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Sample records for aosta valley italy

  1. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

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    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  2. Analysis of the protective function of forests: a study case in the Aosta Valley (Italy

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    Meloni F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aosta Valley is a densely populated mountainous area in which interaction between natural hazards and human activities has been shaping the development of settlements and infrastructure for centuries. The forests cover almost 30% of the totals surface (326088 ha and have been providing protection against avalanches, rock fall and floods. During the past decades, the importance of the forests as a protection against natural hazards in Aosta Valley, and more in general in the whole European Alps, has increased. Remote valleys, that were formerly avoided during winter, are now expected to be permanently accessible for tourists, settlements have been spreading into areas that were considered unsafe and transports crossing the Alps have strongly increased. The forests that directly protect settlements, railways, main roads and socio-economical infrastructures represent a priority in the forest and landscape management at the regional scale since the direct prote ctive role of forests needs to be efficiently and continuously effective. Protective forest mapping is the first step of a sustainable long-term silvicultural management. Starting from a digital terrain model (DTM in a raster format with a spatial resolution of 10 m, other numerical maps and forest information, a regional map (1:10000 of the forests that play a direct protection has been developed. The forests that potentially play a protective role and the forests that play a potentially direct protective role cover represents respectively 79.8% and 42.7% of the forest cover.

  3. Assessment of long-term erosion in a mountain vineyard, Aosta Valley (NW Italy)

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    Biddoccu, Marcella; Zecca, Odoardo; Barmaz, Andrea; Godone, Franco; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    Tillage and chemical weeding are common soil management techniques adopted in mountain vineyards, with high slope gradient, to maintain bare soil. Both techniques exposes the soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil losses, that may cause relevant on-site and off-site damage. Steep mountain slopes makes optimum conditions for grape-growing. In the mountain region of Aosta Valley, NW Italy, the vineyards were, in the past, traditionally grown on terraces supported by dry stone walls. Since the 1960s the plantation of vines in the direction of the slope became more and more widespread, also on very steep slopes. Generally, no particular measure to channel and control surface water is adopted in this area due to the low rainfall (560 mm/year). Nevertheless in steep mountain slope rainfall events can cause important runoff erosion. In order to evaluate the long-term effect of vineyard management techniques on soil erosion, a study was carried out on a mountain slope vineyard located near Aosta, at about 900 m above the sea level. The vineyard was planted at the end of 1960s and is managed by the Institut Agricole Régional. The rows are accommodated oriented along the slope, which is about 45%. The inter-rows' soil management of the vineyard included chemical weeding and, in first year after plantation, the adoption of irrigation (by fixed overhead sprinklers) and hilling-up/taking-out the soil around the vine plants, to protect them from cold weather. The long-term soil erosion rate was determined adopting the technique of botanical benchmark (Casalí et al.,2009). The grafting callus was used as a marker to identify the paleo-surface at the time of planting. A detailed topographic survey was carried out to determine the present surface of the vineyard while the current position of the grafting callus was recorded for a number of plants. The original position of the callus was estimated by data obtained by farmers and by a survey on reference vineyards. Two

  4. Monitoring of Grandes Jorasses hanging glacier (Aosta Valley, Italy): improving monitoring techniques for glaciers instability

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    Vagliasindi, Marco; Funk, Martin; Faillettaz, Jerome; Dalban, Pierre; Lucianaz, Claudio; Diotri, Fabrizio; Motta, Elena; Margreth, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Grandes Jorasses serac is an unbalanced hanging glacier located on the south side of Mont Blanc Massif (Aosta Valley - Italy). It stands above Ferret Valley, a famous and most frequented touristic site both in winter and summer. Historical data and morphological evidences show that the glacier is subject to recurrent icefalls which can be dangerous especially in winter, as they can trigger catastrophic combined snow and ice avalanches. Serac dynamic was monitored in 1997-98 by prof. M Funk (ETH Zurich) by means of temperature and topographic measurement. These allowed to forecast the breakdown within a 2 days time. Thanks to a monitoring program, a new instability could be recognized in autumn 2008: a crevasse opening in the lower part of the hanging glacier. A new monitoring system was installed recently, consisting of stakes with prisms on serac surface and an automatic total station (theodolite plus distantiometer) sited on the valley floor. Monitoring is based on an empirically based power law (developed by ETH) that describes the increasing displacement rate before collapse. This monitoring system requires to measure displacement rate of the serac continuously. Although the topographic system is so far the state-of-the.art method, it implies some troubles: (i) the difficulty in placing stakes on the steep and dangerous glacier surface; (ii) potential instability of stakes themselves due to snow pressure in winter and surface ice melting in summer; (iii) impossibility to carry out measurement in case of cloudy or stormy weather, which is rather a frequent situation on Grandes Jorasses peak. Moreover, hazard and risk management require some more informations, such as the instable ice mass volume. New technologies have been applied, and are still under test, to achieve a more reliable monitoring system and a better understanding of the serac dynamics. Close-range photogrammetry techniques have been used, allowing to process helicopter-taken images and obtain

  5. The impact of national and international guidelines on newborn care in the nurseries of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, Italy

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    Fabris Claudio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care procedures for preventing neonatal diseases are carried out according to nurseries' traditions and may be not consistent with the evidence based medicine issues. Methods A multi-centric survey was conducted in 2 Regions located in NW Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley in order to collect information on some healthy newborn care procedures. During 2001, a questionnaire was sent to the chief pediatrician in charge to the all 33 nurseries of the region asking the methods used during 2000 as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, early and late hemorrhagic disease of newborn, umbilical cord care and recommendations of vitamin D administration. Thereafter, during 2004 the same questionnaire was sent to the 34 chief pediatrician of nurseries to evaluate if the procedures were changed during 2003 according to guidelines. The nurseries care for 32,516 newborns in 2000 and 37,414 in 2003. Results Aminoglycoside eyes drops as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum were the first choice in both periods (23 out 33 nurseries in 2000 and 24 out 34 in 2003 p > 0.05; the corresponding figures for newborns were18,984 out 32,516 newborns vs. 28,180 out of 37,414 p 0.05, (6,380 newborns, p 0.05. The numbers of parents of newborns who receive the recommendations of oral vitamin K during the first months life decreased from 2000 (25,516/30,606 to 2003 (29,808/37,414, p 0.05, the corresponding figures for Vitamin D were 15 and 14 (p > 0.05. Conclusion In the present study a large variability of procedures among the nurseries was observed. During the study periods, guidelines and evidence based medicine issues have only partially modified the neonatal care procedures In Piedmont and Aosta Valley nurseries. These observations suggest to implement local forum/consensus conference to standardized procedures as much as possible.

  6. A new experimental site for the study of snow avalanches in the Aosta Valley (NW-Italy)

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    Segor, Valerio; Barbero, Monica; Barpi, Fabrizio; Borri Brunetto, Mauro; Bovet, Eloise; Brulport, Antoine; Ceaglio, Elisabetta; Chiaia, Bernardino; Fassin, Daniele; Freppaz, Michele; Frigo, Barbara; Godone, Danilo; Maggioni, Margherita; Pallara, Oronzo; Torretta, Franco; Viglietti, Davide; Welf, Arnoldo

    2010-05-01

    Within the Operational programme 'Italy - France (Alps - ALCOTRA)', Project "DynAval - Dynamique des avalanches: départ et interactions écoulement/obstacles", a new experimental site is proposed in the Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) to study small-medium size snow avalanches. In the past the attention has been mainly posed over extreme events, which can destroy villages and infrastructures and modify the landscape; scientists tried to understand their dynamics and potential destructive effects. Only recently the scientific world has started to study more in details the dynamics of smaller avalanches, which might be characterized by different relevant processes than those typical of extreme events. The paper describes the new experimental site that will be built to study the behavior of this kind of snow avalanches from several points of view. The test site is located in Aosta Valley (North-western Italian Alps) within the MonterosaSki resort (410171, 5078440) on the Monte Rosa Massif. The slope, with an altitude difference of about 300 m (from 2300 to 2570 m a.s.l.), has a dip direction of 350° and a mean dip of about 38°. The rock mass is constituted of a surface debris layer about 10 m thick on a highly fractured bedrock. Two instability phenomena can occur in the slope: superficial sliding in the debris layer and rock falls. The main objectives of the studies are: 1. the dynamics of small-medium size avalanches; 2. the interaction between avalanche flows and obstacles; 3. the mass balance of avalanches; 4. the characteristics of the snow in the deposition zone compared to those of the release zone; 5. the release process produced by explosives. To achieve the objectives, from winter 2009-2010, it is planned to artificially release avalanches along the slope according to the snow and weather conditions. In that occasion, the research team records the event measuring different variables of the avalanche. It is planned to film the event from the opposite side of the

  7. Regional and local risk assessments of alluvial fans by combination of historical and geomorphological data on debris flows, the most damaging natural hazard in the Aosta Valley Region (NW-Italy)

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    Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara; Alberto, Walter; Armand, Marco; Cignetti, Martina; Palomba, Mauro; Navillod, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    The Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) is a small alpine Region (area = 3262 km2) where alluvial fans occupy large sectors of the main valley bottom and also of the tributary valleys; most towns and villages lie in these sectors which are frequently affected by different geomorphological processes, including debris flows. For a best environmental hazard assessment and management of alluvial fans, a research project has been carried out with a particular attention to debris flows, responsible for causing major damages to human activities and infrastructures. A debris flows inventory on a regional scale has been created, combining historical data (1900 to present), technical maps and geomorphological analysis on the alluvial fans areas. A complex methodology for data collection and analysis has been organized in two different stages. As a first step, aerial photointerpretation and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analysis were conducted over the Aosta Valley Region to obtain a complete fans inventory and to identify the most affected sectors by debris flows. As a second step, data on debris flow events occurred in the Region has been collected from different sources, such as bibliographic and historical data, municipality hazard maps for land planning restriction and drainage basin technical studies. For each inventored debris flow, aerial photointerpretations have been performed to validate geomorphological and historical data, mostly collected during major regional flood events. Finally, the selected debris flow events has been formally organized in a GIS to perform spatial and statistical analysis. Application of the methodology to the complete Aosta Valley Region dataset involved the overcoming of some difficulties, such as: 1) correct identification of repeated events from different sources, 2) exact recognition of small phenomena by photointerpretation and 3) problems related to the rapid landforms obliteration. The preliminary results of the research activity are outlined

  8. Cytotaxonomic investigations in some Angiosperms collected in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradiso »

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    Gadella, Th.W.J.; Kliphuis, E.

    1970-01-01

    The chromosome number of 53 species of Angiosperms, occurring in the Valley of Aosta and in the National Park « Gran Paradise » was determined. Some notes on the taxonomy of some species are presented in this paper.

  9. Effective dose delivered by conventional radiology to Aosta Valley population between 2002 and 2009

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    Zenone, F; Aimonetto, S; Catuzzo, P; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Marchisio, P; Natrella, M; Rosanò, A M; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Medical diagnostic procedures can be considered the main man-made source of ionising radiation exposure for the population. Conventional radiography still represents the largest contribution to examination frequency. The present work evaluates procedure frequency and effective dose from the majority of conventional radiology examinations performed at the Radiological Department of Aosta Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Method Effective dose to the patient was evaluated by means of the software PCXMC. Data provided by the radiological information system allowed us to obtain collective effective and per caput dose. Results The biggest contributors to per caput effective dose from conventional radiology are vertebral column, abdomen, chest, pelvis and (limited to females) breast. Vertebral column, pelvis and breast procedures show a significant dose increment in the period of the study. The mean effective dose per inhabitant from conventional radiology increased from 0.131 mSv in 2002 to 0.156 mSv in 2009. Combining these figures with those from our study of effective dose from CT (0.55 mSv in 2002 to 1.03 mSv in 2009), the total mean effective dose per inhabitant increased from 0.68 mSv to 1.19 mSv. The contribution of CT increased from 81% to 87% of the total. In contrast, conventional radiology accounts for 85% of the total number of procedures, but only 13% of the effective dose. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that conventional radiography still represents the biggest contributor to examination frequency in Aosta Valley in 2009. However, the frequency of the main procedures did not change significantly between 2002 and 2009. PMID:21937611

  10. Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.

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    Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2013-12-01

    The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall.

  11. Valle d’Aosta

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    Maria Caterina Cavallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In Aosta Valley region 77,9% of women (aged 25-64 are screened regularly, meaning every 3 years. Considering regional tariffs and vaccine acquisition cost, the vaccination of 12-year-old girls with a 90% coverage could prevent 2 cases of cervicocarcinoma and 1 related death and thus results to be cost-effective (33.211 €/QALY. When the vaccination programme is extended to 16-year-old girls a further 1 cancer case could be prevented, with a very similar cost-effectiveness ratio. In Aosta Valley region, the net cost for woman vaccinated is 209 € for the single cohort and 211 € for the multiple cohort.

  12. Population exposure to ionising radiation from CT examinations in Aosta Valley between 2001 and 2008

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    Catuzzo, P; Aimonetto, S; Zenone, F; Fanelli, G; Marchisio, P; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2010-01-01

    Recent and continuous advances in CT, such as the development of multislice CT, have promoted a rapid increase in its clinical application. Today, CT accounts for approximately 10% of the total number of medical radiographic procedures worldwide. However, the growing performance of the new CT generations have increased not only the diagnostic opportunities, but also the radiation dose to the patient. The relative contribution to the collective radiation dose is now estimated to be approximately 50%. Several papers have been published concerning the intensive use of CT and its contribution to the collective dose. However, most of the literature concerns the years 1997–2003 and the dosimetric evaluations are generally limited to the main standard protocols (chest, head and abdomen), deriving the effective dose by the simple application of the diagnostic reference levels. Only specific dosimetric analyses of single and innovative procedures have been published recently. Moreover, few data comes from Italian radiology departments. This paper aims to bridge these gaps. Firstly, it characterises in terms of measured CT dose index (CTDI) two last-generation scanners of the Radiological Department of Aosta Hospital. Secondly, it evaluates the effective dose from most of the CT examinations performed from 2001 to 2008 to compare protocols and technologies in line with the suggestions of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103. Finally, it estimates the collective dose to the population. PMID:21088089

  13. Monitoring the morphological evolution of complex glaciers: the Planpincieux case-study (Mont Blanc - Aosta Valley)

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    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Curtaz, Michèle; Vagliasindi, Marco; Bertolo, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The Planpincieux Glacier (PG) is located on the Italian side of the Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc, Italy. This area is historically known for the occasional activation of ice falls events from the frontal part of the glacier. The PG is a so-called "polythermal" glacier, meaning that the liquid water present at contact between ice and the bedrock in the lower part of the glacier itself plays an important role in the glacier dynamics, and ice falls might occur in a sudden and unpredictable fashion. In this scenario, the accurate analysis of the glacier morphological evolution assumes a crucial role. Starting from 2012, within the framework of the regional plan for glaciers risk detection, a research project was set up to study the Planpincieux Glacier and evaluate the potential hazard concerning the possible activation of large ice or ice-snow avalanches triggered by icefall events in that area. Dynamics of such avalanches, as well as potentially endangered areas, have been evaluated in an expertise by the SLF Institute. Therefore, the availability of both qualitative information and quantitative measurements relevant to the glacier movements represented a primary goal. After a careful evaluation of several possible technical solutions to achieve displacement monitoring also based on the results of a preliminary study managed by the ETH Zurich (prof. M. Funk), we installed an experimental monitoring station located on the opposite side of the valley, at the top of the Mt. de la Saxe, ca. 3.5 km away from the main target. The monitoring station is composed of two modules, including: (i) a surveillance module, based on a medium resolution digital camera, observing large part of the slope; (ii) a photogrammetric module, based on a high resolution digital camera equipped with a 300mm optical zoom, pointed on the Planpincieux glacier front. At this stage, our analyses focused mainly on the qualitative assessment and recognition of impulsive phenomena affecting the

  14. Application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure in the Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy

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    Minucci, Guido; Mendoza, Marina Tamara; Molinari, Daniela; Atun, Funda; Menoni, Scira; Ballio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) established by European "Floods" Directive (Directive 2007/60/EU) to Member States in order to address all aspects of flood risk management, taking into account costs and benefits of proposed mitigation tools must be reviewed by the same law every six years. This is aimed at continuously increasing the effectiveness of risk management, on the bases of the most advanced knowledge of flood risk and most (economically) feasible solutions, also taking into consideration achievements of the previous management cycle. Within this context, the Flood-IMPAT (i.e. Integrated Meso-scale Procedure to Assess Territorial flood risk) procedure has been developed aiming at overcoming limits of risk maps produced by the Po River Basin Authority and adopted for the first version of the Po River FRMP. The procedure allows the estimation of flood risk at the meso-scale and it is characterized by three main peculiarities. First is its feasibility for the entire Italian territory. Second is the possibility to express risk in monetary terms (i.e. expected damage), at least for those categories of damage for which suitable models are available. Finally, independent modules compose the procedure: each module allows the estimation of a certain type of damage (i.e. direct, indirect, intangibles) on a certain sector (e.g. residential, industrial, agriculture, environment, etc.) separately, guaranteeing flexibility in the implementation. This paper shows the application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure and the recent advancements in the procedure, aiming at increasing its reliability and usability. Through a further implementation of the procedure in the Dora Baltea River Basin (North of Italy), it was possible to test the sensitivity of risk estimates supplied by Flood-IMPAT with respect to different damage models and different approaches for the estimation of assets at risk. Risk estimates were also compared with observed damage data in the investigated areas

  15. Pursuing the link between Scientific Research and Communication: the experience of the OAVdA and the Planetarium in the Aosta Valley

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    Ettore Bernagozzi, Andrea; Bertolini, Enzo; Calcidese, Paolo; Carbognani, Albino; Carlo Cenadelli, Davide; Christille, Jean Marc; Pellissier, Paolo; Recaldini, Paolo; Soldi, Matteo

    2015-08-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley (OAVdA) and the Planetarium of Lignan are located in the Saint-Barthélemy Valley, in the Italian Alps at the border with France and Switzerland. They are managed by the non-profit organisation Fondazione Clément Fillietroz-ONLUS. The OAVdA opened in 2003, then the Planetarium followed in 2009.Scientific Research has been the main activity at the OAVdA since 2006, when an official agreement of cooperation was set up with the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Scientific Research made at the OAVdA contributes greatly to the development of high quality Public Outreach and Education programs. We adopt the principle that knowledge teachers and students meet in school is the result of scientific researches made by scientists in the past; then, knowledge they will meet in life tomorrow is the result of scientific researches that scientists are making today. To put this in practice, researchers are effectively involved, for at least 30% of their working time, in a vast spectrum of Public Outreach and Education initiatives where they illustrate several aspects of their work.In the presentation we explain why the theoretical framework informing our Public Outreach and Education programs was identified and how it has caused, after almost 10 years, a major change in the perception of the OAVdA and the Planetarium by all the stakeholders: institutional funding sources, other funding sources, participants to the initiatives (both schools and public at large), media, the researchers themselves. Among the activities, we report about three experiences strongly based on the establishment of a 'virtuous link' between Research and Communication: the Summer School in Astronomy in Saint-Barthélemy (targeted to public at large); "Saint-Roch Etoiles", a 5-year project with the Saint-Roch School in Aosta (students aged 5-12); the ESO Astronomy Camp co-organised in Lignan with the European Southern

  16. Detecting glacier-bed overdeepenings for glaciers in the Western Italian Alps using the GlabTop2 model: the test site of the Rutor Glacier, Aosta Valley

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    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It is expected that the rapid retreat of glaciers, observed in the European Alps and other mountain regions of the world, will continue in the future. One of the most evident and relevant consequences of this phenomenon is the formation of new glacier lakes in recently deglaciated areas. During glacier retreat overdeepened parts of the glacier bed become exposed and, in some cases, filled with water. It is important to understand where these new lakes can appear because of the associated potential risks (i.e. lake outburst and consequent flood) and opportunities (tourism, hydroelectricity, water reservoir, etc.) especially in densely populated areas such as the European Alps. GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2) allows to model glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas combining digital terrain information and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness. The model requires a minimum set of input data: glaciers outlines and a surface digital elevation model (DEM). In this work we tested the model on the Rutor Glacier (8,1 km2) located in the Aosta Valley. The glacier has a well-known history of a series of glacier lake outburst floods between 1430 AD and 1864 AD due to front fluctuations. After the last advance occurred during the 70s of the previous century, glacier shrinkage has been continuous and new lakes have formed in newly exposed overdeepenings. We applied GlabTop2 to DEMs derived from historical data (topographic maps and aerial photos pair) representing conditions before the proglacial lake formation. The results obtained have been compared with the present situation and existing lakes. Successively we used the model also on present-day DEMs, which are of higher resolution than the historical derived ones, and compared the modeled bed topography with an existing bedrock map obtained by in-situ geophysical investigations (GPR surveys). Preliminary results, obtained with the 1991 surface model, confirm the robustness of GlabTop2 in

  17. Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosà (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d’Aosta Region, Italy

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    Casale, Giuseppe R. [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Siani, Anna Maria, E-mail: annamaria.siani@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Diémoz, Henri [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department of Physics, p.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Agnesod, Giovanni [ARPA Valle d' Aosta (Aosta Valley Regional Environmental Protection Agency), Saint-Christophe-Aosta (Italy); Parisi, Alfio V. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 Australia (Australia); Colosimo, Alfredo [Sapienza Università di Roma, Department SAIMLAL, Via A. Borelli 50, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal exposures of skiers at the Alpine site of Plateau Rosà (45.9°N, 7.7°E, 3500 m a.s.l.), in the Valle d'Aosta region, Italy. The campaign was carried out on July 12th, 2011 during the summer ski season. A peak UVI value of 12.3, among the highest in Europe, was recorded on that day. Personal exposures (PE) were quantified using both polysulphone (PS) and poly-dimethyl phenylene oxide (PPO) dosimeters attached vertically to the cap because it is representative of the vertically oriented face of skiers. Exposure ratio (ER) defined as the ratio between PE and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface) measured by a broad-band radiometer during the same exposure time of the subjects, was used to compare the results with previous studies. Skin color was also measured on the inner upper arm and on the cheek and differences in ITA (Individual Typology Angle) and a* (redness) values before and after exposure, were statistically analyzed. During the exposure period, the median PE (with PS) was 1.47 kJ m{sup −2} and that obtained by PPO was 1.15 kJ m{sup −2}. The median of the ERs was 0.65 (min: 0.50, max: 0.83) considering the cumulative PS exposure and 0.46 (min: 0.29, max: 0.95) for PPO. An increase in ITAs on the exposed site (i.e. the skin became lighter) was observed after exposure. These results indicate that: a) for some skiers, the exposures were similar to those received on the horizontal plane; and b) the targeted population showed exposures above the occupational threshold limit value (TLV) defined by ICNIRP; c) the use of physical sunscreens which tend to leave a white cast, might have reduced skin color change. Nevertheless possible visible sun-induced skin-color changes could be observed after longer time intervals after exposure. - Highlights: • PS and PPO dosimeters measure UV exposures over short/prolonged periods, respectively. • Large UV

  18. Population study on Mustela erminea in Northwest Italy (Valle d'Aosta region: captures, morphometric data, diet

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    Elisabetta Bounous

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By capturing-marking-recapturing method, 58 stoats Mustela erminea (37 males and 21 females were captured from 1990 to 1993 in an alpine area of the Valle d'Aosta region. Trappings were generally conducted from 15th July to 15th October of each year. Considering 2-3 subsequent trapping years the number of recaptures was very low, while in the same year we recaptured on average 57% of the animals. The population of stoats seemed to show a rapid turnover. The highest level of density was like to be reached at the beginning of September when the dispersal of animals probably started. The diet included exclusively small rodents, mainly Microtus. Riassunto Studio di popolazione su Mustela erminea, nell'Italia nord occidentale (Valle d'Aosta: catture, dati morfometrici, analisi alimentare - Nel periodo 1990-93, mediante il metodo di cattura-marcatura-ricattura, sono stati catturati 58 ermellini Mustela erminea (37 maschi e 21 femmine in una zona alpina della Valle d'Aosta. I trappolaggi sono stati effettuati dal 15 luglio al 15 ottobre di ogni anno. Il numero delle ricatture registrate in anni successivi è molto basso, mentre nell'arco di uno stesso anno raggiungeva mediamente il 57% del campione di animali catturati. Durante il periodo di studio la popolazione sembrava rinnovarsi pressoché totalmente. Il livello di densità più elevato sembrava essere raggiunto all'inizio di settembre, mese in cui gli animali probabilmente iniziavano a disperdersi. I risultati sull'analisi alimentare indicano una predazione esclusivamente a carico di piccoli roditori, in particolare Microtus.

  19. Valle d’Aosta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gasparini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Valle d’Aosta region 89% of women (aged 24-64 are screened regularly, meaning every 3 years. The analysis on cross-protective activity exercised by bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines shows that the bivalent vaccine could prevent more pre-cancerous lesions and cases of cervicocarcinoma than quadrivalent, and that the latter could prevent genital warts that are not prevented by bivalent. The major number of cases avoided by the bivalent make it possible to fully offset the cost savings related to warts associated with the quadrivalent vaccine. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis shows that, considering regional tariffs, the multiple cohort (12-year-old + 25-year-old women vaccination strategy with a 90% coverage could prevent 1 case of cervicocarcinoma more than the vaccination of only 12-year-old girls, and thus proves to be cost-effective (11,365 €/QALY.

  20. Phylogeography, phylodynamics and transmission chains of bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1f in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont

  1. Retrospective study on the presence and pathogenicity of Dirofilaria repens in 5 dogs and 1 cat from Aosta Vally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarello, W

    2003-10-01

    Aosta Valley is the only region of Italy free of reported human cases of dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens. Nonetheless, the retrospective analysis of five locally acquired D. repens infections in dogs, seems to indicate that an animal reservoir exist in the area. A feline case imported from Camargue, France, is also described. The most common dermatological signs were erythema, alopecia, crusting, papulae and nodules. All patients had lesional pruritus and dogs were affected by concurrent babesiosis. Eradication of the underlying condition, followed by a therapy with the specific adulticide and microfilaricide drugs led to a complete recovery of microfilaraemia. Increased pet travel and ecological changes are extending the ranges of vector borne, parasitic and zoonotic diseases. This fact pose a unique diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian, since the index of suspicion may be absent outside endemic areas.

