氧烷)替代传统反胶束体系中的烷烃作为连续相介质,制备新型的D5反胶束体系,并对该体系的增溶行为进行研究,分别比较了阴离子表面活性剂、阳离子表面活性剂、非离子表面活性剂的D5反胶束体系的增溶水量.结果表明,用非极性的D5替代传统反胶束体系中的烷烃来制备对生态环境友好的反胶束体系的方法可行;在某些需要助表面活性剂才能形成的D5反胶束体系里,助表面活性剂醇的用量和表面活性剂的类型及其浓度都影响着体系的增溶水量;非离子表面活性剂形成的TX-10/正辛醇/D5反胶束体系增溶水量最大.%The novel D5 reverse micelle systems have been prepared by substituting the eco-friendly D5 (decamethyl cyclopentasiloxane) for the alkanes of traditional reverse micelle systems as continuous phase medium, and the water solubilization behaviors of the systems have been investigated by comparing the water solubilization amount of D5 reverse micelle systems prepared with anionic surfactant, cau'onic surfactant and non-ionic surfactant respectively. The results show that it is a feasible way to substitute the non-polar D5 for the traditional alkanes for preparing reverse micelle systems, and it is much more eco-friendly ; in the cases of that cosurfactants are necessary for preparing reverse micelle systems, both the dosage of the alcohol as cosurfactant and the type and the concentration of the surfactant affect the water solubilization amount;the TX-10/n-octanol/D5 reverse micelle system formed from non-ionic surfactant has the maximum water solubilization amount.

  6. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  7. Fouling in reverse electrodialysis under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David A.; Kunteng, Damnearn; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Kitty


    Renewable energy can be generated from mixing salt water and fresh water in reverse electrodialysis. The potential for energy generation from mixing seawater and river water is enormous. To investigate the effect of fouling when such natural feed waters are used, the performance of three different s

  8. The Application of Reverse Osmosis Technology in QingJiang Petrochemical Demineralized Water Process%反渗透技术在清江石化除盐水工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 华伦


    This paper summarizes the structure,producing area and application industry of the Dow reverse osmosis membrane membrane.The technical process,the process control parameters(recovery rate,desalination rate,in-and-out water quality) and process flow and reverse osmosis desalting operation of the reverse osmosis desalting device in Qingjiang petrochemical plant are included.The use of Dow reverse osmosis membrane element,the characteristics and the application,design principle of process,process flow,parameters,and the cleaning frequency in application are also covered.At the same time,some relevant improvement measures are proposed.%综述了陶氏反渗透膜的膜结构、产地及应用行业。阐述了清江石化反渗透脱盐装置的工艺过程、工艺控制参数(回收率、脱盐率、进出水水质)及工艺流程和反渗透脱盐装置的运行情况,包括使用的陶氏反渗透膜元件的特点及应用,设计的工艺原理、流程、参数,以及应用中存在的清洗周期短、制水比居高不下等问题及相关改进措施。

  9. Application of Reverse Osmosis Technology on Treatment of Saline Condensate Water%反渗透技术在含盐冷凝水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈留平; 张云云


    文章根据国内制盐行业的水资源使用现状,结合国内典型的真空制盐装置,介绍了反渗透技术改造电站传统制水装置后处理含盐冷凝水方案,并对其经济性作了分析,展示了反渗透技术处理含盐冷凝水的环保价值和经济价值,以及在制盐行业的应用前景.%According to the status of water resource utilization in civil salt industry and combining with typical vacuum salt production equipment, the treatment solution to saline condensate water discharged from traditional water preparation system in power station is introduced by reverse osmosis technology. The economy is also analyzed. It is shown that there will be environmental protection value, economic value and application prospects in salt industry if the reverse osmosis technology is used to treat saline condensate water.

  10. Removal of Mutagenic Organic Pollutants from Drinking Water by Combined Reverse Osmosis%反渗透组合工艺去除水中致突变有机物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍园; 姜兆春; 贾智萍; 李予江


    Using CODMn and Ames test as evaluation index,the reverse osmosisbase d process for drinking water treatment was studied on removal of mutagenic organ ic pollutants from tap water.The study results show that the activated carbon un it in the process can remove about 50% of organic pollutants,but the attenuation of tap water mutagenicity is poor.The reverse osmosis unit can remove organic p ollutants and attenuate mutagenicity simultaneously.This combined process is fea sible for providing safe potable water with good quality.%以高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和Ames试验为评价指标,研究了以反渗透为主的组合工艺对自来水中致突变性有机物的去除效果。试验表明,组合工艺中的活性炭单元可以去除自来水中约50%的有机污染物,但对自来水的致突变性没有明显改善;反渗透膜单元能达到同时去除有机污染物和改善自来水致突变性的效果。此工艺是获得安全优质饮用水的一种可行办法。

  11. 反渗透海水淡化预处理工艺%A study on different pretreatments process in sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永超; 解利昕; 高婷婷; 周晓凯


    对不同海水预处理工艺进行了研究,对比分析了不同工艺产水浊度、化学需氧量(CODMn)、污染密度指数(SDI15)等参数及不同预处理工艺对超滤膜膜比通量的影响。混凝-沉淀或气浮处理能够有效降低海水浊度,配合砂滤或纤维过滤,浊度可以降低到0.3NTU左右。当超滤处理海水时,无论采用何种预处理方法,其产水浊度和SDI15都可以满足反渗透进水要求。直接超滤时,CODMn去除效果较差,超滤结合混凝-沉淀或气浮处理时, CODMn去除率有了较大的提高。预处理方法对超滤膜膜比通量影响较大,直接采用超滤进行处理时,超滤膜膜比通量衰减较快,经混凝-沉淀或气浮处理后,膜比通量衰减有所减缓,进一步经砂滤或纤维过滤后,膜比通量的衰减得到了较好的控制。采用混凝-沉淀/纤维过滤预处理工艺时超滤膜膜比通量衰减最低。%Different seawater pretreatment processes were studied in terms of comparative analysis of turbidity,chemical oxygen demand(CODMn),pollution density index(SDI15),etc and the effects on ultrafiltration membrane flux of different pretreatment processes. Coagulation-sedimentation or air flotation process can reduce seawater turbidity effectively. With sand filtration or fibre filtration, turbidity can be reduced to around 0.3NTU. When seawater was treated by the ultrafiltration,regardless of the method,the turbidity of the water and SDI15 can meet the requirement of reverse osmosis. When ultrafiltration is adopted directly,the removal effect of CODMn was very bad. When ultrafiltration combines with coagulation-sedimentation or air flotation,the removal rate of CODMn was enhanced. Pretreament methods have a great influence on ultrafiltration membrane flux. Ultrafiltration membrane flux declined rapidly by ultrafiltration directly. Membrane flux attenuation slows by coagulation-sedimentation or air flotation. Membrane

  12. Optimization research on SDI test technology monitoring influent water quality in reverse osmosis system%反渗透系统进水SDI测试技术的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭亮; 潘献辉; 郝军; 张艳萍


    淤泥密度指数(SDI)作为重要的水质参数可以有效评价反渗透系统进水水质.开展反渗透系统进水SDI测试技术研究,考察各种测试条件和进水性质对SDI的影响,优化测试方法,从而实现对SDI准确高效的监测与分析.结果表明,SDI测试结果与测试条件密切相关,它随着测试时间间隔的缩短而增大,随着测试体积的增加而减小,随着测试水温的升高,SDI值会有增大的趋势,随着压力的增加,SDI值也会明显地增大;低浊度是反渗透系统进水的必要条件,测试时需控制进水的浊度在0.10 NTU以下.%Alstraet:Silt density index (SDI) is an important water quality parameter for evaluating influent water quality of reverse osmosis system.A research on SDI test technology monitoring influent water quality in reverse osmosis system was carried out.The effects of different conditions and influent water characteristics on SDI were investigated,and then,an optimized testing method was put forward,so as to realize the accurate and efficient monitoring of SDI.The test results showed that,SDI values were closely related to test conditions:it increased with the shortening of time interval between tests; decreased with the increasing of water sample volume; furthermore,along with the increasing of water temperature and pressure,SDI value also increased obviously.As low turbidity was a necessary characteristic of the influent water of reverse osmosis system,the turbidity of water sample should be controlled below 0.10 NTU during the SDI test.

  13. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?


    Brito, Marisa


    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  14. Operation of waste water recycling system in reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration and its improvement%超滤反渗透污水回用系统的运行及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏岩; 李晓巍; 孔剑锋; 隗华


      After four years operation of the water recycling system with ultra filtration and reverse osmosis in Gold East Paper, scale formation and dirt blockage occurred in reverse osmosis because of higher alkalinity, conductivity and water hardness. The composite membrane treatment project was adopted to reduce the running cost and fresh water consumption, eliminate the hidden danger.%  金东纸业超滤(UF)和反渗透(RO)污水处理回用系统在运行约四年后,由于反渗透进水水质存在波动,碱度、电导率和硬度常常偏高,导致反渗透系统非常容易结垢和污堵。采用综合膜处理方案,结合应用3D TRASAR膜自动化技术后,污水回用系统总运行费用(TCO)明显下降,减少了清水用量,从根本上消除了系统运行的隐患。

  15. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  16. Antiscaling efficacy of CaCO3 and CaSO4 on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified reverse osmosis membranes in the presence of humic acid: interplay of membrane surface properties and water chemistry. (United States)

    Ray, Jessica R; Wong, Whitney; Jun, Young-Shin


    Mineral scaling persists in many water treatment processes. More specifically, it can significantly reduce the efficacy of aromatic polyamide (PA) membranes during reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment. Previous studies have integrated hydrophilic materials, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), onto RO membranes to combat scaling from generally hydrophobic feed water constituents; however, there are still outstanding knowledge gaps regarding the interplay of the modified membrane surface chemistry and the water chemistry in complex RO feed waters. In this work, we have investigated the mechanisms of hydrophilic PEG-grafted PA membranes in reducing mineral scaling from calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in the presence of humic acid (HA). Based on surface and solution analyses, we found that colloidal formation was significantly reduced on PA-PEG surfaces in systems without HA. When HA was introduced, CaCO3 scaling was reduced on both virgin and PA-PEG membrane surfaces; while, interestingly, synergistic PEG-HA-CaSO4 interactions increased CaSO4 colloidal formation on PA-PEG membranes. Promoted CaSO4 formation results from a high negative surface charge near the PEG-modified membrane surface when HA and SO4(2-) are present, attracting more Ca(2+) to form CaSO4. The results of this work provide new information about colloidal formation at water-membrane interfaces for designing better PEG and PEG-based scale-resistant desalination membranes.

  17. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)


    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse log

  18. Covalent Attachment of the Water-insoluble Ni(P Cy 2 N Phe 2 ) 2 Electrocatalyst to Electrodes Showing Reversible Catalysis in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Maciá, Patricia [Max Planck Institute für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany; Priyadarshani, Nilusha [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99354 USA; Dutta, Arnab [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99354 USA; Chemistry Department, IIT Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad 382424 India; Weidenthaler, Claudia [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany; Lubitz, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany; Shaw, Wendy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd. Richland WA 99354 USA; Rüdiger, Olaf [Max Planck Institute für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany


    Hydrogenases are a diverse group of metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen and protons at high rates. The catalytic activity of these enzymes does not require overpotential because their active site has been evolutionarily optimized to operate fast and efficiently. These enzymes have inspired the development of molecular catalysts, which have dramatically improved in efficiency in recent years, to the point that some synthetic catalysts even outperform hydrogenases under certain conditions. In this work, we use a reversible noble-metal-free homogeneous catalyst, the [Ni(PCy2NPhe2)2]2+ complex, and we covalently immobilize it on a functionalized highly oriented pyrolytic graphite “edge” (HOPGe) electrode surface. This catalyst is not water soluble, but once it is surface-confined on the electrode, it maintains its catalytic properties in aqueous solutions, showing reversibility for H2 oxidation/reduction. Immobilization of the [Ni(PCy2NPhe2)2]2+ complex onto a multi-walled carbon nanotubes coated electrode leads to even higher catalytic current densities and enhanced stability.

  19. Activity coefficients, interfacial tensions and retention in reversed-phase liquid chormatography on LiChrosorb RP-18 with methanol-water mixtures


    Hammers, W.E.; Meurs, G.J.; Ligny, C.L. de


    Literature data on activity coefficients of various solutes in water, of some tetraalkyl compounds in methanol-water mixture and of water in organic solvents have been correlated with the product of the molecular surface area of the solute and the solute-solvent interfacial tension at ambient temperature. The conditions for which this relationship holds are examined. The retentions of apolar solutes have been measured on LiChrosorb RP-18 using methanol-water mixtures as eluents at 25°C. The r...

