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Sample records for aorta

  1. Coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital malformation representing a zone of strong narrowing of the aortic lumen, leading to impaired blood flow. In 90% of cases it affects isthmus vessel - the part between the separation of the left Ater subclavian and ductus arteriosus and it is often combined with other congenital heart defects and occurs more frequently in males. A case of juvenile isthmus type coarctation of the aorta at a young woman suffering from long hard to control hypertension, with intermittent discomfort in precordium and heart murmur is presented. Upon receipt of the patient a conventional radiography of organs in the chest front projection, which establishes a typical disease finding is carried out. After that a noninvasive computer-tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta, with CT Siemens Definition AS with a slice thickness 5 mm, subsequent reconstruction of 0,75 mm and postreconstruction were conducted. CT angiography study demonstrates the pathological constriction, the state of the aorta before and after constriction as well as the rich collateral vasculature of the intercostal and internal thoracic arteries. The available 3D reconstructions and postprocessing have been supported the establishment of optimal preoperative plan. The patient was subjected to surgery with vessel recovery and at the moment the patient is with excellent postoperative results

  2. Intraluminal Ascending Aorta Fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Mozaffari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary cardiac tumors are quite rare, especially in the pediatric age group, and their atypical presentations often prevent a timely diagnosis. Most primary cardiac tumors in the pediatric age group are benign. Fibromas are generally reported as the second most common primary cardiac tumors in the pediatric age group. These neoplasms are often intramural and involve the left ventricular free wall or the interventricular septum. Although benign, fibromas may become life-threatening by causing arrhythmias or obstruction to the blood flow. A case of supravalvular intraluminal ascending aorta fibroma in a 23-month-old girl, presenting with syncope, is described here; the location is rare and the presentation atypical for this type of tumor. Transesophageal echocardiography helped us to evaluate the anatomic details of the tumor and plan surgery.

  3. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated. (orig.)

  4. Dissection of the aorta in Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, W H; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three deaths from dissection of the aorta in a series of 157 adult women with Turner's syndrome are reported. These are greatly in excess of the numbers expected. None of the three patients had a coarctation of the aorta. One had aortic regurgitation but there was no reason to believe that the aorta in the other two patients had been subjected to unusual haemodynamic stresses. Cystic medial necrosis of the aorta was described in two patients on whom necropsies were carried out. It is conclude...

  5. [Aging of the aorta: a morphological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L; Meola, M; Giuliano, G; Borelli, A; Riccioni, S

    1994-05-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the aging of aorta with respect to atherosclerotic modifications: abdominal aorta echotomography is the preferred approach for this study. In 354 elderly patients, 65 and over, we have evaluated the diameter and the course of the aorta, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and iliac vessels, and the presence of aneurysms. Two kinds of findings could be identified by echotomography: age-related physiologic modifications, represented essentially by an increase of the aortic diameter; pathologic changes, characteristic for atherosclerosis, of which aneurysms are the most dangerous complications. PMID:7924179

  6. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  7. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other tests to measure the function of the heart may be used including chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (EKG) , magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , and cardiac catheterization . Coarctation of the aorta ...

  8. Coarctation of the Aorta (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Congenital Heart Defects The Heart Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Arrhythmias Coarctation of the Aorta Atrial ...

  9. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

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    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  11. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  12. Risk factors of atheromatous aorta in cardiovascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Atik; Silva, Isaac Azevedo; da Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and profile of ascending aorta or aortic arch atheromatous disease in cardiovascular surgery patients, its risk factors and its prognostic implication early after surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and June 2011, 2042 consecutive adult patients were analyzed, with no exclusion criteria. Atheromatous aorta diagnosis was determined intraoperatively by surgeon palpation of the aorta. Determinants of atheromatous aorta, as well as its prognostic implicatio...

  13. Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooley, D A

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves.

  14. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  15. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiche, R; Bové, T; Demanet, H; Goldstein, J P; Deuvaert, F E

    1999-08-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare entity, occurring as the result of a missed aortic lesion at the time of the initial injury. Therefore, clinical suspicion and careful abdominal exploration at first laparotomy is mandatory to prevent aortic pseudoaneurysm formation and its risk of delayed rupture. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of a suprarenal aortic false aneurysm, presenting 4 weeks after a life-threatening gunshot wound in a 13-year-old child. PMID:10499389

  16. Diagnosis of supravalvar stenosis of aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed the potentialities of combined radiodiagnosis of supravalvar stenosis (SS) and concomitant diseases of the heart and major vessels (Williams-Beuren syndrome) in 7 patients aged 7 mos. to 24 yrs. Polypositional chest and heart X-ray procedure, catheterization of the cardiac cavities, pulmonary artery and aorta, left ventriculography (6), right ventriculography (4) and angiopulmonography were used. The diagnostic potentialities of each method were defined

  17. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  18. Combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, João Gonçalves; Estefanía, Rafael Hernández; Delgado, Cristian; Del Barrio, Loreto García; Rábago, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement is infrequent. In the few cases where this simultaneous procedure was performed, most patients were diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. We report the combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement using the donor's ascending aorta, in a 70-year-old man who was not diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. This combined procedure can be performed successfully, providing a potentially life-saving heart transplant for patients with aortic disease of different etiologies. PMID:25737588

  19. Aneurisma adquirido de aorta ascendente em criança Acquired neurysm of the ascending aorta in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danton R. da Rocha Loures

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available O aneurisma adquirido da aorta ascendente é uma rara condição na faixa pediátrica. Os autores apresentam 2 casos de crianças de 6 e 12 anos de idade com aneurisma sacular da aorta ascendente e estenose aórtica, os quais foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica, com sucesso.Acquired aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare condition in the pediatric age group. The authors present two cases of 6 and 12 year old boys with saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic stenosis, which underwent successful surgical correction.

  20. Aneurisma adquirido de aorta ascendente em criança Acquired neurysm of the ascending aorta in children

    OpenAIRE

    Danton R. da Rocha Loures; Maria João Amorim Ferreira; Rui Sequeira de Almeida; Ronaldo Loures Bueno; Antoninho Krichenko; Paulo R. Brofman; Edison José Ribeiro; Lauro Linhares; Mário Lobato da Costa; Edimara Seegmuller

    1989-01-01

    O aneurisma adquirido da aorta ascendente é uma rara condição na faixa pediátrica. Os autores apresentam 2 casos de crianças de 6 e 12 anos de idade com aneurisma sacular da aorta ascendente e estenose aórtica, os quais foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica, com sucesso.Acquired aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare condition in the pediatric age group. The authors present two cases of 6 and 12 year old boys with saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic stenosis, which underwen...

  1. MR imaging of the toracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various pathological conditions of the thoracic aorta were studied by MR Imaging in 31 patients: 23 were aneurysms (branching and non-branching), 2 artero-venous fistulae, 2 aortic prostheses, 2 Marfan's syndromes, 1 coronary sinus aneurysm, and 1 isthmic stenosis. MRI studies were always performed on patients who had been examined by other imaging procedures. A comparative study was carried out on the results of MRI, angiography, computerized tomography, and ultrasounds. The possibility of propedeutic protocol was explored. Our experience, in accordance with the literature on the subject, indicates MRI as the procedure of choice in the study of aneurysms of the toracic aorta. The advantages offered by MRI-the high natural contrast between circulating blood and the supporting structures, the possibility of obtaining multiplanar images as well as data on intraluminal, parietal, and extraparietal conditions-make it a highly competitive procedure if compared to either CT or angiography. While awaiting further evidence, the use of a propedeutic protocol in non-aneurysmatic diseases is still not advisable, due to insufficient patient population, and to the lack of a consistent literature on the subject

  2. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning...... mechanism, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  3. Biaxial tensile tests of the porcine ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplano, Valérie; Boufi, Mourad; Boiron, Olivier; Guivier-Curien, Carine; Alimi, Yves; Bertrand, Eric

    2016-07-01

    One of the aims of this work is to develop an original custom built biaxial set-up to assess mechanical behavior of soft tissues. Stretch controlled biaxial tensile tests are performed and stereoscopic digital image correlation (SDIC) is implemented to measure the 3D components of the generated displacements. Using this experimental device, the main goal is to investigate the mechanical behavior of porcine ascending aorta in the more general context of human ascending aorta pathologies. The results highlight that (i) SDIC arrangement allows accurate assessment of displacements and so stress strain curves, (ii) porcine ascending aorta has a nearly linear and anisotropic mechanical behavior until 30% of strain, (iii) porcine ascending aorta is stiffer in the circumferential direction than in the longitudinal one, (iv) the material coefficient representing the interaction between the two loading directions is thickness dependent, (v) taking into account the variability of the samples the stress values are independent of the stretch rate in the range of values from 10(-3) to 10(-1)s(-1) and finally, (vi) unlike other segments of the aorta, 4-month-old pigs ascending aorta is definitely not a relevant model to investigate the mechanical behavior of the human ascending aorta. PMID:27211783

  4. Evaluation of diseases of the aorta with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast CT offers several advantages over standard CT for imaging of various congenital and acquired diseases of the aorta. Scan acquisition rates of 50 msec permit evaluation of the entire aorta following a single peripheral intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium. Pathologic aortic flow patterns may also be defined using an ECG triggered ''flow'' mode, adding another dimension to CT evaluation of the aorta. The papers shows examples of a variety of aortic diseases, including coarctation, Marfan syndrome, atherosclerotic aneurysm, dissection, and postoperative abnormalities. The advantages of the modality are stressed

  5. Transluminar catheter angioplasty of abdominal aorta in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with Takayasu's arteritis and a long stenotic segment of the abdominal aorta were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Intermittent claudication dissappeared in six of seven cases, the femoral pulse reappeared in all five; ankle/arm indices increased in seven cases; elevated blood pressure normalized in seven of eight cases. Seven patients were followed for 3 to 28 months. They were all free of symptoms from the lower extremities. In three patients with or without renal artery stenosis and with hypertension, the blood pressure decreased after PTA of the abdominal aorta only. PTA may be a valuable treatment in Takayasu's arteritis and stenosis of the abdominal aorta. (orig.)