  2. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  3. Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy

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    S. Saarikoski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of submicron particles was investigated at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC measurement station in the Po Valley, Italy, in spring 2008. The measurements were performed by using both off-line and on-line instruments. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon, organic acids and biomass burning tracers were measured off-line by using a 24-h PM1 filter sampling. More detailed particle chemistry was achieved by using an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and analyzing the data by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Oxalic acid had the highest concentrations of organic acids (campaign-average 97.4 ng m−3 followed by methane sulfonic, formic, malonic, and malic acids. Samples were also analyzed for glyoxylic, succinic, azelaic and maleic acids. In total, the nine acids composed 1.9 and 3.8% of OC and water-soluble OC, respectively (average, in terms of carbon atoms. Levoglucosan concentration varied from 17.7 to 495 ng m−3 with the concentration decreasing in the course of the campaign most likely due to the reduced use of domestic heating with wood. Six factors were found for organic aerosol (OA at SPC by PMF: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, nitrogen-containing OA (N-OA and three different oxygenated OAs (OOA-a, OOA-b and OOA-c. Most of the OA mass was composed of OOA-a, HOA and OOA-c (26, 24 and 22%, respectively followed by OOA-b (13%, BBOA (8% and N-OA (7%. As expected, OOAs were the most oxygenated factors with organic matter:organic carbon (OM:OC ratios ranging from 1.9 to 2.2. The diurnal variability of the aerosol chemical composition was greatly affected by the boundary layer meteorology. Specifically, the effect of the nocturnal layer break-up in morning hours was most evident for nitrate and N-OA indicating that these compounds originated mainly from the local sources in the Po Valley. For sulfate and OOA-a the concentration did not

  4. Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saarikoski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of submicron particles was investigated at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC measurement station in the Po Valley, Italy, in spring 2008. The measurements were performed by using both off-line and on-line instruments. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon, organic acids and biomass burning tracers were measured off-line by using a 24-h PM1 filter sampling. More detailed particle chemistry was achieved by using a Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and analyzing the data by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Oxalic acid had the highest concentrations of organic acids (campaign-average 97.4 ng m−3 followed by methane sulfonic, formic, malonic, and malic acids. Samples were also analyzed for glyoxylic, succinic, azelaic and maleic acids. In total, the nine acids composed 1.9 and 3.8% of OC and water-soluble OC, respectively (average, in terms of carbon atoms. Levoglucosan concentration varied from 17.7 to 495 ng m−3 with the concentration decreasing in the course of the campaign most likely due to the reduced use of domestic heating with wood. Six factors were found for organic aerosol (OA at SPC by PMF: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, nitrogen-containing OA (N-OA and three different oxygenated OAs (OOA-a, OOA-b and OOA-c. Most of the OA mass was composed of OOA-a, HOA and OOA-c (26, 24 and 22%, respectively followed by OOA-b (13%, BBOA (8% and N-OA (7%. As expected, OOAs were the most oxygenated factors with organic matter:organic carbon (OM : OC ratios ranging from 1.9 to 2.2. The diurnal variability of the aerosol chemical composition was greatly affected by the boundary layer meteorology. Specifically, the effect of the nocturnal layer break-up in morning hours was most evident for nitrate and N-OA indicating that these compounds originated mainly from the local sources in the Po Valley. For sulfate and OOA-a the concentration did not

  5. Soapstones from the Ossola Valley (Piedmont, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The term "soapstones" is referred to "soft", easily workable stones (talc and/or chlorite-rich metamorphic rocks, deriving from mafic - ultramafic protoliths), typically used for jars, pots and pipes. The term has been also improperly extended to "harder" varieties (e.g. serpentinites), mostly suitable for roof slabs and millstones. These rocks are characterized by easy workability and fire-resistance, and they had a remarkable historical, artistic and archaeological importance. In the Ossola region (Piedmont, northern Italy), the soapstones are traditionally known as "Pietra Laugera", "Pietra Lavizzaria" or "Pietra Ollare", and represent one of the oldest stony raw materials used since the Bronze Age (archaeological find in the Toceno surroundings, Vigezzo Valley). The discovery of archaeological handmade objects in the surroundings of the Ossola Valley testifies a massive use of green stones during the I century A.D., even for cinerary urns and grave outfits. A lot of two handles pots and milk vessels date back to the Middle Ages, as well as millstones and water pipes. Artistic and ornamental uses are documented in churches and civil buildings: for example, columns, capitals, pilasters and bas-reliefs (Sacro Monte del Calvario chapels, now UNESCO heritage, and the Collegiale Church in Domodossola) as well as fireplaces (e.g. Silva Palace in Domodossola), sculptures, ornaments and balustrades. The productivity reached the top in the XIX century and stopped in the twenties; nowadays the extraction occurs only in the Loana Valley, with a very limited production. The historical soapstones derive both from ophiolitic complexes (Antrona and Zermatt-Saas Zones) and from the ultramafic complexes within the Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno Zone, Monte Leone nappe and Sesia-Lanzo Zone. The historical quarries are usually small (even erratic boulders), and scattered over many lateral valleys, such as Brevettola, Antrona, Bognanco and Loana. A total of 52 representative samples were

  6. Magnetotelluric investigation in the High Agri Valley (southern Apennine, Italy

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    M. Balasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV, southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.

  7. Three-dimensional seismo-tectonics in the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, Claudio; Angeloni, Pamela; Lacombe, Olivier; Ponton, Maurizio; Roure, François

    2015-01-01

    The Po Valley (Northern Italy) is a composite foreland-foredeep basin caught in between the Southern Alps and Northern Apennine mountain belts. By integrating the 3D structural model of the region with the public earthquake dataset, the seismo-tectonics of the basin is shown at different scales of o

  8. Present-day 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, C.; Lacombe, O.; Roure, F.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin (Northern Italy) was built by integrating the dataset available from the public domain (DEM, wells, isobath-maps, cross-sections, outcrop-trends).The model shows the complex foredeep-foreland architecture across the basin, from the Moho level to the topog

  9. Present-day 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, C.; Lacombe, O.; Roure, F.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin (Northern Italy) was built by integrating the dataset available from the public domain (DEM, wells, isobath-maps, cross-sections, outcrop-trends).The model shows the complex foredeep-foreland architecture across the basin, from the Moho level to the

  10. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  11. Radon migration in the soils of the Irno Valley (Southern Italy inferred from radioactive disequilibrium

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    P. Gasparini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Radon migration along vertical profiles in the soils of Irno River alluvial Valley (Southern Italy was studied using radioactive disequilibrium between 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Fractional Radon loss, migration length, diffusion and emanation coefficient and Radon flux density were determined. Our results are in agreement with a migra- tion model by simple diffusion. The migration parameters are within typical values, except the Radon flux density, which is about one order of magnitude higher than the values reported in literature. The values of fractional Radon loss are sensitive to changes in the physical properties of the soil.

  12. Human biomonitoring for Cd, Hg and Pb in blood of inhabitants of the Sacco Valley (Italy

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    Sonia D'Ilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The Sacco Valley (Lazio, Italy is characterized by high density population and several industrial chemical productions that during the time had led to a substantial amount of by-products. The result was a severe environmental pollution of the area and in particular of the river Sacco. In 1991, the analysis of water and soils samples of three industrial landfills revealed the presence of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. A research project named "Health of residents living in Sacco Valley area", coordinated by the regional Department of Epidemiology, was undertaken and financed to evaluate the state of health of the population living near those polluted areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cd, Hg and Pb were quantified in 246 blood samples of potentially exposed residents of the Sacco Valley by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS. RESULTS. Individuals who agreed to be sampled did not exhibit high levels of the elements. The distance from the river does not seem to be directly connected with the elements levels in blood. The contribution of these contaminants to the total intake due to ingestion of food was difficult to evaluate. The unclear trend of data would require a characterization of the polluted site with environmental sampling of different matrices.

  13. Temperature variability over the Po Valley, Italy, according to radiosounding data

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, Boyan Hristozov

    2014-01-01

    Temperature variations registered above the southeast part of the Po Valley, Italy have been examined by applying the principal component analysis of radiosoung profiles recorded during the period from 1987 to 2010. Two data sets, considered to describe intra- and inter-annual oscillations, respectively were extracted from the measurements data and the results show that both types of fluctuations can be projected onto four empirical orthogonal functions (EOF), interpreted as vertical distributions of oscillation amplitudes and four uncorrelated time series that represent the evolution of corresponding EOFs. It was found that intra-annual oscillations composed of periods between 30 and 120 days, together with inter-annual variations of 1- to 7-year period contribute to the highest extent (about 70 percents) the temperature oscillations up to 20 km, changing in both cases the phase in the tropopausal region. The other three EOFs indicate prevailing weight of the oscillations in the upper troposphere-low stratos...

  14. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

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    Carta M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO experimental campaign is provided.

  15. Landscape analysis for multi-hazard prevention in Orco and Soana valleys, North-Western Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, L.; Tropeano, D.; Savio, G.; De, S. Kumar; Mason, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A Civil Protection Plan has been drafted for a 600 km2 mountainous region in NW Italy Consisting of Orco and Soana Valleys. It is a part of the oldest natural park in Italy and attracts several thousand tourists every year. The work is concerned with the analysis of relevant physiographic characteristics of this Alpine landscapehaving extremely variable geomorphology and possess a long history of instability. Thousands of records as well as digital maps (involving overlay and comparison of up to 90 GIS layers) have been analyzed and cross-correlated to find out the details of the events. The study area experienced different types of natural hazards, typical of the whole Alpine environment. Thus, the present area has been selected for such multi-hazard research in which several natural processes have been investigated, concerning their damaging effects over the land. Due to 36 different severe hazardous events at least 250 deaths have been recorded in the area since 18th Century, in the occasion of.

  16. First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diémoz, H.; Siani, A. M.; Casale, G. R.; di Sarra, A.; Serpillo, B.; Petkov, B.; Scaglione, S.; Bonino, A.; Facta, S.; Fedele, F.; Grifoni, D.; Verdi, L.; Zipoli, G.

    2011-08-01

    A blind intercomparison of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) instruments has been organized for the first time in Italy. The campaign was coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta) and took place in Saint-Christophe (45.8° N, 7.4° E, 570 m a.s.l.), in the Alpine region, from 8 to 23 June 2010. It involved 8 institutions, 10 broadband radiometers, 2 filter radiometers and 2 spectroradiometers. Synchronized measurements of downward global solar UV irradiance at the ground were collected and the raw series were then individually processed by the respective operators on the base of their own procedures and calibration data. A radiative transfer model was successfully applied as an interpretative tool. The input parameters and output results are described in detail. The comparison was performed in terms of global solar UV Index and integrated UV-A irradiance against a well-calibrated double monochromator spectroradiometer as reference. An improved algorithm for comparing broadband data and spectra has been developed and is discussed in detail. For some instruments, we found average deviations ranging from -16 % up to 20 % relative to the reference and diurnal variations as large as 15 % even in clear days. Remarkable deviations were found for the instruments calibrated in the manufacturers' facilities and never involved in field intercomparison. Finally, some recommendations to the UV operators based on the campaign results are proposed.

  17. First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A blind intercomparison of ground-based ultraviolet (UV instruments has been organized for the first time in Italy. The campaign was coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta and took place in Saint-Christophe (45.8° N, 7.4° E, 570 m a.s.l., in the Alpine region, from 8 to 23 June 2010. It involved 8 institutions, 10 broadband radiometers, 2 filter radiometers and 2 spectroradiometers. Synchronized measurements of downward global solar UV irradiance at the ground were collected and the raw series were then individually processed by the respective operators on the basis of their own procedures and calibration data. The comparison was performed in terms of global solar UV Index and integrated UV-A irradiance against a well-calibrated double monochromator spectroradiometer as reference. An improved algorithm for comparing broadband data and spectra has been developed. For some instruments, we found average deviations ranging from −16 % up to 20 % relative to the reference and diurnal variations as large as 15 % even in clear days. Remarkable deviations also arose from instruments recently in operation and never involved in field intercomparison.

  18. First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A blind intercomparison of ground-based ultraviolet (UV instruments has been organized for the first time in Italy. The campaign was coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta and took place in Saint-Christophe (45.8° N, 7.4° E, 570 m a.s.l., in the Alpine region, from 8 to 23 June 2010. It involved 8 institutions, 10 broadband radiometers, 2 filter radiometers and 2 spectroradiometers. Synchronized measurements of downward global solar UV irradiance at the ground were collected and the raw series were then individually processed by the respective operators on the base of their own procedures and calibration data. A radiative transfer model was successfully applied as an interpretative tool. The input parameters and output results are described in detail. The comparison was performed in terms of global solar UV Index and integrated UV-A irradiance against a well-calibrated double monochromator spectroradiometer as reference. An improved algorithm for comparing broadband data and spectra has been developed and is discussed in detail. For some instruments, we found average deviations ranging from −16 % up to 20 % relative to the reference and diurnal variations as large as 15 % even in clear days. Remarkable deviations were found for the instruments calibrated in the manufacturers' facilities and never involved in field intercomparison. Finally, some recommendations to the UV operators based on the campaign results are proposed.

  19. Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sogacheva

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transport of air mass to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectory analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate from different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving form Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperatures are lower and RH's higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources can also have a non-negligible contribution.

  20. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

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    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  1. HVSR deep mapping tested down to ∼ 1.8 km in Po Plane Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Castellaro, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio - HVSR - of seismic noise is extensively used in seismic microzonation for its capability to provide a good approximation to the subsoil main resonance frequencies of geotechnical and seismic engineering interest. This implies, in turn, that it has also an approximate passive subsoil mapping capability independent of the level of noise illumination, albeit limited to relatively shallow depths, since tilt sensitivity makes HVSR unreliable below ∼ 0.1 Hz. However, we have experimentally verified that HVSR subsoil mapping capability extends to depths in the kilometer range by applying it to the largest sedimentary basin of Italy, the Po Plain Valley. There, we were able to resolve the major stratigraphic discontinuities down to the sediment-bedrock interface, for which we estimated a depth of ∼ 1.6 km with a 25% uncertainty, while the surface mapped from oil exploration indicates a depth of ∼ 1.8 km. Quarter of an hour recordings gave always stable signals that, fitted to synthetic curves using as a constraint the parameters of the shallow subsoil, provided a stratigraphic map consistent with the independent survey. This candidates HVSR as a fast and inexpensive, first-order subsoil mapping tool down to depths of geological and exploration interest.

  2. Late Quaternary incision and deposition in an active volcanic setting: The Volturno valley fill, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Pacifico, Annamaria; Rossi, Veronica; Ruberti, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Extensive illustration of depositional facies, ostracod and foraminiferal assemblages, and Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture is offered for the first time from beneath the modern coastal plain of Volturno River, the longest river in southern Italy. Proximity to an active volcanic district, including quiescent Vesuvius Volcano, provides an easily identifiable stratigraphic marker (Campania Grey Tuff or CGT), up to 55 m thick, emplaced 39 ky cal BP by a large-volume explosive pyroclastic eruption. Identification of top CGT to a maximum depth of 30 m allows tracing out the shape of a 15-20 km wide Late Quaternary palaeovalley incised by Volturno River into the thick ignimbritic unit immediately after its deposition. A terraced palaeotopography of the valley flanks is reconstructed on the basis of core data. Above the basal fluvial deposits, the early Holocene transgressive facies consist of a suite of estuarine (freshwater to brackish) deposits. These are separated from overlying transgressive barrier sands by a distinctive wave ravinement surface. Upwards, a distinctive shallowing-upward succession of middle-late Holocene age is interpreted to reflect initiation and subsequent progradation of a wave-dominated delta system, with flanking strandplains, in response to reduced rate of sea-level rise. The turnaround from transgressive to highstand conditions is identified on the basis of subtle changes in the meiofauna. These enable tracking of the maximum flooding surface into its updip (lagoonal/estuarine) counterpart, thus highlighting the role of refined palaeontological criteria as a powerful tool for high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic studies.

  3. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  4. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata

    2010-05-01

    The Agri Valley is a NW-SE trending intermontane basin formed during the Quaternary times along the axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain. This basin is about 30 Km long and 12 Km wide and is filled by Quaternary continental deposits, which cover down-thrown pre-Quaternary rocks of the Apennines chain. The Agri Valley was hit by the M 7.0, 1857 Basilicata earthquake (Branno et al., 1985), whose macroseismic field covered a wide sector of the Southern Apennines chain. The latest indications of Late Quaternary faulting processes in Agri Valley were reported in Maschio et al., (2005), which documented a unknown NE-dipping normal fault thanks to the finding of small-scale morphological features of recent tectonic activity. The identified structure was termed Monte Aquila Fault (MAF) and corresponds to the southern strand of the NW-SE trending Monti della Maddalena Fault System (Maschio et al., 2005; Burrato and Valensise, 2007). The NE-dipping MAF consists of a main northern segment, about 10 Km long, and two smaller segments with cumulate length of ~10 Km, thus bringing the total length to ~20 Km. The three segments are arranged in a right-stepping en-echelon pattern and are characterized by subtle geomorphic features. In order to provide more detailed and accurate information about the MAF, a strategy based on the application of complementary investigation tools was employed. In particular, multi-scale electromagnetic investigation, including Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetotelluric (MT) methods, was used to image the MAF from near-surface to several hundred metres depth. Large-scale MT investigation proved to be useful in detecting the MAF location down to several hundred meters depth, but it didn't show any shallow evidence about MAF. Conversely, ERT and GPR surveys evidenced signatures of normal-faulting activity at shallow depth (e.g., back-tilting of the bedrock, colluvial wedges, etc.). In

  5. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients metals and plant, in relation to their nutritional function. The combined results of metal concentration in soils and plants, BAC and translocation coefficients show that the plants considered seem to be rather highly tolerant

  6. Analysis of shallow failures triggered by the 14-16 November 2002 event in the Albaredo valley, Valtellina (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Dapporto, S.; Aleotti, P.; Casagli, N.; G. Polloni

    2005-01-01

    On 14-16 November 2002 the North Italy was affected by an intense rainfall event: in the Albaredo valley (Valtellina) more than 200 mm of rain fell triggering about 50 shallow landslides, mainly soil slips and soil slip-debris flows. Landslides occurred above the critical rainfall thresholds computed by Cancelli and Nova (1985) and Ceriani et al. (1994) for the Italian Central Alps: in fact the cumulative precipitation at the soil slips initiation time was 230 mm (in two days) with a pe...

  7. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  8. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  9. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  10. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  11. Relation between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to put the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of some pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relation between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants and this fact, together with their lack of depth and compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

  12. Relationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to relate the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then compared with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relationship between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants. The soils' low water content, together with a lack of depth and a compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

  13. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  14. Guidelines for the feasibility study of reintroduction of the otter Lutra lutra in Italy: the project of the Ticino Valley (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted in the Ticino valley (north-western Italy taking into account the main factors affecting the survival of the otter (Lutra lutra. The concentration of PCBs and DDT in fish tissues did not exceed the critical level proposed by the National Academy of Sciences of USA for fishes preyed on by carnivores. The biological water quality, assessed by Extended Biotic Index, was fairly good for the entire course of the Ticino river. The availability of fish resources seemed to be suitable to satisfy the feeding requirements of otters. The biological water quality and the food supply were better than those recorded in rivers of central-southern Italy hosting the last strongholds of otters. The habitat suitability of the Ticino valley was assessed by an index calculated considering the availability of different type of habitats (suitable and unsuitable to the otter and their importance for the species survival. The valley was divided into 1114 territorial units of 1 km² each where 26 different habitats were measured. The 16.7% of the study area showed a moderate/very good suitability and the 38.1% a low suitability. About 80 km of the Ticino river were continuously occupied by suitable habitats for otters. It appears that there are no particular contra-indications to advising for the reintroduction of the otter into the Ticino valley. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to combine this operation with a global policy of correct management and restoring of the riverine habitats. Riassunto Linee guida per lo studio di fattibilità della reintroduzione della lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia: il progetto della Valle del Ticino (Italia nord-occidentale - Lo studio è stato condotto nella Valle del Ticino (Italia nord-occidentale prendendo in esame i principali fattori che influenzano la sopravvivenza della lontra (Lutra lutra. Le concentrazioni di PCB e DDT

  15. Oil/gas pre-treatment plants and air quality hazards: PM1 measurements in Agri Valley (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trippetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less 1.0 μm short term monitoring campaign was carried out in Agri Valley (southern Italy in September 2012. This area is of international concern since it houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri – COVA within an anthropized context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m−3 with a mean value of 4.6 μg m−3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.

  16. Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giannecchini, R.; Y. Galanti; G. D'Amato Avanzi

    2012-01-01

    The Serchio River Valley, in north-western Tuscany, is a well-known tourism area between the Apuan Alps and the Apennines. This area is frequently hit by heavy rainfall, which often triggers shallow landslides, debris flows and debris torrents, sometimes causing damage and death. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides is very important in order to improve forecasting and to arrange efficient alarm systems.

    With the aim of defini...

  17. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy) surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on s...

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  19. Critical rainfall thresholds for triggering shallow landslides in the Serchio River Valley (Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giannecchini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Serchio River Valley, in north-western Tuscany, is a well-known tourism area between the Apuan Alps and the Apennines. This area is frequently hit by heavy rainfall, which often triggers shallow landslides, debris flows and debris torrents, sometimes causing damage and death. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides is very important in order to improve forecasting and to arrange efficient alarm systems.

    With the aim of defining the critical rainfall thresholds for the Middle Serchio River Valley, a detailed analysis of the main rainstorm events was carried out. The hourly rainfall recorded by three rain gauges in the 1935–2010 interval was analysed and compared with the occurrence of shallow landslides. The rainfall thresholds were defined in terms of mean intensity I, rainfall duration D, and normalized using the mean annual precipitation. Some attempts were also carried out to analyze the role of rainfall prior to the damaging events. Finally, the rainfall threshold curves obtained for the study area were compared with the local, regional and global curves proposed by various authors. The results of this analysis suggest that in the study area landslide activity initiation requires a higher amount of rainfall and greater intensity than elsewhere.

  20. Early breakdown of isolation revealed by marriage behaviour in a Ladin-speaking community (Gardena Valley, South Tyrol, Italy, 1825-1924).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueresi, Paola

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate marriage behaviour from 1825 to 1924 in an Alpine valley inhabited by Ladin speakers (Gardena Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), where the particular geographic, linguistic and economic characteristics may have influenced the level of reproductive isolation. A total of 2183 marriage acts from the two main parishes of Santa Cristina and Ortisei were examined. Birth and residence endogamy, inbreeding coefficients from dispensations and from isonymy, birth place distribution of the spouses and isonymic relationships were analysed in four 25-year sub-periods. All the indicators considered point to a lower level of reproductive isolation at Ortisei, a main centre for the woodcarving industry, which appeared to be experiencing an early and effective breakdown of isolation. Marriage behaviour in the Gardena Valley between 1825 and 1924 seems to have been mostly influenced by socioeconomic factors rather than linguistic and cultural ones.

  1. Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele; Cinque, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Visconti, Guido; Verdecchia, Marco; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential impact on local air quality of a biomass power plant, which is planned for installation near L'Aquila, a city of 70,000 people located in a mountain valley in Central Italy. The assessment is carried out by applying a one year simulation with the CALPUFF model, following the recommendations of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Meteorological input is produced with CALMET model, fed with both MM5 meteorological fields at 3 km resolution and wind observations from a surface weather station. We estimate small (<0.5 μg m-3) annual average increments to SO2, NO2 and PM10 ambient levels over the domain of interest, but significant (up to 50% for NO2) enhancements and several violations (up to 141 for NO2) of hourly limits for human protection within 1.5 km from the source. These results anticipate a larger negative effect on local air quality than those published by the building firm of the plant. We also suggest that a minimum distance of 5 km from the nearest residential area would represent a significant decrease of population exposure.

  2. Analysis of shallow failures triggered by the 14-16 November 2002 event in the Albaredo valley, Valtellina (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dapporto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On 14-16 November 2002 the North Italy was affected by an intense rainfall event: in the Albaredo valley (Valtellina more than 200 mm of rain fell triggering about 50 shallow landslides, mainly soil slips and soil slip-debris flows. Landslides occurred above the critical rainfall thresholds computed by Cancelli and Nova (1985 and Ceriani et al. (1994 for the Italian Central Alps: in fact the cumulative precipitation at the soil slips initiation time was 230 mm (in two days with a peak intensity of 15 mm/h. A coupled analysis of seepage and instability mechanisms is performed in order to evaluate the potential for slope failure during the event. Changes in positive and negative pore water pressures during the event are modelled by a finite element analysis of water flow in transient conditions, using as boundary condition for the nodes along the slope surface the recorded rainfall rate. The slope stability analysis is conducted applying the limit equilibrium method, using pore water pressure distributions obtained in the different time steps by the seepage analysis as input data for the calculation of the factor of safety.

  3. Analysis of shallow failures triggered by the 14-16 November 2002 event in the Albaredo valley, Valtellina (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapporto, S.; Aleotti, P.; Casagli, N.; Polloni, G.

    2005-09-01

    On 14-16 November 2002 the North Italy was affected by an intense rainfall event: in the Albaredo valley (Valtellina) more than 200 mm of rain fell triggering about 50 shallow landslides, mainly soil slips and soil slip-debris flows. Landslides occurred above the critical rainfall thresholds computed by Cancelli and Nova (1985) and Ceriani et al. (1994) for the Italian Central Alps: in fact the cumulative precipitation at the soil slips initiation time was 230 mm (in two days) with a peak intensity of 15 mm/h. A coupled analysis of seepage and instability mechanisms is performed in order to evaluate the potential for slope failure during the event. Changes in positive and negative pore water pressures during the event are modelled by a finite element analysis of water flow in transient conditions, using as boundary condition for the nodes along the slope surface the recorded rainfall rate. The slope stability analysis is conducted applying the limit equilibrium method, using pore water pressure distributions obtained in the different time steps by the seepage analysis as input data for the calculation of the factor of safety.

  4. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  5. Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing of Salix Alba Trees in the Sacco River Valley (Latium, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cenedese

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy. This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are ‘healthier’ than those downstream.

  6. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  7. Hyperspectral proximal sensing of Salix Alba trees in the Sacco river valley (Latium, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2013-10-29

    Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are 'healthier' than those downstream.

  8. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  9. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution.