  20. On the Treatment of Water Gushing of Maijishan Tunnel 2# Inclined Well and Reverse Slope Drainage Programme%麦积山隧道2#斜井涌水处理及反坡排水方案浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There appeared large quantity of water gushing and concentrated water flowing, and the combination of reverse slope drainage and post grouting water plugging is used to effectively divert, intercept, drain and plug water, minimize the effect of water gushing of the tunnel, and effectively improve the construction efficiency, the key point of reverse slope drainage is setting up the location of pumping station reasonably according to the actual site, equipping with enough pumping and drainage equipment as deeded, and taking maximum water flowing into full consideration and preparing drainage capacity to flexiblely and timely treat the effects of water increases on tunnel digging. Combined with water gushing and constantly optimization and adjustment of the construction programme and drainage facilities of Maijishan tunnel 2# inclined well of Baoji-Lanzhou passenger dedicated line, this paper summarizes a construction method that applies to the treatment of water gushing.%隧道出现大的涌水和集中出水,采用反坡排水和后注浆堵水相结合的方式,对出水做到有效地“引、截、排、堵”,将隧道涌水对施工进度的影响降到最低,有效提高施工工效,反坡排水重点是根据现场实际合理设置泵站位置,按需配备足够的抽排水设备并充分考虑最大出水可能预备排水能力,以便灵活、及时地处理出水增大对隧道掘进的影响;本文结合宝兰客运专线铁路麦积山隧道2#斜井施工出现涌水及处理过程中施工方案和排水设施配置的不断优化调整,总结出的一套适用于隧道涌水处理的施工方法。

  1. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)


    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  2. Controlled Synthesis and Mechanism of Gold Nanoparicles in Reverse Microemulsions%反相微乳液中纳米金的可控合成及其机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 齐文杰; 安学勤; 朱银燕


    Gold nanoparticles were prepared in W/O microemulsions of AOT/heptane/HAuCl4·3H2O system using N2H4·H2O as the reducing regent. These particles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, TEM and FT-IR. The influences of the molar ratio of water to surfactant (ω=nH2O/nAOT) and the concentration of tetrachloroauric acid on the particle size were investigated. The results show that the average particle size of the prepared gold nanoparticles is from 4 nm to 12 nm, and their distribution is narrow. The relation between ω and average particles size is linearity. On the other hand, the influence of tetrachloroauric acid concentration is complex. As the concentration increases, the particle size decreases firstly and increases subsequently. FT-IR spectra indicate that the surfactant molecules are strongly absorbed on the surface of gold nanoparticles through a coordination bond between the gold atom and the sulfonic group of AOT molecules, so the surfactant AOT has a good protection effect.%在AOT/正庚烷/氯金酸反相微乳液中,用水合肼作为还原剂制备了纳米金粒子,用紫外-可见光谱和透射电镜进行分析,系统地研究了水和表面活性剂摩尔比(ω=nH2O/nAOT)以及氯金酸浓度对粒径的影响.结果表明,制备的纳米金粒子粒径在4~12 nm、单分散性好.纳米金粒径与ω值存在线性关系.氯金酸的浓度对粒径的影响比较复杂,随着浓度增大,粒径先减小后增大.用FT-IR红外光谱解释了AOT的磺酸基对纳米金粒子表面有强烈的吸附作用,从而对合成的纳米金粒子有着很强的保护作用.


    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...


    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  5. Time-dependent solubilization of IgG in AOT-brine-isooctane microemulsions: role of cluster formation. (United States)

    Gerhardt, N I; Dungan, S R


    The stability and structure of protein-containing water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions were investigated by using the large protein immunoglobulin G (IgG, MW 155,000) in a mixture comprised of brine, sulfosuccinic acid bis [2-ethylhexyl]ester (sodium salt), and isooctane. We explored factors affecting the initial uptake of IgG into the w/o microemulsion and its subsequent release to a solid (precipitate) phase, and the kinetics of the latter process. Influences of such parameters as pH, ionic strength, and protein concentration on the solubilization and precipitation of bovine IgG in the organic phase are described. The structure and dynamics in microemulsions containing bovine IgG were probed by using dynamic light scattering, and it was found that the presence of IgG in the microemulsion induced strong attractive forces between the droplets. Based on results obtained by using these various experimental approaches, a model for protein solubilization and release is proposed. In this model, we propose the formation of clusters within which bovine IgG resides and which substantially slow the kinetics of protein release from the droplets to the precipitate phase.

  6. Physic-Chemical treatment and demineralization by EDR to reutilize the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant; Tratamiento fisico-quimico y desmineralizacion por electrodialisis reversible para reutilizar el efluente de una EDAR urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Corral, M.; Pino, M.P. del; Gil Lodos, M.; Rodriguez Garcia, M.


    Etudes held at the research and development center DEREA placed at Gran Canaria, Canary islands, have proved the viability of regenerating urban waste waters treating the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP del surest) with a physic-chemical treatment followed by a demineralization by electrodialysis reversal. The physic-chemical system was composed of the following units: 1 coagulation tank, 3 floculators, 1 lamellar decanter, 1 pH neutralization system, 1 chlorination system, 1 multi bed filter with chemicals reservoir, dosifiers for lime, FeCl{sub 3} polielectrolytes, sulfuric acid, and NaOCl. The physic-chemical system treated daily about 250-300 cubic meters of the effluents of the EDAR del surest, without chlorination effluent, and worked with a 90% recovery (got 90 m``3 for each 100 feeded). (Author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋勤; 曾世林; 王正


    This paper introduced the application of reverse osmosis technology to the desalination process in supplement water for submerged arc furnace. It tested the effects of original water suspended matter concentration,hardness and static pressure difference both sides of RO membrane on system operation, water yield and desalination rate. The result shows that original water suspended matter has great effects on system water production and original water hardness has less ef-fect on RO water production. It is beneficial to enhance desalination to decrease the static pressure difference both sides of RO membrane. It plays a key role in normal operation of system to increase combined deep pretreatment, decrease the original water concentration and strengthen germicide and algicide in pretreatment stage.%介绍了反渗透技术在矿热炉补充水除盐工艺中的应用,并进行了原水悬浮物浓度、硬度和RO膜两侧静压差对系统运行状况、产水量和除盐率影响的测试.结果表明,原水悬浮物对系统产水量有严重影响;原水硬度对RO产水量影响相对较小;RO膜两侧静差降低,有利于提高除盐率.增加组合深度预处理工序,降低原水的悬浮物浓度,强化预处理阶段杀菌灭藻,对除盐系统设备正常运行起关键作用.

  8. Study on Treating Boron-containing Radioactive Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plant by Reverse Osmosis%核电厂含硼放射性废液的反渗透处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾健; 王松平; 王晓伟


    Born-containing radioactive waste water was treated by two stage reverse osmosis equipment in order to study the performance of desalting, removing of B and nuclides by the equipment. Results showed that operation pressure should be adjusted in order to avoid decreasing of permeation flux. The two stage reverse osmosis quipment displayed excellent performance of desalting, removing of B. The overall rejection efficiency of salts and B were above 99.50% and 84.30% respectively. Furthermore, 137Cs and 90Sr existing in the waste water could be removed effectively.%文章考察了采用两级反渗透装置、对含硼放射性废水进行处理时,该装置运行过程中脱盐、除硼、核素去除性能等的变化情况.结果表明,反渗透装置在运行过程中,需调节操作压力,以防止膜通量的不断降低;反渗透装置不仅具有优良的脱盐及除硼性能,其中总脱盐率和总除硼率分别保持在99.50%和84.30%以上,同时对废水中放射性核素137Cs和90Sr具有很好的截留效果.

  9. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde


    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  10. Reverse logistics - a framework


    Brito, Marisa; Dekker, Rommert


    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  11. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of product

  12. Solubilization of water in water-in-oil microemulsions of kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andheria, A.P.; Bhagwat, S.S. [Univ. of Bombay (India)


    The incorporation of water into fuels formulated as microemulsions can offer several advantages such as fire resistance, increased flash point, and improved air-fuel contact. To this end, phase equilibria of kerosene microemulsions employing ionic and nonionic surfactants such as sodium di-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), lauryl diethanolamide (LDEA), nonylphenol EO-4.5 (NPEO-4.5), sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), as well as cosurfactants such as n-pentanol, n-hexanol, and n-heptanol, were studied. The effect of the aromaticity of the oil phase on the solubilization of water was also investigated.

  13. Water Quality Analysis of Reverse Osmosis Desalination Brine%反渗透海水淡化后浓海水的水质特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海燕; 周琳


      Seawater desalination develops fast as a significant method to solve the global water resource crisis. But there are rare report about the quality of concentrated sea water. In this paper,many parameters of seawater desalination water and original seawater are analyzed. the data we got may be something useful for the water environment management and scientific study.%  作为水资源的开源增量技术,海水淡化已经成为解决全球水资源危机的重要途径。通过对浓海水的水质分析,分析了海水淡化水质状况和存在的主要问题,为水源地的水环境管理和规划提供重要科学依据。

  14. Comparison of nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-qPCR approaches for detection of GI and GII noroviruses in drinking water (United States)

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for a number of waterborne and foodborne gastroenteritis cases each year. They are frequently associated with human sewage, and thus a potential link between wastewater discharge and contamination of source waters exists. Subsequently, contami...

  15. The reversed-flow gas chromatography technique as a tool for the study of the evaporation retardation of SO2 and (CH3)2S from water by soluble surfactants. (United States)

    Sevastos, D; Kotsalos, E; Koliadima, A


    In the present work the evaporation retardation of SO2 and (CH3)2S (=DMS) from water by soluble surfactants was studied by the Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (R.F.G.C.) technique. Using suitable mathematical analysis, rate coefficients, kc, for the transfer of SO2 and DMS from pure or artificial sea water to the atmospheric environment were determined in the presence or the absence of surfactants. The efficiency of the three surfactants used (CTAB, TRITON X-100 and SDS) to retard the evaporation rate of SO2 and DMS from water was estimated by the decrease of the kc values in the presence of the three surfactants, compared to those in the absence of surfactants. The more efficient surfactant for the retardation evaporation of SO2 from both the pure and the artificial sea water was found to be the cationic CTAB surfactant, as the maximum decreases of the kc values were found to be 4.61×10(-3)cms(-1) (number of films, n=1) and 3.07×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3), respectively. On the other hand, more efficient surfactant for the retardation evaporation of DMS from pure water was found to be the non-ionic TRITON X-100, in which the decrease of the kc value was estimated to be 18.20×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3) and from artificial sea water the cationic CTAB surfactant in which the decrease of the kc value was found to be 8.24×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3). Finally, the precision of the R.F.G.C. method in studying the retardation effect of various surfactants in the transfer of SO2 and DMS from the water body to the atmosphere is estimated (mean value 96.69%), and the experimental values of kc are compared with those given in the literature.

  16. Contrasting effects of ozone under different water supplies in two Mediterranean tree species (United States)

    Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; Elvira, Susana; Gimeno, Benjamín S.

    The effects of ozone (O 3) exposure under different water availabilities were studied in two Mediterranean tree species: Quercus ilex and Ceratonia siliqua. Plants were exposed to different O 3 concentrations in open top chambers (charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF)) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb v of O 3 ((7:00-17:00 solar time) (NF+)) during 2 years, and to different water regimes (IR, sample irrigation, and WS, reduced water dose to 50%) through the last of those 2 years. AOT40 in the NF+ treatment was 59265 ppb v h (from March 1999 to August 1999) while in the NF treatment, the AOT40 was 6727 ppb v h for the same period. AOT40 was always 0 in the CF treatment. WS plants presented lower stomatal conductances and net photosynthetic rates, and higher foliar N concentrations than IR plants in both species. The irrigation treatment did not change the response trends to ozone in Q. ilex, the most sensitive species to O 3 ambient concentrations, but it changed those of C. siliqua, the least sensitive species, since its ozone-fumigated WS plants did not decrease their net photosynthetic rates nor their biomass accumulation as it happened to its ozone-fumigated IR plants. These results show interspecific variations in O 3 sensitivity under different water availabilities.

  17. Improved Aerosol Optical Thickness, Columnar Water Vapor, and Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Combined CASI and SASI Airborne Hyperspectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yang


    Full Text Available An increasingly common requirement in remote sensing is the integration of hyperspectral data collected simultaneously from different sensors (and fore-optics operating across different wavelength ranges. Data from one module are often relied on to correct information in the other, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT and columnar water vapor (CWV. This paper describes problems associated with this process and recommends an improved strategy for processing remote sensing data, collected from both visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared modules, to retrieve accurate AOT, CWV, and surface reflectance values. This strategy includes a workflow for radiometric and spatial cross-calibration and a method to retrieve atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance based on a radiative transfer function. This method was tested using data collected with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI and SWIR Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI from a site in Huailai County, Hebei Province, China. Various methods for retrieving AOT and CWV specific to this region were assessed. The results showed that retrieving AOT from the remote sensing data required establishing empirical relationships between 465.6 nm/659 nm and 2105 nm, augmented by ground-based reflectance validation data, and minimizing the merit function based on AOT@550 nm optimization. The paper also extends the second-order difference algorithm (SODA method using Powell’s methods to optimize CWV retrieval. The resulting CWV image has fewer residual surface features compared with the standard methods. The derived remote sensing surface reflectance correlated significantly with the ground spectra of comparable vegetation, cement road and soil targets. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable enough for integrated atmospheric correction and surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing data. This study provides a good reference for surface

  18. 利用反渗透技术的 RO -SPC超纯水系统的设计%On RO-SPC Ultra Pure Water System Using Reverse Osmosis Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着超纯水技术在各个行业的应用日益广泛,对超纯水的要求也越来越高,各种先进检测分析仪器也就应运而生。本文详述了如何利用反渗透技术制备超纯水的工作原理及工艺流程,在该系统中增加控制电路并采用PLC控制系统运行来监测水质。%With ultra pure water technology being applied in various industries ,requirements for the ultra pure water are increasingly high ,thus all kinds of advanced detection analy-sis instrument emerge as the times require .This paper describes the working procedure of producing ultra pure water by using reverse osmosis technology ,and explains how to moni-tor water quality by using control circuit and PLC control system .