  6. An unusual combination of a tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Amabile, Philippe; Paule, Philippe; Peloni, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculous aneurysms of the aorta are rare and give rise to various issues related to their diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we report on an exceptional case concerning a patient who presented with a false tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta concomitantly. A discussion on how we approached the diagnosis and devised a therapeutic strategy that allowed us to treat this dual aortic disease effectively has also been provided. The discussion includes details of the order of treatment and the choice between an endovascular and a surgical approach. PMID:21724110

  7. Effect of endothelium on glycosaminoglycan accumulation in injured rabbit aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, T N; Curwen, K. D.; Litrenta, M. M.; Alonso, D. R.; Minick, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that reendothelialized regions of injured rabbit aortas are more susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis than persistently deendothelialized regions or uninjured aortas. However, the mechanism responsible for this selective lipid deposition is not understood. One possibility is that these regions differ with respect to the quantity and type of glycosaminoglycan-containing proteoglycans which are known to interact with lipoproteins. To determine whether thes...

  8. Dynamic morphology of the Aorta, pre- and postoperative imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Prehn, J

    2009-01-01

    With endovascular treatment of the aorta a folded covered stentgraft is introduced in the aorta via the femoral arteries. Adequate pre-operative planning is necessary to allow for proper stentgraft sizing. Stentgrafts should be adequately oversized to ensure good apposition to the aortic wall and provide sufficient fixation. An adequate proximal seal and fixation prevents complications such as endoleakage and stentgraft migration. Stentgrafts are most commonly sized on static computed tomogra...

  9. Palpation Simulator of Beating Aorta for Cardiovascular Surgery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komori, Masaru; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Komeda, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    In field of cardiovascular surgeries, palpation of aorta plays important roles in decision of surgical site.This paper develops palpation simulator of aorta based on a finite element based physical model.The proposed model calculates soft tissue deformation according to the affection of inner pressure and the operation of a surgeon.The proposed method is implemented on a prototype with dual PHANToM device.Experimental results confirmed our model achieves real time simulation of the surgical palpation.

  10. RIGHT SUPERIOR POLAR ARTERY ARISING FROM AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital and Research Centre, revealed superior / upper polar artery arising from the lateral aspect of the aorta just proximal to the origin of Main Renal Artery (MRA. T he main renal artery and the accessory renal artery had almost a common point of origin. Th e peri-hilar segmentation of the main renal artery was a fork like pattern. One of the segmental arteries was long and had its portal of entry into the kidney by perforating the capsule of the ant erior substance of the kidney. The remaining segmental branches had their portal of ent ry through the hilum. The lower two segmental branches were placed anterior to the main renal vein causing altered hilar anatomy. A thorough knowledge of the frequently to the rarel y occurring wide range of variations of renal vasculature has significance in exploration and trea tment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal ao rtic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery. Such a rare variation including the combination of extra renal peri-hilar segmentation of MRA with superior polar artery is wor thy of concern to the urologists harvesting kidneys from the live donors for performi ng transplantation procedures, partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologi sts during interpretation of the angiograms

  11. Morphological Evidence of Telocytes in Mice Aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Zhang; Shan-Shan Lu; Ting Xu; Yan-Ling Feng; Hua Li; Jun-Bo Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background:Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells,which have been recently described in a large variety of cavitary and noncavitary organs.TCs have small cell bodies,and remarkably thin,long,and moniliform prolongations called telopodes (Tps).Until now,TCs have been found in various loose connective tissues surrounding the arterioles,venules,and capillaries,but as a histological cellular component,whether TCs exist in large arteries remains unexplored.Methods:TCs were identified by transmission electron microscope in the aortic arch of male C57BL/6 mice.Results:TCs in aortic arch had small cell bodies (length:6.06-13.02 μm; width:1.05-4.25 μm) with characteristics of specific long (7.74-39.05 μm),thin,and moniliform Tps; TCs distributed in the whole connective tissue layer of tunica adventitia:TCs in the innermost layer of tunica adventitia,located at the juncture between media and adventitia,with their long axes oriented parallel to the outer elastic membrane; and TCs in outer layers oftunica adventitia,were embedded among transverse and longitudinal oriented collagen fibers,forming a highly complex three-dimensional meshwork.Moreover,desmosomes were observed,serving as pathways connecting neighboring Tps.In addition,vesicles shed from the surface of TCs into the extracellular matrix,participating in some biological processes.Conclusions:TCs in aorta arch are a newly recognized complement distinct from other interstitial cells in large arteries,such as fibroblasts.And further biologically functional correlations need to be elucidated.

  12. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  13. Radiotherapy-induced aortic valve disease associated with porcelain aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediastinal irradiation has been reported to induce cardiac disease such as pericarditis, valvular dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, accelerated arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries, and also calcifications of the ascending aorta. We herein describe a case of radiotherapy-induced porcelain aorta and aortic valve disease and their surgical treatment. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) in 1965 (Osserman's type II), and mediastinal irradiation was performed in 1970 for treatment of thymic tumor associated with MG. Thirty years after radiation therapy, complete atrioventricular block and aortic valve disease with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and aortic arch (porcelain aorta) were detected on echo cardiogram and cardiac catheterization. A permanent pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein and aortic valve replacement was performed under extracorporeal circulation established by selective cerebral perfusion and balloon occlusion instead of aortic cross-clamping. As no risk factors of arteriosclerosis such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension were apparent, we concluded that the aortic valve disease and porcelain aorta were primarily induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries. PMID:26414530

  15. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  16. Infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta: early CT finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm is an uncommon but life-threatening disease, especially in case of salmonella infection. Early CT findings should be well known in order to allow immediate diagnosis and accurate management. The authors present an early CT finding of a salmonella infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta in an HIV-infected patient. This pattern consists in a slight-enhancing focal densification of peri-aortic soft-tissue, while aorta remains of normal size. Within two weeks, infection progressed to the constitution of an infected aneurysm. This CT finding seems to be initial to previously described signs. (author)

  17. Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta after aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Valdés Dupeyrón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are a rare and serious complication of cardiovascular surgery that requires a surgical solution of urgency due to its high complexity. A case of a 40 year old female, white skin color, that due to severe aortic regurgitation underwent surgical treatment for aortic valve replacement. During the immediate postoperative period began with a fever, he made a meticulous study that included contrast computed tomography, through which diagnosed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta, was taken to the operating room, they found two sacks pseudoaneurismatics at the site where the suture was carried out previous.

  18. Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

    2000-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

  19. Marfan's syndrome and isolated aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ooijen, B.

    1988-01-01

    A 43 year old woman presented with an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Marfan's syndrome was diagnosed as the underlying cause of the aneurysm. An isolated aneurysm as presenting sign of Marfan's syndrome is rare. In a review of published reports about 30 cases were found.

  20. Variations in atherosclerosis and remodeling patterns in aorta and carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster Valentin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes vascular remodeling that can be positive or negative. The evolution of arterial wall thickening and changes in lumen size under current "standard of care" in different arterial beds is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial remodeling and progression/regression of atherosclerosis in aorta and carotid arteries of individuals at risk for atherosclerosis normalized over a 1-year period. Methods In this study, 28 patients underwent at least 2 black-blood in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR scans of aorta and carotids over a one-year period (Mean 17.8 ± 7.5 months. Clinical risk profiles for atherosclerosis and medications were documented and patients were followed by their referring physicians under current "standard of care" guidelines. Carotid and aortic wall lumen areas were matched across the time-points from cross-sectional images. Results The wall area increased by 8.67%, 10.64%, and 13.24% per year (carotid artery, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta respectively, p Conclusions Results of this study of multiple vascular beds indicated that different vascular locations exhibited varying progression of atherosclerosis and remodeling as monitored by CMR.

  1. Aneurysm of the Ascending Aorta after Cardiac Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; LAVIGNE, Jean-Paul; Demoulin, Jean-Claude; Limet, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old female cardiac transplant patient in whom an aneurysm of the recipient side of the ascending aorta developed 1 year after transplantation. Although a mycotic origin was the likely cause, histologic examination diagnosed an atherosclerotic aneurysm. Peer reviewed

  2. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhöfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  3. Expiration induced femoral flow in neonatal coarctation of aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    McNicholl, B.; Kennedy, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    In a 3 day old infant with coarctation of the aorta a loud Doppler signal synchronous with expiration was present for some hours in the femoral vessels, with only barely audible signals synchronous with cardiac systole. It is suggested that in the presence of severe aortic constriction and temporary ductal closure, blood was pumped through the infradiaphragmatic arteries by increased intrathoracic expiratory pressure.

  4. Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA)

  5. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K; Nedergaard, O A

    1999-08-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased with time. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine abolished the inhibitory effect of EDTA and ascorbic acid. Acetylcholine evoked a rapid concentration-dependent relaxation that recovered spontaneously and slowly, but fully, with time. Relaxation evoked by equieffective concentrations of carbachol and acetylcholine had the same time course. Cumulative addition of acetylcholine (10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) caused a marked relaxation that was reverted slightly at high concentrations. The relaxation was the same with rings derived from the upper, middle, and lower part of the thoracic aorta. Two consecutive concentration-response curves for acetylcholine obtained at a 2-h interval demonstrated a slight development of tachyphylaxis. The relaxation was inversely related to precontractile tension evoked by phenylephrine when expressed as a percentage, but independent when expressed as g tension. Storage of aorta in cold salt solution for 24 h did not alter the relaxation. EDTA and ascorbic acid did not alter the relaxation. It is concluded that (1) EDTA and ascorbic acid can not be used with impunity to stabilize catecholamines used as preconstriction agents; (2) the reversal of the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation is not due to hydrolysis of acetylcholine; (3) the relaxation is uniform in all segments of thoracic aorta; (4) cold storage of aorta does not alter the relaxation; and (5) acetylcholine releases the same amount of relaxing factor, irrespective of the precontractile tension. PMID:10691020