  10. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

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    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  11. The historic landslide of Sottrù (Badia Valley, Italy) reactivated on December 13, 2012 - a geomorphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinoi, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Freddi, Raffaele; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    On 13 December 2012, after a long period of dormancy, the historic landslide of Sottrù, located in the Badia Valley (Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Italy), was reactivated, destroying a few houses and almost damming the Gadera torrent. According to historic documents, the previous activation dates back to June 1821. At that time, the slope was mobilized after a period of persistent rain and snow melt, causing the damming of the Gadera torrent. After snow melting, in June 1827 the natural dam collapsed, flooding meadows and villages down valley. In December 2012, the landslide was partly reactivated, showing the first slow movements on the 13th and more rapid displacements on the 14th. A detailed geomorphological survey of the landslide was carried out during summer 2014, aiming at identifying the instability causes, mapping the landslide in detail and investigating the hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the slope. A surficial highly permeable level (in-situ or reworked till) was found lying on top of a thick sequence of clays, shales, sandstones and marls, both over the landslide body and the surrounding areas. The permeability contrast existing between the till and the bedrock is thought to extend to larger portions of the slopes of the Gadera valley and it could reasonably be considered as one of the main predisposing factors for the onset of the several landslides that characterize the area. From the landslide scar uphill, the hydrographic pattern is extremely irregular, made of discontinuous drainage lines indicative of higher infiltration rate than superficial run off. The comparison between the current morphology and the pre-2012 one has not evidenced any movement within the historic source area, while relevant displacements occurred at two lateral zones and at the central part of the landslide, originating a second, lower crown. Since the previous activation (1821), the landslide has been dormant for 191 years, and the 2012 event occurred

  12. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  13. The combined Fog Monitoring System of ARPAV over the Veneto Region, Po Valley - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, F.; Rossa, A.; Zardini, F.; Monai, M.; Calza, M.; Della Valle, A.; Gaspari, V.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of fog is a frequent problem in the Po Valley. The consequent reduction in visibility has a strong impact on the road, air, ship and railway traffic. Both, fog monitoring and forecasting, constitute significant challenges, not least due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the phenomenon. ARPAV (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto) is the regional meteorological service of the north-eastern Italian region Veneto and, as such, is responsible for meteorological support to institutional and private users. Real-time visibility information over an extended area would represent an interesting product for road and transport safety. In the framework of the FP7 project Roadidea, (14 partners from 8 different countries, Dec 2007 - Aug 2010) on road safety and traffic control ARPAV developed pilot system for the fog monitoring. The main idea of this fog monitoring methodology is to merge information derived from different observation platforms, i.e. satellite low stratus cloud classification, direct visibility monitoring, statistical estimation of low visibility from meteorological parameters at the ground. This information is translated into probability maps of fog occurrence and information weight on a common grid (4x4 km) covering the flat portion of the region Veneto. These weights are used to combine the three data sources into the final fog probability map. A probabilistic verification applied to the fog monitoring product yields encouraging results, and is systematically more skillfull than the fog probabilities derived from the individual data sources. First real-time products are now available on the ARPAV Fog Pilot website for a group of specific users (motorway head office, road police, national railways and others) and are under testing.

  14. How multiple foliations may control large gravitational phenomena: A case study from the Cismon Valley, Eastern Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Luca; Massironi, Matteo; Surian, Nicola; Genevois, Rinaldo; Floris, Mario

    2014-02-01

    The right slope of the High Cismon Valley (Trento Province, Italy), carved into the poly-deformed phyllites of the South Alpine Basement, shows evidence of differential Quaternary slope evolution which highly depends on how the slope intersects the inherited structures. In the study area, the regional schistosity outlines a kilometer-scale NNW-SSE trending fold, with close flanks and an axial plane dipping to the NE. The structure obliquely intersects the NNE-SSW trending slope so that the northern part of the slope follows the upper limb of the fold and the southern sector coincides with the lower limb and the hinge. The secondary axial-plane foliation is typically incipient at the fold flanks, and much more pervasive and fan-shaped near the hinge zone. This foliation, as well as the asymmetric polyharmonic secondary folds, has significant consequences on rock mass mechanical properties and on mechanisms and timing of the gravitational phenomena developed along the slope. In particular the Joint Compressive Strength (JCS) and the Geological Strength Index (GSI), obtained on stable outcrops outside the deforming area, display a decrease from north to south. This points to a progressive deterioration of the rock mass strength which directly reflects the influence of the pre-existing fabric. The results obtained by the analysis of LiDAR-derived digital elevation model show evidence of two different gravitational movements, located in the northern and southern sectors of the slope respectively. The northern side is characterized by an ongoing deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) likely triggered by post-glacial unloading, derived from the retreat of the ice tongue that filled the Cismon Valley during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conversely, the southern part of the slope is the expression of a fully evolved pre-LGM gravitational collapse. This heterogeneous behavior of the slope is most likely controlled by the secondary foliation and asymmetric

  15. Interdisciplinary approach for disaster risk reduction in Valtellina Valley, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Blahut, Jan; Luna, Byron Quan; Poretti, Ilaria; Camera, Corrado; de Amicis, Mattia; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Inside the framework of the European research network Mountain Risks, an interdisciplinary research group has been working in the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (northern Italy). This area has been continuously affected by several mountain hazards such as landslides, debris flows and floods that directly affect the population, and in some cases caused several deaths and million euros of losses. An aim of the interdisciplinary work in this study area, is to integrate different scientific products of the research group, in the areas of risk assessment, management and governance, in order to generate, among others, risk reduction tools addressed to general public and stakeholders. Two types of phenomena have been particularly investigated: debris flows and floods. The scientific products range from modeling to mapping of hazard and risk, emergency planning based on real time decision support systems, surveying for the evaluation of risk perception and preparedness, among others. Outputs from medium scale hazard and risk modeling could be used for decision makers and spatial planners as well as civil protection authorities to have a general overview of the area and indentify hot spots for further detailed analysis. Subsequently, local scale analysis is necessary to define possible events and risk scenarios for emergency planning. As for the modeling of past events and new scenarios of debris flows, physical outputs were used as inputs into physical vulnerability assessment and quantitative risk analysis within dynamic runout models. On a pilot zone, the physical damage was quantified for each affected structure within the context of physical vulnerability and different empirical vulnerability curves were obtained. Prospective economic direct losses were estimated. For floods hazard assessment, different approaches and models are being tested, in order to produce flood maps for various return periods, and related to registered rainfalls

  16. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of tropospheric SO2 plumes in the Po-valley, Italy

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    P. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second FORMAT (FORMaldehyde as A Tracer of oxidation in the troposphere campaign in 2003 the airborne multi-axis DOAS instrument (AMAXDOAS performed scattered-light spectroscopic measurements of SO2 over the city of Mantova and the power plant Porto Tolle, both situated in the Po-valley, Northern Italy. The SO2 vertical columns and emission flux were derived from two days of measurements, 26 and 27 September 2003. The SO2 emission flux from the power plant Porto Tolle was calculated to 1.93×1025 molec s-1 on 26 September and in good agreement with official emission data, which quote 2.25×1025 molec s-1. On 27 September the measured flux was much lower (3.77×1024 molec s-1 if ECMWF wind data are used, but of comparable magnitude (2.4×1025 molec s-1 if the aircraft on-board wind measurements are utilised. Official emission data was 2.07×1025 molec s-1 indicating only a small change from the previous day. Over the city of Mantova, the observed SO2 vertical columns were 1.1×1016 molec cm-2 and 1.9×1016 molec cm-2 on 26 and 27 September, respectively. This is in good agreement with ground-based measurements of 5.9 ppbv and 10.0 ppbv which correspond to 1.2×1016 molec cm-2 and 2.2×1016 molec cm-2 if a well mixed boundary layer of 500m altitude is assumed.

  17. Geochemical study of travertines along middle-lower Tiber valley (central Italy): genesis, palaeo-environmental and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, Francesca; Brilli, Mauro; Mancini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Several travertine deposits dating to the Pleistocene outcrop along the Tiber valley between Orte and Rome. Mineralogically, they are mainly composed of calcite; various lithofacies (stromatolitic, phytoclastic, and massive) were identified and relatively wide ranges of carbon (δ13C -8.11 to +11.42‰ vs. VPDB) and oxygen (δ18O +22.74 to +27.71‰ vs. VSMOW) isotope compositions were measured. The isotope and chemical compositions of water and free gases, in some cases associated with the travertines, were also measured. Carbon isotope data show that several samples fall in the typical range of thermogenic travertine, i.e., linked to the addition of deep inorganic CO2. The oxygen isotope composition of the springs associated with the travertine deposits points to travertine precipitation by slightly thermal water of meteoric origin. In general, these travertines are in association with, or close to, mineralised groundwaters (with slightly acidic pH, low thermalism, and enrichment in sulphates or sodium chloride) and rich CO2 gas emissions, the origin of which may be linked to decarbonation reactions. The travertine bodies are locally connected with crustal structural lineaments favouring the circulation of ascending deep CO2-rich fluids. Conversely, some samples show isotopic connotations of meteogenic deposits, representing travertines formed mainly from soil biogenic or atmospheric carbon dioxide generally present in shallow groundwater or surface water. According to their morphology and isotope data, these travertines may be attributed to the sedimentary environment of waterfalls. These new geochemical and morphological data are integrated with those already available in the literature regarding the study area and contribute to shedding light on palaeo-environmental conditions in western-central Italy during the Quaternary.

  18. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  19. Fracture characterization of flysch formation by terrestrial digital photogrammetry: an example in the Antola Formation (upper Staffora Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Menegoni, Niccolò; Perotti, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    Geomechanical characterization of flysch formations plays an important role for its implication in slope stability and fluids circulation, especially in Apenninic areas. The Antola Formation of Upper Cretaceous age crops out extensively in the Northern Apennines and provides an important case of study. It consists of turbiditic graded units of calcareous sandstones, sandstones, marlstones, and shales and is interpreted as a deep-sea basin plain deposit, with lateral facies variations which range from proximal, thick-bedded turbidities to distal turbidites that show predominantly thickening upward cycles and have a high percentage of shale. It is in general characterized by folds developed in absence of metamorphism and a usually high degree of fracturation. The presence of well developed fracture networks enhances circulation of fluid and therefore alteration of the less competent layers causing problems of slope stability. Fracture characterization of Antola Formation based on field survey is very time consuming and often limited by the insufficient availability and inaccessibility of outcrops. For this reason, terrestrial remote sensing and in particular terrestrial digital photogrammetry has been applied to investigate the geomechanical features of the formation in the upper Staffora Valley (Northern Italy). Digital photogrammetry allows to generate by Structure from Motion (SfM) technique a 3D point cloud that represents the Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). New technologies allow to associate appropriate texture to the point cloud from the images, in order to preserve important visual information. The analysis of several textured 3D DOMs allows to digitally acquire a large amount of data on discontinuities parameters such as orientation, spacing, aperture, persistence and filling, in order to better characterize the rock mass. Some tests performed by field survey data acquisition to validate the digitally collected data, gave positive results, showing differences

  20. Valley pond and ignimbrite veneer deposits in the small-volume phreatomagmatic `Peperino Albano' basic ignimbrite, Lago Albano maar, Colli Albani volcano, Italy: influence of topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G.; De Rita, D.; Cas, R.; Rodani, S.

    2002-11-01

    The ca. 23-ka, small-volume, basic phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite, from the polygenetic Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, central Italy) shows valley pond facies as well as veneer deposits along the maar rim and along topographic ridges. Valley pond facies is characterised mainly by massive structure and chaotic texture and can be up to 30 m thick. Veneer deposit facies is characterised by parallel to low-angle cross-stratified bedforms alternating fines-depleted lapilli-sized layers, and massive, matrix-supported beds. Occurrence of uncharred wood remains and accretionary lapilli suggests temperature of emplacement comprised between 246° and 100°C. We have interpreted the lateral facies variations in terms of temporal and spatial variations of the sediment supply from the transport system to the depositional system of the pyroclastic flow. Ignimbrite veneer facies at the maar rim may reflect pulsatory eruption dynamics, whereas valley pond facies may reflect the bulking of the pyroclastic flow inside the valleys and consequent high sedimentation rates. Ignimbrite veneer facies at topographic ridges has been interpreted to reflect detachment processes of more concentrated undercurrents draining within valleys from the more dilute upper part of the pyroclastic flow that climbs the ridges. The present interpretation suggests that processes of pyroclastic flow transformation downcurrent and induced by topography are not necessarily peculiar of hot, high-mobility pyroclastic density currents. The more likely source of water interacting with magma is interpreted to be groundwater contained within the karstic aquifer located at approximately 1 km below the ground level. This is inferred by both the large amount of limestone xenoliths present in the Peperino Albano and the absence of vesicular juvenile clasts, the latter implying that magma-water interaction occurred before gas exolution processes were significant.

  1. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  2. SURVEY, REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF A WAR I COMPLEX SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS IN THE GRESTA VALLEY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salvador

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" – APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino, a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the

  3. Survey, Representation and Analysis of a War i Complex System of Surface and Underground Fortifications in the Gresta Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, I.; Vitti, A.

    2011-09-01

    This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" - APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino), a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the practical advantage of

  4. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  5. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caggiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  6. UFP and BC at a mid-sized city in Po valley, Italy: Size-resolved partitioning between primary and newly formed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Cernuschi, S.; Ozgen, S.; Ripamonti, G.; Vecchi, R.; Valli, G.; Lonati, G.

    2016-10-01

    In Po valley (Northern Italy) concentrations of particulate matter (PM) often exceed air quality standards, and road traffic is reported as one of the main sources of pollution. This study investigates the size resolved particle number concentration and size distribution at one rural station, one urban station and one traffic station. The measured size-resolved particle number concentration has been reduced by means of cluster analysis to four particle size fractions (cluster 1: 7-29 nm, cluster 2: 29-95 nm, cluster 3: 95-264 nm, and cluster 4: 264-10,000 nm) based on their behavior in atmosphere according to common time patterns. The primary emissions from traffic are evaluated based on black carbon (BC) and size-resolved particle number concentration data, considering separately single size intervals and providing cluster-resolved information on primary and newly formed particle concentration. Particles directly emitted by vehicle exhaust exhibit similar numbers for the clusters 1 to 3 while newly formed particles mainly occurs in cluster 1. Furthermore, diurnal variation of directly emitted particles is found to closely follow the BC levels, while the trend of newly formed particles varies according to air temperature, solar radiation and particle pollution levels. The results release that in Po valley the variations of particle number levels do not always reflect the variation of road traffic emissions in urban areas as the large availability of anthropogenic precursors can favor summertime nucleation events with region-wide extension.

  7. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  8. Photo Scanner 3D Survey for Monitoring Historical Monuments. the Case History of Porta Praetoria in Aosta

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    Paolo Salonia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to cultural heritage is one of the most important factors in cultural heritage preservation, as it assures knowledge, monitoring, Public Administration management and a wide interest on cultural heritage sites. Nowdays 3D surveys give the geometric basis for an effective artefact reconstruction but most of the times 3D data are not completely and deeply investigated to extract other useful information on historical monuments for their conservation and safeguard. The Cultural Heritage Superintendence of Aosta decided to run a time continual project of monitoring of the Praetorian Roman Gate with the collaboration of the ITABC, CNR of Italy. The Praetorian Roman Gate in Aosta, Italy, of Augustus ages, is one of the most well-known roman monumental gates, it is a double gate with three arches each side, 12 meters high, 20 meters wide, made of pudding stone ashlars, Badoglio, travertine, marble blocks and other stone insertion due to restorations between 1600 and 1950. In years 2000 a final restoration intervention brought the gate at the present state of art, within the frame of a restoration and conservation building site with the purpose of treat the different decay pathologies and conditions. A complete 3D geometric survey campaign has been the first step for the monitoring of the gate morphologic changes and decay progress in time. The main purpose is to collect both quantitative data, related to the geometry of the gate, and the qualitative data, related to the chromatic change on the surface due to the stone decay. The geometric data with colour information permits to associate materials and stone pathologies to chemical or mechanical actions and to understand and analyse superficial decay kinetics. The colours survey will also permit to directly locate on the 3D model areas of different stratigraphic units. The project aims to build a rigorous quantitative-qualitative database so to be uploaded into a GIS. The GIS will become

  9. A New Strategy for the Electromagnetic Monitoring of Seismic Areas: the Case-Study of Agri Valley (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, V.; Balasco, M.; Giocoli, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Romano, G.; Siniscalchi, A.; Telesca, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri valley is one of the most active areas of Southern Apennine chain that was hidden by destructive events in historical and recent periods (i.e. the 1857 Great Neapolitan earthquake). The geological environment is extremely complex and the location of the main faults are still debated. The Agriu valley is a N- W elongated basin filled by quaternary deposits covering the pre-quaternary rock of the Apennine chain. The area is characterised by a very low man-made electromagnetic noise and it represents an ideal "outdoor laboratory" to test new strategies for geophysical monitoring of active faults. In this work we present a novel approach based on the integration of Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (DERT), Self-Potential (SP) and Magnetotelluric (MT) time-continuous measurements. The basic idea underlying this approach is to jointly analyse and modelling the electrical signals, observed on earth-surface, and the time-dependent changes of subsurface resistivity patterns. We are firmly convinced that any conclusions about the relationship between anomalous electrical signals and earthquake activity cannot be achieved without a good knowledge of subsurface resistivity structures and an accurate localisation of the electrical sources. In our work DERT has been applied for illuminating in-depth the geological structures and giving a contribute to better define the thickness and the shape of alluvial deposits covering the pre- quaternary bedrock of Agri valley. SP surveying and time-continuous monitoring have been carried to study electrokinetic effects due to groundwater patterns and to identify possible fingerprints of fluid migration phenomena. New SP stations with sensors in boreholes (200m) have been installed. MT time-continuous soundings have been performed to analyse the time-dependent changes in deep resistivity patterns. All data measured in the study area have been processed and filtered using robust statistical methodologies (DFA, wavelet, multi

  10. Digital elevation models for landslide evolution monitoring: application on two areas located in the Reno River Valley (Italy

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    P. Mora

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available GPS, digital photogrammetry and laser scanning techniques have been applied and compared in the frame of the studies of two complex landslides located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy. The three approaches, characterized by different accuracies, applicability and costs, have demonstrated to be efficient tools to define Digital Elevation Models computed in the same reference system and able to provide data on the landslide motion. The results described in the paper indicate the present low level of landslide activity in recent years. Reliability, costs and execution times of the applied surveying methods are shown and discussed in this paper.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  12. A three-year investigation of daily PM2.5 main chemical components in four sites: the routine measurement program of the Supersito Project (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Isabella; Bacco, Dimitri; Rinaldi, Matteo; Bonafè, Giovanni; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Bertacci, Giulia; Ugolini, Pamela; Zigola, Claudia; Rovere, Flavio; Maccone, Claudio; Pironi, Claudia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2017-03-01

    The Supersito Project (http://www.supersito-er.it) has been active in the Emilia-Romagna region, southern part of the Po Valley (Italy), since 2011. Focal aim of the project is to enhance the knowledge on atmospheric aerosol and its impact on human health. In the framework of Supersito, major chemical components of daily PM2.5 were investigated over a period of more than three years at four sampling sites, representative of dissimilar territorial conditions: one rural background (SPC) and three urban background sites in the coastal (RN), central (MS) and inner area (PR) of the region. In all the sites, organic and elemental carbon and water soluble inorganic ions accounted for more than 70% of PM2.5 mass, during all seasons. Nitrate and organic carbon (OC) were the main components of winter PM2.5, while summer aerosol was mainly contributed by OC and sulphate. OC was dominated by primary sources, with a potentially important contribution from biomass burning, in winter, while secondary processes dominated OC production in summer. A substantial homogeneity was observed on a regional scale in terms of spatial distribution of pollutants, with EC only presenting significant differences between urban and rural areas during winters. Nonetheless, differences were observed between the coastal and the inner part of the region, with the former being systematically characterized by higher concentrations of carbonaceous compounds and lower concentrations of ammonium nitrate. The coastal area was likely influenced by the aged OC from the Po Valley outflow in addition to local sources, while the scarcity of local sources of ammonia limited the formation of ammonium nitrate. In the studied area, local and regional meteorology - mostly governed by geographical collocation and orography - was responsible for PM2.5 mass and composition no less than local and regional emission sources.

  13. Azolla-Anabaena as a Biofertilizer for Rice Paddy Fields in the Po Valley, a Temperate Rice Area in Northern Italy

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    Stefano Bocchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla is a floating pteridophyte, which contains as endosymbiont the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae (Nostocaceae family. Widely cultivated in the Asian regions, Azolla is either incorporated into the soil before rice transplanting or grown as a dual crop along with rice. To examine the feasibility of its use in flooded rice fields sited in the Temperate European Areas, we carried out a series of experiments in PVC tanks during 2000–2002 in Po Valley (northern Italy conditions, to study the growth-development dynamics and the resistance/tolerance to low temperatures and to commonly used herbicides of several different Azolla strains. Three out of five strains tested survived the winter, with an increase in biomass from March to May producing approximately 30–40 kg ha−1 of nitrogen. One of these strains, named “Milan”, emerged as the most resistant to herbicide and the most productive. Of the herbicides tested, Propanil permitted the survival of growing Azolla.

  14. Variations in the chemical composition of the submicron aerosol and in the sources of the organic fraction at a regional background site of the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressi, Michael; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Belis, Claudio A.; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Fröhlich, Roman; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Petralia, Ettore; Prévôt, André S. H.; Berico, Massimo; Malaguti, Antonella; Canonaco, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) levels and resulting impacts on human health are in the Po Valley (Italy) among the highest in Europe. To build effective PM abatement strategies, it is necessary to characterize fine PM chemical composition, sources and atmospheric processes on long timescales (> months), with short time resolution (fossil fuel combustion (11 %). Significant contributions of aged secondary organic aerosol (OOA) are observed throughout the year. The unexpectedly high degree of oxygenation estimated during wintertime is probably due to the contribution of secondary BBOA and the enhancement of aqueous-phase production of OOA during cold months. BBOA and nitrate are the only components of which contributions increase with the NR-PM1 levels. Therefore, biomass burning and NOx emission reductions would be particularly efficient in limiting submicron aerosol pollution events. Abatement strategies conducted during cold seasons appear to be more efficient than annual-based policies. In a broader context, further studies using high-time-resolution analytical techniques on a long-term basis for the characterization of fine aerosol should help better shape our future air quality policies, which constantly need refinement.

  15. [Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane contamination in dairy farms of the Sacco River Valley, Latium, Italy, 2005. A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Marcello; Caminiti, Antonino; Rombolà, Pasquale; Volpe, Aldo; Roffi, Cristina; Caperna, Osvaldo; Miceli, Maria; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Battisti, Antonio; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    in March 2005, the Italian National Monitoring System on Chemical Residuals in Food of Animal Origin detected levels of the pesticide beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) that were 20 times higher than the legal limit of 0.003 mg/kg in bulk milk from a dairy farm in the Sacco River valley. ß-HCH, a lindane isomer and possible human carcinogen, was subsequently found in milk from several neighboring farms. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. all dairy cattle farms in the valley were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study and their bulk milk analyzed for ß-HCH. A questionnaire was administered to farmers to evaluate possible exposure factors. cases: dairy farms with at least one result indicating ß-HCH ≥ 0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk during the period april-june 2005; exposure: feeding animals on fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water; participants: IZSLT, RMG Local Health Unit, FR Local Health Unit. attack rate, relative risk, attributable proportion among exposed. of 244 farms tested, 34 met the case definition (attack rate 14%). The exposure to fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water was observed in 33/34 (97%) case-farms and in 23/210 (10.9%) of those with contamination milk (RR 110.8; 95%CI 15.5- 792). Attributable proportion among exposed was more than 99%. fodder cultivated near a contaminated river was the main risk factor for ß-HCH contaminated milk. On the basis of the epidemiologic evidence and laboratory testing, watering local fields with river water and production of fodder in farms with contaminated soil was banned, and all the animals from positive farms were culled.

  16. Public participation in reconstruction after the earthquakes in Friuli (Italy) and the Upper Soca Valley (Slovenia) in 1976, 1998, and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, P.

    2012-04-01

    Northern Friuli (in northeast Italy) and the Upper Soča Valley (in northwest Slovenia) are extremely seismically active. The earthquakes of 6 May and 15 September 1976, with an epicenter in the Venzone area, claimed 939 lives in Italy and 157,000 people were left homeless. The same two earthquakes affected northwest Slovenia, which was still part of communist Yugoslavia at the time; they did not claim any lives, but they damaged 12,000 buildings and 13,000 people were left homeless. The "Easter Earthquake" of 12 April 1998, with an epicenter in the Krn Mountains, damaged 4,000 structures in Slovenia, among which nearly 1,500 had to be completely rebuilt. Even though there was noticeably less damage than in the 1976 earthquakes, in some settlements more than 80% of the houses were damaged. The same area was hit by another earthquake on 12 July 2004, which damaged nearly 2,000 structures, including some that had already been repaired after the 1998 earthquake. More than three decades after the 1976 earthquakes, a qualitative study was carried out on public participation in rebuilding after these earthquakes and public influence on the success of rebuilding. The research is based on studies of cases of individual settlements in Italy and Slovenia, where in-depth interviews were conducted with relevant persons that had been directly involved in the post-earthquake rebuilding efforts. This article highlights six case studies ranked on Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation. Examples from Italy include Venzone, Portis, and Resia for the 1976 earthquakes, and examples from Slovenia include Breginj for the 1976 earthquakes, Drežni\\vske Ravne for the 1998 earthquake, and Čezsoča for the 1998 and 2004 earthquakes. Alongside various political, legislative, and administrative circumstances, a responsible citizenry was also an important factor. In the case of Venzone, the majority of the residents and stakeholders had a positive influence on the preservation of

  17. A new magnetotelluric monitoring network operating in Agri Valley (Southern Italy: study of stability of apparent resistivity estimates

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    L. Telesca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations detected in geophysical, especially electromagnetic, parameters in seismic active areas have been sometimes attributed to modifications of the stress field. Among the different geophysical methods, magnetotellurics (MT could be one of the most effective because it allows us to explore down to seismogenic depths. Continuous MT recording could allow us to evaluate whether possible variations are significantly correlated with the seismic activity of investigated area. To assess the significance of such observations we must be able to say how well an apparent resistivity curve should be reproduced when measurements are repeated at a later time. To do this properly it is essential to know that the estimated error bars accurately represent the true uncertainties in comparing the transfer functions. In this work we will show the preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the data coming from the new MT monitoring network installed in Agri Valley. This analysis gives us the possibility: i to better study the temporal stability of the signals, ii to better discriminate the noise affecting the measures by remote reference estimation. The performed analysis disclosed a relatively low degree of noise in the investigated area, which is a promising condition for monitoring.