  19. Mass transfer properties of chlorinated aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes


    Ettori, Axel; Gaudichet-Maurin, Emmanuelle; Aimar, Pierre; Causserand, Christel


    International audience; Water (A) and solute (B) permeability of aromatic polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis membranes (RO) were monitored under varying applied pressure, solute nature and concentration to assess their evolution after exposure of the membrane to free chlorine. Above a threshold value of 400 ppm h HOCl water permeability was influenced by permeation conditions during both filtration of ultrapure water (UP water) and reverse osmosis of salts performed sequentially. Water permeabili...

  20. Forward Extraction of Almond Protein Using Reverse Micelles%反胶束溶液萃取杏仁蛋白前萃工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    AOT/异辛烷反胶束溶液萃取杏仁蛋白的前萃工艺进行了研究.试验以AOT/异辛烷为反胶束溶液体系,以蛋白质萃取率为指标,分别对溶液的pH值、W0值、萃取时间和萃取温度进行了单因素试验以及四因素三水平的正交试验,以确定杏仁蛋白前萃的最佳工艺.正交试验结果方差分析表明,在各因素中,W0值对蛋白质提取率影响达到显著水平,其他三因素未达到显著水平,确定的最佳工艺条件为:W0值为40,溶液pH值7.0,前萃温度25 ℃,前萃时间90 min.%The forward extraction of almond protein using AOT / isooctane reverse micellar solution was studied. Taking protein extraction rate as index, the effects of pH values, W0 value, extraction time and temperature were studied with single factor experiments, and a three level factorial -designed orthogonal experiment was carried out to optimize the extraction process. Results:Variance analysis show the influence of Wo value on protein extraction rate is significant, the other three factors do not reach significant level, and the optimum forward extraction conditions are W0 40, pH 7.0, extraction temperature 25 ℃, and extraction time 90 min.

  1. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  2. A model for triple helix formation on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and stabilization by specific interactions with the water soluble perylene derivative, DAPER. (United States)

    Rossetti, Luigi; D'Isa, Giuliana; Mauriello, Clementina; Varra, Michela; De Santis, Pasquale; Mayol, Luciano; Savino, Maria


    The promoter of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, in the region from -1000 to +1, contains two homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences (-835/-814 and -108/-90), that can be considered as potential targets to triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) for applying antigene strategy. We have chosen the sequence (-108/-90) on the basis of its unfavorable chromatin organization, evaluated by theoretical nucleosome positioning and nuclease hypersensitive sites mapping. On this sequence, anti-parallel triplex with satisfactory thermodynamic stability is formed by two TFOs, having different lengths. Triplex stability is significantly increased by specific interactions with the perylene derivative N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino) propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (DAPER). Since DAPER is a symmetric molecule, the induced Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra in the range 400-600 nm allows us to obtain information on drug binding to triplex and duplex DNA. The drug-induced ellipticity is significantly higher in the case of triplex with respect to duplex and, surprisingly, it increases at decreasing of DNA. A model is proposed where self-stacked DAPER binds to triplex or to duplex narrow grooves.

  3. 反渗透法处理浓水存在的问题及解决方案%The Problems and Solution in Reverse Osmosis Recycling Concentrated Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松杰; 宋绍军; 聂明


    反渗透浓水中有机物含量较高,因此常发生生物污染,如果处理不当,会使反渗透系统发生严重的污染堵塞。不仅可以使膜的性能下降,还会缩短其使用寿命。通过离线清洗,并选择了合适的化学药剂进行处理,反渗透系统已经恢复正常运行。%The concentrated water has high content of organic matter.Therefore,biological contamination often occurs.If handled improperly,reverse osmosis system will plug a serious pollution.It can make the performance of membranes declined and shorten the lifetime.We conducted off-line cleaning and chose the right chemical agent.Reverse osmosis system has resumed normal operation.

  4. 机械蒸汽再压缩技术处理反渗透浓水的中试研究%Pilot Study on Mechanical Vapor Recompression Technology for Treatment of Concentrated Water from Reverse Osmosis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金鸿; 侯霙; 李海芳; 唐运平


    近年来,反渗透(RO)在污水厂二级出水深度处理中的应用越来越多.然而,RO浓水的含盐量较高、有机物难于降解,采用常规方法处理时出水水质难于达到排放标准.采用机械蒸汽再压缩技术(MVR)对某污水厂的反渗透浓水进行了6倍浓缩的中试,其出水COD≤50 mg/L、NH-N≤10 mg/L,可以达到(GB/T 18920-2002)的要求;COD、TDS、Mg和色度等指标的浓缩倍数与体系的浓缩倍数基本一致,而浓缩水中的TP、SiO、TN、NH-N浓度却低于原水的,这主要是由于磷酸盐、硅酸盐的沉淀和氨气逸出所致.另外,钙盐等的沉淀作用还造成浓缩水中SS浓度的增加.由此可见,利用MVR处理反渗透浓水在技术上是可行的,但是需要增加沉淀物的预处理和排出气体的收集处理装置.%Recently, the application of reverse osmosis (RO) in advanced treatment of effluent form WWTP becomes very popular. However, due to high salinity and refractory organic compounds in concentrated water of RO, the effluent treated by traditional processes can not meet the discharge standard. A pilot experiment at a concentration factor of 6 was conducted to treat concentrated water from reverse osmosis (RO) process in a sewage treatment plant using mechanical vapor recompression (MVR)technology. COD and NH3 -N in the effluent from MVR process are equal to or less than 50 mg/L and 10 mg/L, meeting the Reuse of Urban Recycling Water-Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920 -2002). The concentration factors of COD, TDS, Mg2+ and color in concentrated water of MVR are similar to those in concentrated water of RO. However, the concentration factors of TP, SiO2, TN and NH3 - N are lower than those in concentrated water of RO due to escape of ammonia and precipitation of phosphate and silicate. In addition, precipitation of calcium salt causes increase of SS in concentrated water of MVR. The experiment shows that MVR technology is

  5. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam


    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  6. 基于MCGS和PLC的反渗透水处理监控系统设计%Design of reverse osmosis water treatment monitoring system base on MCGS and PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠芳; 曹嘉; 伍星


    For the purpose of enhancing system reliability, improving the control precision and the passing rate of water treatment and reducing the burden on operators, a reverse osmosis water treatment monitoring system was designed based on MCCS and PLC, combining the practice in certain plant. Automatic control, centralized data management, fault alarm, and many other functions were achieved; Graphical interface displays the whole process and operates easily. It works reliably in water plant and the passing rate substantially increases, so it has a high practical value.%为了增强系统运行的可靠性,提高控制精度和水质处理合格率,同时减轻操作负担,结合某厂实际,设计了基于MCGS组态软件和可编程控制器(PLC)的反渗透水处理监控系统.此系统实现了自动控制、数据集中管理、故障报警等多方面功能,图形化的人机界面显示了设备运行全过程,操作简明快捷.在水厂的实际运行中安全可靠,出水合格率大幅提高,具有很高的实用价值.

  7. Relevant factors for membrane fouling in brackish water reverse osmosis desalination%苦咸水反渗透淡化中影响膜面的污染因素∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋跃飞; 李铁梅; 周建国; 苏保卫; 高从堦


    Fouling phenomenon, type and degree in brackish water reverse osmosis ( BWRO ) desalination are significantly different from seawater reverse osmosis ( SWRO) process, due to the complex components of brackish water in different regions and the higher concentrate factor ( CF ) value in the majority of BWRO processes. Currently, membrane fouling as one of the bottlenecks for the large⁃scale BWRO application, has attracted in creasing attentions. In this review, overseas and domestic research progresses in application factors influencing the fouling on membrane surface in BWRO desalination were summarized in detail. The fouling components, fouling potential and quality indicators in water resources, and the physical properties influencing membrane fouling were introduced respectively. Two types of pretreatment methods including conventional and membrane technology were analysed, and the advantage of consistently high quality independent of influent associated with for membrane pretreatment was pointed out. In addition, the problems and suggestions for the current research status were proposed.%由于苦咸水的化学组成和浓度分布在不同地区有着显著的差异,以及淡化工艺中普遍较高的浓缩因子( concentrate factor, CF)值(在4—10之间),苦咸水反渗透( brackish water reverse osmosis, BWRO)淡化过程中的膜污染现象、类型和程度较海水反渗透( seawater reverse osmosis, SWRO)淡化过程有明显的不同。目前,膜污染已成为BWRO大规模应用于苦咸水淡化领域的瓶颈之一,如何解决这一问题成为该领域的研究热点。本文详细综述了国内外BWRO淡化过程中影响膜面污染因素的应用研究进展,重点介绍了进水来源污染成分及污染倾向、进水水质优劣指标和进水物性对膜面污染的影响;按照分离技术的不同,分类讨论了常规预处理和膜法预处理工艺,指出后者不易受进水水质变化的

  8. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S


    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  9. Reversible Logic Circuit Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Markov, I L; Prasad, A K; Hayes, John P.; Markov, Igor L.; Prasad, Aditya K.; Shende, Vivek V.


    Reversible, or information-lossless, circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement for quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We propose new constructions for reversible circuits composed of NOT, Controlled-NOT, and TOFFOLI gates (the CNT gate library) based on permutation theory. A new algorithm is given to synthesize optimal reversible circuits using an arbitrary gate library. We also describe much faster heuristic algorithms. We also pursue applications of the proposed techniques to the synthesis of quantum circuits.

  10. 石化厂污水反渗透浓水的催化臭氧氧化处理%Catalytic Ozonation Treatment of Reverse Osmosis-concentrated Water from Petrochemical Plant Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚小芝; 赵辉; 万国晖; 刘正; 栾金义


    针对某炼油厂二沉池出水回用过程中产生的反渗透浓水高盐、高硬、低COD和可生化性差的特点,采用催化臭氧氧化工艺处理,出水达标排放.实验确定了对臭氧氧化催化效果最好的催化剂,合适的反应条件为:反应时间大于30 min,臭氧质量浓度15-30 mg/L.经催化臭氧氧化处理后,反渗透浓水的COD降低至60 mg/L以下,满足排放要求,同时反渗透浓水可生化性提高.%Based on the characteristics of high salt content, high hardness, low COD and bad biodegradability, the reverse osmosis-concentrated water produced in the reuse of wastewater from the secondary sedimentation tank in a refinery was treated by catalytic ozonation process, and the effluent can meet the discharge standards. The best catalyst for catalytic ozonation is confirmed through experiments and the optimum reaction conditions are as follows: reaction time more than 30 min, ozone mass concentration 15-30 mg/L. After treated by catalytic ozonation, the COD of the reverse osmosis- concentrated water is decreased to below 60 mg/L, which can meet the discharge standards. At the same time, the biodegradability of the treated wastewater is improved.

  11. 反渗透深度处理维生素C凝结水的中试研究%Pilot test on reverse osmosis to treat condensed water containing vitamin C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖入峰; 刘景洋; 张建强; 孙晓明; 陈雪


    针对沈阳某药厂维生素C生产工艺中凝结水产量大、处理成本高和杂质复杂等问题,提出了采用反渗透技术对工艺凝结水进行处理.通过建立中试规模膜装置,在间歇试验和连续试验的基础上,分析了膜通量、压力、运行时间、电导率、总有机碳(TOC)等指标关系,研究了运行临界通量、清洗方式等工艺条件.反渗透系统处理效果明显,脱盐率和TOC去除率分别维持在99.9%和99%以上,该工艺切实可行.%Aiming at the problems in vitamin C production process in some pharmacy plant in Shenyang, such as large condensed water quantity, high treatment cost, and complicated impurities, the reverse osmosis process was suggested to treat the production condensed water in this paper. Based on the bench experiments and continuous experiments, this paper analyzed the relationship between the indexes of membrane flux, pressure, operation time, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) through the pilot scale membrane facility, meanwhile, some process parameters, including the critical operation flux and cleaning method, were also studied. The reverse osmosis showed good performance in study. The desalination rate and TOC removal rate were above 9 9.9% and 99 % , respectively, which indicated that this process was applicable.

  12. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.


    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  13. InfIuencing factors of ORP measurement for reverse osmosis infIuent water in thermaI power pIants%火电厂反渗透进水ORP测量的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茜; 宋敬霞; 汪思华; 杨波萍


    模拟火电厂反渗透进水,进行了氧化还原电位(ORP)的静态和动态试验,研究了温度、溶解氧和电极表面状态对ORP测量的影响。静态试验结果表明,当温度从15℃升至35℃时, ORP降低了12%;通高纯氮除氧, ORP可降至除氧前的37%。动态模拟冬夏两季电厂在线监测反渗透进水ORP,结果表明,温度为28℃时的ORP比温度为14℃时降低了17%。 ORP电极的表面状态对ORP测量的准确性影响较大。根据分析结果,提出了提高火电厂在线监测反渗透进水ORP准确性的建议。%The static and dynamic state experiments of oxidation reduction potential(ORP) have been done through simulating reverse osmosis influent water in thermal power plants. The effects of temperature ,dissolved oxygen and electrode surface state on ORP measurement is studied. The static experiment results prove that ORP is reduced by 12%when temperature goes up from 15℃to 35℃. ORP can drop by 37%of the result before deoxygenation ,by high purity nitrogen deoxygenation. The on-line monitoring reverse osmosis influent water ORP of the power plant during winter and summer has been simulated dynamically. The results show that when the temperature is 28℃,ORP can be reduced by 17%,which is lower than that of the result when temperature was 14℃. The surface state of ORP electrode has a great effect on the accuracy of ORP measurement. Based on the analytical results ,some suggestions have been proposed to improve the accuracy of the on-line monitoring reverse osmosis influent ORP in thermal power plants.