  6. Congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents; Angeborene Fehlbildungen der Aorta im Kindes- und Jugendalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J.G. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Paediatrische Kardiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abt. Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Aortic abnormalities are common cardiovascular malformations accounting for 15-20% of all congenital heart disease. Ultrafast CT and MR imaging are noninvasive, accurate and robust techniques that can be used in the diagnosis of aortic malformations. While their sensitivity in detecting vascular abnormalities seems to be as good as that of conventional catheter angiocardiography, at over 90%, they are superior in the diagnosis of potentially life-threatening complications, such as tracheal, bronchial, or esophageal compression. It has been shown that more than 80% of small children with aortic abnormalities benefit directly from the use of noninvasive imaging: either cardiac catheterization is no longer necessary or radiation doses and periods of general anesthesia for interventional catheterization procedures can be much reduced. The most important congenital abnormalities of the aorta in children and adolescents are presented with reference to examples, and the value of CT and MR angiography is documented. (orig.) [German] Fehlbildungen der Aorta gehoeren zu den haeufigen kongenitalen kardiovaskulaeren Malformationen (15-20% aller angeborenen Herzfehler). Die raeumlich und zeitlich hochaufloesenden Methoden der Computer- (CT-) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) sind nichtinvasive, hochwertige und aussagekraeftige Methoden zur Diagnostik angeborener Fehlbildungen der Aorta. Sie zeigen sich in der Diagnostik der Gefaessanomalien gleichwertig zur konventionellen Angiographie mit Sensitivitaeten von mehr als 90%. In der Diagnostik assoziierter Komplikationen, wie trachealen, bronchialen oder oesophagialen Kompressionen, sind sie ueberlegen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass 80% der Kleinkinder mit Fehlbildungen der Aorta einen direkten Vorteil von der nichtinvasiven Bildgebung hatten: Entweder war eine Herzkatheterung fuer die Therapieplanung nicht mehr erforderlich oder die Durchleuchtungs- und Narkosezeiten bei der Katheterintervention konnten deutlich verkuerzt

  7. Preparation of Single Cell Suspensions from Mouse Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Weber, Christian; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by lipid deposition, plaque formation, and immune cell infiltration. Innate and adaptive immune cells infiltrate the artery during development of the disease. Moreover, advanced disease leads to formation of artery tertiary lymphoid organs in the adventitia (Grabner et al., 2009; Hu et al., 2015). Various and diverse types of immune cells have been identified in the aorta adventitia vs atherosclerotic plaques (Elewa et al., 2016; Galkina et al., 2006; Lotzer et al., 2010; Mohanta et al., 2016; Mohanta et al., 2014; Moos et al., 2005; Srikakulapu et al., 2016; Zhao et al., 2004). There are conflicting reports on the number and subtypes of immune cells in the aorta depending on the age of the animals, the protocol that is used to obtain single cell suspensions, and the dietary conditions of the mice (Campbell et al., 2012; Clement et al., 2015; Galkina et al., 2006; Kyaw et al., 2012). The number of immune cells in the aorta differs as much as tenfold using different protocols (Butcher et al., 2012; Galkina et al., 2006; Gjurich et al., 2015; Grabner et al., 2009; Hu et al., 2015). These discrepant results call for a protocol that robustly documents bona fide aorta cells rather than those in the surrounding tissues or blood. Critical methodological hurdles include the removal of adjacent adipose tissue and small paraaortic lymph nodes lining the entire aortic tree that are not visible by the naked eye. A dissection microscope is therefore recommended. Moreover protocols of aorta preparations should ascertain that lymphocyte aggregates referred to as fat associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) (Benezech et al., 2015; Elewa et al., 2015) that are often present at the border between the adipose tissue and the adventitia are removed before enzyme digestion. We propose - besides other approaches (Hu et al., 2015; Mohanta et al., 2014) - a combination of immunohistochemical staining and

  8. Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta presenting as pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengozzi, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Sartoni Galloni, S. [Dept. of Radiology, San Salvatore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Bronzetti, G. [Dept. of Paediatric Cardiology, Sant' Orsola-Malpighi University Medical Centre, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta rarely occur in children. We report an unusual case of a mycotic aneurysm of the descending aorta in a 4-year-old boy presenting with respiratory tract infection, which was rapidly complicated by atelectasis of the left lung. The patient's mycotic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced spiral CT, whereas conventional chest radiographs did not detect its presence. An unsuspected mild aortic coarctation was also diagnosed at the time of admission. This case demonstrates that an aortic aneurysm may clinically and radiologically manifest itself with respiratory tract infection and atelectasis and that contrast-enhanced spiral CT is a fast and powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  10. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1-14C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  11. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  12. Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta presenting as pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycotic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta rarely occur in children. We report an unusual case of a mycotic aneurysm of the descending aorta in a 4-year-old boy presenting with respiratory tract infection, which was rapidly complicated by atelectasis of the left lung. The patient's mycotic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced spiral CT, whereas conventional chest radiographs did not detect its presence. An unsuspected mild aortic coarctation was also diagnosed at the time of admission. This case demonstrates that an aortic aneurysm may clinically and radiologically manifest itself with respiratory tract infection and atelectasis and that contrast-enhanced spiral CT is a fast and powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Ascending Aorta Elastography After Kawasaki Disease Compared to Systemic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandlall, Ian; Maurice, Roch L; Fournier, Anne; Merouani, Aïcha; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, classically affecting large- and medium-size arteries. The coronary arteries draw most of the clinical attention, whereas few studies have taken interest in the ascending aorta. Using a proprietary imaging-based mechanical biomarker (ImBioMark), we sought to determine aortic stiffness in KD compared to systemic hypertension (HTN) and healthy children. We evaluated parasternal long-axis views focused on the ascending aorta in 20 controls, 12 KD, and 8 HTN as a comparative clinical model of vascular stiffness. We calculated systolic and diastolic aortic wall strain with ImBioMark. Strain was tested for normality against height, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in normal subjects. Strain from KD and HTN was normalized (Z score) accordingly. Z score comparisons were performed using nonparametric statistics. Age was similar between KD and HTN (9.1 ± 5.3 and 9.9 ± 5.3 years old; p = NS). Systolic and diastolic strain values were normally distributed against height, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. HTN subjects had abnormal systolic and diastolic strain values (p < 0.0001). Whereas KD subjects had normal diastolic strain, systolic strain was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and systolic strain was intermediate between controls and HTN. There were no significant differences in aortic strain among KD, however, according to the presence of coronary artery aneurysms. Despite normal blood pressure, the ascending aorta in KD exhibits reduced strain during systole. This may reflect in situ rigidity of the aorta. The normal diastolic strain in KD may, in contrast, reflect normal peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:25921428

  14. Relaxant effects of selected sildenafil analogues in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Kubacka, Monika; Mogilski, Szczepan; Filipek, Barbara; Fornal, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their relaxant effects in the rat aorta. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compound (8a) is probably a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, as it induced aortic relaxation through endothelium-independent mechanism. PMID:25798686

  15. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  16. Hemodynamics in an Aorta with Bicuspid and Trileaflet Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as ascending aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. Two main hypotheses - the genetic and the hemodynamic are discussed in literature to explain the development and progression of aortopathies in patients with BAV. In this study we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite element (TS-FE) formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy tri-leaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; and the shear stress magnitude on the aortic wall. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation. This work is supported by the Lillehei Heart Institute at the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  17. Analysis of human aorta using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Adur, J.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; Pelegati, V.; Thomáz, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2012-03-01

    The use of photonics has improved our understanding of biologic phenomena. For the study of the normal and pathologic architecture of the aorta the use of Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation showed interesting details of morphologic changes of the elastin-collagen architecture during aging or development of hypertension in previous studies. In this investigation we tried to apply fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the morphologic analysis of human aortas. The aim of our study was to use FLIM in non-stained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the aorta ascendants in hypertensive and normotensive patients of various ages, examining two different topographical regions. The FLIM-spectra of collagen and elastic fibers were clearly distinguishable, thus permitting an exact analysis of unstained material on the microscopic level. Moreover the FLIM spectrum of elastic fibers revealed variations between individual cases, which indicate modifications on a molecular level and might be related to FLIM age or diseases states and reflect modifications on a molecular level.

  18. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gajin Predrag; Tanasković Slobodan; Nenezić Dragoslav; Ilijevski Nenad; Radak Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0%) of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery ...

  19. [Antiatherogenic characteristics of korvitin: effect on proteasome activity of the aorta, heart, and blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashevin, D O; Dosenko, B Ie; Byts', Iu V; Moĭbenko, O O

    2009-01-01

    We studied the changes in proteasomal proteolisis during modelling of rabbit cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. It was determined that in aorta the TL activity of proteasome increased 2.4-fold (P quercetine) followed by considerable decrease of proteasomal activity both in tissues (aorta and heart) and leucocytes. The intensity ofatherosclerotic changes in aorta was significantly smaller. Obtained data suggest that "Korvitin" reveales angioprotective properties mediated by it effect on proteasomal proteolisis. PMID:19827630

  20. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmentado de vermelho e os cadáveres foram preservados com solução de formaldeído tamponado a 10%. A aorta abdominal do L. pardalis teve origem entre T12 e L1, sendo a artéria celíaca o primeiro ramo visceral no sentido crânio-caudal, resultando nas artérias hepática, gástrica esquerda e esplênica. A artéria mesentérica cranial surgiu como segundo ramo da aorta abdominal, originando as artérias jejunais. Na sequência localizamos artéria pancreáticoduodenal caudal, artérias ileais, artérias ileocólicas, artérias renais direita e esquerda, artérias adrenais direita e esquerda e artérias ováricas ou testiculares direita e esquerda. Parietalmente, a aorta abdominal originou em média seis ramos lombares, bem como a artéria frenicoabdominal, as artérias circunflexas ilíacas profundas e artérias ilíacas externa e interna. A aorta abdominal gerou ainda a artéria mesentérica caudal, a qual dividiu-se em artérias cólica esquerda e retal cranial. A artéria cólica esquerda seguiu cranialmente paralela ao cólon descendente irrigando-o, originando em média 18 ramos, e anastomosando-se com a artéria cólica média. A artéria retal cranial seguiu em direção caudal distribuindo oito ramos à porção final do cólon descendente e ao reto, e uniu-se com a artéria retal média. Por fim, a aorta abdominal emitiu como ramo terminal a artéria sacral mediana. A vascularização arterial abdominal desta espécie é bastante semelhante ao

  1. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  2. Os ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Luane L. Pinheiro; Elenara B. Araújo; Ana Rita de Lima; Danielli M. Martins; Raysa Melul; Ana Carla B. Souza; Luiza C. Pereira; Érika Branco

    2014-01-01

    A jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) é uma das espécies de felino silvestre que pouco foi investigada quanto a sua morfologia. Assim, o estudo objetivou detalhar a origem e distribuição dos ramos colaterais da aorta abdominal deste animal. Avaliou-se dois exemplares, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, jovens, provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA) da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex pigmenta...