  18. Uncertainty Estimation and Evaluation of Shallow Aquifers’ Exploitability: The Case Study of the Adige Valley Aquifer (Italy

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    Marta Castagna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sustainability of water uses in shallow aquifers is fundamental for both environmental and socio-economic reasons. Groundwater models are the main tools to sustain informed management plans, yet simulation results are affected by both epistemic and parametric uncertainties. In this study, we aim at investigating the effect of model uncertainties on three assessment criteria: depth to water (DTW, recharge/discharge analysis and a newly defined sustainability index S. We consider, as a case study, the shallow aquifer of the Adige Valley, which is highly influenced by surface water dynamics, water withdrawals from pumping wells and a dense network of ditches. Both direct measurements and soft data are used to reduce uncertainty associated to the limited knowledge about the spatial distribution of the hydraulic parameters. Simulation results showed that the aquifer is chiefly influenced by the interaction with the Adige River and that the influence of anthropogenic activities on vulnerability of groundwater resources varies within the study area. This calls for differentiated approaches to water resources management. Uncertainty related to the three assessment criteria is chiefly controlled by uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, although it depends also on the strategy adopted for the management of water resources.

  19. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  20. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M4.0, 27 con 4.0= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no

  1. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  2. Ground level ice nuclei particle measurements including Saharan dust events at a Po Valley rural site (San Pietro Capofiume, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosi, F.; Rinaldi, M.; Decesari, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Nicosia, A.; Santachiara, G.

    2017-04-01

    Filter-collected aerosol samples in the PM1 and PM10 fractions and particle number concentration were measured during experimental campaigns in a rural area near Bologna (Italy) in the periods 10-21 February 2014 and 19-30 May 2014. Ice nuclei particle (INP) concentrations measured off-line showed prevalently higher average values in the morning with respect to the afternoon, in the PM1 fraction with respect to PM1-10 (with the exception of the first campaign, at Sw = 1.01), and at water saturation ratio Sw = 1.01 with respect to Sw = 0.96. The aerosol in the coarse size range (1-10 μm) contributed significantly to the total INP concentration. In the first campaign, the average INP concentration in the coarse fraction was 80% of the total in the morning and 74% in the afternoon, at Sw = 1.01. In the second campaign, the contribution of the coarse size fraction to the INP number concentration was lower. On the whole, the results showed that the freezing activity of aerosol diameters larger than 1 μm needs to be measured to obtain the entire INP population. Sahara dust events (SDEs) took place during both campaigns, in the periods 17-20 February and 21-23 May 2014. Results show that the averaged particle number concentration was higher during SDE than during no-Saharan dust events. A low correlation between INP and total aerosol number concentration was generally measured, except for SDEs observed in February, in which the correlation coefficient between aerosol concentration in the coarse fraction and INP in the same range, at water supersaturation, was about 0.8. Precipitation events influenced the aerosol concentration. In the February campaign, lower values of INP and particle concentrations were measured in case of heavy rain events. During the May campaign, an average number concentration of the aerosol in the range 0.5-10 μm was slightly higher than on days when no precipitation was measured, the rainfall intensity being low. Only in a few cases did we note

  3. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  4. 3D architecture and structural characterization of the Lima Valley low-angle fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenzi, L.; Molli, G.; Botti, F.; Ungari, A.; Storti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The nappe pile of the northern Apennines is characterized, from bottom to top, by metamorphic units (Apuane and Massa), overlain by the anchimetamorphic cover unit (Tuscan Nappe), in turn overlain by remnants of former intraoceanic accretionary wedge (Subligurian and Ligurian units) and by the Epiligurian wedge-top sediments. The upper part of the structural edifice, in several areas, is dismembered and thinned by low-angle extensional fault systems, such as those described in southern Tuscany (Carmignani et al., 1994) and in southernmost Liguria (e.g. Tellaro detachment, Storti, 1995). Here we present another example of such low-angle fault systems, exposed in the Lima valley (northern Tuscany). It consists of a well developed bedding-parallel fault system which appears to be, in turn, affected by superimposed folds and late-stage normal faults (Botti et al., 2010). The original geometry of the low-angle fault system has been reconstructed and superimposed deformations have been restored. The fault system is composed by two first order segments, both of them showing bedding-parallel attitude and top-to-NE kinematics. The uppermost segment causes the tectonic repetition of the pelagic sediments of Scaglia fm. (Upper Cretaceous - Oligocene) and the sandstone of Macigno fm. (Oligocene - Miocene); the lowermost one causes the direct contact of the Macigno fm. on the pelagic carbonate of the Maiolica fm. (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous), via the elision of the Scaglia fm.. In the central part of the study area, other formations are elided by the lowermost fault segment, giving the direct contact of the Macigno fm. with the Calcare selcifero di Limano fm. (Lower Jurassic). The damage zone of the two main tectonic contacts has been studied in detail to investigate the role of the different lithologies involved. In the Macigno sandstone, a foliated cataclasite developed in the proximity of the fault core, intercalated with smaller lithons of less deformed rock

  5. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified into primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and of gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance with wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C

  6. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified as primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance to wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C ratio

  7. Thermally-driven advections of aerosol-rich air masses to an Alpine valley: Theoretical considerations and experimental evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diémoz, Henri; Magri, Tiziana; Pession, Giordano; Zublena, Manuela; Campanelli, Monica; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Barnaba, Francesca; Di Liberto, Luca; Dionisi, Davide

    2016-04-01

    A CHM-15k laser radar (lidar) was installed in April 2015 at the solar observatory of the Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley (Northern Italy, 45.74N, 7.36E, 560 m a.s.l.). The instrument operates at 1064 nm, is capable of mapping the vertical profile of aerosols and clouds up to the tropopause and is part of the Alice-net ceilometers network (www.alice-net.eu). The site is in a large Alpine valley floor, in a semi-rural context. Among the most interesting cases observed in the first months of operation, several days characterised by weak synoptic circulation and well-developed, thermally-driven up-valley winds are accompanied by the appearance of a thick aerosol layer in the afternoon. The phenomenon is frequent in Spring and Summer and is likely to be related to easterly airmass advections from polluted sites (e.g., the Po basin) rather than to local emissions. To test this hypothesis, the following method was adopted. First, some case studies were selected and the respective meteorological fields were analysed based on both observations at ground and the high-resolution output of the nonhydrostatic limited-area atmospheric prediction model maintained by the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling (COSMO) over the complex orography of the domain. Then, to evaluate the dynamics of the aerosol diffusion in the valley, the chemical transport 2D/3D eulerian Flexible Air quality Regional Model (FARM) was run. Finally, the three-dimensional output of the model was compared to the vertically-resolved aerosol field derived from the lidar-ceilometer soundings. The effects of up-slope winds, and the resulting subsidence along the main axis of the valley, is hypothesised to break up the aerosol layer close to the ground in the middle of the day and to drag the residual layer down into the mixing layer. The measurements by a co-located sun/sky photometer operating in the framework of the EuroSkyRad (ESR) network were additionally analysed to detect any

  8. Behavioural ecology of captive otters Lutra lutra in the Breeding Centre of the Natural Park of Ticino Valley (Piemonte Region, Northern Italy

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    Renato Fumagalli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on a pair of otters (Lutra lutra housed in an enclosure of 1.64 ha, located within a wet wood in the Natural Park of the Ticino Valley (northern Italy, Piemonte region. This enclosure contained two ponds (0.2 and 0.45 ha with fairly good cover vegetation, where a fish biomass of 201.5 kg/ha, represented by 14 fish species, was assessed by electrofishing. Though the food supply for otter was fairly good, the animals were daily fed with 1.5 kg of chicks, meat or rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri. In order to evaluate the habitat selection of otters, the enclosure was divided into 15 environmental units (EU. Hunting, swimming and playing (exclusively in pair were the main behavioural activities and were preferentially performed close to the ponds' bank, where a thick cover occurred. Otters selected patches for foraging where fish was concentrated and particularly vulnerable to predation. The hunting impact in a given EU (defined as ratio between the number of prey caught in the EU and the total number of prey was correlated with the hunting time spent in the same EU. Habitat use evaluated by direct observations differed from that determined by considering the marking level (number of spraints and anal secretions. The consumption of the different fish species did not seem to be determined by their relative abundance. Perca fluviatilis was particularly selected. Riassunto Ecologia comportamentale della lontra Lutra lutra nel centro di studio del Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte - Lo studio è stato condotto su una coppia di lontra (Lutra lutra tenuta in un ampio recinto (1.64 ha, situato nel Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte, Provincia di Novara. L'area cintata è ritagliata all'interno di un bosco planiziale e comprende 2 bacini idrici (0,2 e 0,4 ha bordati da discreta copertura

  9. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy

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    Marco Di Lorenzo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758 was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains and field research by means of line transects, as reported by Ragni et al. (1993. The research area was of about 250 km². Lynx signs were obtained in 1991, 1992 and 1994 between 600 and 1800 m a.s.1. and during all seasons. The lynx was usually observed at night and at dusk. The research shows that the Eurasian lynx is present, although sporadically, in this area of the western Italian Alps.

  10. The cost of first-ever stroke in Valle d’Aosta, Italy: linking clinical registries and administrative data

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    Bottacchi Edo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the most relevant reasons of death and disability worldwide. Many cost of illness studies have been performed to evaluate direct and indirect costs of ischaemic stroke, especially within the first year after the acute episode, using different methodologies. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective, bottom-up cost of illness study, to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes of a cohort of patients affected by a first cerebrovascular event, including subjects with ischaemic, haemorrhagic or transient episodes. The analysis intended to detect direct costs, within 1, 2 and 3 years from the index event. Clinical patient data collected in regional disease registry were integrated and linked to regional administrative databases to perform the analysis. Results The analysis of costs within the first year from the index event included 800 patients. The majority of patients (71.5% were affected by ischaemic stroke. Overall, per patient costs were €7,079. Overall costs significantly differ according to the type of stroke, with costs for haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke amounting to €9,044 and €7,289. Hospital costs, including inpatient rehabilitation, were driver of expenditure, accounting for 89.5% of total costs. The multiple regression model showed that sex, level of physical disability and level of neurological deficit predict direct healthcare costs within 1 year. The analysis at 2 and 3 years (per patient costs: €7,901 and €8,874, respectively showed that majority of costs are concentrated in the first months after the acute event. Conclusions This cost analysis highlights the importance to set up significant prevention programs to reduce the economic burden of stroke, which is mostly attributable to hospital and inpatient rehabilitation costs immediately after the acute episode. Although some limitation typical of retrospective analyses the approach of linking clinical and administrative database is a power tool to obtain useful information for healthcare planning.

  11. A multi-disciplinary study of deformation of the basaltic cover over fine-grained valley fills: a case study from Eastern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Rita; Dieni, Iginio; Massari, Francesco; Perri, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Matteo; Brovelli, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The Pliocene to Early Pleistocene volcanic activity which generated the basaltic plateau of the Orosei-Dorgali area in Eastern Sardinia led to the disruption of the local hydrographic network by damming some tracts of the fluvial valleys incised in the granite basement. This resulted in the formation of lacustrine basins, whose fine-grained fills were partly interfingered and eventually covered by younger lava flows. In the SW part of the plateau, close to the Galtellì village, a number of unknown depressions, locally named "Paules," were formed. In order to reconstruct their subsurface structure, two electrical resistivity tomography surveys were carried out across these depressions. The geophysical results, which demonstrate the existence of a disrupted layered system, were used to build a numerical geomechanical model that suggest the depressions originated by local collapses of the basaltic cover due to the compaction of the underlying fine-grained valley fills.

  12. Chronostratigraphic study of the Grottaperfetta alluvial valley in the city of Rome (Italy: investigating possible interaction between sedimentary and tectonic processes

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    G. Di Giulio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out geomorphologic and geological investigations in a south-eastern tributary valley of the Tiber River in Rome, the Grottaperfetta valley, aimed to reconstruct its buried geometry. Since results of the geomorphologic study evidenced anomalies of the stream beds, we performed geoelectric and boreholes prospecting to check whether recent faulting, rather than an inherited structural control, possibly contributed to the evolution of the alluvial valley. Vertical offsets of the stratigraphic horizons across adjacent boreholes were evidenced within the Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvium and its substratum. In order to rule out the effects of irregular geometry of the alluvial deposits, we focussed on sectors where vertical offsets affected all the stratigraphic horizons (alluvium and pre-Holocene substratum, showing an increasing displacement with depth. We identified a site where repeated displacements occur coupled with a lateral variation of soil resistivity, and we drilled an oblique borehole aimed to cross and sample the possible fault zone affecting the terrain. A 7 cm thick granular layer, inclined 50°÷70° on the horizontal, was recovered 5 m b.g., and it was interpreted as the filling material of a fracture. The convergence of the reported features with independent evidence from geoelectric and geomorphologic investigations leads to hypothesize the presence of a faulting zone within the Holocene alluvial terrains and to propose the excavation of a trench to verify this hypothesis.

  13. Trends and variability of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 concentration in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2016-12-01

    The Po Valley is one of the largest European regions with a remarkably high concentration level of atmospheric pollutants, both for particulate and gaseous compounds. In the last decade stringent regulations on air quality standards and on anthropogenic emissions have been set by the European Commission, including also for PM2.5 and its main components since 2008. These regulations have led to an overall improvement in air quality across Europe, including the Po Valley and specifically PM10, as shown in a previous study by Bigi and Ghermandi (2014). In order to assess the trend and variability in PM2.5 in the Po Valley and its role in the decrease in PM10, we analysed daily gravimetric equivalent concentration of PM2.5 and of PM10-2.5 at 44 and 15 sites respectively across the Po Valley. The duration of the times series investigated in this work ranges from 7 to 10 years. For both PM sizes, the trend in deseasonalized monthly means, annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution was estimated: this showed a significant decreasing trend at several sites for both size fractions and mostly occurring in winter. All series were tested for a significant weekly periodicity (a proxy to estimate the impact of primary anthropogenic emissions), yielding positive results for summer PM2.5 and for summer and winter PM10-2.5. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed moderate variability in PM2.5 across the valley, with two to three main clusters, dividing the area in western, eastern and southern/Apennines foothill sectors. The trend in atmospheric concentration was compared with the time series of local emissions, vehicular fleet details and fuel sales, suggesting that the decrease in PM2.5 and in PM10 originates from a drop both in primary and in precursors of secondary inorganic aerosol emissions, largely ascribed to vehicular traffic. Potentially, the increase in biomass burning emissions in winter and the modest decrease in NH3 weaken an otherwise even larger drop in

  14. Contrasting mass-wasting activity in two debris flow-dominated catchments of the Venosta Valley/Vinschgau (Italy): 1945-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Simone; Brardinoni, Francesco; Draganits, Erich; Cavalli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are the most common mass movements within alpine mountainous catchments and main responsible process for sediment delivery from headwaters to streams. Often the delivered unsorted material accumulates as debris-flow lobes on the large debris-flow fans occurring at the outlet of secondary valleys or where the slope becomes less steep. These mass-wasting events are remarkable hazardous process concerning infrastructure and people, especially if villages are located on such fans. Therefore monitoring and analysis of the debris-flow activity is essential in order to mitigate the risk. This study presents the results of a multi-temporal analysis of the debris flow activity and the evolution of the colluvial sediment sources over the last 70 years. Two high-altitude watersheds, close to each other in the Venosta valley (Eastern Italian Alps), were geomorphologically characterized and the transport regimes were identified. The larger basin is Cengles Creek (10.7 km2) and the smaller watershed is Plaies Creek (3.6 km2). The analysis has been carried out using historical aerial photos and digital analogues as well as through geomorphological, sedimentological and hydrological fieldwork. Our results consist of the identification of different geomorphological features and debris-flow activity patterns within the two basins. The Cengles basin is characterized by a diffuse layer of permafrost, a hanging valley floor where alluvial processes predominate and considerable vegetation. Within this catchment the debris-flow activity has been quite stable over the last seven decades, with peak activities related to exceptional events, for example in 1999. On the other hand, the Plaies watershed possesses diffuse steep slopes, virtually no vegetation and a large glacier at its headwaters; also there the mass-wasting activity shows a stable trend with an only exceptional peak, linked to the occurrence of a large event in August 2012. The processes in the catchment area

  15. The communities and the comuni: The implementation of administrative reforms in the Fiemme Valley (Trentino, Italy during the first half of the 19th century

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    Giacomo Bonan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines transformations in the common management of lands in a valley of the Trentino Alps during the process of Austro-Hungarian state centralization in the first half of 19th century. The main aspects of this process involved an administrative transformation that led to the abolition of all legal and institutional competences of the rural communities and their replacement with modern municipal corpora-tions, and new forest legislation. The hypothesis proposed here is that state intervention did not cause the end of common institutions, but in-stead caused a general redefinition of who could use these lands and how these lands could be used. These transformations were not simple top-down impositions, but the results of conflicts and negotiations with-in local communities and between them and the central government.

  16. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  17. Anomalous CO2 content in the Gallicano thermo-mineral spring (Serchio Valley, Italy) before the 21 June 2013, Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, L.; Botti, F.; D'Intinosante, V.; Facca, G.; Gherardi, F.

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network is operating in Tuscany, Central Italy, to investigate the geochemical response of selected aquifers to local seismic activity. The monitoring is aimed at identifying possible earthquake geochemical precursors. The network is currently constituted by six stations, all equipped with sensors for the measurement of temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, CO2 and CH4 dissolved concentration, that have been installed in the areas of highest seismic risk of the region. By combining geochemical data gathered from the automatic station of Gallicano (Garfagnana, Northern Tuscany), and obtained via chemical analyses of spring water samples collected during periodic field surveys in the area surrounding this station, the most significant aspects of the deep fluid circulation paths feeding the Gallicano thermo-mineral system have been investigated, and the geochemical baseline of the Gallicano spring defined. The CO2 continuous signal recorded by the Gallicano automatic station has been then processed over the period 2003-2013 in the search for anomalies possibly related to local seismic activity. A substantial anomaly in CO2 content has been observed at Gallicano in conjunction with the Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2) of 21 June 2013.

  18. PM1 geochemical and mineralogical characterization using SEM-EDX to identify particle origin - Agri Valley pilot area (Basilicata, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, S.; Lettino, A.; Speranza, A.; Summa, V.

    2015-07-01

    A PM1 geochemical and mineralogical study using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed on a pilot site in the Agri Valley which is close to the oil pre-treatment plant (C.O.V.A) of Europe's largest on-shore hydrocarbon reservoir. The study identified PM1 geochemical and mineralogical characters in the period before, during and immediately after a burning torch flare event. The finer fraction (DFe μm) consisted mainly of secondary particles and soot. In the coarser fraction (DFe ≥ 0.7 μm), natural particles originating from crustal erosion and soot were abundant. Fine quartz particles and lower Al / Si ratios are markers for desert dust origin, proving that a Saharan dust episode which occurred during the observation period played a significant role in supplying geogenic aerosol components to the PM1. Largest amounts of ≥ 0.7 μm fraction particles observed on the day of flare event may be due to a greater supply of Saharan geogenic particles. Soot had been significantly increasing long before the flare event, suggesting that this increase is also related to other causes, although we cannot exclude a contribution from flaring. S-rich aerosol consisted mainly of mixed particles originating from deposition and heterogeneous nucleation of secondary sulfates on mineral dust. Only-S particles were identified in the ≥ 0.7 μm fraction following the flare event. These particles may be indicators of larger amounts of sulphur in the atmosphere.

  19. Morpho-structural evolution of the valley-slope systems and related implications on slope-scale gravitational processes: New results from the Mt. Genzana case history (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Seta, M.; Esposito, C.; Marmoni, G. M.; Martino, S.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Troiani, F.

    2017-07-01

    This work is aimed at constraining a slope-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) and an associated rockslide-avalanche in the frame of the Quaternary morpho-structural evolution of Central Apennines (Italy). The study area is the western slope of the Mt. Genzana calcareous ridge, for which a conceptual slope evolutionary model had been already proposed. The existing model has highlighted the role of inherited geological-structural setting combined with Quaternary morpho-evolution in the onset of rock-slope deformational processes until paroxysmal phases (i.e. occurrence of massive rock slope failures). In this work, the previous conceptual evolutionary model was strengthened and detailed by means of a mid-term landscape evolution model, based on the study of geomorphic markers hanging at different elevations above the present valley floor. The Quaternary landscape evolution was also constrained by means of time-dependent landscape metrics. Consequently, it was possible to back-analyse the observed DSGSD process from its onset up to the occurrence of localized massive rock slope failures, through a time-dependent stress-strain numerical modeling. The results of such a multi-modeling approach: i) highlighted the importance of rock mass creep during some stages of the morpho-evolution; ii) pointed out the relevant role of the inherited structural pattern in identifying the preferential strain concentration zones and failure surfaces; and iii) confirmed the hypothesis that the Scanno rockslide-avalanche scar is the result of two separate failure events, as an initial landslide involving the lower part of the slope that favoured a subsequent failure in the upper part of the slope.

  20. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottura, V; Cappio Borlino, M; Carta, N; Cerise, L; Imperial, E

    2009-12-01

    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance.

  1. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  2. CO2 concentrations and delta13C (CO2) values in monthly sets of air samples from downtown Parma and the Parma and Taro river valleys, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2006-09-01

    Monthly sets of discrete air samples were collected from September 2004 to June 2005 in the town of Parma, along North-South and East-West runs (8 plus 8 samples), using four-litre Pyrex flasks. The CO2 concentrations and delta13C values were determined on these samples with the aim of evaluating quantitatively the contribution of domestic heating to the winter atmospheric CO2 pollution in downtown Parma by comparing autumn and spring atmospheric values with winter values. After separation of CO2 from the other air gases in the laboratory, the CO2 concentrations were calculated from the intensity of the 12C16O2+ ion beam in the mass spectrometer, after calibration with artificial air samples whose CO2 concentration was very carefully determined by the Monte Cimone Observatory (Sestola, Modena, Italy). The reproducibility of these measurements was of approximately +/-0.4 % and, consequently, the most probable error is not higher than+/-2-3 ppmv and does not affect the magnitude of the gradients between different samples. The standard deviation of delta13C measurements ranges from+/-0.02 to +/-0.04 per thousand (1sigma). The results suggest that the contribution of domestic heating to atmospheric CO2 pollution is almost negligible in the case of ground level atmosphere, where the main CO2 pollution is essentially related to the heavy car traffic. This is probably because of the fact that the gases from the domestic heating systems are discharged tens of metres above ground level at a relatively high temperature so that they rise quickly to the upper atmospheric layers and are then displaced by air masses dynamics. Monthly sets of discrete air samples were also collected from October 2004 to June 2005 along North-South runs from the town of Parma to the Apennine ridge following the Parma and the Taro river valleys (8 samples and 7 samples per set, respectively) and measured using the same technique. The aim of this study was the comparison between the town samples

  3. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  4. Estimation of soil redistribution rates due to snow cover related processes in a mountainous area (Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy

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    E. Ceaglio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas are widely affected by soil erosion, which is generally linked to runoff processes occurring in the growing season and snowmelt period. Also processes like snow gliding and full-depth snow avalanches may be important factors that can enhance soil erosion, however the role and importance of snow movements as agents of soil redistribution are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to provide information on the relative importance of snow related processes in comparison to runoff processes. In the study area, which is an avalanche path characterized by intense snow movements, soil redistribution rates were quantified with two methods: (i by field measurements of sediment yield in an avalanche deposition area during 2009 and 2010 winter seasons; (ii by caesium-137 method, which supplies the cumulative net soil loss/gain since 1986, including all the soil erosion processes. The snow related soil accumulation estimated with data from the deposit area (27.5 Mg ha−1 event−1 and 161.0 Mg ha−1 event−1 was not only higher than the yearly sediment amounts, reported in literature, due to runoff processes, but it was even more intense than the yearly total deposition rate assessed with 137Cs (12.6 Mg ha−1 yr−1. The snow related soil erosion rates estimated from the sediment yield at the avalanche deposit area (3.7 Mg ha−1 and 20.8 Mg ha−1 were greater than the erosion rates reported in literature and related to runoff processes; they were comparable to the yearly total erosion rates assessed with the 137Cs method (13.4 Mg ha−1 yr−1 and 8.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1. The 137Cs method also showed that, where the ground avalanche does not release, the erosion and deposition of soil particles from the upper part of the basin was considerable and likely related to snow gliding. Even though the comparison of both the approaches is linked to high methodological uncertainties, mainly due to the different spatial and temporal scales considered, we still can deduce, from the similarity of the erosion rates, that soil redistribution in this catchment is driven by snow movement, with a greater impact in comparison to the runoff processes occurring in the snow-free season. Nonetheless, the study highlights that soil erosion processes due to the snow movements should be considered in the assessment of soil vulnerability in mountain areas, as they significantly determine the pattern of soil redistribution.

  5. Estimation of soil redistribution rates due to snow cover related processes in a mountainous area (Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceaglio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas are widely affected by soil erosion, which is commonly linked to runoff processes. Also winter processes, like snow gliding and full-depth avalanches, may be important factors that can enhance soil erosion, however the role and importance of snow movements as agents of soil redistribution are not well understood yet. The aim of this study is to provide information on the relative importance of snow related soil erosion processes in comparison to runoff processes. In the study area, which is an avalanche path characterized by intense snow movements and soil erosion, soil redistribution rates were quantified with two methods: (i by field measurements of sediment yield in an avalanche deposition area during 2009 and 2010 winter seasons; (ii by Caesium-137 method, which supplies the cumulative net soil loss/gain since 1986, including winter and summer soil erosion processes. The soil erosion rates estimated from the sediment yield at the avalanche deposit area (3.2 and 20.8 Mg ha−1 event−1 is comparable to the yearly erosion rates (averaged since 1986 estimated with the Cs-137 method (8.8–13.4 Mg ha−1 yr−1. The soil accumulation rate estimated with data from the avalanche deposition area (28.2 and 160.7 Mg ha−1 event−1 is even more intense than the yearly deposition rates estimated with Cs-137 (8.9–12.6 Mg ha−1 yr−1. This might be due to the high relevance of the two investigated avalanche events and/or to the discrepancy between the long-term (since 1986 signal of the Cs-137 method compared to rates of 2009 and 2010. Even though the comparability is limited by the different time scale of the applied methods, both methods yielded similar magnitudes of soil redistribution rates indicating that soil erosion due to snow movements is the main driving force of soil redistribution in the area. Therefore winter processes have to be taken into account when assessing soil erosion as they significantly contribute to soil redistribution in mountainous areas.