  14. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous reverse micelles: Effects of solvent confinement and electrolyte concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuhin Pradhan; Harun Al Rasid Gazi; Biswajit Guchhait; Ranjit Biswas


    Steady state and time resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effects of solvent confinement and electrolyte concentration on excited state intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction in 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl) benzonitrile (P5C), 4-(1-piperidinyl) benzonitrile (P6C), and 4-(1-morpholenyl) benzonitrile (M6C) in AOT/n-heptane/acetonitrile and AOT/n-heptane/methanol reverse micelles. Dramatic confinement effects have been revealed via a huge reduction (factor ranging between 100 and 20) over bulk values of both equilibrium and reaction rate constants. A strong dependence on the size of the confinement () of these quantities has also been observed. dependent average static dielectric constant, viscosity and solvation time-scale have been determined. Estimated dielectric constants for confined methanol and acetonitrile show a decrease from the respective bulk values by a factor of 3-5 and viscosities increased by a factor of 2 at the highest considered. Addition of electrolyte at = 5 for acetonitrile is found to produce a linear increase of confined solvent viscosity but leads to a non-monotonic electrolyte concentration dependence of average solvation time. Reaction rate constant is found to decrease linearly with electrolyte concentration for P5C and P6C but non-monotonically for M6C, the highest decrease for all the molecules being ∼ 20% over the value in the absence of added electrolyte in the solvent pool. The observed huge reduction in reaction rate constant is attributed to the effects of decreased solution polarity, enhanced viscosity and slowed-down solvent reorganization of the solvent under confinement in these non-aqueous reverse micelles.

  15. Application of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of two fungicides in environmental water samples (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Yiwen; Zuo, Mei; Dai, Liping; Guo, Xiaojie


    Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of diethofencarb (DF) and pyrimethanil (PM) in environmental water. In the method, a suitable mixture of extraction solvent (50 μL carbon tetrachloride) and dispersive solvent (0.75 mL acetonitrile) are injected into the aqueous samples (5.00 mL) and the cloudy solution is observed. After centrifugation, the enriched analytes in the sediment phase were determined by HPLC-VWD. Different influencing factors, such as the kind and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, extraction time and salt effect were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors for DF and PM were both 108 and the limit of detection were 0.021 ng mL−1 and 0.015 ng mL−1, respectively. The linear ranges were 0.08–400 ng mL−1 for DF and 0.04–200 ng mL−1 for PM. The relative standard deviation (RSDs) were both almost at 6.0% (n = 6). The relative recoveries from samples of environmental water were from the range of 87.0 to 107.2%. Compared with other methods, DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive (low limit of detection) and economical (only 5 mL volume of sample) method. PMID:20862191

  16. Comparison analysis of microbiological monitoring between hemodialysate and reverse osmosis water under different media%不同培养条件下透析液和反渗水微生物监测的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悦昌; 任丽娜; 王旭辉; 陈建文; 陈妙佩; 毛鸿忠; 韩立杰


    目的:比较不同培养基、孵育温度及培养时间的选择对透析液和反渗水微生物监测总菌落计数的差异,确认透析液和反渗水微生物监测的最佳培养条件。方法采用无菌透析液和无菌反渗水配置模拟污染水样本,倾注法接种于伊红美蓝琼脂(EMB)、大豆酪蛋白琼脂(TSA)、胰蛋白胨葡萄糖浸液(TGEA)培养基,于25℃和35℃分别进行培养,并记录培养48、72 h 及7 d 的生长情况。结果不论是25℃还是35℃,TGEA 的生长情况均最佳且最接近预期菌落数(P <0.05);各种培养基培养72 h 比48 h 生长好(P <0.05);培养7 d 后的菌落数与培养72 h 比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论使用倾注平板法及 TGEA 培养基对透析液和反渗水进行微生物监测,需同时在25℃及35℃条件下培养至少72 h,方可产生有效的监测报告,确保患者的透析安全。%Objective To compare the difference between media, incubation temperatures and culture times on the choice of hemodialysate and reverse osmosis water for microbiological monitoring of heterotrophic plate count, and further to confirm the best culture method of microbiological monitoring for hemodialysate and reverse osmosis.Methods The polluted samples were simulated by using sterile dialysate and sterile reverse osmosis water, and then were incubated in 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ with eosin methylene blue agar (EMB), tryptone soy agar (TSA) and tryptone glucose extract agar (TGEA)for 48 h, 72 h and 7 d, respectively.Results Either on 25 ℃ or 35 ℃, the bacteria′s growth condition in TGEA was better than those under other conditions(P 0.05 ).Conclusions The microbiological monitoring for hemodialysate and reverse osmosis water needs to use pour plate method with TGEA, incubating in 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ for 72 h, which may provide the effective reports for ensuring the safety of hemodialysis patients.

  17. Emerging micropollutants in water/wastewater: growing demand on removal technologies. (United States)

    Trapido, M; Epold, I; Bolobajev, J; Dulova, N


    Developing advanced treatment technologies for improving the removal of micropollutants in water/wastewater is important. A suitable treatment is more likely to be used as the polishing step in the treatment scheme. Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) are relevant for removing micropollutants. The ability of direct UV photolysis and selected AOTs to degrade pharmaceuticals, endocrine-disrupting compound and herbicide has been studied and compared. The tested methods resulted in the degradation of the studied micropollutants; however, none of the methods was preferred for the removal of all tested compounds. The UV-active processes have strong potential for removal of the studied micropollutants. The utilisation of a moderate hydrogen peroxide admixture resulted in a more reliable treatment.

  18. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica


    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  19. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)


    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余涛; 杨波; 薛立波; 谭永文; 郑宏林; 俞海英


    The localization of Liuheng stand-alone 10,000 m3/d reverse osmosis desalination process design, equipment configuration, system control and the domestic part of the key technologies, equipment applications was introduced. Through the start up and test operating of the said system, it showed that the system operates with stable operating parameters, the equipments run regularly, the performances reached the design requirements and the produced water met the national standard for drinking water. The project localization rate had reached more than 70%, and the system made of water consumption was only 2.56 kWh/m3 which had reached the international advanced level. According to the local conditions, the water making cost; economic and social benefits were essentially analyzed.%叙述了六横国产化单机1万m3/d反渗透海水淡化工程的工艺设计、设备配置、系统控制及部分国产关键技术、设备应用的基本情况,通过对该反渗透海水淡化系统的调试和试运行,结果表明该系统运行参数稳定,设备运行正常,性能指标达到设计要求,产品水符合国家生活饮用水标准.工程国产化率已达70%以上,且系统造水能耗仅为2.56 kWh/m3,已达到国内外先进水平.根据该项目情况,概要地分析了该系统的造水成本,经济和社会效益.

  1. Research on reverse osmosis membrane treatment technology of condensate water containing organic acid%反渗透膜处理含有机酸凝结水技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 刘景洋; 乔琦; 海热提; 孙晓明


    采用反渗透膜对某制药厂含甲酸、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸、己酸、异丁酸和2-甲基丁酸的凝结水进行处理,研究了进水温度、压力和pH值对凝结水中有机酸截留效果的影响,讨论了反渗透膜对有机酸的截留机理。研究结果表明:温度为20~40℃、压力为0.5~1.5 MPa、pH值为4~10时,产水中丁酸、戊酸、己酸和2-甲基丁酸的浓度低于检测限,甲酸、乙酸、丙酸和异丁酸的截留率随着压力和pH值增加而增大,随着温度升高而降低;产水率随着压力增大、温度升高而增大,不受pH值变化影响。说明反渗透膜对有机酸的机械筛除作用及膜与有机酸之间的电荷作用对有机酸的截留具有重要影响。%This research focused on the application of reverse osmosis membrane to treat the condensate water containing formic acid,acetic acid,propionic acid,butyric acid,pentanoic acid,carproic acid,isobutyric acid and 2-methyl-butyric acid.The effects of water temperature,pressure and pH on retention rate of organic acids,as well as the retention mechanism were discussed.The results indicated the concentration of butyric acid,pentanoic acid and 2-methyl-butyric acid in producing water were below detection limit when the experimental conditions of water temperature at 20— 40 ℃,pressure at 0.5—1.5 MPa,pH at 4—10.The retention rate of formic acid,acetic acid,propionic acid and carproic acid decreased with the increase of water temperature and increased with the increase of pressure and pH.The water production rate increased when both water temperature and pressure increased.The mechanic screening of reverse osmosis membrane and the charge effect between organic acid and membrane should have important influences on the retention effect of organic acids.

  2. Analysis on reverse fault activation and water inrush possibility for coal mining above confined aquifer in a mining area%某矿区带压开采逆断层活化及突水性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜万奎; 徐慧


    According to the geological characteristics of 732 working face in a mining area,a mechanical model was built,and the expression for normal stress and shear stress on the fault was given respectively.By calculating the normal stress and shear stress on F16 reverse fault in excavation process,it is obtained that additional normal stress and additional shear stress is produced.Additional normal stress makes the tensional fracture emergence and development within F16 fault,while additional shear stress makes the shear fracture opening within F16 fault and makes shear joint opening on both parts of F16 fault.These results lead to water permeability improved within F16 fault.On this basis,failure distribution of coal roof and seepage feature of coal floor was simulated by using RFPA2D-Flow software.The results show that there is no connected fracture channel between aquifer on other part and working face in excavation process,because the shallow depths of F16 reverse fault is compactly closed and shale on coal floor isn't destroyed.Ordovician limestone water can't burst into working face and the seepage flow on coal floor is not enough to lead to water inrush accident.%根据某矿区732工作面的实际地质特征,建立了力学模型,给出了断层位置法向应力和剪应力的计算公式,计算了该矿区在开采过程中F16逆断层面上的法向应力和剪应力,得出:随着732工作面的开挖,F16逆断层面产生附加法向应力和附加剪应力,附加的法向应力使得断层带内张性裂隙产生与发展,附加的剪应力使得断层带内剪切裂隙和断层两侧的剪节理张开,透水性增强。在此基础上,利用RFPA2D-Flow有限元软件模拟了732工作面开采过程中顶板破坏情况及底板渗流特征,结果表明:732工作面开挖过程中,由于F16逆断层浅部紧闭不导


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国珍; 李娜; 武福平; 杨公博; 杨仕超


    采用电吸附法对反渗透浓水进行处理,先研究了不同盐含量、电压、流量、初始pH等因素对NaCl模拟水去除效果的影响,得出适宜参数,再分别通过单级和多级电吸附法处理反渗透浓水,分析脱盐效果.结果表明,NaCl模拟水在初始电导率为2 mS/cm时,pH为7.56、电压1.8V、体积流量10 mL/min时处理效果最优,单级脱盐率达到17.18%;反渗透浓水在初始电导率为2 mS/cm时,以pH为7.17、电压为1.8 V、体积流量为10 mL/min时处理,单级脱盐率达到15.86%,经过3级处理后脱盐率达到了46.02%.%The thesis adopted electric adsorption processing to treat the reverse osmosis condensed water, first, studying simulation solution of NaCl desalination effects on some factors such as different concentrations, voltage, flow, initial pH, and obtain the best parameters by experiment condition, then by dealing with reverse osmosis condensed water to analysis desalination effect with single stage and several stages respectively. The results showed that when the initial conductivity of the simulation solution of NaCl desalination in was 2 mS/cm, pH was 7.56, the voltage was 1.8 V, the velocity was 10 mL/min, the treatment effect achieved the best, the desalination rate reached 17.18%. When the initial conductivity of condensed water was 2 mS/cm, the pH was 7.17, the voltage was 1.8 V, the velocity was 10 mL/min, the single stage desalination rate reached 15.86%, which reached 46.02% after through three stages.

  4. Multi-reverse flow injection analysis integrated with multi-optical sensor for simultaneous determination of Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in natural waters. (United States)

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Suwannasaroj, Kittigan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; AlSuhaimi, Awadh


    Multi-reverse flow injection analysis (Mr-FIA) integrated with multi-optical sensor was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of multi ions; Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in water samples. The sample/standard solutions were propelled making use of a four channels peristaltic pump whereas 4 colorimetric reagents specific for the metal ions were separately injected in sample streams using multi-syringe pump. The color zones that formed in the individual mixing coils were then streamed into multi-channels spectrometer, which comprised of four flows through cell and four pairs of light emitting diode and photodiode, whereby signals were measured concurrently. The linearity range (along with detection limit, µgL(-1)) was 0.050-3.0(16), 0.30-2.0 (11), 0.050-1.0(12) and 0.10-1.0(50)mgL(-1), for Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III), respectively. In the interim, the correlation coefficients were 0.9924-0.9942. The percentages relative standard deviation was less than 3. The proposed system was applied successfully to determine targeted metal ions simultaneously in natural water with high sample throughput and low reagent consumption, thus it satisfies the criteria of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC) and its goals.

  5. Chromatographic retention prediction and octanol-water partition coefficient determination of monobasic weak acidic compounds in ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography using acids as ion-suppressors. (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Han, Shu-ying; Qi, Zheng-chun; Sheng, Dong; Lian, Hong-zhen


    Although simple acids, replacing buffers, have been widely applied to suppress the ionization of weakly ionizable acidic analytes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), none of the previously reported works focused on the systematic studies about the retention behavior of the acidic solutes in this ion-suppression RPLC mode. The subject of this paper was therefore to investigate the retention behavior of monobasic weak acidic compounds using acetic, perchloric and phosphoric acids as the ion-suppressors. The apparent octanol-water partition coefficient (K" ow) was proposed to calibrate the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of these weak acidic compounds, which resulted in a better linear correlation with log k(w), the logarithm of the hypothetical retention factor corresponding to neat aqueous fraction of hydroorganic mobile phase. This log K" ow-log k w linear correlation was successfully validated by the results of monocarboxylic acids and monohydrating phenols, and moreover by the results under diverse experimental conditions for the same solutes. This straightforward relationship not only can be used to effectively predict the retention values of weak acidic solutes combined with Snyder-Soczewinski equation, but also can offer a promising medium for directly measuring K(ow) data of these compounds via Collander equation. In addition, the influence of the different ion-suppressors on the retention of weak acidic compounds was also compared in this RPLC mode.