  3. Pharmacological characterization of the sulphonylurea receptor in rat isolated aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Löffler, Cornelia; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The binding of the sulphonylurea [3H]-glibenclamide, a blocker of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), was studied in endothelium-denuded rings from rat aorta.[3H]-glibenclamide labelled two classes of binding sites with KD values of 20±5 nM and 32±1 μM. The high affinity component, which comprised 17% of total binding at 1 nM [3H]-glibenclamide, had an estimated binding capacity of 150 fmol mg−1 wet weight.Other sulphonylureas such as glipizide and glibornur...

  4. Gunshot injuries of the abdominal aorta: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiannis, E; Levy, R D; Florizoone, M G; Badicel, T V; Badicel, M; Saadia, R

    1997-04-01

    This is a retrospective study of 57 patients with gunshot injuries of the abdominal aorta. The aortic repair was achieved by various means: lateral aortorraphy, patch aortoplasty and graft insertion. There was an 85 per cent mortality rate from bleeding or secondary coagulopathy directly related to the aortic injuries. The need for resuscitative thoracotomy, shock, lack of response to fluid resuscitation and intraperitoneal bleeding were directly related to mortality. We feel that shortening of prehospital transfer time will increase the absolute number of patients surviving this grave injury. PMID:9274736

  5. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  6. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.).

  7. Simulation of Aorta Artery Aneurysms Using Active Electronic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Hassani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusiform and saccular aneurysms in different aorta artery sections were studied using an electronic circuit of cardiovascular system. The geometrical model of each artery section including thoracic and abdominal were generated in accordance with original anatomical data. By increasing the rate of aneurysm in each studied section, the pressure drop were calculated using CFD method, furthermore the compliance variations due to aneurysms were determined by mathematical method. The equivalent electronic circuit was then used to study the effects of the pressure drops and compliance variations on whole cardiovascular system. The results of the simulation exhibited the features of the pathology, including hypertension, the increase of the pulse pressure with the rate of aneurysm and the large magnitude of back flow during systole. Finally, the obtained results were compared with relevant clinical data .We have concluded from the study that aorta aneurysms in both fusiform and saccular, especially at highest diameters, may be the most important determinant of the artery rapture and heart failure.

  8. Vasorelaxation Effect of Estrone Derivate EA204 in Rabbit Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen and its derivatives exert vascular protective effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be studied fully. Objective. To investigate the vasorelaxation effect and related mechanisms of an estrone derivate EA204[3-(2-piperidin-1-yl)-ethoxy-estra-1, 3, 5 (10)-trien-17-one] on isolated arterial preparation from rabbit thoracic aorta. Methods. Aortic rings from rabbit thoracic aorta were prepared and held in small organ bath filled with Krebs solution; tension change was recorded by a multichannel physiological signal collection and handling system. Results. EA204 (10−5 to 10−3 M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings with endothelium and without endothelium. In denuded arterial preparations, EA204 had a potent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparations contracted with phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and high-K+ solution or BaCl2. Mechanism study indicates that EA204 relaxes aortic rings by inhibiting Ca2+ channels (both receptor-operating Ca2+ channels and the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels were involved) to decrease extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. EA204 is different from verapamil, which is a noncompetitive inhibitor of Ca2+ channels. In addition, K+ channels opening may contribute to this vasorelaxation effect. Conclusion. EA204 had a potent endothelium-independent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparation by inhibiting Ca2+ channels and opening K+ channels. The results suggest that EA204 is a potential compound for treatment of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:27190689

  9. Coarctation of the aorta:Management from infancy to adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel; D; Torok; Michael; J; Campbell; Gregory; A; Fleming; Kevin; D; Hill

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults.

  10. Value of helical computed tomography in diagnosis abdominal aorta aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civilization progress and achievements of medicine makes the human life longer. The exposure on vessel injuring factors such as smoking and improper diet is still growing. For those reasons the number of abdominal aorta aneurysms also increased. Early detection of this pathology, its therapy and follow up considering the most sophisticated diagnostic methods is very important. In years 2000-2002 2989 helical computed tomography (HCT) examinations of the abdomen were performed in Dolnoslaski Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej. In 173 patients (141 M and 32 F) aneurysms of abdominal aorta have been found. From this group 127 (101 M and 26 F) were patients of Surgical Ward of our hospital. 73 (63 M and 10 F) underwent the surgical operation of prosthesis implantation. 13 persons (11M and 2 F) were primarily qualified for endovascular stent-graft implantation, in 7 male this procedure was performed. In 159 patients AAA was primarily diagnosed in ultrasound (USG) examination (100%). In 10 cases additional MR examination was performed. In 13 patients qualified for stent-grafting we also performed DSA. USG examination revealed high sensitivity in establishing aneurysm diameter. HCT is characterized by significantly higher sensitivity and specificity in evaluation of renal and iliac pervasion, in comparison to USG. HCT allows for detection of concomitant pathologies and complications. HCT is necessary before stent-graft implantation and in the follow-up. There is no significant prevalence of MR over HCT. It should be performed in cases with doubtful renal arteries location, or when HCT is contraindicated. (author)

  11. Aortography delays surgery of CT proven acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.; Moreno, R.; Martin, V.; Iniguez, A.; Alvarez, J. (Hospital Universitario de San Carlos, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiodiagnostico, Servicio de Cirurgia Vascular, Servicio de Exploracion Cardiopulmonar, and Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos)

    1991-09-01

    A case of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed by dynamic CT. Angiographic confirmation was required, delaying surgical repair and contribution to the fatal outcome. If reliable findings of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta are shown by CT, we question the usefulness of angiographic confirmation in such cases. (orig.).

  12. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gated MR imaging was used to evaluate the thoracic aorta in 11 with Marfan syndrome, eight patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 20 healthy subjects. The aortic diameter was measured on transverse and sagittal images at the levels of the sinuses of Valsalva, the caudal portion of the ascending aorta, the prearch region, the middle arch, and the descending aorta. The sinus of Valsalva-prearch region aortic diameter ratio in patients with Marfan syndrome was significantly greater than in the two other groups, indicating the characteristic shape of the Maranoid aorta. MR imaging allows definitive measurements' of aortic dimensions and is a valuable noninvasive method for monitoring the course of aortic enlargement

  13. Protective effect of zingerone on increased vascular contractility in diabetic rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of action of zingerone, the main constituent of ginger, on vascular reactivity in isolated aorta from diabetic rats. The results show that incubation of aortae with zingerone alleviates the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine, as well as the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Zingerone directly relax phenylephrine-precontracted aortae. The vasorelaxatory response is significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue but no effect of either the potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium chloride, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was observed. Zingerone had no effect on advanced glycation end product formation as well. In conclusion, zingerone ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae which may be mediated by its vasodilator effect through NO- and guanylate cyclase stimulation. PMID:27020549

  14. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  15. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysm and dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim is to give up to date information about modern endovascular treatment of aortic pathology Dissection and aneurysms of the aorta are life threatening condition requiring in most of the cases prompt surgical or endovascular treatment because of the poor natural evolution. Purpose: to assess the immediate and 1-year outcome of endovascular treatment in broad spectrum of acute and subacute aortic syndrome during the last 3 years (November 2012 - August 2015) in City Clinic (Sofia, Bulgaria). We performed endovascular treatment of 47 patients (43 men, 4 women) at average age 54 y. with dissection (24) and aneurysms (23) of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta (in 5 emergent treatment was performed for aortic rupture). All patients were treated with minimal surgical femoral approach. In 4 (9%) of them initial carotid to carotid bypass was performed in order to provide a sufficient landing zone for the endograft implantation.the last 9 patients (19%) were treated without general anesthesia with either deep sedation or epidural anesthesia. Results: In all patients successful endograft implantation was achieved. Additional stent-graft or open cell stent was implanted in 4 cases in order to centralize the flow in the compressed true lumen. In 5 cases additional vascular plug or large coil was delivered in the left subclavian arteryostium in order to interrupt retrograde aneurysm or false lumen filling. Complications: 30 days mortality-2.2%, neurologic disorders (4.4%). one year survival- 45 (90.5%). 3 and 6 mo control CT scan showed no migration of the graft in 100%, full false lumen isolation in 19 out of 24 dissections (80%) and aneurysm free of expansion in 20 out of 23 (86%), patent carotid bay-pass graft in 4 of 4 (100%). This one center study showed excellent immediate and 1 year clinical and device results from endovascular repair of potentially fatal disease. Endovascular treatment is a method of choice for broad spectrum of aortic pathology

  16. MR angiography of the abdominal aorta: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowing blood can be demonstrated as bright signal in MR-imaging resulting in MR-angiography (MRA). This study presents the results of MRA using the 'time of flight'-effect in which projection angiograms along the longitudinal axis were established by a row of 2D-gradient echo (GE) images (FLASH) in breathhold technique. The method was proven in 5 normal volunteers and evaluated against DSA in 21 patients with aortic diseases. The preliminary results demonstrate a satisfactory flow signal in the normally perfused aorta; thus occlusions, stenoses, and aneurysms could be defined clearly. In smaller vessels the signal was still insufficient. Diagnostic problems of vascular overlapping can be solved in most cases by rotating the angiograms, and by additional analysis of individual 2D-GE images. In the present form the quality of MRA is still inferior to that of DSA. (orig.)

  17. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework......, which is a practical component (founded in logic) that enriches intelligent agents with organizational reasoning capabilities. We take the agent’s perspective by devising a component that integrates with the agent’s usual reasoning capabilities in a non-intrusive way. This results in agents that are...