  6. Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

  7. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  8. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter.

    Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain.

    This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

    The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale.

    Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  9. Full-depth avalanches and soil erosion: an experimental site in NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaglio, Elisabetta; Freppaz, Michele; Maggioni, Margherita; Filippa, Gianluca; Godone, Danilo; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    In the future the combined effect of changes in climate and land use could contribute to the intensification of soil erosion, related to snowpack movements as snow gliding and full-depth avalanches. Often, with particular meteorological conditions, the snow movement along a slope is associated with erosion and transport of the upper soil horizons, with the release of significant amount of material in the runout zone. Moreover the chemical composition of the snow in the deposition zone is usually different from the snow in the starting zone, revealing a potential release of ionic species mainly by the organic debris transported by the avalanche itself. The aim of this work is to characterize the quantity and quality of the material released by full-depth avalanches in the deposition zone. The study area is located in Aosta Valley (NW-Italy), on a SW exposed avalanche path, running from 2000 m a.s.l. of the triggering zone to 1200 m a.s.l. of the deposition zone. At this site, snow gliding and glide cracks, generally followed by full-depth avalanches, have been frequently observed. In the starting area, two plots located at the same elevation, slope and aspect, but with different soil moisture content, are equipped with moisture and temperature sensors, located at different depth in the soil, at the snow-soil interface and in the basal snowpack layer, and with glide shoes. The recorded data are related to the snow physical properties, measured by periodical investigations. In the deposition area, after a full-depth avalanche event occurred in March 2009, the mixed material was collected through snow avalanche coring, and a snow pit was dug in the deposit, in order to evaluate the quantity and the distribution of the material transported by the avalanche. First results show that the average density of the snow in the deposition zone was 624 kg m-3. The solid material was distributed mainly in the upper 5 cm of the avalanche deposit, with a mean concentration of the

  10. Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  11. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business clu

  12. Valley precession and valley polarization in graphene with inter-valley coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the valley precession and valley polarization in graphene under inter-valley coupling. Our results show that the inter-valley coupling can induce valley polarization in graphene and also precess valleys in real space in a manner similar to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction rotating spins. Moreover, using strain modulation, we can achieve high valley polarization with large valley-polarized currents. These findings provide a new way to create and manipulate valley polarization in graphene.

  13. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  14. DEWI partnership in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, F.; Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Winkler, W. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    DEWI already has offices in Germany, France, Spain and Brazil. In order to cooperate with a local partner on the fast growing market of Italy, DEWI has signed a partnership contract with Fichtner Italia. In DEWI's main office in Wilhelmshaven the Italian micro siting specialist Francesco Durante is the contact person for Italy. (orig.)

  15. Counseling in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  16. Verification of a probabilistic flood forecasting system for an Alpine Region of northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P.; Gabellani, S.; Rebora, N.; Rudari, R.; Ferraris, L.; Ratto, S.; Stevenin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting chains are increasingly becoming an operational tool used by civil protection centres for issuing flood alerts. One of the most important requests of decision makers is to have reliable systems, for this reason an accurate verification of their predictive performances become essential. The aim of this work is to validate a probabilistic flood forecasting system: Flood-PROOFS. The system works in real time, since 2008, in an alpine Region of northern Italy, Valle d'Aosta. It is used by the Civil Protection regional service to issue warnings and by the local water company to protect its facilities. Flood-PROOFS uses as input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) derived from the Italian limited area model meteorological forecast (COSMO-I7) and forecasts issued by regional expert meteorologists. Furthermore the system manages and uses both real time meteorological and satellite data and real time data on the maneuvers performed by the water company on dams and river devices. The main outputs produced by the computational chain are deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts in different cross sections of the considered river network. The validation of the flood prediction system has been conducted on a 25 months period considering different statistical methods such as Brier score, Rank histograms and verification scores. The results highlight good performances of the system as support system for emitting warnings but there is a lack of statistics especially for huge discharge events.

  17. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  18. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  19. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  20. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  1. Rupestrian culture in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, C

    2012-01-01

    Rupestrian culture in Italy. L'articolo descrive sinteticamente le aree di studio, di alcune regioni italiane interessate dal fenomeno dell’architettura rupestre, che sono state oggetto dei workshop realizzati nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca internazionale Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the Circum-Mediterraneam Area-cinp. Programme Culture 2007-2013, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation project, Strand 1.2.1- Cooperation measures. estrian culture in Italy

  2. Petrological outline of an area near Sparone (Orco Valley, Western Italian Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnigh, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    Several rocktypes and their metamorphic mineral growth are described from an area on the western border of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone in the Orco Valley (NW Italy). It is argued that in some rocks (garnet-rich gneisses and micaceous gneisses) pre-Alpine metamorphic minerals are present, in other rocks (ca

  3. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  4. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  5. Biogerontology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetti, Patrizio; Bergamini, Ettore

    2011-02-01

    In this paper experimental gerontology in Italy is reviewed on the basis of research developed in Academic and non Academic Centres. There are several groups across Italy working actively on basic science of aging producing high impact papers with a significant contribution to biogerontology. Some distinguished Italian scientist working abroad is also mentioned. Interesting issues on longevity and interventions on aging (including caloric restriction) and on aging brain are quoted. Relevant studies encompass the (glyco-)oxidative stress as direct damage mechanism and main process of theory of aging, other research lines include IGF-1, mitochondria DNA, obesity/sarcopenia and exercise and also an animal model for aging studies is reported. Notwithstanding financial restrictions and structure deficit the biogerontology research in Italy could be judged as good, but additional resources are necessary to keep this good rank.

  6. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI; CLAUDIA eERCOLE; MADDALENA eDEL GALLO

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata), characterized by a...

  7. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  8. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  9. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  10. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  11. Italy 2000 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This section of the review includes Italian dance books from 2000 till now. Texts has been selected following the scientific approach of the review, in order to outline the contemporary panorama of dance studies in Italy. Titles has been organized in two ways by subject, as an indication, and year of publication.

  12. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  13. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  14. Comparison of hourly surface downwelling solar radiation estimated from MSG-SEVIRI and forecast by the RAMS model with pyranometers over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Stefano; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Sanò, Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Campanelli, Monica; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Wang, Ping; Vergari, Stefania; Diémoz, Henri; Dietrich, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two global horizontal solar irradiance (GHI) estimates, one derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) and another from the 1-day forecast of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. The horizontal resolution of the MSG-GHI is 3 × 5 km2 over Italy, which is the focus area of this study. For this paper, RAMS has the horizontal resolution of 4 km.The performances of the MSG-GHI estimate and RAMS-GHI 1-day forecast are evaluated for 1 year (1 June 2013-31 May 2014) against data of 12 ground-based pyranometers over Italy spanning a range of climatic conditions, i.e. from maritime Mediterranean to Alpine climate.Statistics for hourly GHI and daily integrated GHI are presented for the four seasons and the whole year for all the measurement sites. Different sky conditions are considered in the analysisResults for hourly data show an evident dependence on the sky conditions, with the root mean square error (RMSE) increasing from clear to cloudy conditions. The RMSE is substantially higher for Alpine stations in all the seasons, mainly because of the increase of the cloud coverage for these stations, which is not well represented at the satellite and model resolutions. Considering the yearly statistics computed from hourly data for the RAMS model, the RMSE ranges from 152 W m-2 (31 %) obtained for Cozzo Spadaro, a maritime station, to 287 W m-2 (82 %) for Aosta, an Alpine site. Considering the yearly statistics computed from hourly data for MSG-GHI, the minimum RMSE is for Cozzo Spadaro (71 W m-2, 14 %), while the maximum is for Aosta (181 W m-2, 51 %). The mean bias error (MBE) shows the tendency of RAMS to over-forecast the GHI, while no specific behaviour is found for MSG-GHI.Results for daily integrated GHI show a lower RMSE compared to hourly GHI evaluation for both RAMS-GHI 1-day forecast and MSG-GHI estimate. Considering the yearly evaluation, the RMSE of daily integrated GHI is at least 9

  15. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  16. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  17. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  18. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  1. Migration discourses in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Benelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In the last thirty years, Italy has undergone an anthropological revolution: from a country of emigration that exported millions of emigrants around the world, it has reversed its vocation and has become a country of immigration. The presence of the newcomers on the Italian territory has not always been welcomed and integration has been problematical on diverse levels. In this article I explore how the rhetoric of the State, its laws and the media have portrayed the newcomers under the negati...

  2. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  3. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  4. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  5. Boyne Valley Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  6. Red (Planet) River Valleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑娴

    1995-01-01

    Mars today is a frozen desert,but the photos sent back by the Mariner and Viking probes in the 1970s indicate its past was less bleak and more Earth-like. The images showed sinuous channels and valleys that were al-

  7. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  8. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi

    2004-01-01

    The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...

  9. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  10. Delineation of the larynx as organ at risk in radiotherapy: a contouring course within "Rete Oncologica Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta" network to reduce inter- and intraobserver variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cante, Domenico; Petrucci, Edoardo; Piva, Cristina; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Sciacero, Piera; Bertodatto, Maurizio; Marta, Caterina; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Viale, Monica; La Valle, Giovanni; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Bertetto, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a contouring course in reducing inter- and intraobserver variability in the definition of the larynx as organ at risk (OAR). Within the "Rete Oncologica Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta" network, a contouring course focusing on larynx delineation was proposed. Twenty-six radiotherapist technicians (RTTs) experienced in delineating OARs were asked to contour larynx before and after the training. An expert radiation oncologist defined the reference volume for educational purpose. The contoured volumes obtained before and after the course were compared using descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation-SD, and coefficient of variation-COV) of volumes and maximum diameters. Conformity index (CI), dice coefficient (DC), and percentage of overlap were used to evaluate the spatial accuracy of the different volumes compared to the reference. Further analysis regarding the variation in the centre of mass (COM) displacement was performed. The mean volume was 40.4 cm(3) before and 65.9 cm(3) after the course, approaching the reference value. Mean anteroposterior, laterolateral, and craniocaudal diameters improved, getting each closer to the reference. Moreover, the COM moved approaching reference coordinates. Mean percentage of intersection and DC strongly increased after the course, rising from 57.76 to 93.83 % and from 0.68 to 0.89, respectively. CI enhanced from 0.06 to 0.31. This study shows an improvement in larynx definition after the contouring course with lower interobserver variability and major consistency compared to the reference volume. Other specific educational activities may further increase the quality of radiation therapy contouring in this setting.

  11. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 26 June, Italian industry went on display at CERN for the ninth time. Twenty-four Italian firms working closely with CERN showed off the latest high-energy physics technology developed by them. Guido Possa, Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, inaugurated the exhibition on 24 June. He took the opportunity afforded by his visit to tour Building SM18, where LHC magnets are tested and assembled, before inspecting the assembly hall for ATLAS detector components. Guido Possa, Italian Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, is seen visiting one of the "Italy at CERN" exhibition stands.

  12. The Bologna Process in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  13. Refuge in Belen Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Caballero, Diego Andres

    2013-01-01

    A story about love and desire to imagine architecture in a peruvian landscape. On one hand, 'Refuge in Belen Valley' is a thesis about discovering the ideal conditions that architecture should meet in a landscape, conditions that approach the idea of an offering of man rather than a conditioning for man. On the other, it is a thesis about thinking architecture as a composition derived out of material properties, emotional intentions, inhabiting possibilities and counterpoint, the arrangement ...

  14. Building China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ellis Rahhal and Andrew Schorr sit across from each other in the minimalist office of their tech startup,all clean lines and white linoleum floors.A pair of toothbrushes hint at many a late night hunched over their computers.Outside the window,the sun is slowly setting behind jagged mountains.The scene is classic Silicon Valley.But Rahhal and Schorr aren't in California.They're in suburban Beijing.

  15. Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Moorhead, D.J.; Hodges, J.D.; Nasser, J.R.; Smith, L.M.; Pederson, R.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Available data are summarized according to the following major topics: (1) characteristics of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) waterfowl populations associated with the MAV; (3) habitat requirements of migrating and wintering waterfowl in the MAV; (4) current habitat management practices in the MAV, including croplands, moist-soil impoundments, and forested wetlands; (5) status and classification of winter habitat in the MAV; and (6) research and management information needs.

  16. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  17. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  18. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused "primary" welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent "secondary mass flowage" down local valley sides, producing "secondary" folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-parallel to a pervasive valley-parallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-normal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are markedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-parallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes

  19. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  20. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  1. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  2. Strongyloidiasis in Po valley: serological and parasitological screening in blood donors of Cremona

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic sear...

  3. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  4. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  5. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  6. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  7. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  8. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  9. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  10. Observations of surface radon in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Piero Di; Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Battisti, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    Two years of in situ radon concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer have been collected in a central Italy town (L’Aquila), located in the Aterno river valley. These data have been analyzed in order to study the controlling mechanisms of surface radon abundance; observations of coincident meteorological parameters confirmed the role of dynamics on the local removal rate of this tracer. The relatively high negative correlation of hourly data of surface wind speed and radon activity concentration ( R = -0.54, on annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon is one of the most important controlling processes of the tracer accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. An attempt is made to quantify the precipitation impact on radon soil fluxes. No anticorrelation of radon and precipitation comes out from the data ( R = -0.15), as in previous studies. However, since the main physical parameter affecting the ground radon release is expected to be the soil accumulation of water, snow or ice, the emission flux has also been correlated with soil moisture; in this way a much clearer anticorrelation is found ( R = -0.54).

  11. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  12. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  13. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  14. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  15. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  16. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  17. Evidence for an unidentified non-photochemical ground-level source of formaldehyde in the Po Valley with potential implications for ozone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G.M.; Bohn, B.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  19. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  20. A Transitional Model for the Evaluation of West Nile Virus Transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, P; Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Di Sabatino, D; Cito, F; Bruno, R; Danzetta, M L

    2016-10-01

    In August 2008, after 10 years of apparent silence, West Nile virus (WNV) infection re-emerged in northern Italy, spreading through the territories of three regions. In the following years, new cases occurred in the same area and additional foci of infection were observed in central and southern Italy, involving also Sicily and Sardinia islands. The Italian Ministry of Health ordered to test by RT-PCR all blood and organ donors from 15th June to 15th November of each year in the infected areas. The period at risk of WNV transmission was defined on the basis of literature data, but a more scientific estimation of the transmission season, under Italian circumstances, needs to be performed. A transitional model previously developed by other Authors was applied and adapted to Italian circumstances, to describe and quantify the WNV transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Culex spp. was considered the main vector, and mosquito parameters were adapted to this genus. Magpies (Pica pica) were considered the main bird host. The model was partially validated through the results of the entomological surveys carried out in central Italy and in Po Valley. The results of the transitional model permitted to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) during 2010 for the whole Italian territory at 1 km of spatial resolution, estimating the risk of WNV transmission during the year and creating detailed risk maps for Italy. The mean values of R0 for the whole Italy varied between 0.4 and 4.8, with values >1 from the end of May to the middle of September. The coastal and flat zones of Italy showed the highest R0 values. Although partially validated, the model showed a substantial acceptable capacity of defining the period at major risk of WNV transmission in Italy, helping Public health authorities in the application of appropriate and timely control and preventive measures.

  1. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  2. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  3. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  4. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  5. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  6. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu

    2006-01-01

      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  7. Etruscan pottery from the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Perkins

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents some of the results of 18 years of research in the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus area, Tuscany, Italy. Thousands of artefacts have been collected and hundreds of sites recorded during this period by systematic field survey. The Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus Survey was directed by Professor Andrea Carandini, now of the University of Rome, La Sapienza, and Professor Elisabeth Fentress, now of the American Academy at Rome. The project is a collaboration between scholars of many institutions in Italy, France and Britain and the first volume of the final report detailing and interpreting the sites located is now in press (Cambi et al, forthcoming. This study concentrates upon a part of the finds made during field walking: the ceramics dating to the Etruscan period (8th-3rd century BC. The collection largely consists of finewares, coarsewares and amphorae. Together with the study of the ceramics from the Etruscan city at Doganella (Perkins and Walker 1990, and the excavated Etruscan farm at Podere Tartuchino (Attolini and Perkins 1992, both also in the Albegna Valley, the present study forms the most extensive detailed study of Etruscan ceramics from settlements identified by systematic survey that has been made to date. Collections from individual sites have been published in the past but the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus is the first part of Etruria, investigated at a regional scale, where the Etruscan ceramics have been fully studied and published. The first part of the study is an account of the fieldwork and the sampling strategy which was used during the collection of the ceramics presented here. This is followed by a summary of the assemblage. The detailed catalogue of the survey finds follows and is extended by a catalogue of an out-of-context tomb group recovered during the survey. All the illustrations of the ceramics are interactive, forming a graphical interface to the data set. The full database of the ceramics is published

  8. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  10. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  11. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  12. Brief Communication: On the rapid and efficient monitoring results dissemination in landslide emergency scenarios: the Mont de La Saxe case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Allasia, P.; Bertolo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Straightforward communication of monitoring results is of major importance in emergency scenarios relevant to large slope instabilities. Here we describe the communication strategy developed for the Mont de La Saxe rockslide threatening La Palud and Entrèves hamlets in the Courmayeur municipality (Aosta Valley, Italy). Starting from the definition of actions and needs of the landslide management team, including scientists, technicians, civil protection operators, decision makers, and politicians, we show that sharing and disseminating ad hoc information simplifies the understanding of the landslide evolution, as well as the correct communication of the level of criticality.

  13. Small Glaciofluvial Valleys on Amazonian Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C.; Dickson, J.; Head, J. W.; Levy, J. S.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present new observations of small valleys associated with glacial features in the Martian mid-latitudes, based on a survey of images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These valleys are small (~50-400 m wide) and short (mechanism most likely to explain their origin is top-down melting of these cold-based glaciers. Some valleys have associated sedimentary deposits (small fans) (e.g., Fig. 1). Both stratigraphic relations and crater counting constrain most such valleys to the Amazonian period. The observed glaciofluvial valleys are typically on slopes of P16_007256_1383). The valley begins in a small alcove, where remnant glacial materials are now ~1 km from the valley head. The valley is ~5.5 km long, has an average slope of 5°, and terminates in an elongate fan.

  14. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  15. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  16. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian River Valley. 9.57 Section 9.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  18. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.”...

  19. Valley Singularities and Baryon Number Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Provero, P

    1994-01-01

    We consider the valley--method computation of the inclusive cross section of baryon number violating processes in the Standard Model. We show that any physically correct model of the valley action should present a singularity in the saddle point valley parameters as functions of the energy of the process. This singularity prevents the saddle point configuration from collapsing into the perturbative vacuum.

  20. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  2. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  3. Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian new thalamid sponges from northern Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new “sphinctozoan” sponges, Calabrisiphonella labyrinthica nov. gen., nov. sp. and Calabrispongia globosa nov. gen., nov. sp., are described from reef boulders derived from Triassic dolomites (“Dolomia principale“ of the Argentino valley in Northern Calabria (Southern Italy. Calabrisiphonella is an Amblysiphonella-type sponge characterized by having a complicated canal system (labyrinth-like within the chamber walls. The structure of Calabrispongia is similar to some Paleozoic or Jurassic "Stromatoporoidea“, which are attributed to the sponges. The systemtic position of both sponges, described here, is discussed. The age of the sponge-bearing reefs represented in the boulders is Norian-Rhaetian.

  4. TANYSTROPHEUS (ARCHOSAUROMORPHA, PROLACERTIFORMES REMAINS FROM THE TRIASSIC OF THE NORTHERN FRIULI (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The first diagnostic remains of the large prolacertiform Tanystropheus are reported from northeastern Italy. They include a proximal caudal vertebra from the Middle Triassic of Aupa valley (Udine, Friuli and a cervical vertebra from the Carnian of Fusea (Udine. The cervical vertebra represents the first record of Tanystropheus in the Carnian and is the geologically youngest occurrence other than the Norian T. fossai. Tanystropheus lived along the coasts of the northwestern Tethys during the Late Triassic while it disappeared in Central Europe where continental environments were prevailing. 

  5. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi Claudio; Bianchi Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interv...

  6. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  7. BIOITALY: NATURE 2000 IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BLASI

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The author recalls goals and deadlines of the Europena Community Habitats Directive 94/43/EEC and of the Natura 2000 Network. After saying that Italy has up to now only marginally took part in the definition of habitats and species to be included in the Annexes I, II, II e IV of the Habitat Directive, he underlines that only the collaboration between the Italian Botanical Society and the Italian Ministry of Environment – Nature Conservation Services, has allowed Italy to fill the gap with other countries. Furthermore, he relates the ongoing progress of Natura 2000 in Italy (Bioitaly: about 2700 sites collected, a useful collaboration between botanists, zoologists and ecologists, the constitution of a list of new habitats and species to be included into the Annexes of the Directive. Finally, he wishes a closer working relationship among phytosociologists, botanists and ecologists, in order to avoid the risk of replacing in the CORINE project the phytosociological approach with a less satisfactory physiognomic classification.

  8. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  9. Pharmacovigilance in Italy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzitello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This review examines the legislative framework concerning the pharmacovigilance in Italy. Materials and Methods: The information was collected from scientific articles and the websites of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA. Results: The pharmacovigilance system, both in Italy and Europe, has undergone profound changes. European legislation on pharmacovigilance has been changed in 2010 according to the EU Regulation 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU. Basically, the changes tend to increase the efficiency, speed and transparency of pharmacovigilance activities. The new Regulation (1235/2010 and the Directive (2010/84/EU aim to strengthen the system of pharmacovigilance, establish more precisely who is obliged to do what, and allow faster and easier circulation and retrieval of information about ADRs. Conclusion: A greater knowledge on what is the Italian pharmacovigilance legislation will be useful to improve the status of ADRs reporting and spread the culture of spontaneous reporting.

  10. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  11. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  12. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  13. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  14. THE FIRST RECORD OF THE BIRCH MOUSE SICISTA IN THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS OF CAVERNA GENEROSA (COMO, NW ITALY, WITH MORPHOMETRICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO BONA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the only one specimen collected and attributed to Sicista cf. subtilis from the Caverna Generosa has been described: a right mandible with first molar and m/2-m/3 alveoli. The Sicista specimen shows a morphological and morphometrical similarity to Sicista subtilis and it may represent the first record in Italy and the third in the whole Europe of the latter species. The discovery defines advancement in the Sicista paleogeography in the North of Italy and it certainly demonstrates that an important faunal migration during the Last Maximum Glacial involved the Western part of the Po valley, too.

  15. Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Ilaria; Curci, Gabriele; Falasca, Serena; Ferrero, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys Ilaria Gandolfi1,2, Gabriele Curci1,2, Serena Falasca1,2, Luca Ferrero3 1 Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 2 Center of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 3 POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy Last decades were characterized by a growing interest in aerosols: mainly for their effect on human health and on the energy balance of solar and planetary radiation, thus their role in climate change. In this study, we analyze the evolution of vertical profile of black carbon (BC) through tethered balloon observations and chemistry-transport modelling. Black carbon is regarded as the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent and its concentration varies significantly depending on the altitude and the sources on the territory. In winter of 2010 University Of Milan Bicocca conducted three intensive measurements campaigns over three Italian basin valleys (Terni, Po Valley, Passiria Valley). The choice of the valleys was made taking into consideration the orography and the river basin structure. The measurement campaign was based on a helium-filled tethered balloon, on which the instrumentation for the analysis has been mounted; the instrumentation consisted on a meteorological station, an OPC, a cascade impactor and a micro-Aethalometer. Subsequently, at University of L'Aquila simulations were produced to help interpretation of these vertical aerosol profiles (mass, composition and distribution) and related optical properties (scattering, absorption) using a chemistry-transport model (WRF-CHIMERE) at high horizontal resolution (1 km). The analysis focused primarily on the calculation of the heating rate and of the Direct Radiative Effect (DRE), and on the analysis of the

  16. Preliminary results for filtering-ecosystems in Val Trebbia (PC - Italy); Primi risultati per gli ecosistemi-filtro della Val Trebbia (PC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcevschi, Sergio [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Bisogni, G.Luca [N.Q.A. s.r.l., Pavia (Italy); Bernini, Fabrizio [Amministrazione Provinciale di Piacenza, Piacenza (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    Some artificial wetlands were constructed in 1993-1994 in the Trebbia Valley (Piacenza, Italy). These plants worked as further treatment of secondary effluents of five little towns in the valley: Bobbio, Travo, Perino-Dolgo, Marsaglia, Ottone. The project and the realization considered the systems as Filtering Ecosystems and not a simple Aquatic Plant Systems. In 1994-1995 a research by University of Pavia was carried out, on the filtering ecosystem of Bobbio. Removal efficiency was 9,9 for phaecal coliforms, and 65% for nitrates.

  17. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  18. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  19. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  20. Zhongguan Village, China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1999,driven by the dream of using technology to change people's lives,Li Yanhong,returned to Zhongguancun(Zhongguan Village in Chinese),Beijing from Silicon Valley in the U.S.to create Baidu.com.Over the years,Baidu has become the most frequently hitted website in China as well as the largest Chinesc search engine and Chinese language website in the world.

  1. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  2. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  3. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  4. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2017-04-01

    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  5. Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kai; Xu, Lixiang; Wu, Fengcheng; Nagler, Philipp; Tran, Kha; Ma, Xin; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; MacDonald, Allan H.; Moody, Galan; Li, Xiaoqin

    2017-06-01

    The emerging field of valleytronics aims to exploit the valley pseudospin of electrons residing near Bloch band extrema as an information carrier. Recent experiments demonstrating optical generation and manipulation of exciton valley coherence (the superposition of electron-hole pairs at opposite valleys) in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a critical step towards control of this quantum degree of freedom. The charged exciton (trion) in TMDs is an intriguing alternative to the neutral exciton for control of valley pseudospin because of its long spontaneous recombination lifetime, its robust valley polarization, and its coupling to residual electronic spin. Trion valley coherence has however been unexplored due to experimental challenges in accessing it spectroscopically. In this work, we employ ultrafast 2D coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect trion valley coherence in monolayer MoSe2 demonstrating that it persists for a few-hundred femtoseconds. We conclude that the underlying mechanisms limiting trion valley coherence are fundamentally different from those applicable to exciton valley coherence.