  6. 超声辅助AOT反胶束提取花生蛋白后萃取工艺的优化%Backward Extraction of Peanut Protein through SDS Reverse Micelles Assisted by Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳秀; 陈复生; 刘昆仑; 郭珍; 杨颖莹


    研究超声辅助AOT(二-(2-乙基己基)瑚珀酸酯磺酸钠)/异辛烷反胶束体系萃取花生蛋白的后萃取过程,并分析各因素对蛋白后萃取率的影响,通过正交试验得到了最佳后萃取工艺条件为:缓冲溶液pH值为8.5、萃取时间为50min、萃取温度为40℃、超声功率240W、KCl浓度为1.5 mol/L,在此条件下,蛋白后萃取率为82.17+1.52%.%The backward of peanut protein was studied by AOT (sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate)/isooctane reverse micelles system from full-fat peanut powder with sonication. The main factors effecting reverse micelles extraction were analyzed. The orthogonal test design results showed that the optimum conditions of backward extraction were pH 8.5, extraction time 40 min, temperature 40 ℃, ultrasonic power 240 W, and KC1 concentration 1.5 mol/L, under which the extraction rate was 82.17± 1.52%.

  7. Solar detoxification of waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J. M.


    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a discipline which includes a large variety of reactions: mild or total oxidations, dehydrogenation, hydrogen transfer. oxygen-18 and deuterium isotopic exchange, metal deposition, water detoxification, gaseous pollutant removal, etc. In line with the latter point, it can be considered as one of the new Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) for air and water purification treatment. Several books and reviews have been recently devoted to this problem (1-6). A recent review has reported more than 1200 references on the subject (7). Heterogeneous photocatalysis can be carried out in various media: gas phase, pure organic liquid phases or aqueous solutions. As for classical heterogeneous catalysis, the overall process can be decomposed into five independent steps: 1. Transfer of the reactants in the fluid to the surface. 2. Adsorption of a least one of the reactants. 3. Reaction in the adsorbed phase 4. Desorption of the product (s) 5. Removal of the products from the interface region. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Solar Detoxification of Waste Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.M.


    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a discipline which includes a large variety of reactions: mild or total oxidations, dehydrogenation, hydrogen transfer, oxygen-18 and deuterium isotopic exchange, metal deposition, water detoxification, gaseous pollutant removal, etc. In line with the latter point, it can be considered as one of the new. Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) for air and water purification treatment. Several books and reviews have been recently devoted to this problem (1-6). A recent review has reported more than 1200 references on the subject. Heterogeneous photocatalysis can be carried out in various media: gas phase, pure organic liquid phases or aqueous solutions. As for classical heterogeneous catalysis, the overall process can be decomposed into five independent steps: 1. Transfer of the reactants in the fluid phase to the surface 2. Adsorption of a least one of the reactants 3. Reaction in the adsorbed phase 4. Desorption of the products 5. Removal of the products from the interface region. (Author)

  9. Effect of Replacement of New Reverse Osmosis Film of Water Purification System to Clinical Biochemistry%实验室纯水系统更换反渗透膜对生化检验的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫基浩; 刘鲜茹; 李少侠


    目的:研究实验室纯水系统更换新反渗透膜后,所产纯水的质量是否符合生化检验的要求并评价其影响。方法通过Beckman Coulter生化分析系统配套纯水机天创TCHS-RO/100A自带电阻表和 HM COM-100电导率测量笔连续监测新产纯水中的实时离子含量。用正常纯水在 AU680上重复20次测量 ALT,AST,TBIL,ALP,GGT,TP,ALB,BUN, CR,UA,GLU,TC,TG,HDL,LDL,CK,LDH,P,Ca(对照组),更换为新产纯水后进行相同试验操作(试验组),以评估新产纯水对生化分析的影响。连续5天,每天3次(间隔2 h)监测新产纯水的 TG试剂空白,监测水中甘油水平。结果开机30 min后,HM COM-100测得电导率降至(0.1±0.0)μS/cm,机载电阻表测得新产纯水在开机50 min后稳定在18.25 MΩcm。在用 AU680进行生化分析时,对照组中TG测量值=1.04 mmol/L,试验组=21.39 mmol/L,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而除TG其他生化项目偏倚均在5%以内,CV<1/4CLIA’88,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。TG试剂空白在第5天稳定在A660nm=0.0156±0.0004。结论新纯水系统在生产约2800 L水后,所产纯水中的甘油可以清除干净。实验室纯水系统在更换反渗透膜后,需要对水质进行连续监测,以评价其对常规生化项目检测的影响。%Objective To test if the quality of produced water could come up to the standards of clinical biochemistry,and e-valuate the effect of the produced water after replacement of a new reverse osmosis film of the laboratory water purification system.Methods The ion concentration of the produced water was tested by ohmmeter in Beckman Coulter supporting TianChuang water purification system TCHS-RO/100A and HM COM-100 conductivity meter.The biochemical index ALT,AST,TBIL,ALP,GGT,TP,ALB,BUN,CR,UA,GLU,TC,TG,HDL,LDL,CK,LDH,P,Ca of mixed serum were tested 20 times by AU680 under the condition of

  10. An algebra of reversible computation. (United States)

    Wang, Yong


    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  11. An algebra of reversible computation



    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  12. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  13. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow o...... justification for low-level machine code for reversible microprocessors as well as high-level block-structured reversible languages. We give examples for both such languages and illustrate them with a lossless encoder for permutations given by Dijkstra....

  14. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav


    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  15. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking. (United States)

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu


    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  16. Application of time reversal in underwater communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Minghui; ZHANG Bixing; WANG Chenghao


    Time reversal is applied to the underwater spreading spectrum coding communication. On the base of analyzing the focusing characteristics of the time reversal in underwater waveguide, the time reversal is studied to overcome the wave distortion of the encoded signal caused by the multi-path effect. The experiment research for underwater coding communication is carried out in a lab water tank and the corresponding theoretical analysis is also conducted by Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) encoding and Barker code with 7 chips for the spreading spectrum signal. The results show that the time reversal can improve the focusing gain and increase the ratio of the principal to the second lobe of the coding signal, and can decrease the bit error rate and increase the communication distance.

  17. Water (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  18. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E.


    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  19. On the composition fluctuations of reverse micelles. (United States)

    Tovstun, Sergey A; Razumov, Vladimir F


    The polydispersity of the reverse micelles is determined mainly by the fluctuations of their composition. The composition of the reverse micelle is a two-dimensional random variable whose components are the numbers of water (i) and surfactant (j) molecules. In this study the fluctuations of the composition of the reverse micelles are considered in the Gaussian approximation. It is shown that the standard deviation of the quantity w=i/j may be calculated from the dependence of the water vapor pressure above the microemulsion on the molar ratio W=[water]/[surfactant]. The estimation based on the literature data for microemulsion system sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/water/isooctane at 37°C in the range W=0-18 has shown that the relative standard deviation of the quantity w is about 10%. It is shown that the value of the composition fluctuations is related to the dependence of average composition on the concentration of reverse micelles at constant parameter W.

  20. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown


    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  1. 利用反渗透浓排水代替深井水制取液体氯化钡的实验研究%Experimental study of using of reverse osmosis concentrated drainage insteading of deep well water preparing liquid barium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 王会昌


    介绍了用反渗透浓排水代替深井水制备氯化钡的实验情况。实验结果表明,用反渗透浓排水制备氯化钡是可行的。%The experimental condition of using reverse osmosis concentrated drainage insteading of deep well water preparing barium chloride was introduced.The results show that using reverse osmosis concentrated drainage preparing barium chloride was feasible.

  2. 反渗透膜处理维生素C凝结水的最优工艺条件%Optimum technological conditions of reverse osmosis processing VC condensation water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖入峰; 刘景洋; 张建强


    Problems in the condensate water of vitamin C production project, such as its large amount, diffi- culties in disposal, storage and transport and low nutrients were analyzed in this paper, and the reverse osmosis technology was put forward accordingly. Through setting up the small sale pilot of reverse osmosis technology e- quipment and adopting the dimensionless multiple regression analysis method, relationship between operating con- ditions index and permeate water evaluation index was analyzed based on the batch experiments, the degree of the operating conditions index impacting on the permeate water evaluation indexes was quantitatively evaluated, and based on this research the optimal process parameters of the operating conditions were studied. The results show that the dimensionless multiple regression analysis method is practical and effective. In the range of orthogonal experi- ment design level, the operation pressure, pH and reflux ratio are all remarkable influencing factors of the multi-target system, and the sequence of influence degree size is :pressure 〉 pH 〉 reflux ratio 〉 temperature ,and the percentages of each factor are 43.02%, 29.01%, 25.07% and 2.89%, respectively. The influence of each operation index on the system is independent. If not to consider the membrane pollution but only the system benefits, the optimal operating conditions are temperature of 30.65℃, pressure of 1.5 MPa, reflux ratio of 0.78 and pH of 7. 475.%针对维生素C生产工艺中产生的凝结水产量大、处理成本高、存储运输困难和营养物质含量偏低等问题,采用反渗透技术对VC凝结水进行处理。实验建立小试规模反渗透膜处理装置,采用无量纲化多元回归分析方法,分析了操作条件指标与渗透水评价指标两套指标体系之间的关系,定量评价了各个操作条件指标对渗透水评价指标的整体影响程度,并在此基础上研究了最佳操作条件的工艺参数。结

  3. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.


    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  4. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.


    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  5. Reverse Coherent Information (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  6. On reverse hypercontractivity

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan; Sen, Arnab


    We study the notion of reverse hypercontractivity. We show that reverse hypercontractive inequalities are implied by standard hypercontractive inequalities as well as by the modified log-Sobolev inequality. Our proof is based on a new comparison lemma for Dirichlet forms and an extension of the Strook-Varapolos inequality. A consequence of our analysis is that {\\em all} simple operators $L=Id-\\E$ as well as their tensors satisfy uniform reverse hypercontractive inequalities. That is, for all $qreverse hypercontractive inequalities established here imply new mixing and isoperimetric results for short random walks in product spaces, for certain card-shufflings, for Glauber dynamics in high-temperat...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  8. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected to the...

  9. Photoinduced charge separation and enzyme reactions in reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaert, R.M.D.


    In this thesis the performance and coupling of two types of reaction, photoinduced charge separation and enzymatic conversion were studied in reversed micelles. Reversed micelles are 1 to 10 nm sized water droplets dispersed in an organic solution. The dispersant is a detergent (cationogenic, nonion

  10. The influence of salt matrices on the reversed-phase liquid chromatography behavior and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection of glyphosate, glufosinate, aminomethylphosphonic acid and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in water. (United States)

    Skeff, Wael; Recknagel, Constantin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E


    The analysis of highly polar and amphoteric compounds in seawater is a continuing challenge in analytical chemistry due to the possible formation of complexes with the metal cations present in salt-based matrices. Here we provide information for the development of analytical methods for glyphosate, glufosinate, AMPA, and 2-AEP in salt water, based on studies of the effects of salt matrices on reversed-phase liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC-HESI-MS/MS) after derivatization of the target compounds with FMOC-Cl. The results showed that glyphosate was the only analyte with a strong tendency to form glyphosate-metal complexes (GMC), which clearly influenced the analysis. The retention times (RTs) of GMC and free glyphosate differed by approximately 7.00min, reflecting their distinct RP-LC behaviors. Divalent cations, but not monovalent (Na(+), K(+)) or trivalent (Al(3+), Fe(3+)) cations, contributed to this effect and their influence was concentration-dependent. In addition, Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) prevented glyphosate detection whereas Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) altered the retention time. At certain tested concentrations of Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) glyphosate yielded two peaks, which violated the fundamental rule of LC, that under the same analytical conditions a single substance yields only one LC-peak with a specific RT. Salt-matrix-induced ion suppression was observed for all analytes, especially under high salt concentrations. For glyphosate and AMPA, the use of isotopically labeled internal standards well-corrected the salt-matrix effects, with better results achieved for glufosinate and 2-AEP with the AMPA internal standard than with the glyphosate internal standard. Thus, our study demonstrated that Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) can be used together with FMOC-Cl to form GMC-FMOC which is suitable for RP-LC-HESI-MS/MS analysis.

  11. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B


    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  12. Reversible multi-head finite automata characterize reversible logarithmic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock


    Deterministic and non-deterministic multi-head finite automata are known to characterize the deterministic and non- deterministic logarithmic space complexity classes, respectively. Recently, Morita introduced reversible multi-head finite automata (RMFAs), and posed the question of whether RMFAs...... characterize reversible logarithmic space as well. Here, we resolve the question affirmatively, by exhibiting a clean RMFA simulation of logarithmic space reversible Turing machines. Indirectly, this also proves that reversible and deterministic multi-head finite automata recognize the same languages....