  18. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  19. MR imaging of the aorta following coarctation repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiographically gated, spin-echo MR imaging was performed in 13 children, aged 1 year to 19 years (mean, 8.7 years), who had previous coarctation repair from 4 months to 15 years (mean, 3 years) prior to imaging. Nine had end-to-end anastomotic repairs, two had subclavian flaps, and two had Dacron patch aortoplasties. Initial axial localizing scans (echo time, 20 msec) followed by direct sagittal scanning were used to obtain images through the repair site. Comparison was made between cross-sectional dimensions at, and just distal to, the site of anastomosis. There was good correlation between clinical findings, catheterization data, and MR imaging. MR imaging offers a useful technique to evaluate the aorta following coarctation repair

  20. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the infrarenal abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n=13) of the lower abdominal aorta are reported in 12 patients. The mean patient age was relatively low (46 years). In 7 cases there were isolated aortic obstructions (6 stenoses, 1 occlusion). In the remaining 6 aortic stenoses, there were also major atherosclerotic lesions distally. The mean diameter of the aortic section in which PTA was performed, measured 8.2 mm. The total diameter of the PTA balloon(s) averaged 19.1 mm. The arterial gradient dropped significantly from 41.4 mm Hg (mean) to 2 mm Hg after PTA. The arm-ankle index increases significantly from 0.64 to 0.97. The follow-up included 9 patients; 1 showed restenosis 38 month after PTA. There were no clinically relevant complications. The data published on abdominal PTA in atherosclerotic lesions are summarized. (orig.)

  1. Cirurgia da aorta descendente e tóraco-abdominal com técnica de oclusão proximal isolada da aorta ("open distal" Surgical treatment of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta with the "open distal" technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Gontijo Filho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato apresenta a experiência obtida em um período de 4 anos (jan/91 - jan/95 com a técnica "open distal" descrita por Cooley, em 1990³, para tratamento cirúrgico de doenças da aorta torácica descendente e aorta tóraco-abdominal. Nesse período foram realizadas 35 operações (25 para aorta descendente e 10 para aorta tóraco-abdominal. Os aneurismas de origem degenerativa e as dissecções aórticas ocorreram em freqüência semelhante (48,5% e 40%, respectivamente; em 8 pacientes havia rotura da aorta, parcialmente tamponada pelo pulmão (5 casos, órgãos abdominais (2 casos e esófago (1 caso. O acesso cirúrgico foi obtido por toracotomia póstero-lateral esquerda ou tóraco-freno-laparotomia. Heparina foi usada na dose de 1,5 mg/kg e todo sangue do campo cirúrgico foi coletado a um reservatório e reinfundido pela veia femoral. Houve 4 (11.4% óbitos hospitalares e 2 (5,8% pacientes portadores de aneurisma tóraco-abdominal desenvolveram paraplegia. A morbi-mortalidade do grupo foi diretamente relacionada à condição clínica per-operatória e à extensão do segmento aórtico acometido. Na nossa opinião, a técnica "open distal" é um método alternativo simples e eficaz no tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta descendente e tóraco-abdominal. Em casos de ressecções extensas com períodos longos de oclusão aórtica, métodos para proteção medular deverão ser avaliadosSince Jan/91 we have been using the "open distal" technique (ODT described by Cooley, for surgical treatment of diseases of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. From jan/91 to jan/95, the technique was used in 35 instances (25 for descending aorta and 10 for thoracoabdominal aorta. Degenerative aneurysms and aortic dissections had similar incidence in this group (48.5% and 40.0%, respectively. In 8 patients the aorta was ruptured which was partially occluded by the lung (5 cases, abdominal organs (2 cases and esophagus (1

  2. Epiaortic fat pad area: A novel index for the dimensions of the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Boudagh, Shabnam; Nader, Nader D

    2016-06-01

    We sought to investigate the possible association between the area of the epiaortic fat pad (EAFP) and dimensions of the ascending aorta. A total of 193 individuals underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) prospectively. The area of the EAFP was traced anterior to the aortic root and correlated with the diameter of the aorta. The mean area of the EAFP was 5.16 ± 2.28 cm(2) Absolute and indexed dimensions of the ascending aorta had a significant correlation with the area of the EAFP (p 65 (p 30 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02) and a history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003) were identified as independent predictors of the area for EAFP. In conclusion, both the absolute and indexed diameters of the ascending aorta at the different segments that directly come into contact with the EAFP linearly correlate with the area of the EAFP measured by TTE. PMID:27013643

  3. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    adrenergic drugs was studied with regard to the possible dependence on endothelium and possible release of nitric oxide (NO). Isolated rabbit thoracis aorta was used for isometric tension measurements; measurements of NO metabolites (Griess Reaction); and eNOS activity measurements (L-citrulline assay). The...... acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit thoracic aorta was: independent of EDTA and ascorbic acid; the same whether the physiological salt solution (PSS) was oxygenated with 95% or 21 % O2; independent of the phenylephrine-evoked precontractile tension; and did not differ in unstored or cold strored aorta. It...... concluded that phenylephrine-evoked precontraction of rabbit aorta causes a basal release of NO. The amount of basally released NO is the same independent of gender and it is inactivated by oxygen radicals and divalent metal ions. The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation was uniform along the length of rabbit...

  4. A pathophysiologic enigma. Association of severe central cyanosis and dilatation of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about two cases of severe central cyanosis with ascending dilated aorta presence. It highlights the role of echocardiography in the trans thoracic and trans esophageal modes as methods of definitive diagnosis

  5. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.)

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of quinticuspid aortic valve with aortic regurgitation and dilated ascending aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhaoqi; Zhang Lijun; Meng Yanfeng; Wang Yongmei; Yang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of a quinticuspid aortic valve associated with regurgitation and dilation of the ascending aorta, which was diagnosed and post-surgically followed up by cardiovascular magnetic resonance and dual source computed tomography.

  7. Vector flow imaging of the ascending aorta. Are systolic backflow and atherosclerosis related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    the ascending aorta in long axis view. The presence of systolic backflow, visualized with TO, was correlated to aortic atherosclerosis, to systolic velocities obtained with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac output obtained with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution, to gender, age...

  8. Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy for Simultaneous Correction of Ventricular Septal Defect and Coarctation of the Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Shu-Hsun; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chou, Tsai-Fwu; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with ventricular septal defect and coarctation of the aorta were treated successfully by simultaneous correction of both anomalies through a single incision via a left transsternal anterolateral thoracotomy. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1994; 21:158-60)

  9. Calcified congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of calcified unruptured congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta is presented. Routine chest radiographs demonstrated unusual curvilinear calcifications at the cardiac base which were subsequently demonstrated within the aneurysm. (orig.)

  10. [Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and preoperative disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, V; Bussac, J J; Jullian, H; Juhan-Vague, I; Branchereau, A

    1991-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with preoperative signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation is reported. The 69-year-old female patient presented with spontaneously appearing petechiae and bruising. She had 0.95 g.l-1 fibrinogen, 105 G.l-1 platelets, and 100 micrograms.ml-1 fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products. Investigations revealed an 80 mm diameter aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, extending from the coeliac trunk to the iliac arteries. Heparin 7,000 IU.day-1 resulted in a biological improvement for a week only. At that time, levels of coagulation factors were: 92% factor II, 88% factor V, 100% factors VII and X, 100% antithrombin III. Surgical cure of the aneurysm was nevertheless carried out. Twenty standard units of platelets, 8 g fibrinogen, four units of fresh frozen plasma, five homologous and two autologous red cell units were transfused during the procedure. No coagulation factors were necessary during the postoperative course, which was uneventful. The management of coagulation factor infusions, before or after aortic cross-clamping, is discussed. PMID:2058833

  11. Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case.

  12. Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoa...

  13. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula, an unusual complication of endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Miao-yan; Zhong, Dan-dan; Ying, Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula is a rare but very serious complication of IE and predicts a higher mortality. This report describes a 50-year-old man with endocarditis, vegetation, perforation of noncoronary sinus, and formation of two aorta-to-right atrium fistulas with native valves detected by transthoracic echocardiography. This disease is lethal despite developments in cardiac imaging and antibacterial therapy. Early diagnosis, aggres...

  14. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1 g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10−5 M VAS2870 and 150 U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS.

  15. Prospective ECG-gated 320-row CT angiography of the whole aorta and coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu.; Fan, Zhanming; Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Xin, Haiyan; Zhang, Nan [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education, The Key Laboratory of Remodeling-Related Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    To investigate the feasibility of using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the whole aorta and coronary arteries (CA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with suspected acute aortic diseases underwent CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume CT protocol without heart rate (HR) control. The exposure window was set at 40-50 % of R-R interval (HR {>=}70 bpm) or 70-80 % of R-R interval (HR <70 bpm) in a single heartbeat. The image quality of the ascending aorta, aortic valve and CA was evaluated for motion artefacts. The mean attenuation was measured at different levels of the aorta. The radiation dose and contrast medium volume were recorded. All of the examinations were performed successfully. The image quality was acceptable in the ascending aorta, aortic valve (100 %) and CA (94.4 %). The mean radiation dose was 18.42 {+-} 5.02 mSv. Of 61 patients, 14 were diagnosed with aortic aneurysm and 35 were diagnosed with aortic dissection or intramural haematoma. Coronary artery stenosis was detected in 12 patients. For patients with aortic diseases, CTA of the whole aorta using a prospective ECG-gated wide-volume protocol has the potential to provide additional information about the CA and aortic valve with lower radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5

  17. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  18. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0% of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery Clinic of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases 'Dedinje', Belgrade, three patients were treated due to abdominal aorta coarctation, two females aged 55 and 50 and a 4-year-old child. The patients were treated surgically (by-pass with a prosthetic graft and patch angioplasty and endovascular-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA with and without a stent. The follow-up period was 3-70 months. In the 50-year-old patient, angiography showed severe narrowing of the suprarenal segment of the abdominal aorta. Thoraco-abdominal bypass with a 16 mm dacronic tubular graft was performed. In the 4-year-old patient angiography also showed a suprarenal aorta narrowing. In the first act patch angioplasty was performed and after PTA of the visceral arteries was done on several occasions. In the 55-year-old patient, after diagnostic angiography, infrarenal aorta coarctation was registered. PTA was performed with stent placement. All patients were asymptomatic on control check-ups. Conclusion. Abdominal coarctation is a pathological disease which is seldom found in vascular surgery. Angiography is of major importance for setting the diagnosis and for the control of the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The combination of surgical and endovascular treatment in our patients showed very good results in the studied period.