  6. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  7. Precision Mapping of Valley Networks in Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Luo, W.; Qi, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Valley networks in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle are mapped using a computer algorithm. The new map reveals wider existence of valleys than has been inferred from older maps. This suggests runoff as the primary mechanism for origin of the valleys.

  8. Rites of passage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change?

  9. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  10. Italy: old problems, new books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Evandro

    1989-01-01

    Agazzi's bibliographic essay of recent titles in Italian on biomedical issues also discusses the Catholic versus the secular approaches to bioethics in Italy. Among the publications mentioned are several of a philosophical or theological nature: M. Mori's volume on artificial insemination, and second editions of well-established textbooks on biomedical ethics by S. Leone, E. Sgreccia, S. Spinsanti, and D. Tettamanzi. Legal issues in reproductive technologies are addressed in the Santosuosso Commission's report on regulating artificial procreation, and in a book discussing the report. Secular writings on ethical issues have appeared in issues cited here of the journals Prospettive Settanta and Biblioteca della Libertà. Also mentioned in Agazzi's essay are a critique of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Instruction on Respect for Human Life, and a booklet of articles related to the 20th anniversary of the encyclical Humanae Vitae.

  11. Work through the valley: plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  12. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  13. Post-orogenetic magmatic activity and related geothermal resources in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merla, A.

    1986-01-01

    A wide area of central Italy, located along the Tyrrhenian coast, is characterized by recent magmatic activity, regional uplifting and abundant thermal manifestations. The area, which includes southern Tuscan and parts of northern Latium, is bounded to the north by the Arno River valley, to the east by the Chiana valley and Lake Trasimeno, to the south by the Tiber valley and to the west by the important normal fault system controlling the Tyrrhenian coast. The area is also well-known for the frequent occurrences of young mineral deposits and the presence of abundant high enthalpy geothermal resources: the dry-seam fields of Larderello and Mt. Amiata, among the largest in the world, with a present electric installed capacity of 459 MW (1984). The understanding of the origin of these phenomena and of the processes which led to the formation of the natural resource characterizing the area (geothermal, mineral etc.), might represent a valuable exploration tool and lead to a further expansion of present exploitation.

  14. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  15. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  16. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungal spores. The following are some common-sense methods that may be helpful to avoid getting Valley fever. It’s important to know that although these steps are recommended, they haven’t been proven to prevent Valley fever. ... information about respirators. Stay inside during dust storms and ...

  17. Enjoy Samba Carnival in Happy Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On July3,the Yanjing Beer 2009 Beijing Happy Valley Mayan Carnival was grandly opened.The carnival will last for almost two months until August 30.With support from Yanjing Beer,Happy Valley is able to provide an authentic Brazilian festival including hot music and dancing,

  18. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  19. Structural and morphological characterization of active intermontane basins: a case of the Gubbio captured basin (Umbria Pre-Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavitolo, Paolo; Menichetti, Marco; Nesci, Olivia; Savelli, Daniele; Troiani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Intermontane basins characterize many orogenic chains, where they are originated either by crustal stretching or gravitational collapse of the axial zones of the chain. Extensional and/or transtensional mechanisms generate structures with geometries controlled by fault-bounded depressed areas, which in some cases are seismogenetic. The western sector of the Northern Apennines in Central Italy is characterized by several intermontane basins filled by continental Plio-Pleistocene sediments. At present, a few of these basins are depressed endorheic areas, whereas most of them have been captured by river upstream erosion. The morphotectonic characterization at both regional and local scale of these structures is crucial considering the associated geological hazards due to clustered seismicity and seismic-related slope-instability along the basin-margins. This work presents a multi-disciplinary approach based on new and existing data to define the structural geometries, landforms and processes related to the genesis and the morphoevolution of the intermountain valleys/captured-basins in Central Italy. Quantitative geomorphological analyses from Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are compared with geological and structural data and with geophysical investigations of active and sismogenetic faults bordering the Gubbio valley in the Umbria Pre-Apennines in central Italy. This 4 km-wide valley extends for ca. 20 km in NW-SE direction and is bounded along the NE margin by a SW-dipping listric normal fault with an offset of 1500 m. The area locates along one of the main seismogenic portion of the Apennine chain and recorded historical (i.e., April 29, 1984: Ms 5.3) and many instrumental earthquakes. In this study, new data on the slope-instability along the basin-margins and the influence of active tectonics and gravitational phenomena on the streams incision and aggradation are also provided.

  20. Psychosurgery in Italy, 1936-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-12-01

    In 1936 Egas Moniz introduced a new method for treating mental illness--psychosurgery. This new procedure was taken up immediately in a number of countries, including Italy. In most countries its introduction was slow and the numbers of operations were in single figures, but in Italy the introduction was rapid and around a dozen neuropsychiatrists reported much higher numbers of operations performed. Also in Italy the first innovations to the technique, notably the transorbital variation, were introduced. Moreover, all these activities took place without any sign of the protest seen elsewhere. Conditions that allowed the acceptance of this risky procedure seemed to be a consequence of the way in which the professions of neurology and psychiatry had been merged in Italy.

  1. Gate to Italy; Das Tor zu Italien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Increasingly, German businesses are setting up workshops in Southern Tyrol. This region of Northern Italy offers ideal conditions, as well as German-speaking partners. However, to be successful they will also need Italian partners. (orig.)

  2. How America Saved Italy and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    normalcy, specifically the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.145 This meant that America would...How America Saved Italy and the World A Monograph by MAJ Kwame O. Boateng United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2014 – May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How America Saved Italy and the World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  3. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  4. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  5. The Bisagno stream catchment (Genoa, Italy) and its major floods: geomorphic and land use variations in the last three centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, Francesco; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro; Watkins, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The city of Genoa (Liguria, Italy) and the Bisagno Valley are affected by frequent floods, often with loss of human lives. Historically characterised by high flood hazards, the Bisagno Valley was recently affected by a flood event on 9 October 2014, less than three years after the tragic flood event of 4 November 2011 when six people died, including two children. In the last 50 years, four destructive floods occurred in the Bisagno Valley, in addition to some other events that caused significant damage and economic losses. This paper examines the three largest flood events in terms of intensity and ground effects which affected the Bisagno Valley in the last three centuries: the flood of 25 October 1822, well documented by contemporary sources, the flood of 8 October 1970, undoubtedly the most tragic on record, and the very recent event of 9 October 2014. For this purpose scientific and historical-geographical methodologies were adopted, the latter particularly useful for the reconstruction of the flood event of 1822 and the landscape history of the Bisagno Valley in the nineteenth century. This comparison shows that the Bisagno Valley is characterised by climatic and landform features that have been making the flood events historically common in the area. However, recent climate change and land-use variations, including some major modifications of the catchment basin, have progressively determined a decrease of the concentration time and an increase of runoff, solid transport, and flood hazard. Consequently, in recent decades a growth in the number of flood events occurred, to the extent that the Bisagno today is a famous case study on an international scale.

  6. Definition of a mobilizing volume of sediment in a valley interested by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco valley (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroumé, Andrés; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic explosive activity can strongly affect the riverine environments. Deposition of tephra, pyroclastic and hyperconcentrated flows along both the valley bottom and hillslopes can radically change the environmental morphology. Accumulation and transport of pyroclastic material can increase hazards and risks for anthropic activities. The aims of this research are to evaluate and quantify the amount of erodible sediment that can be transported along a gravel bed river affected by a volcanic eruption. The Rio Blanco valley (Chile) was upset by the plinian-type eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The great amount of tephra released in the initial phase and the subsequent pyroclastic flows, accumulated up to 8 m of sediment over a great portion of the Rio Blanco valley. Using aerial photographs was possible to define the extension of vegetated zones affected by the eruption. The area was interested by a high mortality of vegetation, as confirmed by field surveys. Dendrometric measurements permitted to quantify the volume of wood and observe that renewal and herbal layer are almost absent, determining low soil cohesion and easier erosion by superficial and river erosion processes. Analysis of sediment accumulation allowed quantifying the volume of sediment that can be transported downstream. The analyses were carried out considering 7 km-long a reach, from the river mouth to the confluence between Caldera creek and Rio Blanco. After the eruption, was possible to define as a total area of about 2.19 km2 was affected by tephra deposition, the 40% (0,87 km2) was eroded by flows, while 60% (1,32 km2) is still present and composed by tephra, buried large wood (LW) and dead standing trees. Considering an average high of 5 m, the potential erodible sediment is around 6,5 x 106 m3, moreover there is a potential amount of about 7,3 x 104 m3 of LW that can be transported towards mouth. These analyses can be useful to better define the management plan for the river delta. In

  7. Macroeconomic determinants of migration from Romania to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taken into account various economic theories trying to explain the reasons that stay behind the decision to migrate to another country, this study uses empirical data to identify some macroeconomic motives for migrating from Romania to Italy. According to the estimations based on fast ridge regression, the stock of Romanian immigrants from Italy in the period 2002-2016 was influenced by: the real GDP per capita in Romania, real GDP per capita in Italy and life expectancy at birth in Italy. The number of Romanian migrants attracted each year in Italy in a period marked also by the global financial crisis (2007-2016 was related to factors like: real GDP per capita in Italy life expectancy at birth in Italy, unemployment rate and taxes on income, profits and capital gains in Italy. The overall results indicated that the better standard of life in Italy was a good incentive for Romanian migrants

  8. Health workforce governance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele

    2015-12-01

    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making.

  9. Position of fuel cells in Italy; Situation des piles a combustible en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Mottini, N.

    2000-02-01

    The main researches concerning the fuel cells in Italy are the PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) and the MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell). This reports takes stock of these two techniques in Italy, explaining the running of these two types of cells and relating the Italian situation (development and research program, development programs of fuel cells vehicles). (O.M.)

  10. Automatic mapping of valley networks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, I.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2007-06-01

    Martian valley networks bear some resemblance to terrestrial drainage systems, but their precise origin remains an active research topic. A limited number of valley networks have been manually mapped from images, but the vast majority remains unmapped because standard drainage mapping algorithms are inapplicable to valleys that are poorly organized and lack spatial integration. In this paper, we present a novel drainage delineation algorithm specially designed for mapping the valley networks from digital elevation data. It first identifies landforms characterized by convex tangential curvature, and then uses a series of image processing operations to separate valleys from other features having a convex form. The final map is produced by reconnecting all valley segments along drainage directions. Eight test sites on Mars are selected and manually mapped for valley networks. The algorithm is applied to the test sites and delineated networks are compared to mapped networks using a series of quantitative quality factors. We have found a good agreement between delineated and mapped networks. In the process of comparing manual and delineated networks some shortcomings of manual mapping became apparent. We argue that delineated networks are indeed of better quality than the networks manually mapped from images. Although the algorithm has been developed to study Martian surface, it may also be relevant to terrestrial geomorphology.

  11. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecca Marco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP, which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608 were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538 were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%, whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network.

  12. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  13. Weather types and wind patterns classification in the Po Valley, during the PEGASOS field campaign (summer 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafe', Giovanni; Morgillo, Antonella; Minguzzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Po valley in Northern Italy is a semi-closed basin surrounded by complex orography. Surface winds are very weak (average wind speed is appoximately 2 m/s), and strong temperature inversions (also in excess of 10 degrees) are often observed near the ground and in the boundary layer. Moreover, the circulation in the lower troposphere is often affected by small scale phenomena such as sea breeze, mountain breeze, katabatic winds and surface temperature inversions. Since Po Valley is a densely populated and heavily industrialised area, air pollution is a major issue, and day to day pollutant concentrations are tightly linked with meteorological conditions. To schematically characterize the complex surface wind patterns in Po Valley, two classifications are performed with cluster analysis techniques: a large scale synoptic classification of weather types (WTs), and a wind pattern (WPs) classification focused on the south-eastern Po Valley. The link between WTs and WPs is investigated, and the statistical properties of other meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations are studied in connection with WTs and WPs. The classifications of WTs and WPs are finally used to assess the representativeness in time of the data collected during the intensive observation period of project Pegasos in summer 2012.

  14. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to operate...

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years. Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases, maritime trades (56 cases, and port activities (39 cases. The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2. Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%. Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  17. Pollen-related allergy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S

    1992-05-01

    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  18. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  19. Valley-protected backscattering suppression in silicon photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study valley degree of freedom in all dielectric silicon photonic graphene. Photonic band gap opening physics under inversion symmetry breaking is revisited by the viewpoint of nonzero valley Chern number. Bulk valley modes with opposite orbital angular momentum are unveiled by inspecting time-varying electric fields. Topological transition is well illustrated through photonic Dirac Hamiltonian. Valley dependent edge states and the associated valley-protected backscattering suppression around Z-shape bend waveguide have been demonstrated.

  20. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  1. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  2. Woodcock "Roundup" 2001 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an effort to make a more complete census of breeding American woodcock in the Canaan Valley, a volunteer survey was performed in April. The idea was to coordinate...

  3. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  4. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  5. Woodcock "Roundup" 2004 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 24, 2004 the refuge sponsored the fourth annual ''woodcock round up", a volunteer event to perform a woodcock survey in Canaan Valley. The event was started...

  6. Woodcock "Roundup" 2002 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 20, 2002 an annual Woodcock Roundup survey was conducted to document American woodcock presence in Canaan Valley. The Annual Woodcock roundup began in April...

  7. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  8. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  9. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  10. Death Valley%死亡山谷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suasan Spano; 文迪

    2003-01-01

    @@ Late-afternoon light tints the mountains as two hikers trek1 across Stovepipe Wells sand dunes2 in Death Valley, Calif. Dunes near Scotty's Castle and Zabriskie Point are also popular tourist sights.

  11. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  12. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  13. Land Protection Plan: Swan Valley Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Swan Valley Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  14. Domino effects induced from rockfalls on industrial plants, Brescia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Serena; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico; Buldrini, Marco; Oliveri, Stefano; Seminati, Paolo; Pozza, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The impact of industrial accidents triggered by landslides in the Lombardy Alps (northern Italy) is not negligible, as demonstrated by the event of the refinery Ilsea (Valmadrera, LC), where an explosion caused by a rockfall caused a victim and two injuries in 1981. This work proposes a methodology for the assessment of societal and economic risk connected to industrial accidents triggered by rockfalls in the area of Brescia, northern Italy. The study area is located between Lake Iseo and Lake Garda, and includes lower Valcamonica, lower Valtrompia, and lower Valsabbia. The area has an extension of 1,508 km2 and includes 82 municipalities. 727,000 people live in this area, where valley bottoms are strongly urbanised, and densely populated. The expected frequency of occurrence of rockfalls in the area was calculated by combining the frequency of block detachment and the frequency of transit. The detachment frequency was estimated using intensity-frequency curves, obtained adapting and calibrating existing curves from the literature using historical events of the area (374 events in 20 years). Considering that detachment frequency depends on the size of the block, 7 different scenarios were analysed, each of them characterised by blocks with different volume, from 0.01 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transit frequency was calculated by means of the rockfall 3D model HY-STONE. The model simulates the propagation of three-dimensional trajectories of blocks on complex terrain morphologies described by a DTM. Simulations were performed using a 20 m x 20 m DTM, and considering as source areas all the cells steepest than 40° (323 km2). Ten blocks were launched from each source, with a stochastic approach that accounts for uncertainties about the modelling parameters. Energy restitution and rolling friction coefficients were assigned to different cells according to different lithology and land use, and calibrated using historical events. As a result of the model, kinetic energy of

  15. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  16. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  17. An updating of the occurrence of canine heartworm disease in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, G; Martini, M; Bomben, L; Roda, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey was carried out in northern Italy (Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia Regions) to assess the extension of canine heartworm disease close to the classic hyperendemic areas of the Po Valley. A filtration test on 275 privately owned dogs showed a mean prevalence of 44%, with a peak of 55% in the Venice province. A high prevalence (17%) of occult filariosis was discovered using a serological test. These values fall within the medium-high range previously reported from other Italian areas. The provinces of Pordenone, Udine, Trieste, Treviso and Belluno, where no cases had been previously reported, were found to be infected. The distribution of the infection did not differ significantly with the dogs' origin or sex. The prevalence seemed to be influenced significantly (p < 0.01) by the hosts' age, function and degree of outdoor activity, reflecting the different exposure risks.

  18. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, Borja; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco; Fortuny, Josep; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy) was originally (1989) identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed.

  19. The earthquake lights (EQL of the 6 April 2009 Aquila earthquake, in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fidani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-month collection of testimonials about the 6 April 2009 earthquake in Aquila, Abruzzo region, Italy, was compiled into a catalogue of non-seismic phenomena. Luminous phenomena were often reported starting about nine months before the strong shock and continued until about five months after the shock. A summary and list of the characteristics of these sightings was made according to 20th century classifications and a comparison was made with the Galli outcomes. These sightings were distributed over a large area around the city of Aquila, with a major extension to the north, up to 50 km. Various earthquake lights were correlated with several landscape characteristics and the source and dynamic of the earthquake. Some preliminary considerations on the location of the sightings suggest a correlation between electrical discharges and asperities, while flames were mostly seen along the Aterno Valley.

  20. A Reappraisal of the Purported Gastric Pellet with Pterosaurian Bones from the Upper Triassic of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, Borja; Dalla Vecchia, Fabio Marco; Fortuny, Josep; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A small accumulation of bones from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Seazza Brook Valley (Carnic Prealps, Northern Italy) was originally (1989) identified as a gastric pellet made of pterosaur skeletal elements. The specimen has been reported in literature as one of the very few cases of gastric ejecta containing pterosaur bones since then. However, the detailed analysis of the bones preserved in the pellet, their study by X-ray microCT, and the comparison with those of basal pterosaurs do not support a referral to the Pterosauria. Comparison with the osteology of a large sample of Middle-Late Triassic reptiles shows some affinity with the protorosaurians, mainly with Langobardisaurus pandolfii that was found in the same formation as the pellet. However, differences with this species suggest that the bones belong to a similar but distinct taxon. The interpretation as a gastric pellet is confirmed. PMID:26560101

  1. Why Italy's saving rate became (so) low?

    OpenAIRE

    Campiglio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why a low and declining saving rate should be a problem in a world of free capital flows and increasing wealth. In Italy consumer households’ saving have been the main driver of economic stability and growth, funding investments and public debt, and despite international turbulences Italy was acknowledged as a high saving country until the early 1990’s. Ever since, however, households saving rate plunged, in spite of an increasing financial wealth, and our ...

  2. Predation on dormice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le

  3. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  4. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  6. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1,...

  7. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  8. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  9. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  10. Magnetotelluric investigation across the Agri Valley: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, Marianna; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Alfredo Stabile, Tony

    2017-04-01

    The Agri Valley is an axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain with a strong seismogenic potential where two important energy technologies responsible for inducing/triggering seismicity are active: (1) the disposal at the Costa Molina 2 injection well of the wastewater produced during the exploitation of the biggest onshore oil field in west Europe (27 wells producing more than 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day), managed by the Eni S.p.A., and (2) the water loading and unloading operations in the Pertusillo artificial reservoir. It is recognized the possibility that the fluctuation of the water level inside the reservoir, due to the hydrological cycle for example, produces pressure perturbations at the bottom of reservoir, causing induced seismicity. Furthermore it is even more known the role of fluids in the rupture processes which could cause an increase of pore pressure specially at high rate of injection fluids and/or for the presence of weakening of preexisting faults. With the aim to better characterize and understand the physical processes involved in the observed induced/triggered seismicity, in 2016 a broadband seismic network, covering an area of about 20 km x 20 km nearby the Pertusillo Dam and Costa Molina2 well has been installed in the framework of SIR-MIUR project INSIEME (INduced Seismicity in Italy: Estimation, Monitoring, and sEismic risk mitigation) and a MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey has been performed. The MT investigation consists of 25 soundings aligned along 30 km profile oriented at about N40 direction, orthogonal with the strike of the major and noticeable geological structures and crossing both of the source that may induce/trigger seismicity. In this work, we present the preliminary 2D resistivity model which provides useful deep geophysical information for understanding the geological and structural setting of the Agri Valley. Moreover, the comparison of the resistivity model with the earthquake location as inferred from

  11. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  12. Fascist labscapes: geneticists, wheat, and the landscapes of Fascism in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of scientists in the building of fascist regimes in Italy and Portugal by focusing on plant geneticists' participation in the Italian and Portuguese wheat wars for bread self-sufficiency. It looks closely at the work undertaken by Nazareno Strampelli at the National Institute of Genetics for Grain Cultivation (Italy) and by António Sousa da Câmara at the National Agronomic Experiment Station (Portugal), both of whom took wheat as their prime experimental object of genetics research. The main argument is that the production of standardized organisms—the breeder's elite seeds—in laboratory spaces is deeply entangled with their circulation through extended distribution networks that allowed for their massive presence in Italian and Portuguese landscapes such as the Po Valley and the Alentejo. The narrative pays particular attention to the historical development of fascist regimes in the two countries, advancing the argument that breeders' artifacts were key components of the institutionalization of the new political regimes.

  13. Stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musolino, Dario Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and methodologic

  14. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  15. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  16. Neutrinos make a splash in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Nosengo, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    "A long-awaited beam of neutrinos has finally made it from Switzerland to a laboratory 730kilometers away in central Italy. The scientists involved hope the project, first sketched out 25 years ago, will address one of the big unsolved problems in particle physics." (2 pages)

  17. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  18. Kleine bijenkastkever aangetroffen in Italië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Pelgrim, W.

    2014-01-01

    Voor de tweede keer in 10 jaar heeft de kleine bijenkastkever (Aethina tumida) voet aan de grond gekregen in Europa. Een eerste uitbraak in Portugal in 2004 werd snel ingedamd, maar een nieuwe uitbraak in het zuiden van Italië lijkt van permanente aard.

  19. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bergamaschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  20. CLIL in Italy: A General Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinganotto, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) was introduced in the Italian school system in 2003 through a Reform Law, which made it mandatory for upper secondary schools. This paper is aimed at describing the most important steps of this innovation, with the relevant implications for policymakers, teachers and students. Italy's CLIL mandate is…

  1. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  2. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  3. The Study of Behavioural Development in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battacchi, Marco W.

    1984-01-01

    Examines professional education and current research trends in developmental psychology in Italy. Current trends have been investigated by a multi-dimensional content analysis of the studies published or accepted for publication in qualified journals between 1978-May 1983. (Author/AS)

  4. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  5. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  6. Valley polarization in Si(100) at zero magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, K; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A; Takahashi, Y; Hirayama, Y

    2006-06-16

    The valley splitting, which lifts the degeneracy of the lowest two valley states in a SiO(2)/Si(100)/SiO(2) quantum well, is examined through transport measurements. We demonstrate that the valley splitting can be observed directly as a step in the conductance defining a boundary between valley-unpolarized and -polarized regions. This persists to well above liquid helium temperature and shows no dependence on magnetic field, indicating that single-particle valley splitting and valley polarization exist in (100) silicon even at zero magnetic field.

  7. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ab......The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices...

  8. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salvati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide

  9. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  10. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  11. Controllable valley splitting in silicon quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Slinker, K. A.; Friesen, Mark; McGuire, L. M.; Truitt, J. L.; Tahan, Charles; Klein, L. J.; Chu, J. O.; Mooney, P. M.; van der Weide, D. W.; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon has many attractive properties for quantum computing, and the quantum-dot architecture is appealing because of its controllability and scalability. However, the multiple valleys in the silicon conduction band are potentially a serious source of decoherence for spin-based quantum-dot qubits. Only when a large energy splits these valleys do we obtain well-defined and long-lived spin states appropriate for quantum computing. Here, we show that the small valley splittings observed in previous experiments on Si-SiGe heterostructures result from atomic steps at the quantum-well interface. Lateral confinement in a quantum point contact limits the electron wavefunctions to several steps, and enhances the valley splitting substantially, up to 1.5meV. The combination of electrostatic and magnetic confinement produces a valley splitting larger than the spin splitting, which is controllable over a wide range. These results improve the outlook for realizing spin qubits with long coherence times in silicon-based devices.

  12. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene coarse-grained deltas along the Ligurian coast (Italy)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ciampalini; M Firpo

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to develop a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the southern side of the Maritime Alps and of the Ligurian Sea during the Plio-Pleistocene. Five stratigraphic sections were measured and studied in the Segno River valley (Liguria, Italy). These sections are composed of Lower to Middle Pleistocene marine and continental deposits. Based on detailed mapping and sedimentological analysis, 12 marine and deltaic facies were identified. These facies were grouped into facies associations. Two allostratigraphic units were recognized, namely U1 and U2 from oldest to youngest. The lower unit (U1) represents the evolution of a coarse-grained delta developed in a valley or embayment. Within the deltaic sequence, transgressive and highstand systems tracts were recognized. The coarsening/shallowing upward trend observed within the sections suggests that the delta prograded rapidly in the landward portion of the canyon adjacent to the paleo-river outlet. The upper boundary of U1 is represented by a subaerial unconformity overlain by U2, which is composed of sediments deposited by several alluvial fan systems.