  13. 油包水微乳液中抗体酶催化布洛芬酯选择性水解的酶学特性%Enzymological Characteristics of Catalytic Antibody-catalyzed enantioselective Hydrolysis of Ibuprofen Ester in Water-in-oil microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 戚映丹; 欧志敏; 姚善泾


    The asymmetric hydrolyzation of racemic ibuprofen ester is one of the most important methods for chiral separation of ibuprofen. A catalytic antibody that accelerates the rate of enantioselective hydrolysis of ibuprofen methyl ester was successfully elicited against an immunogen consisting of tetrahedral sulfate hapten attached to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The rate constant enhancement factor Kcat/Kuncat was about 1.6x104. The catalytic activity of the catalytic antibody in a reverse micelle reaction system based on sodium b/s (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane was studied. Kinetic analysis of the catalytic antibody-catalyzed reaction was found to be possible in this system. Kinetic studies showed that hydrolysis in the microemulsion system follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The catalytic antibody can also accelerate catalysis of S-ibuprofen methyl ester in the microemulsion system. Temperature effects, the pH profile, Km,app and Kcat were determined. The dependence of the catalytic antibody hydrolytic activity on the Wo (molar ratio of water to surfactant) showed a bell-shaped curve, presenting a maximum at about wo = 21.%根据过渡态理论设计和合成了能诱导产生催化选择性水解布洛芬甲酯的催化抗体的四面体硫酸盐半抗原,并与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)偶联制备成免疫源,通过免疫手段成功筛选出具有加速选择性水解生成S-布洛芬的特异性催化抗体.其Kcat,app/Kuncat,app达1.6x104.进一步地将催化抗体运用到W/O微乳体系(反胶束)中进行布洛芬酯的选择性水解研究,其动力学研究证明其催化过程同样遵循Michaelis.Menten方程.考察了pH值和温度对催化初速度影响,Wo(体系中水和琥珀酸二辛酯磺酸钠(AOT)的摩尔比)对催化初速度影响呈现为钟罩型,最适的Wo.为21.

  14. Polar Solvents Trigger Formation of Reverse Micelles. (United States)

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Firoozabadi, Abbas


    We use molecular dynamics simulations and molecular thermodynamics to investigate the formation of reverse micelles in a system of surfactants and nonpolar solvents. Since the early observation of reverse micelles, the question has been whether the existence of polar solvent molecules such as water is the driving force for the formation of reverse micelles in nonpolar solvents. In this work, we use a simple coarse-grained model of surfactants and solvents to show that a small number of polar solvent molecules triggers the formation of large permanent aggregates. In the absence of polar molecules, both the thermodynamic model and molecular simulations show that small aggregates are more populated in the solution and larger ones are less frequent as the system evolves over time. The size and shape of reverse micelles depend on the size of the polar core: the shape is spherical for a large core and ellipsoidal for a smaller one. Using the coarse-grained model, we also investigate the effect of temperature and surfactant tail length. Our results reveal that the number of surfactant molecules in the micelle decreases as the temperature increases, but the average diameter does not change because the size of the polar core remains invariant. A reverse micelle with small polar core attracts fewer surfactants when the tail is long. The uptake of solvent particles by a micelle of longer surfactant tail is less than shorter ones when the polar solvent particles are initially distributed randomly.

  15. [Reverse Chaddock sign]. (United States)

    Tashiro, Kunio


    It is widely accepted that the Babinski reflex is the most well-known and important pathological reflex in clinical neurology. Among many other pathological reflexes that elicit an upgoing great toe, such as Chaddock, Oppenheim, Gordon, Schaefer, and Stransky, only the Chaddock reflex is said to be as sensitive as the Babinski reflex. The optimal receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes are the lateral plantar surface and the external inframalleolar area of the dorsum, respectively. It has been said that the Babinski reflex, obtained by stroking the sole, is by far the best and most reliable method of eliciting an upgoing great toe. However, the Chaddock reflex, the external malleolar sign, is also considered sensitive and reliable according to the literature and everyday neurological practice. The major problems in eliciting the Babinski reflex by stroking the lateral part of the sole are false positive or negative responses due to foot withdrawal, tonic foot response, or some equivocal movements. On the other hand, according to my clinical experience, the external inframalleolar area, which is the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex, is definitely suitable for eliciting the upgoing great toe. In fact, the newly proposed method to stimulate the dorsum of the foot from the medial to the lateral side, which I term the "reversed Chaddock method," is equally sensitive to demonstrate pyramidal tract involvement. With the "reversed Chaddock method", the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex may be postulated to be in the territory of the sural nerve, which could be supported by the better response obtained on stimulation of the postero-lateral calf than the anterior shin. With regard to the receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes, the first sacral dermatome (S1) is also considered a reflexogenous zone, but since the dermatome shows marked overlapping, the zones vary among individuals. As upgoing toe responses are consistently observed in

  16. Selective Detection of Viable Pathogenic Bacteria in Water Using Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR%基于RT-qPCR选择性检测水中活性病原菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林怡雯; 李丹; 吴舒旭; 何苗; 杨天


    A reverse transcription q quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) assay method was established,which can quantify the copy numbers of RNA in pathogenic bacteria of E.coli and Enterococcus faecium.The results showed that cDNA was generated with the RT-PCR reagents,target gene was quantified with the qPCR,the copy numbers of RNA were stable at about 1 copies·CFU^-1 for E.coli and 7.98×10^2 copies·CFU^-1 for Enterococcus faecium respectively during the stationary grow phase for the both indicator bacteria [E.coli(6-18 h) and Enterococcus faecium(10-38 h)].The established RT-qPCR method can quantify the numbers of viable bacteria through detecting bacterial RNA targets.Through detecting the heat-treated E.coli and Enterococcus faecium by three methods(culture method,qPCR,RT-qPCR),we found that the qPCR and RT-qPCR can distinguish 1.43 lg copy non-viable E.coli and 2.5 lg copy non-viable Enterococcus faecium.These results indicated that the established methods could effectively distinguish viable bacteria from non-viable bacteria.Finally we used this method to evaluate the real effluents of the secondary sedimentation of wastewater treatment plant(WWTP),the results showed that the correlation coefficients(R2) between RT-qPCR and culture method were 0.930(E.coli) and 0.948(Enterococcus faecium),and this established RT-PCR method can rapidly detect viable pathogenic bacteria in genuine waters.%以大肠杆菌和粪肠球菌作为研究对象,研究建立了一种逆转录定量PCR(reverse transcription q quantitative PCR,RT-qPCR)方法,以选择性检测水中活性病原菌.研究结果表明,细菌体内的RNA经过RT-PCR逆转录成cDNA后利用qPCR可定量目的基因拷贝数,对处于稳定生长期的大肠杆菌(培养6~18 h)和粪肠球菌(培养10~38 h)体内的RNA含量进行检测分别为1 copies.CFU^-1和7.98×10^2copies.CFU^-1,以此作为细菌定量的依据,达到准确定量检测水体中目的基因RNA拷贝数而确定活

  17. Distance dependence of magnetic field effect inside confined environment of reverse micelles (United States)

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita


    In this article, we emphasize on the distance dependence of the magnetic field effect (MFE) on the donoracceptor (D-A) pair inside the confined environment of AOT/H2O/n-heptane reverse micellar (RMs) system. For this study N, N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) is used as an electron donor while the protonated form of Acr is treated as an electron acceptor. We report of the occurrence of an associated excited state proton transfer with the photoinduced electron transfer between Acr and DMA forming corresponding radical pair (RP) and radical ion pairs (RIP). The fate of these reaction products has been tested in the presence of an external magnetic field (˜0.08T) by varying the size of the RMs. The MFE between Acr and DMA has been compared to the results with the earlier reported interactions between Acr and TEA (Chemical Physics Letters, 2011, 506, 205-210). We accentuate the importance of the localization of the D and A inside the RMs, and the intervening distance between the pair to be the critical component for observing substantial MFE.

  18. Reverse Engineering of RFID devices


    Bokslag, Wouter


    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID technology and possible countermeasures that could limit the potential of such reverse engineering attempts.

  19. Reverse Engineering Malicious Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Cristian Iacob


    Full Text Available Detecting new and unknown malware is a major challenge in today’s software. Security profession. A lot of approaches for the detection of malware using data mining techniques have already been proposed. Majority of the works used static features of malware. However, static detection methods fall short of detecting present day complex malware. Although some researchers proposed dynamic detection methods, the methods did not use all the malware features. In this work, an approach for the detection of new and unknown malware was proposed and implemented. Each sample was reverse engineered for analyzing its effect on the operating environment and to extract the static and behavioral features. 

  20. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir


    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  1. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    . Although reversible flowcharts are superficially similar to classical flowcharts, there are crucial differences: atomic steps are limited to locally invertible operations, and join points require an explicit orthogonalizing conditional expression. Despite these constraints, we show that reversible......Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...

  2. Tropospheric aerosols remote sensing over the water surface of Penang Island (United States)

    Hashim, S. A.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Lim, H. S.; Wong, C. J.; Salleh, N. Mohd.


    Tropospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change. Aerosols are typically studied over deep clear water, due to the relatively constant reflectance of water and the ability to easily separate surface and atmospheric contributions on the satellite signal. A methodology based on multi-spectral approach was employed to map tropospheric aerosols concentrations over the water areas surrounding Penang Island. The aim of this study was to estimate the pollutants concentrations using remote sensing techniques. In this study, we attempted to derive AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) values from the sky transmittance measurements in the visible spectrum. The transmittance values were measured at the sea surface using a handheld spectroradiometer. The correspond PM10 readings were taken simultaneously during the transmittance measurements acquisition of the imageries using a Dust Trak meter. The PCI Geomatica version 9.1 digital image processing software was used in all image-processing analyses. The results produced a linear relationship between PM10 and AOT values over the water surface of Penang Island. Finally, The PM10 concentration map over the water surface of Penang Island was generated using Kriging interpolation technique. This study has indicated the potential use of a handheld spectroradiometer for air quality study.

  3. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  4. Is Computation Reversible?

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, M C; Parker, Michael C.; Walker, Stuart D.


    Recent investigations into the physical nature of information and fundamental limits to information transmission have revealed questions such as the possibility of superluminal data transfer or not; and whether reversible computation (information processing) is feasible. In some respects these uncertainties stem from the determination of whether information is inherent in points of non-analyticity (discontinuities) or smoother functions. The close relationship between information and entropy is also well known, e.g. Brillouin's concept of negentropy (negative entropy) as a measure for information. Since the leading edge of a step-discontinuity propagates in any dispersive medium at the speed of light in vacuum as a precursor to the main body of the dispersed pulse, we propose in this paper to treat information as being intrinsic to points of non-analyticity (discontinuities). This allows us to construct a theory addressing these dilemmas in a fashion consistent with causality, and the fundamental laws of ther...

  5. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W.; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.


    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  6. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels (United States)

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.


    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  7. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Coupled with Dual Plumbing Distribution - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Carmel Elementary School in Carmel, ME -Final Performance Evaluation Report (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic and antimony removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Carmel Elementary School (CES) in Carmel, ME. An innovative approach of employing point of entry (POE) reverse osmo...

  8. A Reversible Processor Architecture and its Reversible Logic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    We describe the design of a purely reversible computing architecture, Bob, and its instruction set, BobISA. The special features of the design include a simple, yet expressive, locally-invertible instruction set, and fully reversible control logic and address calculation. We have designed...... an architecture with an ISA that is expressive enough to serve as the target for a compiler from a high-level structured reversible programming language. All-in-all, this paper demonstrates that the design of a complete reversible computing architecture is possible and can serve as the core of a programmable...

  9. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.


    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

  10. Heuristic analysis of brackishwater treatment by reverse osmosis process


    Ahmed, S


    Treatment of brackish water and sea water with the help of reverse osmosis process is feasible and a viable solution to meet the fresh water deficiency in an arid region. Total dissolved solids can be reduced to a level acceptable for drinking water. High purity water for industrial uses can also be obtained with the application of the RO process. Useful materials may also be recovered from the reject water. RO plants of various sizes (both large and small) have been in operation successfully...

  11. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  12. Aspiration Level and the Reversal of the Preference Reversal Phenomenon. (United States)


    American Economic Review , 69, 623- 638...Grether, D. M., & Plott, C. R. (1982). Economic theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon: Reply. The American Economic Review , 72, 575. Har...34 - . • . ...... ., .. . -. -.,- ... , .. ... - ., . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . *~~~7 T, W.. 1 d~ I t Y ~ VVW ~ Page 26 1 loomes, G., & Sugden, R. (1983). A rationale for preference reversal. The American Economic Review ,

  13. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions


    Kovalenko, I. L.; V.P. Kuprin


    The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifie...

  14. Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Belayet Ali


    Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application,those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular auto meta, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designed RS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.

  15. Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mosharof Hossin


    Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application, those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular automata, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designedRS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.

  16. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.


    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  17. Time reversal and holography with spacetime transformations (United States)

    Bacot, Vincent; Labousse, Matthieu; Eddi, Antonin; Fink, Mathias; Fort, Emmanuel


    Wave control is usually performed by spatially engineering the properties of a medium. Because time and space play similar roles in wave propagation, manipulating time boundaries provides a complementary approach. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the relevance of this concept by introducing instantaneous time mirrors. We show with water waves that a sudden change of the effective gravity generates time-reversed waves that refocus at the source. We generalize this concept for all kinds of waves, introducing a universal framework which explains the effect of any time disruption on wave propagation. We show that sudden changes of the medium properties generate instant wave sources that emerge instantaneously from the entire space at the time disruption. The time-reversed waves originate from these `Cauchy sources’, which are the counterpart of Huygens virtual sources on a time boundary. It allows us to revisit the holographic method and introduce a new approach for wave control.