  19. Composition of proteoglycans in the aortas of copper-deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.; Ruiz, H.; Dalferes, E.R. Jr.; Klevay, L.M. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA)); Berenson, G. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Copper deficiency adversely affects the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, leading to cardiovascular lesions. To study the lesions resulting from copper deficiency, the composition of proteoglycans from aortas of copper-deficient rats was compared with proteoglycans of aortas from copper-supplemented rats. Copper deficiency in rats was verified by copper levels in adrenal glands (mean {plus minus} SE, 0.37 {plus minus} 0.07 vs 1.03 {plus minus} 0.17 {mu}g/g wet wt in supplemented rats). Total uronate in the aortas from copper-deficient rats was 25% greater than in aortas from copper-supplemented rats, and the proteoglycans from copper-deficient rat aortas were of greater molecular size. Among the glycosaminoglycans the concentration ({mu}g/mg tissue) of isomeric chondroitin sulfates, particularly dermatan sulfate, was greater in copper-deficient animals than in copper-supplemented animals. These observations are similar to earlier findings in experimental atherosclerosis and to a response of cardiovascular connective tissue to injury.

  20. Shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dilated aorta in adults with bicuspid aortic valve has been shown to have different shapes, but it is not known if this occurs in children. This observational study was performed to determine if there are different shapes of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve and their association with age, gender, hemodynamic alterations, and degree of aortic enlargement. One hundred and eighty-seven echocardiograms done on pediatric patients (0 – 18 years) for bicuspid aortic valve, during 2008, were reviewed. Aortic valve morphology, shape/size of the aorta, and pertinent hemodynamic alterations were documented. Aortic dilation was felt to be present when at least one aortic segment had a z-score > 2.0; global aortic enlargement was determined by summing the aortic segment z-scores. The aortic shape was assessed by age, gender, valve morphology, and hemodynamic alterations. Aortic dilation was present in 104/187 patients. The aorta had six different shapes designated from S1 through S6. There was no association between the aortic shape and gender, aortic valve morphology, or hemodynamic abnormalities. S3 was the most common after the age of six years and was associated with the most significant degree of global aortic enlargement. The shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve does not occur in a uniform manner and multiple shapes are seen. S2 and S3 are most commonly seen. As aortic dilation becomes more significant, a single shape (S3) becomes the dominant pattern

  1. Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

    2012-07-01

    Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

  2. Aortic dissection with the entrance tear in transverse aorta: analysis of 12 autopsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C S; Roberts, W C

    1990-11-01

    Clinical and autopsy findings are described in 12 patients who had fatal aortic dissection with the entrance tear in the transverse aorta. The 12 patients represent 7% of 182 autopsies of spontaneous aortic dissection studied by us. The ages of the 12 patients at death ranged from 37 to 87 years (mean, 67 years). Eight were men; 8 had a history of systemic hypertension, and 10 had hearts of increased weight. Diagnosis of aortic dissection was made during life in only 4 of the 12 patients. All 12 patients died of rupture of the false channel within 2 weeks of onset of signs or symptoms compatible with dissection. The direction of aortic dissection from the entrance tear was entirely retrograde in 4 patients, entirely anterograde in 4 patients, and in both directions in 4 patients. Hemopericardium occurred in the first group, left hemothorax in the second group, and either in the last group. Of the 8 patients in whom the ascending aorta was involved, the retrograde dissection in each extended to the aortic root, 6 had pulmonary adventitial hemorrhage, and 4 had involvement of the arch arteries by dissection. In the 4 patients with strictly anterograde dissection, none had dissection in the arch arteries. Thus, tear in the transverse aorta causes a dissection that is usually fata, that often dissects retrogradely, and that may mimic dissection from a tear in ascending aorta. Aortic dissection from a tear in transverse aorta requires early operative intervention. PMID:2241339

  3. Beat Pressure and Comparing it with Ascending Aorta Pressure in Normal and Abnormal Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Sajadi, Behrang; Zolfonoon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments. Also it is shown that pressure graph from brachial is so near to aortic pressure because of this its pressure signal is usable instead of aortic pressure. Furthermore, obstruction in ascending aorta, brachial and its effects has been showed in different figures.

  4. Huge Dissected Ascending Aorta Associated with Pseudo Aneurysm and Aortic Coarctation Feridoun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unique case of chronic dissection of the ascending aorta complicated with huge and thrombotic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with coarctation of descending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transesophageal echocardiography (TEE confirmed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a12 cm eccentric bulge of the right lateral side of dilated the ascending aorta filled with the clot and a circular shaped intimal tear communicating with an extended hematoma and dissection of the media layer. The rarity of the report is an association of the chronic dissection with huge pseudoaneurysm and coarctation. The patient underwent staged repair of an aneurysm and coarctation and had an uneventful postoperative recovery period.

  5. Rotura traumática da aorta torácica: tratamento cirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPAIO Dielson Teixeira; SANTOS João Marcos de Vasconcellos; LOBO Jr Nílcio Cunha; João Virgílio Uchoa FIGUERÓ; LOPES Caetano S; NOVAES Fernando R; PAULA FILHO Maurício Cleber de; Giovani Cardoso VERSIANI; FIGUEROA Carlos Camilo Smith

    1997-01-01

    No período de julho de 1986 a dezembro de 1995, foram operados 12 pacientes com rotura traumática da aorta torácica. Nove pacientes apresentavam rotura aguda da aorta e 3 rotura crônica. Em todos os pacientes a lesão localizava-se logo abaixo da emergência da artéria subclávia esquerda (istmo). Onze pacientes foram operados sob pinçamento aortico simples e em apenas 1 associamos shunt não heparinizado entre a artéria subclávia esquerda e a aorta descendente. O tempo médio de pinçamento aórtic...

  6. Thrombosis of abdominal aorta during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of testicular seminoma - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrckens Ralf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of germ cell tumours are inadequately recognized to date. Case Presentation A 49 year old man with advanced seminoma underwent two courses of chemotherapy according to the PEB regimen. Upon restaging, two thrombotic deposits were noted in the descending part of the thoracic aorta and in the infrarenal abdominal aorta, respectively. Although thrombotic plaques caused aortic occlusion of about 30%, no clinical signs of malperfusion of limbs were registered. The patient was placed on anticoagulant therapy. Six months after completion of chemotherapy, thrombotic deposits had completely resolved. In the absence of other predisposing factors, it must be assumed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy represented a strong stimulus for arterial thrombosis in the aorta. Conclusions This is the first case of endo-aortic thrombosis during chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Providers of chemotherapy must be aware of arterial thrombosis even in young patients with testicular cancer.

  7. [Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta in an Adult;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Masanori; Kawasaki, Muneyasu; Tokuhiro, Keiichi; Niitsu, Katsushi; Katayanagi, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of 30-year-old man with successful bypass grafting for coarctation of the aorta. Hypertension was identified during a health examination. Blood pressure difference between the upper and lower limbs was about 60 mmHg. Computed tomography( CT) revealed stenosis of the distal aortic arch and development of collateral arteries. The pressure gradient across the coarctation by catheterization was 56 mmHg. After left thoracotomy through the 4th intercostal space, a bypass graft using a 14-mm woven Dacron graft was placed between the left subclavian artery and descending aorta without the use of extracorporeal circulation. Postoperative course was satisfactory, with minimal pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities. The patient was discharged 16 days postoperatively. As of 7 years later, he remains asymptomatic, and CT has revealed no marked changes of the aorta or bypass graft. PMID:26066879

  8. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  9. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Gruenberg, K.M.; Giesel, F.L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Ley, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Henninger, V.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Boeckler, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Vaskulaere und Endovaskulaere Chirurgie; Krummenauer, F. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Funktionsbereich Rehabilitations- und Sportmedizin

    2009-03-15

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm{sup 3}), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 {+-} 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm{sup 3}), TA 14 {+-} 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p = 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  10. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm3), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 ± 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm3), TA 14 ± 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  11. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. I. The ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the heart in three species of hagfish: Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus and report about the morphology of the ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta. On the whole, the hagfish heart lacks outflow tract components, the ventricle and atrium adopt a dorso-caudal rather than a ventro-dorsal relationship, and the sinus venosus opens into the left side of the atrium. This may indicate a "defective" cardiac looping during embryogenesis. The ventral aorta is elongated in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii but sac-like in E. cirrhatus. The ventricles are entirely trabeculated. The myocytes show a low myofibrillar content and junctional complexes formed by fascia adherens and desmosomes. Gap junctions could not be demonstrated. Myocardial cells in M. glutinosa contain numerous lipid droplets. These droplets are less numerous in E. stoutii and practically absent in E. cirrhatus, suggesting different metabolic requirements. Other cell types present in the ventricle are chromaffin cells and granular leukocytes that contain rod-shaped granules. The ventricle-aorta connection is guarded by a bicuspid valve with left and right, pocket-like leaflets. The leaflets extend from the cranial end of the ventricle into the aorta but the junction is asymmetrical. This junction contains a ganglion-like structure in E. cirrhatus. The ventral aorta shows endothelial, media, and adventitial layers. The media contains smooth muscle cells surrounded by dense bands formed by tightly-packed extracellular filaments. In addition, a short number of elastic fibers are observed in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii. Cellular and extracellular elements are more loosely organized in the aorta of E. cirrhatus. The collagenous adventitia contains ganglion-like cells in the three species. In the absence of nerves, chromaffin and ganglion-like cells may control the activity of the myocardium and that of the aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. PMID

  12. Repair of ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm without circulatory arrest in redo patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriemma Stefano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is an unusual and potentially fatal complication after aortic surgical operations. TEE and CT scan are the investigations of choice. Surgical treatment is mandatory. We describe the successful management of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta, with aorto-sternal-cutaneous fistula requiring right axillary and femoral artery cannulation with Remote Access Perfusion® aortic cannula (Estech®, California, USA. Behaving like this we avoid hypotermic circulatory arrest, provide safe reentry and prevent an impending rupture.