  13. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  14. Use of statistical analysis of long term displacement rate time series for the definition of Early Warning thresholds. The case studies of the Ruinon and Mont de La Saxe landslides (N Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Stefano; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Rivolta, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides are characterized by complex spatial and temporal evolution. Forecasting their behaviour is a hard task, due to non-linear displacement trends and the significant effects of seasonal or occasional events. The displacement rate and the landslide evolution are influenced by various factors like lithology, structural and hydrological settings, as well as meteo-climatic factors (e.g. snowmelt and rainfall). The nature of the relationships among these factors is clearly non linear, site specific and even specific to each sector that can be individuated within the main landslide mass. In this contribution, total displacement and displacement rate time series are extracted from Ground-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-InSAR) surveys, monitoring of optical targets by total stations, a GPS network and multi-parametric borehole probes. Different Early Warning domains, characterized by different velocity regimes (slow to fast domains) and with different sensitivity to external perturbations (e.g. snowmelt and rainfall), have been identified in previous studies at the two sites. The Mont de La Saxe rockslide (ca. 8 x 106 m3) is located in the Upper Aosta Valley, and it has been intensively monitored since 2009 by the Valle D'Aosta Geological Survey. The Ruinon landslide (ca. 15 x 106 to 20 x 106 m3) is located in the Upper Valtellina (Lombardy region) and monitoring data are available starting since 2006 and have been provided by ARPA Lombardia. Both phenomena are alpine deep-seated rockslides characterized by different displacement velocity, from few centimetres to over 1 meter per year, and which have undergone exceptional accelerations during some specific events. We experiment the use of normal probability plots for the analysis of displacement rates of specific points belonging to different landslide sectors and recorded during almost ten years of monitoring. This analyses allow us to define: (i) values with a specific probability value

  15. Tectonic control on the Late Quaternary hydrography of the Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moroni, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    We examine the intramontane Upper Tiber Basin in the Northern Apennines (central Italy), where sub-orthogonal fault systems forced river deviation and the abandonment of alluvial fans since the late Middle Pleistocene. Archaeological material, spanning the Middle Palaeolithic-Iron Age, was collected mostly from the surface of the Late Quaternary alluvial landforms and related deposits (MUP and HOL units). This information contributed to the partial dating of seven major stages of drainage development. Normal faults parallel and transverse to the basin trend were active at different times and conditioned the valley pattern of the Middle (MUP1-2)-Late (MUP3) Pleistocene Tiber, Singerna, Sovara and Tignana rivers, which still flow today into the basin. The MUP1 and the MUP3 fans were beheaded by the displacement of their feeder valleys along the basin-transverse Carmine and Montedoglio faults. In some cases, the former feeder rivers underwent stream piracy but their courses mostly deviated in response of the topographic gradient created by faulting, as well as through the incision of new valleys that exploited the lithological contrast along the fault lines. The MUP3 Tignana fan was abandoned mostly due to the activity of the basin-parallel, dip-slip Sansepolcro fault. Subsidence driven by the basin-parallel Anghiari and Sansepolcro fault systems also provided the accommodation space for the MUP3 and HOl1-2 Afra fans between Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. This study exemplifies the interplay between longitudinal and transverse fault systems, and the Late Quaternary hydrographic evolution of an extensional basin settled in the axial zone of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Although the faulting has interacted with the forcing exerted by the Late Quaternary climate fluctuations on the basin drainage systems, the tectonic rates are sufficiently high to represent the prime controller on base-level change and drainage routing patterns.

  16. The 1963 Vajont landslide (Italy) simulated through a numerical 2D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Elsen, Katharina; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    On October 9th, 1963, a huge mass of about 260 million m3 collapsed along Mt. Toc flank into the artificial lake called Vajont and generated a gigantic wave that invested the town of Longarone (North-East Italy, about 100 km north of Venice), provoking about 2000 casualties. The event started a public debate on the responsibilities for the disaster, and also raised crucial issues for the scientific and engineering community, regarding reservoir flank instability and safety of the hydroelectric plant. The peculiar features of the event were immediately evident. The clay layers remained uncovered in the upper part of the detachment niche, supporting the hypothesis of a well-defined pre-existing sliding surface, that could explain the high falling velocity (around 20 m/s as a maximum) and the compactness of the deposit layers that were found to sit almost unperturbed on the bottom of the valley. The numerical study presented here contributes to the understanding of dynamics of the Vajont landslide. It is found that the accurate knowledge of the pre- and post-slide morphology provides tight constraints on the parameters of the numerical model, that are tuned to fit the observed deposit. Numerical simulations are carried out by means of the in-house built code UBO-BLOCK2. The initial sliding body is divided into a mesh of interacting volume-conserving blocks, whose motion is computed numerically. The friction coefficient at the base of the landslide is determined through a best fit search by maximizing the degree of overlapping between the calculated and observed deposits. Our best solution is also able to account for the observed slight easterly rotation of the mass, the different behaviors of the eastern and western part of the sliding surface and the retrogressive motion of the slide that after climbing up the opposite flank of the valley reverted velocity to settle down on the bottom of the valley.

  17. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  18. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  19. Restoring Hetch Hetchy Valley: The Role of Modeling in Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-10-01

    In 1923, following years of opposition and debate, the City of San Francisco, Calif., completed the O'Shaughnessy Dam, which flooded Hetch Hetchy Valley in California's Yosemite National Park. Today, the future of Hetch Hetchy Valley is still debated.

  20. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  1. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  2. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  3. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  5. Slope and valley flows at the Cerdanya valley in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Villagrasa, Daniel; Conangla Triviño, Laura; Tabarelli, Davidde; Jiménez, Maria Antònia; Miró, Josep Ramon; Zardi, Dino; Cuxart Rodamillans, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The Pyrenees are a mountain range running in the east-west direction. Most of their valleys are oriented in the north-south direction on both sides of the range. A significant exception is the Cerdanya valley, in Catalonia, which is a graben with NE-SW orientation , roughly 35 km long and 15 km wide with the bottom about 1000 m asl, surrounded by the main axis of the Pyrenees at the north (peaks above 2900 m asl) and by the Cadi range at the south (maximum high 2648 m asl). The valley bottom ...

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RODORETTO VALLEY DEEP-SEATED GRAVITATIONAL SLOPE DEFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Forno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, detailed survey of the Rodoretto Valley (Western Alps, Italy has been conducted resulting in the production of a new morphological and quaternary geological map of the area. The authors used the innovative Solid (True Ortho-Photo (STOP technology integrated with navigation sensors (Global Navigation Satellite System-GNSS/Inertial Measurement Unit-IMU. This state-of-the-art procedure has demonstrated several operational advantages during both the land survey and the post-processing phases. The survey highlighted remarkable glacial evidences and landforms probably connected with Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs phenomena. The glacial forms which have been detected consist of diffuse relics of cirques, glacial slopes, small lateral and frontal moraines and some outwash incisions. The deposits associated with the relics are lodgment till, flowtill and outwash sediments, respectively. The gravitational evidences and the very fractured bedrock that has been recognized on both sides of the Rodoretto Valley, suggest the presence of two DSGSDs which are confirmed also by the occurrence of some doubled ridges in the higher elevation band of the slopes. Moreover, several minor scarps and many longitudinal and transversal trenches, of various size, occur in the intermediate band. Extended landslide bodies have been recognized in the lower altimetric band. The major new geological element detected and interpreted after the survey and the map production is represented by the identification of a well defined WNW-ESE trend of fractured rocks and gravitational landforms. The observed fractures are not limited to the Rodoretto Valley, suggesting the possible connection of the described gravitational landforms with a tectonic discontinuity with the same WNW-ESE trend. This tectonic discontinuity crosses the Cenischia-Nizza System in a zone highlighted by a portion of intensively fractured rocks.

  7. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  8. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Clara Valley. 9.126... Santa Clara Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Clara Valley.” (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  9. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Multimedia

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  10. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  11. Estimation of daily PM10 concentrations in Italy (2006-2012) using finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schwartz, Joel; Badaloni, Chiara; Bellander, Tom; Alessandrini, Ester; Cattani, Giorgio; De' Donato, Francesca; Gaeta, Alessandra; Leone, Gianluca; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; de Hoogh, Kees; Di, Qian; Forastiere, Francesco; Kloog, Itai

    2017-02-01

    Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter. The complex topography and the air mixture from both natural and anthropogenic sources are great challenges difficult to be addressed. We combined finely resolved data on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, ground-level PM10 measurements, land-use variables and meteorological parameters into a four-stage mixed model framework to derive estimates of daily PM10 concentrations at 1-km2 grid over Italy, for the years 2006-2012. We checked performance of our models by applying 10-fold cross-validation (CV) for each year. Our models displayed good fitting, with mean CV-R2=0.65 and little bias (average slope of predicted VS observed PM10=0.99). Out-of-sample predictions were more accurate in Northern Italy (Po valley) and large conurbations (e.g. Rome), for background monitoring stations, and in the winter season. Resulting concentration maps showed highest average PM10 levels in specific areas (Po river valley, main industrial and metropolitan areas) with decreasing trends over time. Our daily predictions of PM10 concentrations across the whole Italy will allow, for the first time, estimation of long-term and short-term effects of air pollution nationwide, even in areas lacking monitoring data.

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Italy and Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Italian Union of Provinces (Unione delle Province d’Italia—UPI) and the League of Portugal-China Lasting Friendship (LPCLF),the Chinese People’s Friendship Delegation led by Chen Haosu,president of the CPAFFC,and Shi Zuofeng,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Gansu Provincial People’s Congress,paid friendly visits to Italy and Portugal from June 15 to 24.

  13. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  14. Developments in integrated pest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela CIAMPITTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement Directive 2009/128/EC and to reduce the risks arising from the use of plant protection products, a National Action Plan has been developed in Italy. The plan calls for several actions, including low pesticide-input pest management. Each producer will have to consider the many aspects that contribute to the production process, such as appropriate cultivation techniques, use of certified propagating material and balanced fertilization. Producers will also need tools to protect beneficial organisms, prevent the spread of harmful organisms, implement monitoring and alert systems, define thresholds and establish anti-resistance strategies. Advanced knowledge about plant protection products will also be required of professional users, with the introduction of specific certified training programmes; only authorized users will be allowed to purchase plant protection products classified for professional use. The spraying equipment will have to pass functional tests. Italy has articulated Integrated Pest Management (IPM on two levels: one mandatory and one voluntary. The latter will be supported by specific funding, in line with what has already been implemented as part of the Common Agricultural Policy. With regard to the voluntary level, the enforcement of national IPM guidelines (concerning defence and weeding technical standards that have so far characterized the application of IPM in Italy will serve as the medium-term reference tool. This paper demonstrates how IPM has evolved in Italy over the last 20 years, and why Italian producers have already been applying the requirements of Directive 2009/128/EC for some time.

  15. Catalogues of historical earthquakes in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Camassi

    2004-01-01

    A complete survey of historical earthquake investigation in Italy cannot be compressed into a few pages, since it would entail making a summary of widely different phases of research (performed by past scholars and by contemporary scientists and historians) and taking into account the widely different historical contexts, methodological assumptions and critical awareness of each of them. This short note only purposes to chart the main stages of the progress made by Italian historical seismolo...

  16. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  17. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  18. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  19. Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-02-01

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

  20. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  1. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  2. Groundwater links between Kenyan Rift Valley lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Robert; Mwango, Fred; Muno, Fred Amstrong

    2006-01-01

    The series of lakes in the bottom of the Kenyan Rift valley are fed by rivers and springs. Based on the water balance, the relative positions determining the regional groundwater flow systems and the analysis of natural isotopes it can be shown that groundwater flows from lake Naivasha to lake Magadi, Elementeita, Nakuru and Bogoria.

  3. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  4. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  5. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  6. 76 FR 39261 - Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Tennessee Valley Authority is amending its regulations which currently.... 1301.63 Senior agency official. 1301.64 Original classification authority. 1301.65 Derivative... authority. Sec. 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order...

  7. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 9.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon,...

  8. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  9. Off-grid in the Nemiah Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingler, Andrew [Xantrex Technology Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Colgate, George [Xeni Gwet' in Enterprise, Nemia Valley, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The people of the Xeni Gwet'in First National community of British Columbia's remote Nemiah Valley are pioneers of small off-grid photovoltaic power stations in Canada. Since 2006 the energy-progressive community has been testing two innovative PV-based technology applications. (orig.)

  10. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  11. Sign Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a...

  12. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  13. Treasure Valley Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  14. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  15. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  16. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  17. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  18. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  19. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  20. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  1. Valley-dependent beam manipulators based on photonic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Yong; Dong, Li-Juan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Shi, Yun-Long

    2017-02-01

    Trigonal warping distortion in energy band lifts the degeneracy of two valleys (K and K' points) of graphene. In this situation, electron transport becomes valley dependent, which can be used to design the valley beam splitter, collimator, or guiding device. Here, valley-dependent beam manipulators are designed based on artificial photonic graphene. In this scheme, the finite-size artificial photonic graphene is intentionally designed to realize the novel device functionalities. This kind of valley-dependent beam manipulators can work at an arbitrary range of electromagnetic waves from microwave to visible light. It potentially paves the way for the application of photonic graphene in future integrated photonic devices.

  2. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R.; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-12-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ability to break the valley degeneracy by filtering and spatially splitting valleys to generate valley polarized currents. Here, we suggest a way to obtain valley polarization using strain-induced inhomogeneous pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) that act oppositely on the two valleys. Notably, the suggested method does not involve external magnetic fields, or magnetic materials, unlike previous proposals. In our proposal the strain is due to experimentally feasible nanobubbles, whose associated PMFs lead to different real space trajectories for K and K' electrons, thus allowing the two valleys to be addressed individually. In this way, graphene nanobubbles can be exploited in both valley filtering and valley splitting devices, and our simulations reveal that a number of different functionalities are possible depending on the deformation field.

  3. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  4. Spatial valley separation in strained graphene pn junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, HongYu; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Valleytronics in analogy to spintronics aims to use the electron valley degree of freedom to carry and manipulate information, and one of urgent tasks in this field is to generate valley-polarized electrons. In this work, we propose using the electron focusing effect in a strained graphene pn junction to separate valleys spatially through a beam of valley-unpolarized electrons, since the strain-induced pseudo-gauge potentials are opposite for K and K^\\prime valleys and severely affect the trajectories of K and K^\\prime electron propagation. We numerically simulate this valley-separated Veselago lens effect in a lattice model and demonstrate that pseudo-gauge potentials can efficiently control valley separation patterns.

  5. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  6. Hydraulic aspects of fo¨hn winds in an Alpine valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohm, A.; Mayr, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of single-layer hydraulic theory to Alpine föhn winds in the example of the flow in the Brenner Pass region (Austria/Italy). The south föhn is described as the gap flow over the Pass and along the associated Wipp Valley. Numerical shallow-water simulations for a wide range of initial conditions, including shallow- and deep-föhn cases, are discussed and compared with selected measurements collected within the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP). The observational analyses are based on Doppler and aerosol-backscatter lidar data for a specific föhn case, and on surface observations and radiosoundings for all föhn cases observed within the 70-day MAP Special Observing Period (SOP). Radiosoundings at a location upstream (south) and downstream (north) of the Brenner Pass reveal that the average MAP SOP föhn case had subcritical flow south and nearly critical flow north of the Brenner Pass. The hydraulic model indicates flow transition to a supercritical state near the Pass, a hydraulic jump 2 km further north, mainly subcritical flow in the upper Wipp Valley except near the Brenner and, especially for shallow föhn, a tendency to becoming supercritical in the lower Wipp Valley. The model results suggest that the vertical topographic contraction exerts stronger control for the flow at the Brenner gap than the lateral contraction. In accordance with Doppler lidar measurements, the hydraulic model captures the decrease of the wind speed in the across-valley direction from east to west in the northern part of the valley. This asymmetric flow pattern is a result of the complex valley geometry rather than of the influence of upper-level synoptic winds, as suggested in a previous study. For some observed cases the strength of the temperature inversion at the top of the föhn layer decreased across the Brenner Pass, presumably due to entrainment processes. Consequently, the reduced-gravity decreased as well. There are two major reasons

  7. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  8. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  9. Anthrax phylogenetic structure in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrò Michela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.

  10. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  11. Spin-valley lifetimes in a silicon quantum dot with tunable valley splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Rossi, A; Ruskov, R; Lai, N S; Mohiyaddin, F A; Lee, S; Tahan, C; Klimeck, G; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2013-01-01

    Although silicon is a promising material for quantum computation, the degeneracy of the conduction band minima (valleys) must be lifted with a splitting sufficient to ensure the formation of well-defined and long-lived spin qubits. Here we demonstrate that valley separation can be accurately tuned via electrostatic gate control in a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot, providing splittings spanning 0.3-0.8 meV. The splitting varies linearly with applied electric field, with a ratio in agreement with atomistic tight-binding predictions. We demonstrate single-shot spin read-out and measure the spin relaxation for different valley configurations and dot occupancies, finding one-electron lifetimes exceeding 2 s. Spin relaxation occurs via phonon emission due to spin-orbit coupling between the valley states, a process not previously anticipated for silicon quantum dots. An analytical theory describes the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation rate, including the presence of a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when Zeeman and valley splittings coincide.

  12. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... miles to the 822-meter (2,697-foot) peak of Iron Mountain, T14S, R1W (El Cajon map); and (7) Proceed...-meter (2,894-foot) peak of Woodson Mountain, T13S, R1W, proceed straight north-northwest approximately 3.25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley map...

  13. FERGHANA VALLEY: PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING ECONOMIC STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asia region, which is located in the very heart of the vast Eurasian continent at the crossroads where four of the largest civilizations (Russian, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic) meet, has a long and profuse history teeming with difficulties and conflicts. The Ferghana Valley is a territory where all the problems of the Central Asia region (border conflicts, poverty, shortage of fertile land and water resources, unemployment, ethnic disputes, and so on) are concentrated and come tog...

  14. Education in Fascist Italy (1922-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvério Baia Horta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes education in Italy in the period of 1922-1945, identifying the mechanisms put into practice, by the fascist regime, so that schools would serve its interests. Beginning with the Gentile Reform, it examines the process of schools’ fascist indoctrination in its different levels. This process begins with the Teachers’ Associations in 1935, and increases with the schools’ militarization. In 1938, racist laws were introduced in the teaching system. It reaches its climax with the School Letter in 1939. All this structure began to collapse in 1943 with Mussolini’s fall.

  15. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  16. Area Handbook Series: Italy, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    in his "*An- tiche danza e arie per liut&o" (Ancient Dances and Airs for Lute) and wrote lyrical descriptive music such as the sNmphonic poems called...Introduction IN LATE 1985 ITALY’S unusually long period of political calm was broken by a coalition crisis of the kind that had become familiar to the...which have a long tradition of strong local autonomy. Feelings of loyalty to a commune or regional pride tend to take precedence over a broader

  17. Meat Production and Market in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this review was to describe the Italian meat production and market.The weight of Italian meat production in terms of the national agriculture gross domestic product (GDP is around the 25%. The present review will analyze the market and the productive systems of the main types of meat sold in the Italian market focusing the attention on their strength and weakness points as well as the possible future developments. The final part of the article will evaluate the recent trends of consumptions for the different meat in Italy as well as the expectations of the Italian consumer when buying meat products.

  18. Financial innovation and monetary control in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. COTULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly the pressures of deregulation and competition have promoted innovation in the development of financial instruments. In the case of Italy the pressure for innovation has arisen from the need to finance the public sector borrowing requirement and the effects of inflation. As a result, funding instruments have been switched from longer-term bonds to the shorter-term treasury bill. However, this can lead to excessive supply of liquid assets with consequent problems for monetary controls. Such factors will make it more difficult to use monetary aggregates as a guide to monetary policy in the future

  19. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  20. Fertility pattern and family structure in three Alpine settlements in South Tyrol (italy): marriage cohorts from 1750 to 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögele, Martin; Pattaro, Cristian; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pramstaller, Peter Paul

    2009-09-01

    Stelvio, Martello and Curon, three villages of the Venosta Valley, South Tyrol (Italy), were recently included in a large genetic survey because of their isolation. This study focuses on the long-term reproductive behaviour of these villages. Family size, age at marriage and marital fertility were estimated based on a genealogy going back in the 17th century. Marriage behaviour was characterized by an elevated age at marriage and a large proportion of adults never getting married. Marital fertility was among the highest worldwide, because couples tried to use the short time at their disposal to have the largest possible number of children. Together with the already known null population expansion and high geographic endogamy rates, the reduced number of siblings who had the opportunity to get married could have favoured an increased genetic homogeneity.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY METALS ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION FOR ASSESSMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE BOLOGNA CITY (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suburban area of Bologna city in southeast portion of Po Valley (Northern Italy is characterized by high emission from industrial, urban, agriculture and traffic sources. The presence of an urban waste incinerator get inhabitants to require answers about impact of its emissions on the environmental quality related to human health. The concentrations of some pollutants (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined in topsoil, plants and mosses tissues sampled in sites selected according to different falling out conditions, due to the incinerator and other sources of atmospheric emissions that affect the monitoring area. No correlation was found between metal content and the distance of the incinerator plant. The pollution load index (PLI calculated for soil and moss indicated a low environmental pollution, while highest values in sites downwind of incinerator and in craft area indicate a moderate pollution.

  2. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews...

  3. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  4. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  5. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  6. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Anna; Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During June 9-September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever.

  7. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  8. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  9. Collimation and splitting of valley electron diffraction in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Bai, Yan-Kui; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    We reported the collimation and splitting effects of the diffraction of valley electrons in graphene. When the incident energy increases from the neutral point, the diffraction tends to be collimated for one valley and split for the other valley. The difference in the diffraction between valleys results in valley-dependent transport. We investigated the left-right conductance of a four-terminal graphene device. The conductance ratio between the two valleys was derived to be 1 -(8 /3 )E , where E is the incident energy in units of the atom-atom hopping. The ratio is independent of the device dimensions and reflects the intrinsic properties of the electronic structure of graphene.

  10. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  11. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  12. Medical malpractice: the experience in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over 10 billion euros (approximately US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians' approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation.

  13. Italy and the history of preventive conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lambert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a point of reference for the conservation community worldwide, but it has yet to make a definitive leap towards preventive conservation. This paper examines some of the reasons to explain this, in the hope that this may be useful for other countries. After a brief look at the history of preventive conservation from Antiquity to the Second World War, two seldom-discussed Italian initiatives are presented: The Franceschini Commission (1964 and the Pilot plan for the programmed conservation of cultural heritage in Umbria (1976.L’Italie est une reference mondiale dans le domaine de la conservation-restauration, cependant, elle n’a toujours pas adopté la conservation préventive de façon définitive. Cet essai tente d’examiner quelques raisons pouvant expliquer ce fait, dans l’espoir que ces informations pourront être utiles pour d’autres pays. Après un survol de l’histoire de la conservation préventive de l’Antiquité à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, deux initiatives peu connues sont présentées, à savoir: la Commission Franceschini (1964 et le Plan pilote pour la conservation programmée des biens culturels en Ombrie (1976.

  14. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT.

  15. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  16. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bacenetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attaining high yields depending on: i short and ii medium cutting frequency. Nowadays, the larger part of Italian SRC is based on 2-year cutting short rotation forestry (SRF but the best quality of wood chips is linked to 5-year plantation medium rotation forestry (MRF. This work compares an SRF and an MRF poplar plantation located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. In particular, a life cycle assessment (LCA was carried out to evaluate their energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The LCA software SimaPro 7.10 was used to create the LCA model and to assure an accurate impact assessment calculation. The analysis shows several differences between MRF and SRF in terms of fertiliser requirements and intensive agricultural activities. Results highlight that MRF produces a more sustainable wood chip production than SRF according to energy and environmental concerns. Furthermore, hot spots were identified in both SRF and MRF due to the high energy consumption and the related emissions. These hot spots were: i mineral fertilisation; ii mechanical weed-control; iii harvesting and biomass transport.

  17. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  18. Upscaling of soil moisture measurements in NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Brunod, Christian; Ratto, Sara; Cauduro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    There is large mismatch in spatial scale between the climate and meteorological model grid, and the scale of soil and vegetation measurements. Remote sensing data can help to fit the model scale, but they cannot provide rootzone data. In this work some soil moisture datasets are analysed for the sake of providing larger scale estimation of soil moisture and water and energy fluxes. The first dataset refers to a plain site near Torino, where measurements are taken since 1997 (Baudena et al., 2012), and a mountain site close to the town. The second one is a dataset in the mountains of Valle d'Aosta (Brocca et al., 2013), where 4 years of data are available. The use of digital elevation models and vegetation maps is shown in this work. Some soil processes (e.g. Whalley et al., 2012) are usually disregarded, but in this work their possible impact is considered. References L. Brocca, A. Tarpanelli, T. Moramarco, F. Melone, S.M. Ratto, M. Cauduro, S. Ferraris, N. Berni, F. Ponziani, W. Wagner, T. Melzer (2013). Soil Moisture Estimation in Alpine Catchments through Modeling and Satellite Observations VADOSE ZONE JOURNAL, vol. 8-2, p. 1-10, doi:10.2136/vzj2012.0102 M. Baudena, I. Bevilacqua, D. Canone, S. Ferraris, M. Previati, A. Provenzale (2012). Soil water dynamics at a midlatitude test site: Field measurements and box modeling approaches. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, vol. 414-415, p. 329-340, ISSN: 0022-1694, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.009 W.R. Whalley, G.P. Matthews, S. Ferraris (2012). The effect of compaction and shear deformation of saturated soil on hydraulic conductivity. SOIL & TILLAGE RESEARCH, vol. 125, p. 23-29, ISSN: 0167-1987

  19. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  20. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  1. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  2. Impact of valley polarization on the resistivity in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, K; Niida, Y; Renard, V T; Fujiwara, A; Fujisawa, T; Muraki, K; Hirayama, Y

    2011-05-13

    We examine the temperature dependence of resistivity in a two-dimensional electron system formed in a silicon-on-insulator quantum well. The device allows us to tune the valley splitting continuously in addition to the electron density. Our data provide a global picture of how the resistivity and its temperature dependence change with valley polarization. At the boundary between valley-polarized and partially polarized regions, we demonstrate that there is an insulating contribution from spin-degenerate electrons occupying the upper valley-subband edge.

  3. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  4. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo ("Val Vibrata"), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  5. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata, characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular Principal Components Analysis, PCA and was then imported into Geographic Information System (GIS, to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  6. Electric-powered vehicles in Italy; Les vehicules electriques en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordel, St.; Carles, R.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to make a synthesis about the development of electric-powered vehicles, in particular in Italy. After a brief historical review of this type of propulsion system, a state-of-the-art review is made which allows to show up the different existing architectures and their characteristic specificities. This review allows to identify the key scientific and technical domains in the existing research programs in progress in order to make these 'alternative' transportation systems economically viable. The second part of the study explains the situation of Italy with respect to these propulsion systems. The political commitments are analyzed first and then some of the university and industry centers of competences for these key domains are presented. Finally, some trans-national collaborations in progress are shown. (J.S.)