  18. Application and Development of Reverse Osmosis in the Drinking Water Project in Mountains in Southern Ningxia%反渗透技术在宁夏南部山区人饮工程中的应用及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆阳; 袁妮妮


    分析了反渗透膜的分离机理、特性及影响膜性能的主要因素,对反渗透系统在宁夏南部山区人饮工程中的应用做了分析与评价,并对其在未来的应用和发展提出自己的看法。%The paper firstly analyzes the separation mechanism and characteristics of Reverse Osmosis ( RO ) membrane and the main factors that influence membrane’ s performance. Furthermore, the application of reverse osmosis system is ana-lyzed and evaluated. Accordingly, prospects of its development and application is put forward.

  19. Time Reversal Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, H; /SLAC


    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  20. 普通反渗透复合膜处理高含盐量高硬度苦咸水实验研究%Experimental Study on Processing Blackish Water with High Salinity and High Hardness by Ordinary Reverse Osmosis Composite Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 武福平


    According to the characteristics of groundwater with high hardness and salinity along Nanjiang railway,desalination experiments of blackish water were carried out by using BW30. 4040 ordinary reverse osmosis membrane. The effects of the desalination tine and the temperature of blackish water as well as the pressure on the separation performance and stability of reverse osmosis membrane were investigated. The best operation parameter has been determined,namely,recovery rate is 40~60%, operating pressure is 1. 3 ~1. 6 Mpa and temperature is 10~25 ℃. The results show that it is reasonable and effective to desalinate the high concentration blackish water with ordinary reverse osmosis composite membrane.%针对南疆铁路沿线地下水极高硬度及含盐量的水质特征,实验考察了采用普通反渗透复合膜处理其水质的可行性,考察了该膜的分离性能随操作压力、温度、运行时间等变化的影响及膜的运行稳定性,确定了最佳运行条件,即:回收率为:40%~60%,操作压力1.3~1.6 MPa,温度10~25℃.结果表明:采用普通反渗透复合膜来处理高含盐量高硬度苦咸水是可行的也是有效的.

  1. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.


    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and micellar enzymo

  2. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.


    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an

  3. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    Reversible computing is the study of computation models that exhibit both forward and backward determinism. Understanding the fundamental properties of such models is not only relevant for reversible programming, but has also been found important in other fields, e.g., bidirectional model...... transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...... are not strictly classically universal, but that they support another notion of universality; we call this RTM-universality. Thus, even though the RTMs are sub-universal in the classical sense, they are powerful enough as to include a self-interpreter. Lifting this to other computation models, we propose r...

  4. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng;


    Reverse innovation commonly refers to an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Adopting a linear innovation model with the four sequential phases of concept ideation, product development, primary target market introduction, and subsequent...... secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations......, the paper then introduces a typology of global innovation with 16 different types of innovation flows between advanced and emerging countries, 10 of which are reverse innovation flows. The latter are further differentiated into weak and strong reverse innovation, depending on the number of innovation phases...

  5. Reversed polarity patches at the CMB and geomagnetic field reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Wenyao(徐文耀); WEI; Zigang(魏自刚)


    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field models (IGRF) for 1900-2000 are used to calculate the geomagnetic field distribution in the Earth' interior from the ground surface to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) under the assumption of insulated mantle. Four reversed polarity patches, as one of the most important features of the CMB field, are revealed. Two patches with +Z polarity (downward) at the southern African and the southern American regions stand out against the background of -Z polarity (upward) in the southern hemisphere, and two patches of -Z polarity at the North Polar and the northern Pacific regions stand out against the +Z background in the northern hemisphere. During the 1900-2000 period the southern African (SAF) patch has quickly drifted westward at a speed of 0.2-0.3°/a; meanwhile its area has expanded 5 times, and the magnetic flux crossing the area has intensified 30 times. On the other hand, other three patches show little if any change during this 100-year period. Extending upward, each of the reversed polarity patches at the CMB forms a chimney-shaped "reversed polarity column" in the mantle with the bottom at the CMB. The height of the SAF column has grown rapidly from 200km in 1900 to 900km in 2000. If the column grows steadily at the same rate in the future, its top will reach to the ground surface in 600-700 years. And then a reversed polarity patch will be observed at the Earth's surface, which will be an indicator of the beginning of a magnetic field reversal. On the basis of this study, one can describe the process of a geomagnetic polarity reversal, the polarity reversal may be observed firstly in one or several local regions; then the areas of these regions expand, and at the same time, other new reversed polarity regions may appear. Thus several poles may exist during a polarity reversal.

  6. Reversal of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio in lymph node cells upon in vitro mitogenic stimulation by highly purified, water-soluble S3-S4 dimer of pertussis toxin. (United States)

    Latif, R; Kerlero de Rosbo, N; Amarant, T; Rappuoli, R; Sappler, G; Ben-Nun, A


    Pertussis toxin (PT), a holomer consisting of a catalytic S1 subunit and a B oligomer composed of S2-S4 and S3-S4 dimers, held together by the S5 subunit, exerts profound effects on immune cells, including T-cell mitogenicity. While the mitogenic activity of PT was shown to reside fully within the B oligomer, it could not be assigned to any particular B-oligomer component. In this study, we purified the S3-S4 dimer to homogeneity under conditions propitious to maintenance of the native conformation. In contrast to previous reports which suggested that both S3-S4 and S2-S4 dimers are necessary for mitogenic activity, our preparation of the highly purified S3-S4 dimer was as strongly mitogenic as the B oligomer, suggesting that the S3-S4 dimer accounts for the mitogenic activity of the B oligomer. Moreover, in vitro stimulation of naive lymphocytes by the S3-S4 dimer resulted in reversal of the normal CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio from approximately 2:1 to 1:2. The reversal of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio is unlikely to be due to preferential apoptosis-necrosis of CD4(+) T cells, as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of annexin-stained T-cell subsets, or to preferential stimulation of CD8(+) T cells. The mechanism underlying the reversal requires further investigation. Nevertheless, the data presented indicate that the S3-S4 dimer may have potential use in the context of diseases amenable to immunological modulation.

  7. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina


    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  8. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.


    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.



    M. Saravanan; K. Suresh Manic


    Multipliers play a vital role in digital systems especially in digital processors. There are many algorithms and designs were proposed in the earlier works, but still there is a need and a greater interest in designing a less complex, low power consuming, fastest multipliers. Reversible logic design became the promising technologies gaining greater interest due to less dissipation of heat and low power consumption. In this study a reversible logic gate based design of variable precision multi...

  10. Automated Water-Purification System (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.


    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  11. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication......We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise...... reversible first-order functional language in which access to the backward semantics is provided to the programmer by inverse function calls. Reversibility guarantees that in this language a backward run (inverse interpretation) is as fast as the corresponding forward run itself. By adopting a symmetric...

  12. An Overview of Reverse Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-xiang; HE Xin


    Until recently, investment in logistics has focused mainly on the flows from companies to markets. Growing concerns for the environment and conserving resources have created new logistical approaches to more effectively manage the distribution function, and make better use of the resources available to an organization. One such approach is reverse logistics, which uses various methods to give scope for a back-load of finished products, components, waste, reusable packing, etc. from consumer to manufacturer. Back-loads allow manufacturers to reduce costs by using the distribution vehicle's return journey to create income or added value. This basic concept is now being developed to create novel solutions to the problems of reducing pollution, costs and vehicle movements, whilst maintaining high customer service levels. In this paper, the idea of reverse logistics is presented; motivations for it are analyzed, several successful practices are demonstrated and some important truths regarding successful reverse logistics are identified, trend of reverse logistics is provided.

  13. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara


    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... correspond to disposed products with high residual value, whereas functional products correspond to disposed products with low residual value. Furthermore, the PRV and the speed at which returned products lose their value are considered in order to determine the configuration of the reverse supply chain...

  14. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per


    A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients.......A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients....

  15. Dielectric Spectra of Aerosol OT/Water Systems at Different Concentrations and Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Kong-shuang; JIA Zhan-jie; YANG Li-kun; XIAO Jin-xin


    The dielectric spectra of aerosol OT[AOT,sodium(bis-2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate]/water systems at different concentrations and temperatures were investigated by the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy(DRS).Through the dielectric spectra of different concentrations,two dielectric relaxations were observed over a frequency range from 40 Hz to 110 MHz and the mechanisms of the relaxations were also interpreted based on the Grosse's model.The low-frequency relaxation(around 105 Hz)was attributed to the radial diffusion of counterions along the long-half axis of the rod-like micelle,and the high-frequency relaxation(around 106 Hz)was ascribed to the radial diffusion of counterions along the short-half axis.Furthermore,specific emphasis was placed on studying the effects of temperature on system's conductivity.It was observed that the low-frequency limit of conductivity(k1)decreased and then increased with the increment of temperature under the measured concentration.On the other hand,the conductivity(km and kh)in meso-and high-frequency ranges always increased as temperature increased.Both the tendencies of alteration which mentioned above should be related to the phase transition of AOT/water system.

  16. Doping silver nanoparticles in AOT lyotropic lamellarphases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The organic lyotropic liquid crystal with long-range structural order is used as templateto assemble inorganic/organic hybrid by doping pre-fabricated Ag nanoparticles. The lamellar hy-brid with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles doped simultaneously is realized for the firsttime. The change of template structure after doping and the stability origin of dual-doped systemare characterized by small angle X-ray scattering and polarized optical microscopy. Results showthat the interaction and space matching between surfactant bilayers and doped particles are

  17. 不同反胶束体系后萃取花生蛋白质的比较%Comparison of the Backward Extraction of Peanut Protein in Different Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳秀; 陈复生; 郭珍; 杨颖莹; 李润洁


    AOT[二-(2-乙基己基)琥珀酸酯磺酸钠]/异辛烷,SDS(十二烷基硫酸钠)/异辛烷-正辛醇,DTAC(十二烷基三甲基氯化铵)/正庚烷-正己醇3种反胶束体系萃取花生蛋白质的后萃工艺进行研究.主要研究了缓冲溶液pH值、萃取时间、萃取温度、超声功率、KCl浓度对花生蛋白后萃率的影响,分别得到了3种反胶束体系萃取花生蛋白质的最佳后萃工艺条件,并做验证试验.在最优工艺条件下制备不同的花生蛋白样品.通过色差分析,从宏观上比较不同反胶束体系制备的花生蛋白产品色泽的差异,进一步对比不同反胶束体系制备的花生蛋白的扫描电镜(SEM)照片,分析其微观结构的差别,试验结果表明最适合萃取花生蛋白的反胶束体系是AOT反胶束体系,且该体系萃取花生蛋白的后萃率为83.17%,较另外2种体系的后萃率都高.%Peanut protein was extracted using AOT[sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate] / isooctane,SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfonate) / isooctane-heptylane capryl alcohol,DTAC (heptanes-hexanol reverse micelle systems,and the backward extraction was studied.The effects of pH,extraction time,and temperature,ultrasonic power,KCl concentration on the backward extraction rates were investigated.And the optimum conditions of the three reverse micelle systems in the backward extraction were obtained and verification test were designed to verify the results.On the optimum conditions,various peanut protein samples were prepared.Through the color difference analysis,we compared the color difference of respective peanut protein products on macroscopic.Furthermore,comparing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of three kinds of peanut proteins extracted from the respective reverse micelle systems,we analyzed the differences of microstructure.The results of the test showed that the most suitable reverse micelle system for the extraction of peanut protein was AOT reverse micelle system; the

  18. Solvolysis of benzoyl halides in water/NH4DEHP/isooctane microemulsions. (United States)

    García-Río, L; Hervella, P; Rodríguez-Dafonte, P


    A study was carried out on the solvolysis reactions of different benzoyl halides in microemulsions of water/NH4DEHP/isooctane, where NH4DEHP is ammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. Because of the low solubility of benzoyl halides in water, they are distributed between the continuous medium and the interface of the microemulsion, where the reaction takes place. The application of the pseudophase model has allowed us to obtain the distribution constants and the rate constants at the interface for the benzoyl halides. Reaction mechanisms and the changes in these mechanisms in terms of the water content of the microemulsion have been determined on the basis of kinetic data. The influence of the substituent and the leaving group on the reaction rate has been investigated. A comparison of kinetic results with those previously obtained in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions allows a kinetic evaluation of the change in the microemulsion properties with the surfactant.

  19. 回收空调凝结水与饮用水反渗透浓水并入雨水收集系统的实践与分析%Practice and analysis of recycling non-drinking water from air-condition and reverse-osmosis system into rainwater collection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 邵煜然; 王靖华


    通过浙江大学西溪校区东一教学楼改造的雨水收集工程实践,分析了本地的气象资料、回用水使用与降水时段调节等,将房间空调器凝结水与饮用水反渗透浓水予以收集归入整个雨水收集系统,用于教学楼周围的绿化浇灌与景观水的补水.通过计算,教学楼夏季空调器凝结水量约为3.48 m3/d,每日饮用水反渗透浓水的水量可达到198~396 L .在气温较高的夏季能有效地补充因大量蒸发导致绿化浇灌及景观补水不足的缺陷,同时在降雨量较少的冬季也能一定程度上进行添补.雨水与冷凝水以及反渗透浓水一同收集大大提高了整个收集系统的经济性.项目实测数据验证了系统的经济合理性.%This paper is based on the rainwater collection project in the retrofit of the Dongyi teaching block in Zhejiang University Xixi Campus.The analysis incorporates the local meteorological data, recycling water utilization, and precipitation adjustment.The rainwater collection system in this program also adds the condensation water from the heating, ventilation and air conditioning ( HVAC) system and the concentration from the reverse-osmosis system used for watering greens and supplying waterscapes.By calculating, the quantity of the HVAC condensation water in summer is 3.48 m3/d, and the quantity of the reverse-osmosis concentrated water is 198 to 396 L/d.This method solves the water shortage caused by high evaporation in summer and low precipitation in winter.Supported by empirical monitoring data, the proposed method significantly increases the economic efficiency of the system during the summer period.