  13. On the differential diagnosis of the abdominal aorta aneurysm and retroperitoneal paraaortal hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic retroperitoneal paraaortal hematoma appeared to be a rare disease. Paraaortal hematoma should be differentiated from abdomen aorta aneurysm and retroperitoneal tumor, for it requires no surgical intervention. Computerized tomography CT was shown to be the most sensitive method in differential diagnosis. CT with intravenous contrast intensification displayed complete information on aorta size, its aneurysms, extention of the disease, degree of dissemination into adjacent blood vessels and tissues. Retention of contrast media in the vessels occurred with 5 min delay and the blood was shown to free from the contrast substance up to that moment. The phenomenon permitted to distinguish thrombosed aneurysm from paraaortal tumor or hematoma

  14. Coarctation of the aorta and renal artery stenosis in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among neurocutaneous disorders, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and renal artery stenosis have traditionally been associated with neurofibromatosis. We report a 5-year-old girl who was discovered to have bilateral renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta, renal cysts and typical skin lesions of tuberous clerosis during the evaluation of asymptomatic hypertension. Renal vascular hypertension has not been reported previously in tuberous sclerosis. We conclude that the tuberous sclerosis complex should be expanded to include vascular malformations and the hypertension should not be assumed to be secondary to renal hamartomata or cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis. (orig.)

  15. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula, an unusual complication of endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-yan CHEN; Dan-dan ZHONG; Zhi-qiang YING

    2009-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula is a rare but very serious compli-cation of IE and predicts a higher mortality. This report describes a 50-year-old man with endocarditis, vegetation, perforation of noncoronary sinus, and formation of two aorta-to-right atrium fistulas with native valves detected by transthoracic echocardi-ography. This disease is lethal despite developments in cardiac imaging and antibacterial therapy. Early diagnosis, aggressive antibacterial therapy, and surgical treatment may improve the prognosis.

  16. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 370C for 15 min with 14C-AA (5 x 10-5M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of 14C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1α/ with lesser amounts of PGE2. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs

  17. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation

  18. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd2+, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd2+, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  19. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  20. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on contraction and45Ca movements in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Koch, P.; Wilhelm, D.; Nebel, U.; Leidig, A.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1989-01-01

    To study the selectivity of calmodulin antagonists it was assumed that they should inhibit noradrenaline (NA)- and K+-induced contractions similarly without an accompanying inhibition of45Ca uptake. Therefore, in isolated rat aorta the effects of W-7, calmidazolium and trifluoperazine on contraction

  1. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta. Haemodynamic evaluation and IV-DSA follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, B R; Janevski, B K

    1987-04-01

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated. PMID:3033770

  2. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta. Haemodynamic evaluation and IV-DSA follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstra, B.R.J.; Janevski, B.K.

    1987-04-01

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated.

  3. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Seehofnerová

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  4. Barium responsiveness of the rat aorta and femoral artery during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J L

    1982-01-11

    The barium responses of isolated aortic strips and femoral arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats were investigated. Barium caused concentration-related increases in tension of vessels from both pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The concentration-response curves of femoral arteries from non-pregnant and 3 week pregnant rats were not different; however contractility and slopes of concentration-response lines for thoracic aortas from 1, 2 and 3 week pregnant rats were significantly less than those of aortas from non-pregnant rats. In addition, barium caused rhythmic contractions to develop in both femoral arteries and aortas of 3 week pregnant rats more frequently than vessels from non-pregnant rats. Rhythmic contractions did not develop in aortas from 3 week pregnant rats in calcium-free Krebs. Since the effects of barium on the electrical and mechanical activity of various muscles have been postulated to be similar to and/or dependent on calcium, these results may indicate that changes in calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle occur during pregnancy. Such changes may contribute to the blood flow redistribution and other cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. PMID:7054642

  5. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure

  6. Age-related increase in prostacyclin production in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panganamala, R V; Hanumaiah, B; Merola, A J

    1981-02-01

    Normal Sprague-Dawley rats convert a substantial percentage of exogenous arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. This conversion can be quantitated by an aqueous sampling technique utilizing thin layer chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. There is a clear age-related increase in this conversion that can be demonstrated in aortas from rats of 3 weeks to 20 weeks of age. PMID:7017783

  7. CT angiography for the pre- and postoperative evaluation of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for the pre- and postsurgical evaluation of patients with pathologies of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the technical principle, recent technical developments and requirements for specific examination protocols and image interpretation, and to highlight common pathologies and findings. (orig.)

  8. Diagnosis of the posttraumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta in plain film and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the diagnosis of acute and chronic posttraumatic false aneurysms of the thoracic aorta the importance of imaging methods can't be overemphasized, especially, since clinical signs often are of no help. The findings in plain films and angiography in 17 patients with posttraumatic aortic rupture are described and discussed. The importance of angiography is stressed. (orig.)

  9. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  10. Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta as an unusual complication of coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, H.; van Geel, P. P.; de Boer, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is a rare diagnosis with high mortality. Report: Percutaneous coronary intervention was complicated by bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus and a mycotic aortic aneurysm, an unusual complication of coronary angiography. Combining CT and PET scan showed a

  11. TAVR Through Heavily Calcified Aorta Following Atheroma Retrieval With the "Elevator" Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senguttuvan, N Boopathy; Ellozy, Sharif; Tejani, Furqan; Kovacic, Jason; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K; Dangas, George D

    2015-10-01

    An 86-year-old Caucasian female with severe symptomatic, inoperable aortic stenosis was accepted for high-risk transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) approach due to severe calcification of the aorta. During initial passage of a 22 Fr sheath, there was dislodgment with proximal migration of a circumferential tunnel of calcium from the infrarenal aorta. A novel "elevator" technique was used to secure and retrieve the dislodged aorta en bloc back to its original infrarenal aortic position and allow in situ fixation with stenting. A new TAVR system was then successfully placed through the stent and a 23 mm Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) was implanted as planned. In case of calcification protruding into the lumen of the aorta and limiting the passage of the large valve delivery system sheath, the obstruction can be managed by stenting the calcification against the luminal wall under fluoroscopic and intravascular-ultrasound guidance, allowing successful passage of the valve delivery system. The elevator technique allows axial transportation of any calcified vascular fragments, should they become dislodged. PMID:26429853

  12. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta predicts cardiovascular events: a transesophageal echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havasi Kálmán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Previous studies have shown that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a good marker of coexisting coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the presence of atherosclerosis on the descending aorta during TEE has any prognostic impact in predicting cardiovascular events. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 238 consecutive in-hospital patients referred for TEE testing (135 males, 103 females, mean age 58 +/- 11 years with a follow up of 24 months. The atherosclerotic lesions of the descending aorta were scored from 0 (no atherosclerosis to 3 (plaque >5 mm and/or "complex" plaque with ulcerated or mobile parts. Results Atherosclerosis was observed in 102 patients, (grade 3 in 16, and grade 2 in 86 patients whereas 136 patients only had an intimal thickening or normal intimal surface. There were 57 cardiovascular events in the follow-up period. The number of events was higher in the 102 patients with (n = 34 than in the 136 patients without atherosclerosis (n = 23, p =2 (HR 2.4, CI 1.0–5.5 predicted hard cardiovascular events. Conclusion Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta observed during transesophageal echocardiography is a useful predictor of cardiovascular events.

  13. Evaluation of the atherosclerotic change in the ascending aorta using helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical usefulness of helical computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in the ascending aorta. Eighteen subjects are examined. Contrast-enhanced helical CT was performed before and after the operation of the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Forty six histological samples of the ascending aorta were obtained from the sites where the saphenous grafts were anastomosed and classified microscopically into 3 histological grade; grade 1: mainly intimal fibrosis (n=38), grade 2: mainly atheroma (n=6) and grade 3: mainly calcification (n=2). In comparison with CT images, all the portions of the aortic walls with grade 2 and 3 showed low density areas, while any of those with grade 1 did not reveal the low density areas along the inner margin of the aortic wall. However, the walls with grade 2 and those with grade 3 were not able to be differentiated on CT images. Three dimensional reconstructed images clearly demonstrated the spatial distribution of atheromatous changes and calcification in the ascending aorta. In conclusion, helical CT is clinically useful for the evaluation of the atherosclerotic changes in the ascending aorta. (author)

  14. Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Stok; B.E. Westerhof; J.M. Karemaker

    2006-01-01

    Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise. J Appl Physiol 101: 1207-1214, 2006. First published June 1, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00876.2005.-Noninvasive finger blood pressure has become a surrogate for central blood pressure under widely varying circumstances

  15. Relationship between aneurism of ascending part of aorta and syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osovska N.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the main reasons for the development of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and predictors of its complications in patients of all ages. To determine the cause and age-associated risk factors for aneurysms there were examined 154 patients with the presence of the expansion of the root and / or ascending aorta of more than 40 mm, according to echocardiographic examination. Patients were divided into 4 categories by age: 18-29 years, 30-44 years 45-59 years 60-74 years. Instrumental methods of examination: echocardiography, ECG, ECG monitoring and blood pressure, heart rate variability, ultrasound of internal organs were used. Syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia was established according to the criteria of the working group of the British Society of Rheumatology. Joint hypermobility syndrome was determined according to the Brayton criteria. Statistical processing was carried out by methods of variation statistic program StatSoft "Statistica" v.10.0. It was established that in young and middle aged patients the cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta more often is connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. In older patients the main cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased contractile function of the heart.

  16. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and decsecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  17. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  18. Ascending aorta false aneurysm as a late complication of aortic valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilbija Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. False aneurysms of the ascending aorta represent a rare but potentially fatal complication of cardiac surgical procedures. Predisposing factors are aortic dissection, infection, connective tissue disorders, chronic hypertension, aortic calcifications and aortotomy dehiscence. At the beginning they are usually asymptomatic, but later various symptoms arise as a consequence of vital structures compression. Potential risk of rupture rises with time and pseudoaneurysm enlargement. From surgical point of view treatment of such cases represents a unique challenge because of the great danger of inadvertent opening of the aneurysm during resternotomy. Case Outline. A 58-year-old female patient underwent aortic valve replacement due to severe aortic stenosis in 2004. Operation and postoperative recovery were uneventful. Three years later she started complaining about chest pain. On chest X-ray there was upper mediastinal widening. CT scan showed a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta located in front of the right atrium and right ventricle, which was subsequently verified by angiography. During redo operation the pseudoaneurysm was successfully resected and aorta closed with separate ethybond sutures with pledgets. Conclusion. Postoperative pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta mostly arise from the suture lines. The most useful diagnostic procedures are contrast CT scan, echocardiography, angiography and MRI. Surgical intervention is absolutely indicated. The institution of cardiopulmonary bypass by alternative ways before chest opening is strongly recommended.