  7. Imams and other Religious Authorities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2015-01-01

      SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. The Relationship State-Confessions and Religious Ministers – 2.1. The “Common” Legislation of intese and the 1929 Act – 2.2. State’s Law and Religious Ministers – 3. Imam in Italy. Is that a Religious Minister? – 3.1. The Connection State-Islamic Organizations – 3.2. Islamic Groups as Religious Denominations – 3.3. The Bilateral Legislation – 3.4. A Possible Collaboration – 4. Conclusion.   Abstract: In Italy imams are more than 800 members. As imams, they are almost all self-taught people. As citizens, most of the times they have a precarious job. During the week, they normally take care of things other than religion. They perform religious functions in their spare time. Moreover, to see them working as imams, you have to go down in some underground parking or in apartments converted into mosques, where sometimes you see minaret and other Islamic symbols, but only in either the picture or in the paintings hanging on the wall. In the end of the day, we know little or almost nothing about imams. Besides, the Italian law normally do not recognise them as religious authorities. Nevertheless, as imams they play a very important role in local Muslim communities that, under the pressing process of immigration, hold nowadays more than two millions persons. The paper will analyse the status of Islamic imams in Italy, comparing them with the status of other religious authorities (priests, rabbis, pastors ecc.. In particular, this comparative perspective will be focused on both angles: on the one hand, the research will compare the role of imams with those of religious authorities within their respective community; on the other, we will compare imams with considered the different way through which Italian law treats both imams and other religious authority. This perspective will give us a possibility to underline how both the social context and the Italian legal framework (regulating the State

  8. The Financialization of Companies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Salento

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical and theoretical analysis of the financialization of companies and the diffusion of shareholder value maximization in Italy. Unlike the anglo-saxon contexts, financial accumulation and short-termism in Italy are not a consequence of institutional investors’ activism: Italian capitalism is still a holigarchic family capitalism, and few blockholders are in control of Italian large firms. Financialization of companies and the orientation to maximize shareholder value in Italy are rather the outcome of isomorphic processes, supported by institutional and legal transformations occurred since 1980s: reforms of finance, company and labour law, the privatization of state firms, the diffusion of finance-oriented accounting rules. The statutory reforms enabled the dominant coalitions within Italian capitalism to operate in a regulatory framework harmonized with a transnational context, largely assimilated to Anglo-Saxon norms, promoting a finance-oriented conception of control and managerial practices.En este trabajo se presenta un análisis empírico y teórico de la financiarización de las empresas y la difusión de la maximización del valor para los accionistas en Italia. A diferencia de los contextos anglosajones, la acumulación financiera y el cortoplacismo en Italia no son una consecuencia del activismo de los inversores institucionales: el capitalismo italiano es todavía un capitalismo familiar holigarchic, y pocos son blockholders en el control de las grandes empresas italianas. La financiarización de las empresas y la orientación para maximizar el valor para los accionistas en Italia son más bien el resultado de los procesos isomórficos, con el apoyo de las transformaciones institucionales y legales ocurrieron desde 1980: las reformas de las finanzas, empresa y derecho laboral, la privatización de empresas estatales, la difusión de finanzas- normas de contabilidad orientados. Las reformas estatutarias

  9. How many otters are there in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Riassunto
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  10. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps

  11. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  12. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

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    R. Orain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  13. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  14. The impact of weak synoptic forcing on the valley-wind circulation in the Alpine Inn Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zängl, Günther

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the impact of weak synoptic-scale forcing on the thermally induced valley-wind circulation in the Alpine Inn Valley and one of its largest tributaries, the Wipp Valley. To this end, high-resolution numerical simulations with realistic topography but idealized large-scale atmospheric conditions are performed. The large-scale flow has a speed increasing linearly from 5 m s-1 at sea level to 12.5 m s-1 at tropopause level, but its direction is varied between each experiment. For reference, an experiment without large-scale winds is conducted as well. The results indicate that the sensitivity to ambient flow forcing differs substantially between the Inn Valley and the Wipp Valley. The valley-wind circulation of the Inn Valley is found to be fairly robust against weak ambient forcing, changing by a much smaller amount than the along-valley component of the imposed large-scale flow. The valley wind tends to be intensified (weakened) when the ambient flow is aligned with (opposite to) the local valley orientation. However, the flow response is complicated by larger-scale interactions of the ambient flow with the Alpine massif. Most notably, northerly and northwesterly flow is deflected around the Alps, leading to the formation of a low-level jet along the northern edge of the Alps which in turn affects the valley-wind circulation in the lower Inn Valley. For the Wipp Valley, which is oriented approximately normal to the Alpine crest line and constitutes a deep gap in the Alpine crest, two distinctly different flow regimes are found depending on whether the large-scale flow has a significant southerly component or not. In the absence of a southerly flow component, the valley-wind circulation is similarly robust against ambient forcing as in the Inn Valley, with a fairly weak response of the local wind speeds. However, southerly ambient flow tends to force continuous downvalley (southerly) wind in the Wipp Valley. The flow dynamics can then be

  15. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Park Service (NPS) is initiating the conservation planning and... different approaches for managing the Saline Valley Warm Springs area to determine the potential impacts on... Assessment that will provide a framework for managing lands and resources surrounding Warm Springs. The...

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  17. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  18. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy (Italian original version

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    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  19. Paleomagnetic evidence for low-temperature emplacement of the phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite (Colli Albani volcano, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.; Macniocaill, C.; Giordano, G.; McClelland, E.; Funiciello, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Peperino Albano (approximately 19-36 ka old) is a phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flow deposit, cropping out along the slopes of the associated Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, Italy). The deposit exhibits lateral and vertical transitions from valley pond to veneer facies, as well as intracrater facies. We present the results of a paleomagnetic study of thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) of the lithic clasts of the Peperino Albano ignimbrite that provide quantitative estimates of the range of emplacement temperatures across the different facies of the ignimbrite. Emplacement temperatures estimated for the Peperino Albano ignimbrite range between 240° and 350°C, with the temperatures defined in the intracrater facies being generally lower than in the valley pond and veneer facies. This is possibly due to the large size of the sampled clasts in the intracrater facies which, when coupled with low temperature at the vent, were not completely heated throughout their volume during emplacement. The emplacement temperatures derived from the paleomagnetic results are in good agreement with the presence of un-burnt plants at the base of the ignimbrite, indicating that the temperature of the pyroclastic flow was lower than the temperature of ignition of wood. Paleomagnetic results from the Peperino Albano confirm the reliability of the paleomagnetic approach in defining the thermal history of pyroclastic flow deposits.

  20. Palaeoloxodon and human interaction: depositional setting, chronology and archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella site (Tarquinia, Italy.

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    Daniele Aureli

    Full Text Available The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  1. Palaeoloxodon and Human Interaction: Depositional Setting, Chronology and Archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella Site (Tarquinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25898322

  2. Palaeoloxodon and human interaction: depositional setting, chronology and archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella site (Tarquinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  3. The failure of the Stava Valley tailings dams (Northern Italy): numerical analysis of the flow dynamics and rheological properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirulli, Marina; Barbero, Monica; Marchelli, Maddalena; Scavia, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    .... The traditional geotechnical assessment of tailings facilities has mainly concentrated on the stability of tailings dams, while relatively few studies have investigated the flow of tailings released after dam failure...

  4. Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina in the upper Aveto Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied analysing 63 faeces collected from February 1990 to December 1991. The results were expressed as relative percentage of frequency (Fr% and as percentage of mean bulk (Vm%. Mammals, mainly rodents, were the staple in the diet (annual Vm% = 62.9 and reached a maximum peak in winter (Vm% = 79.4. Vegetables were mostly represented by Rosaceae fruits (annual Vm% = 22.3 and were consumed during all year round. Insects, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera, were fairly frequently eaten, although their volume was not remarkable (annual Vm% = 4.1. Birds and garbage were scarcely used. The trophic niche breadth of the stone marten, evaluated using the Levin's index (B, varied from 2.49 in winter to 4.8 in summer. In the same study area the diet of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes was studied. The niche overlap between this canid and the stone marten was not extensive (Op = 0.52; Os = 0.51. Riassunto Indagine sul comportamento trofico della faina (Martes foina in alta Val d'Aveto (Appennino Ligure-Emiliano - La dieta della Faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 63 feci raccolte dal febbraio 1990 al dicembre 1991. I dati ottenuti, espressi come frequenza relativa percentuale (Fr% e come volume medio percentuale (Vm%, evidenziano che i Mammiferi, in particolare i Roditori, sono la componente alimentare principale (Vm% annuale = 62,9, con maggior consumo durante il periodo invernale (Vm% = 79,4. I vegetali, rappresentati per la maggior parte dai frutti delle Rosacee (Vm% annuale = 22,3, sono la seconda categoria trofica per importanza e compaiono per tutto l'arco dell'anno. Gli Insetti, quasi esclusivamente Coleotteri ed Ortotteri, presentano una discreta percentuale di utilizzo (Fr% annuale = 21,2 pur non avendo un'incidenza volumetricamente importante (Vm% annuale = 4,1. Gli Uccelli costituiscono una fonte di cibo poco utilizzata. L'ampiezza di nicchia trofica, valutata mediante l'indice di Levins (B, variava da 2,49 (inverno a 4,8 (estate. Il confronto dello spettro trofico della faina con quello della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, rilevato nella stessa area di studio, evidenzia una limitata sovrapposizione di nicchia (Op = 0,52; Os = 0,51.

  5. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  6. The Environment Dependence of the Green Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, V.; Martínez, H. J.; Muriel, H.

    2017-07-01

    To shed light on the impact of internal and external quenching mechanisms upon galaxies, in this paper we compare properties of star forming, passive and transition galaxies in three discrete environments: field, groups as representative of intermediate mass systems, and the most massive virialised systems in the Universe, X-ray clusters. We classify galaxies into three sequences: passive (PS), green valley (GV) and star forming (SFS), by means of their UV-optical colour 0.1(NUV-r). We study a number of galaxy properties: UV-optical colour, stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation.

  7. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  8. Water Supply of Indian Wells Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    finite. Water pumipage and consuniptive water use exceeds (he natura rehre to the idale ’s griund-water supplN. In 1984 28.000 acre feet of’ water was...XEROPHY’TES ARTEMISiA PHREATOPHYTES SALTBRUSH PICKLEWEED WATER TABLE 𔃻A 60 ~50 SALTGRASS, ALKALI SACATONE, SAITBAUSH ~40 C-. z cc PASTURE ...limit on the amount of useful water stored in the Valley (Photo 12). MAIN GATE NWC B ONTI 2500 / MODERN ALLUVIUM "-, ~GOO’’- -0.S.5 -300 PPM _ Lu 2000

  9. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  10. Valley Interfaith Child Care Center CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kramolisch, Andrew; Mack, Nate

    2012-01-01

    Included files: viccc.zip, viccc2.zip, viccc3.zip, viccc_final_paper.doc. The project consisted of revamping Valley Interfaith Child Care Center's website to be more modern and feature media. The goal was to cater to two diverse audiences: the families that needed their services and the investors who helped them keep running. This system is the result of efforts to do that. To run this software locally requires: Ruby 1.9.2 or newer, the bundler gem and either SQLite or PostgreSQL. The ...

  11. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  12. Biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato BAUDO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Ecotoxicology has found a place with the Legislative Decree n. 152 (May 11, 1999, emanated in fulfilment of the Directives 91/271/CEE "urban waste-water treatment" and 91/676/CEE "protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources". This decree in reality goes beyond (actually anticipating the content of the Framework Directive on Water, still under way of elaboration, and charges the Regions with the duty to identify, for all and each water body, the class of quality on the basis of a chemical and biological monitoring and their classification according to the environmental quality objectives. To this aim, for all water bodies (lakes, rivers, groundwater, coastal waters the ecological, chemical, and environmental status must be assessed by measuring specific parameters. This paper briefly summarises the role of biological monitoring in the classification of waters in five different categories, ranking from High to Foul Environmental status.

  13. Tuscany (Italy) 1990 regional energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarrini, M.; Santoprete, G. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Economia Aziendale)

    This paper first discusses the overall problems involved in the preparation of functional and reliable regional energy balance sheets. It then presents and analyzes the 1990 energy balance sheet prepared for the Tuscany Region of Italy. The problems cited basically deal with the availability, compatibility and accuracy of regional energy data. Trends in Tuscany's energy consumption are compared with national figures in order to give some useful indications as to future energy strategies to be taken into consideration by the regional administration. In fact, this Region reflects the main national energy policy weakness - over-dependency on foreign supplied petroleum. It is thus recommended that locally available geothermal energy sources be further developed.

  14. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  15. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  16. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  17. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  18. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  19. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armani F. B.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the first European and world’s fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  20. L’anthropologie criminelle en Italie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Coffin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available L’Italie est le territoire de l’anthropologie criminelle dans la mesure où l’un de ses plus illustres représentants, si ce n’est le plus connu d’entre eux, le médecin Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909 y a fait toute sa carrière, essentiellement à partir de l’université de Turin. Et c’est de là qu’il a essaimé ses idées à travers une multitude d’articles, de très nombreux livres et à travers l’organisation de conférences et de congrès internationaux. Si l’anthropologie criminelle constitue de fait u...

  1. Adaptively Smoothed Seismicity Earthquake Forecasts for Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M J; Jackson, D D; Kagan, Y Y; Wiemer, S

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for estimating the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m > 4.95 in Italy. The model, a slightly modified version of the one proposed for California by Helmstetter et al. (2007) and Werner et al. (2010), approximates seismicity by a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog and a longer instrumental and historical catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and trustworthy, we used small earthquakes m>2.95 to illuminate active fault structur...

  2. The historiography of psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Dazzi, Nino

    2003-08-01

    The article outlines the studies conducted in Italy on the history of psychology since the 1970s, with particular attention to those elaborated in the 1990s. Reference is made to the institutions, authors, congresses, and other initiatives that in the course of 3 decades have promoted the growth of the history of psychology, and a review is presented of the principal research themes undertaken by scholars. An attempt has been made to identify the principal historiographic tendencies and to illustrate the passage from a sort of "positivistic" historiography to an orientation that could be considered multifactorial or one of complexity, attentive to both the internal and the external components of the scientific enterprise, although with a propensity for the history of ideas.

  3. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  4. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  5. RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER: EXAMPLES OF PRACTICES IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  6. An agreement for applied research in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 February, two of CERN's Directors-General had a very official handshake. Luciano Maiani, CERN's current Director-General, and Carlo Rubbia, one of his predecessors and current "commissario straordinario" of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiante, Institute for new technologies, energy and the environment) signed a collaboration agreement between their two organisations. ENEA carries out applied research in various fields such as renewable energies, new materials and medical applications. The organisation, which employs 3400 people in 10 laboratories in Italy, has a clear interest, therefore, in the technologies developed at CERN, which, in turn, seeks to promote them. Their collaboration will shortly lead to common research projects. CERN now has two Italian partners : INFN, its historical partner for particle physics research and ENEA for technological applications.

  7. Stakeholder discourse and water management in a catchment in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Lupo Stanghellini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive (WFD; directive 2000/60/EC was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensure that catchment management plans take into consideration local experience in the development of these plans and the impact of the plans on local interests. This paper describes and analyses the results of a series of workshops to facilitate implementation of the WFD at a catchment level based on the stakeholder participation model, CATCH.

    To test the usefulness of the stakeholder participation model CATCH for water management in a catchment area, a sub-catchment in an alpine valley in the north-east of Italy, the Alta Valsugana in the Province of Trento, was chosen as the setting for a series of workshops. In this valley water is fundamental for activities associated with agriculture, domestic use, energy production, sports and recreation. In the recent past the valley has had serious problems related to water quality and quantity. Implementation of water management plans under the WFD may lead to conflicts within the catchment between different stakeholder interest groups. Including stakeholders in the development of management plans not only follows the guidelines of the WFD but also could result in a more locally adapted and acceptable plan for the catchment.

    A new stakeholder analysis methodology was developed and implemented in order to identify the relevant stakeholders of the area and then two sets of workshops involving the key stakeholders identified were conducted in Spring 2006. The CATCH meetings were a new experience for the participants, who had to deal with both the principles of the WFD in general and the participation requirement in particular. During the meetings, the CATCH model

  8. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-12-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  10. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  11. New records of Coenagrion ornatum in Italy (Odonata: Coenagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mastropasqua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenagrion ornatum (Sélys, 1850 is a damselfly ranging from northwestern Europe to southwestern Asia. It is highly local, and northwestern populations are experiencing a steep decline. In Europe, Coenagrion ornatum is a species of conservation interest and is listed as Near Threatened due to habitat loss; it is nearly extinct in Italy. We report the finding of 4 male C. ornatum on 3 June 2005 in Apulia, southeastern Italy. This is the only recent record for Italy, and highlights the need for further research on this species in the country.

  12. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."

  13. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  14. Evidence of late glacial runoff in the lower Mississippi Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Roger T.

    Thousands of cubic kilometers of massive coarse-grained glacial outwash underlie the alluvial plain of the Lower Mississippi Valley between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico. However, valley trains deposited by braided streams characterize less than one-third of the valley area, and those attributable to runoff from the Laurentide Ice Sheet cover less than 15,000 km2, mostly in the St. Francis Basin segment of the valley. There they form a series of subdued terraces that reflect episodes of meltwater release and possibly catastrophic flood events. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores establish that the initial runoff entered the basin about 16.3 ka BP and continued without a significant lull for about 5000 years. The distribution of archeological sites tends to support an effective brief cessation of runoff to the valley about 11.0 ka BP when meltwater is thought to have been diverted from the Mississippi River Valley to the St. Lawrence Valley. Both radiocarbon dates and archeological evidence document a final pulse of outwash to the (Lower) Mississippi Valley about 10.0 ka BP when the Mississippi River occupied Thebes Gap near Cairo and created the Charleston Fan. All outwash deposition ended, and the river adopted a meandering regime not later than 9.8 ka BP.

  15. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ahmed Laharwal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs is very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal too young or advanced age, and environmental factors for the development of a NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTD in Kashmir Valley.

  16. Revisiting Sustainable Development of Dry Valleys in Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya; XIE Jiasui; SUN Hui

    2004-01-01

    Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment,particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.

  17. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln...

  18. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley. 9.44 Section 9.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  19. Enhanced Valley Splitting for Quantum Electronics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Andre

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is a placid environment for quantum degrees of freedom with long spin and valley coherence times. A natural drawback is that the same features that protect the quantum state from its environment also hamper its control with external fields. Indeed, engineered nanostructures typically lead to sub-meV splittings between valley states, hindering the implementation of both spin and valley based quantum devices. We will discuss the microscopic theory of valley splitting, presenting three schemes to control valleys on a scale higher than 1 meV: a) in a quantum well, the adoption of a barrier constituted of a layered heterostructure might lead to constructive reflection if the layer thicknesses match the electron wavelength, in analogy with a Bragg mirror; b) the disparity between the high valley splitting in a impurity donor potential and the low splitting in a Si/Insulator interface may be harnessed controlling the tunneling between these two states, so that the valley splitting may be controlled digitally; c) intrinsic Tamm/Shockley interface states might strongly hybridize with conduction states, leading to a much enhanced valley splitting, and its contribution to the 2DEG ground state may be experimentally identified. We argue that this effect is responsible for the enhanced splitting in Si/BOX interfaces.

  20. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  1. Agro-ecological characterization of inland valleys in West Arica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Windmeijer, P.N.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual issues related to inland valleys, their morphology, hydrology and agro-ecosystems are discussed, as well as a method for their step-wise characterization at different levels of detail. A definition of inland valleys is given, including the description of the main landscape elements (uplan

  2. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  3. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  4. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements.

  5. Geddes, Zoos and the Valley Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Edinburgh Zoological Garden was a pioneering example of the modern approach to animal display, placing animals in naturalistic settings that demanded innovative landscape design. The concept for Edinburgh Zoo, opened in 1913, was devised by Patrick Geddes and developed in collaboration with Frank C Mears and Geddes's daughter, Norah. This paper draws on Welter's (2002 important study of Geddes's vision of the city and on Geddes biographies, as well as on original archive material, to explore aspects of Geddes's vision for landscape architecture in the early twentieth century. The paper discusses Geddes's contribution to contemporary design and planning theory through the concept of the valley section, which comes to an understanding of the global through the local and in turn inspires a vision of the universal. Geddes was influenced by Hagenbeck's design for his zoo, near Hamburg, and by the New York Zoological Park, in developing displays for Edinburgh zoo that attempted to show animal behaviour as it would be in its natural habitat. The work of the German evolutionary biologist, Ernst Haeckel, further inspired Geddes to conceptualise the design as one where, just as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, so human civilisation might be recapitulated. He developed a three-dimensional expression of his hypothetical 'valley section' as a model for interaction between life and the environment. The zoo 'within' a city becomes a model for the ideal city, a city 'within' its region, reflecting the highest attainment of human development, yet still linked to the most primitive of origins.

  6. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  7. Pleistocene magnetochronology of early hominin sites at Ceprano and Fontana Ranuccio, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Kent, Dennis V.; Swisher, Carl C.; Manzi, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    Paleomagnetic analyses were conducted on two cores drilled at Ceprano in central Italy where an incomplete hominin cranium was discovered in 1994, as well as on two additional cores from the nearby site of Fontana Ranuccio that yielded hominin remains associated with an Acheulean industry. No evidence for the 0.78 Ma Brunhes-Matuyama boundary was found at Ceprano down to 45 m below the level that yielded the hominin cranium. The Ceprano lithostratigraphy and the paleomagnetic age constraints are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy of the Liri lacustrine sequence of the Latina Valley, constrained by published K-Ar ages between ~ 0.6 and ~ 0.35 Ma, and according to an age model with magnetic susceptibility supported by pollen facies data, suggest that the level that yielded the hominin cranium has an age of ~ 0.45 (+ 0.05, - 0.10) Ma. Evidence for the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary was found at Fontana Ranuccio about 40 m below the hominin level, consistent with a K-Ar age of ~ 0.46 Ma reported for this level. Hence the Ceprano and Fontana Ranuccio hominin occurrences may be of very similar mid-Brunhes age.

  8. New radiocarbon chronology of a late Holocene landslide event in the Mont Blanc massif, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Irka; Sojc, Ursula; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Akçar, Naki; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Ferret valley Arp Nouva peat bog located in the Mont Blanc massif was critically evaluated since previously published radiocarbon dates have led to controversial conclusions on the formation of the swamp. Radiocarbon dating of roots from three pits of up to 1 m depth was applied to discuss the question whether the historical documented rock avalanche occurring in AD 1717 overran the peat bog or formed it at a later stage. Our results indicate that the rock avalanche formed the Arp Nouva peat bog by downstream blockage of the Bellecombe torrent. Furthermore, careful sample preparation with consequent separation of roots from the bulk peat sample provides possible explanation for the too old 14C ages of bulk peat samples dated previously (Deline and Kirkbride, 2009 and references therein). This work demonstrates that a combined geomorphological and geochronological approach is the most reliable way to reconstruct landscape evolution, especially in light of apparent chronological problems. The key to successful 14C dating is a careful sample selection and the identification of material that might be not ideal for chronological reconstructions. References Deline, Philip, and Martin P. Kirkbride. "Rock avalanches on a glacier and morainic complex in Haut Val Ferret (Mont Blanc Massif, Italy)".Geomorphology 103 (2009): 80-92.

  9. Elemental characterization, sources and wind dependence of PM1 near Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Zannoni, Daniele; Visin, Flavia; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, PM1 elemental composition and relative sources have been investigated near Venice (Eastern Po Valley, Italy). Considering the lack of information on PM1 composition in this area and the general poor knowledge of emission profiles, this study can give useful information to better understand the source profile and the dispersion of finer particles. A sampling campaign was carried out in two sampling sites located inside the "Marco Polo" international airport of Venice. Elemental composition on PM1 samples was characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Five sources were identified and quantified by using the positive matrix factorization receptor model: heavy oil combustion, road traffic, airplane tire-wear, glassmaking and mixed combustions. The role of local atmospheric circulation was investigated by studying the source contributions as a function of wind velocity. Days characterized by low dispersion (lower wind speed and higher wind calm with respect to full period rose) showed a higher contribution for all sources, and a glassmaking contribution increase linked to wind blowing from South, where the artistic glass district of Venice is located.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  11. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  12. Aggregate Resources Study, Cave and Steptoe Valleys, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Quartzite Creek Range 8 CV-AS Bgan Range Do Dolomite 9 CV-A9 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 10 Cv-Xf0- Egan Range Qtz Quartzite 11 CV-All Egan Range LS...Limestone 12 CV-A12 Cave Valley Aaf a Sandy Gravel G-GM 13 CV-A13 Bgan Range Vii Quartz Latite 14 CV-A14 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 7r 7 FIELD OBSERVATIONS...SO-A2 Bgan Range Vu Dacitic Ash-flow Tuff 25 SO-A3 Steptoe Aalf Sandy Gravel GP-GM Valley 26 SO-A4 Steptoe Aafs Sandy Gravel GE-GM Valley 27 S0-A5

  13. Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, K F; McGill, K L; Park, J; McEuen, P L

    2014-06-27

    Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. These systems are predicted to exhibit an anomalous Hall effect whose sign depends on the valley index. Here, we report the observation of this so-called valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated with circularly polarized light, which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, causing a finite anomalous Hall voltage whose sign is controlled by the helicity of the light. No anomalous Hall effect is observed in bilayer devices, which have crystal inversion symmetry. Our observation of the VHE opens up new possibilities for using the valley DOF as an information carrier in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.

  14. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  15. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous Slavic settlements in South Albania (including the valley of Shushica River at the end of the 1st millennium. In the second half of the 9th c. a significant part of this region was conquered by the 1st Bulgarian Kingdom, and after 870 there were established ecclesiastical dioceses which became part of the church organization of the Kingdom. Slavonic ecclesiastical schools were established in that region as well, after 886 in the context of the so-called “Slavonic project” of the Bulgarian prince, Boris. St. Clement took an active part in this project. It was South Albania where the first Slavonic bishopric in Southeast Europe was founded, in 893, when St. Clement was appointed bishop. His bishopric was organized according ethnic principle, so that St. Clement was called “the bishop of Slavonic people.”The center of Clement’s bishopric was in Velica, which is related to the modern settlement Velçë in the Shushica valley. There are ruins of a cross-in-square church with a narthex in the Asomat region, which is located near Velica. The church was built at the end of the 9th‒beginning of the 10th cc. and dedicated to the Archangel Michael. The plan of this church is identical with that of the so-called “pronaos” of the church built by St. Clement in his Ohrid monastery.In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  16. Food Activism in Italy as an Anthropology of Direct Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasseni, Cristina

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative findings on provisioning activism in Italy, focusing on Solidarity Purchase Groups (Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale, GAS). By using quantitative data about GAS growth, numerical consistence and economic impact and through ethnographic insights based on

  17. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  18. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  19. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

  20. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…