  20. Fluorescent behavior of B-phycoerythrin in microemulsions of aerosol OT/water/isooctane. (United States)

    Bermejo, Ruperto; Tobaruela, Diego J; Talavera, Eva M; Orte, Angel; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M


    Taking advantage of its unusual fluorescent properties, the incorporation of B-phycoerythrin (B-PE) in aerosol OT (AOT, sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulphosuccinate)/water/isooctane microemulsions was investigated by following their steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence as a function of the water-to-surfactant molar ratio, w(0). The fluorescent intensity at 575 nm increased continuously with increasing water content, saturating at a w(0) around 35 and staying practically constant at w(0)> or =40. The steady-state anisotropy showed an initial increase with increasing water content until w(0)=23 and then decreased strongly, staying practically constant when w(0)> or =40. The values of the fluorescent parameters, anisotropy and fluorescent intensity, were unchanged when the water content of the system increased in the range between w(0)=40 to 50. This implies the effective incorporation of B-PE in the microemulsion droplets with w(0)> or =40, as well as the equilibrium of the dispersion at these water/surfactant ratios, since higher water content does not affect the main surrounding microenvironment of the protein. The overall incorporation in the microemulsion droplets caused minor spectroscopic changes with respect to biliprotein in aqueous solution of 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, such as a blue absorption shift of 3 nm and an emission shift of 1.5 nm, as well as a slight increase in excitation anisotropy spectrum mainly caused by a decrease in protein mobility. Therefore, there are no important interactions between the chromophores and the AOT sulfonate head groups. Emission intensity decays followed complex kinetics in both aqueous and dispersion media. The stability with time and temperature of the biliprotein in the microemulsion was higher than in the aqueous solution. All the results can be explained in terms of B-PE inclusion in the water droplets of AOT microemulsions where the protein has similar configuration and conformation to that in

  1. Reverse electrodialysis : A validated process model for design and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.


    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate electricity using the entropy of the mixing of sea and river water. A model is made of the RED process and validated experimentally. The model is used to design and optimize the RED process. It predicts very small differences between counter-

  2. Real-Time Monitoring of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Integrity


    Surawanvijit, Sirikarn


    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalination is the primary technology for seawater and brackish water desalination, agricultural drainage desalting, as well as municipal wastewater recycling for potable water reuse applications. RO membranes achieve high salt rejection (>95%) and in principle should provide a complete physical barrier to nanosize pathogens (e.g., waterborne enteric viruses). However, in the presence of imperfections and/or membrane damage, membrane breaches as small as 20-30 n...

  3. International overview of seawater desalination plant by reverse osmosis technology


    Kangwen, Shu


    In a world faced with increased urbanization, population growth, climate change and degradation of water supplies, the importance of a reliable source of technology to provide fresh water emphasizes the importance of seawater desalination. Over the years a variety of seawater desalination methods have been developed throughout the world. The most common technologies available for desalination around the world are membrane reverse osmosis (RO), thermal distillation (TD) and electrodialysis ...

  4. Are all reversible computations tidy?

    CERN Document Server

    Maroney, O J E


    It has long been known that to minimise the heat emitted by a deterministic computer during it's operation it is necessary to make the computation act in a logically reversible manner\\cite{Lan61}. Such logically reversible operations require a number of auxiliary bits to be stored, maintaining a history of the computation, and which allows the initial state to be reconstructed by running the computation in reverse. These auxiliary bits are wasteful of resources and may require a dissipation of energy for them to be reused. A simple procedure due to Bennett\\cite{Ben73} allows these auxiliary bits to be "tidied", without dissipating energy, on a classical computer. All reversible classical computations can be made tidy in this way. However, this procedure depends upon a classical operation ("cloning") that cannot be generalised to quantum computers\\cite{WZ82}. Quantum computations must be logically reversible, and therefore produce auxiliary qbits during their operation. We show that there are classes of quantu...

  5. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.


    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor


    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  7. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel


    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  8. Low Cost Reversible Signed Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Sharmin


    Full Text Available Nowadays exponential advancement in reversible comp utation has lead to better fabrication and integration process. It has become very popular ove r the last few years since reversible logic circuit s dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less p ower by recovering bit loss from its unique input-o utput mapping. This paper presents two new gates called RC-I and RC-II to design an n-bit signed binary comparator where simulation results show that the p roposed circuit works correctly and gives significa ntly better performance than the existing counterparts. An algorithm has been presented in this paper for constructing an optimized reversible n-bit signed c omparator circuit. Moreover some lower bounds have been proposed on the quantum cost, the numbers of g ates used and the number of garbage outputs generated for designing a low cost reversible sign ed comparator. The comparative study shows that the proposed design exhibits superior performance consi dering all the efficiency parameters of reversible logic design which includes number of gates used, quantum cost, garbage output and constant inputs. This proposed design has certainly outperformed all the other existing approaches.

  9. 反渗透和纳滤分离矿井水中营养组分和重金属离子的研究%Study on separation of nutrients and heavy metal ions from mine water by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟常明; 王宗丽; 王汝胜; 吴坤泽


    论文选用M-RO2521超低压反渗透膜和M-N2521纳滤膜对矿井水中营养组分和重金属离子的分离效果进行了实验研究,实验考察了操作压力、温度和水回收率等因素对分离效果的影响.结果表明:反渗透膜对重金属离子及营养组分的平均截留率分别为97.5%和97%;纳滤膜对重金属离子及营养组分的平均截留率分别为92.75%和33.63%;在一定的操作条件下,组合工艺ULPRO+NF对矿井水营养组分和重金属离子的平均截留率均达97%以上,同时具有更高的水回收率.%The experimental study of mine water is conducted by a commercial ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (M-RO2521) and nanofiltration membrane (M-N2521). The effects of operating pressure, operating temperature and ratio of water callback on the performance of reverse osmosis membrane, nanofiltration membrane and combination process (ULPRO+NF) were investigated. Experiment results show that an average removal efficiency of heavy metal ions and nutrients by reverse osmosis membrane were 97.5 % and 97 % respectively; an average removal efficiency of heavy metal ions and nutrients by nanofiltration membrane were 92.75 % and 33.63 % respectively; however, an average removal efficiency of heavy metal ions and nutrients by combination process are more than 97 % and also have a higher water recovery.

  10. 自行式热喷补机水路系统逆流分析与解决方案%Analysis of Reverse-flow in the Water Piping System of Self-propelled Hot Gunning Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了解决目前使用的自行式热喷补机的水路系统隐患,设计出用气路控制水路及时自动通断的控制电路,并增设一个应急备用旁通水路。经过长时间的运行,成功防止了气路意外断开或不当操作导致水逆流入料管与喷射室造成的堵料故障及喷补料报废损失。%To solve the potential risks in the water piping system of self-propelled hot gunning machine under use at Masteel, a control circuit pneumatically controlling water chan-nel with timely automatic on-off function was designed and an emergency bypass water pipe was added. Long-term operation has showed that the new design has successfully prevented accidental pneumatic cut-off or improper operating to cause water counter flowing into material pipe and gunning chamber leading to blocking and material loss.

  11. TiO 2光催化处理炼化污水回用反渗透浓水的研究%Study on Treatment in the Concentrated Water from Wastewater Recycling RO Unite by TiO2 Photo-catalysis*TiO2 photocatalysis treatment of petrochemical wastewater reuse reverse osmosis concentrated water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朝成; 焦叙来; 崔爱玲; 刘春爽


    Using suspended TiO 2 , photo-catalysis of concentrated water from wastewater recycling reverse osmosis units was studied under ultraviolet.The different variables affecting the removal efficiency such as reaction time , TiO2 quantity, pH value, UV irradiation intensity, H2O2 quantity and aeration quantity were investigated.The result showed that the removal rates of COD and chromaticity were 93.63% and 98.15%, respectively , under the following optimum conditions of reaction time of 2 h, TiO2 quantity of 0.6 g/L, pH value of 4, irradiation of high-pressure mercury-lamp of 500 W, H2 O2 quantity of 0.8 ml/L and aeration quantity of 0.75 L/min.%以悬浮态TiO2为催化剂,在紫外光下对炼化污水回用装置反渗透浓水进行光催化处理,采用单因素实验,考察了反应时间、 pH值、光照强度、 TiO2投加量、 H2 O2投加量、曝气量对处理效果的影响。结果表明:在反应时间为2 h, pH为4,500 W高压汞灯, TiO2投加量为0.6 g/L, H2 O2投加量为0.8 ml/L,曝气量为0.75 L/min的条件下,反渗透浓水COD的去除率可达93.63%,脱色率可达98.15%。

  12. 中水深度处理后续反渗透系统的化学清洗%Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis system following advanced treatment of reclaimed water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓攀; 孙小军; 桑俊珍


    It concluded that the reverse osmosis membrane is fouled mainly by microbes and organic pollutants basing on the analysis of operating parameters of the RO system, the fouling of cartridge filter, and the testing results of SDI filtration membrane, at the same time inorganic scaling is likely to form complex pollutants. Accordingly, the bactericide cleaning, alkaline cleaning and acid cleaning process is brought forward and put in practice. The inlet pressure drops evidently and the permeate output increases remarkably, which is a satisfying result.%通过分析反渗透装置运行参数的变化、保安过滤器的污堵情况以及SDI微孔滤膜的截留物分析结果,判断反渗透膜主要受微生物和有机物污染,同时可能有无机盐垢形成复合污染,并据此确定了杀菌+碱洗+酸洗的清洗工艺。反渗透经化学清洗后进水压力大幅降低,系统出力显著提高,取得了令人满意的清洗效果。

  13. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter


    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  14. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems. (United States)

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke


    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  15. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per


    INTRODUCTION: A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records...... of all patients who underwent reversal of a colostomy after a primary Hartmann's procedure during the period May 2005 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively in a case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were included. Twenty-one had a laparoscopic and 22 an open procedure. The two...

  16. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt


    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  17. Role of Reverse Divalent Cation Diffusion in Forward Osmosis Biofouling. (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Hashmi, Sara M; Nghiem, Long D; Elimelech, Menachem


    We investigated the role of reverse divalent cation diffusion in forward osmosis (FO) biofouling. FO biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was simulated using pristine and chlorine-treated thin-film composite polyamide membranes with either MgCl2 or CaCl2 draw solution. We related FO biofouling behavior-water flux decline, biofilm architecture, and biofilm composition-to reverse cation diffusion. Experimental results demonstrated that reverse calcium diffusion led to significantly more severe water flux decline in comparison with reverse magnesium permeation. Unlike magnesium, reverse calcium permeation dramatically altered the biofilm architecture and composition, where extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formed a thicker, denser, and more stable biofilm. We propose that FO biofouling was enhanced by complexation of calcium ions to bacterial EPS. This hypothesis was confirmed by dynamic and static light scattering measurements using extracted bacterial EPS with the addition of either MgCl2 or CaCl2 solution. We observed a dramatic increase in the hydrodynamic radius of bacterial EPS with the addition of CaCl2, but no change was observed after addition of MgCl2. Static light scattering revealed that the radius of gyration of bacterial EPS with addition of CaCl2 was 20 times larger than that with the addition of MgCl2. These observations were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy imaging, where bacterial EPS in the presence of calcium ions was globular, while that with magnesium ions was rod-shaped.

  18. High pressure rotating reverse osmosis for long term space missions (United States)

    Christensen Pederson, Cynthia Lynn

    Rotating reverse osmosis, which uses reverse osmosis to purify water and rotating filtration to improve the efficacy of filtration, has great potential for wastewater recycling on a long term space mission. Previous investigations of a proof-of-concept device indicated that the most efficient method to improve rotating reverse osmosis performance is to increase the operational pressure. Thus, a second generation device and fluid circuit were designed, fabricated, and tested to permit high pressure operation for long time periods. The design overcame several obstacles including membrane attachment, rotating seal design, and fluid and pressure management. A theoretical model of rotating reverse osmosis was modified to properly account for the flow conditions in the new design. Tests lasting a week were conducted with a variety of model wastewaters. Significant fouling and a decrease in flux were observed after three days of testing regardless of the operational parameters. A semi-empirical model, the fouling potential, was added to the theoretical model to account for the fouling. This allowed the simulation of 48 hour cleaning cycles that significantly increased the flux of the device. Experimental investigation of the rotational speed and concentrate flow rate indicated that an increase in either parameter decreased the fouling slightly. A week long test of a wastewater ersatz with a biocide did not exhibit a decrease in flux around day three that otherwise occurred. Therefore, biofouling was identified as the primary mechanism of fouling. Rotating reverse osmosis was compared with conventional spiral wound reverse osmosis and displayed increased rejection under dead end filtration conditions. The rotating device exhibited similar rejection and increased flux compared to a tubular reverse osmosis device previously used in a NASA wastewater recovery system. The integration of the rotating device into a NASA water recovery management system was evaluated. Lastly, a

  19. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics (United States)

    Lurie, Charles


    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.


    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...