  19. Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 ± 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 ± 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients

  20. MRI and ultrasonography of atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 53 elderly participants aged more than 60 the thoracic aorta and bilateral carotid arteries were observed with noninvasive techniques, MRI and ultrasonography, in order to elucidate the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in the elderly. Hypercholesterolemic subjects were classified as group H (serum total cholesterol (TC)>220 mg/dl), group H-I (220 mg/dl< TC<250 mg/dl) and group H-II (TC≥250 mg/dl). Atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta were observed in 46% of group H, 27% of group H-I, 60% of group H-II and 37% of normolipidemic subjects (group NL). Carotid atherosclerotic changes were observed in 19% of group H, 9% of group H-I, 27% of group H-II and 18% of group NL. In group H-I, the percentages of atherosclerotic changes in both thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were lower than those in group NL. However, atherosclerotic changes of thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were detected in 43% and 29% of the subjects showing higher apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 among group H-I+NL (TC<250 mg/dl). These changes occurred in 32% and 13% of the subjects showing lower apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 among the same groups. Namely, atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were observed more frequently in the subjects showing a higher apo B/Apo A1 ratio than 1.0 even if their serum cholesterol values were not higher than 250 mg/dl. We should use not only the serum cholesterol value but also the apo B/Apo A1 ratio as an indicator to evaluate the roles of lipids in the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  1. The role of extracellular and intracellular proteolytic systems in aneurysms of the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Isabella; Schack, Stephanie; Richter, Manfred; Stock, Ulrich A; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are an outstanding challenge to clinicians as they may persist asymptomatic until they present with dissection or rupture. Intensive research is performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms causing aneurysm formation. Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal cysteine proteases which are classically activated by calcium signaling. The two major forms of the calpain-family are calpain-I and calpain-II. Calpastatin specifically inhibits the proteolytic activity of calpain-I and -II. Recently it has been demonstrated in aneurysm tissues from ascending aortas obtained from Marfan syndrome patients that calpain-II expression is increased and calpastatin expression is decreased. Thus, we were interested in the probable role of calpains in aneurysms of ascending aorta in non-Marfan patients. Therefore, ascending aortic samples of dilated and non-dilated aortas were analyzed according to their calpain-I, -II and calpastatin content as well as the expression levels of MMPs and elastin as well as the infiltration of inflammatory cells. We have found significant differences in calpain-I and calpastatin protein expression and serum levels in patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Furthermore, MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression levels correlate with calpain-I protein levels. Due to our findings we conclude that calpain-1 seems to be related to fibrotic alteration in aortic aneurysm tissue in our experimental group. The change in calpain-1 modulates the structure of aortic tissue causing alteration in elastin structure, thus enabling macrophage infiltration and elevation of MMP levels. Circulating levels of calpain-1 may be used as a prognostic marker in the future if further correlation analyses are done. PMID:26582478

  2. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  3. Ultra-sonografia da aorta abdominal e de seus ramos em cães Ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its branches in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kamikawa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som bidimensional e o ultra-som Doppler foram utilizados para avaliar a biometria e a hemodinâmica da aorta abdominal e artérias ilíacas externas de 131cães clinicamente normais. Os resultados da avaliação biométrica da aorta abdominal indicaram um diâmetro médio de 0,80cm para o seu segmento diafragmático (AOD; 0,74cm para o seu segmento caudal às artérias renais (AOR e 0,69cm para o segmento cranial à sua bifurcação (AOT. A artéria ilíaca externa direita (AIED apresentou o diâmetro médio de 0,42cm e a artéria ilíaca externa esquerda (AIEE o diâmetro médio de 0,39. O estudo hemodinâmico da aorta abdominal apresentou velocidade de pico sistólico médio de 104,00cm/s para AOR; 99,61cm/s para AOT; 85,47cm/s para AIED e 99,51cm/s para AIEE. Verificaram-se correlações de diferentes intensidades entre os diâmetros vasculares em diferentes pontos de tomadas e os fatores biométricos corpóreos (CRL. Correlações baixas foram observadas quando esses diâmetros foram confrontados com a idade.A duplex ultrasound system incorporating a pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound probe with conventional B-mode real-time imaging was used to evaluate the biometric and the hemodynamic of abdominal aorta and external iliac arteries of a hundred and thirty one normal dogs. Results of biometrics of abdominal aorta, presented a mean diameter of 0.80cm in its diaphragmatic segment (AOD; 0.74cm in its segment caudal to the renal arteries (AOR and 0.69cm in the segment cranial to its termination (AOT. The right-external-iliac artery (AIED presented a mean diameter of 0.42cm and the left-external iliac artery (AIEE a mean diameter of 0.39cm. The hemodynamic study of the abdominal aorta presented a medium systolic peak velocity to AOR of 104cm per sec.; to AOT of 99.61cm per sec.; to AIED of 85.47cm per sec. and to AIEE of 99.51cm per sec. Correlations of different intensities between the vascular diameters have been verified between the

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta after aortic valve replacement Pseudoaneurisma de la aorta ascendente después de sustitución valvular aórtica

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    Pedro Pupo Suárez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are a rare and serious complication of cardiovascular surgery that requires a surgical solution of urgency due to its high complexity. A case of a 40 year old female, white skin color, that due to severe aortic regurgitation underwent surgical treatment for aortic valve replacement. During the immediate postoperative period began with a fever, he made a meticulous study that included contrast computed tomography, through which diagnosed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta, was taken to the operating room, they found two sacks pseudoaneurismatics at the site where the suture was carried out previous.Los pseudoaneurismas postquirúrgicos ascendentes de la aórtica, son una rara y grave complicación de la cirugía cardiovascular que requiere de una solución quirúrgica de máxima urgencia debido a su alta complejidad. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 40 años de edad, de sexo femenino, de color de piel blanca, que producto de una insuficiencia aórtica severa se sometió a tratamiento quirúrgico, para realizar una sustitución valvular aórtica. Durante el periodo postoperatorio mediato comenzó con un cuadro febril, se le realizó un estudio minucioso que incluyó tomografía axial computarizada contrastada, por medio de la cual se diagnosticó la presencia de un pseudoaneurisma de la aorta ascendente, fue llevada al quirófano, se encontraron dos sacos pseudoaneurismáticos en el sitio donde se realizó de la aortorrafía anterior.

  5. Reconstrução da aorta com conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Salles

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1989 a maio de 1997, 40 pacientes portadores de dissecção aórtica, aneurisma da aorta, coarctação da aorta ou doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca foram submetidos a reconstrução da aorta utilizando-se conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado processado em glutaraldeído. A reconstrução total da aorta ascendente com substituição da valva aórtica e reimplante das artérias coronárias foi realizada em 9 pacientes, a simples substituição da aorta ascendente em 6, aorta torácica descendente em 2, arco aórtico em 1, aorta toracoabdominal em 1 e a aorta abdominal foi reconstruída em 21, incluindo pacientes submetidos a reconstrução aorto-ilíaca ou aorto-femoral. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 8 (20% pacientes e as causas de óbito foram baixo débito cardíaco, recidiva da dissecção aórtica, falência de múltiplos órgãos e sangramento. O seguimento total foi de 128,4 pacientes-anos, com um seguimento médio de 4 anos por paciente. Complicações tardias relacionadas ao conduto vascular foram observadas em 4 pacientes, incluindo obstrução de um dos ramos do tubo bifurcado utilizado para reconstrução aorto-femoral e infecção em 3, resultando em degeneração secundária do conduto e formação de pseudo-aneurisma. Os 4 pacientes foram submetidos a reoperações, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,1% ± 1,6% por paciente/ano. Ocorreram 5 óbitos tardios e as causas foram morte súbita, doença coronariana, pneumonia, septicemia e complicações metabólicas resultantes de diabetes e insuficiência renal crônica, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,9% ± 1,7% por paciente/ano. A sobrevida atuarial em 9 anos foi 61,5% ± 9,2%, incluindo a mortalidade cirúrgica e a sobrevida atuarial livre de degeneração tissular estrutural primária do conduto biológico foi de 100%. O corrugamento do pericárdio, resultante da incorporação do princípio crimping utilizado nas próteses vasculares sint

  6. Tuberculous Pseudoaneurysm of the Descending Thoracic Aorta from Tuberculous Aortitis: CT Findings and Treatment with an Endovascular Stent Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculous pseudoaneurysms of the aorta are rare entities that have been reported as fatal complications requiring early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe a case of a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta in a patient with miliary tuberculosis. The computed tomography findings of a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm and outcomes of treatment with endovascular stent graft are described. Tuberculous pseudoaneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta were treated with endovascular stent graft. However, perigraft recurrence of tuberculosis after cessation of antituberculous drugs led to surgical treatment.

  7. Forensic expertise of thoracic aorta, heart and pericardial injuries in car-occupant fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Forensic expertise has not specified with certainty any specific injury among fatally injured frontal car-occupants in frontal car collisions. Objective. To establish if blunt injuries of thoracic aorta, heart, and pericardium could be used as predictors where the fatally injured car-occupant was at the moment of car-collision. Methods. A retrospective autopsy study was performed. The subjects were fatally injured car-drivers, front-seat and rearseat passengers in head-on car collisions. In each of them we analyzed the injuries of thoracic aorta, heart and pericardium. Results. 492 subjects were analyzed (378 male and 104 female: 239 car-drivers, 194 front-seat and 49 rear-seat passengers. The isthmus of aorta was the commonest site of simple blunt rupture among car-drivers and front-seat passengers. Among more than half of the observed subject, there was aortic blunt rupture as concomitant injury with heart and pericardium injuries. Heart and pericardium ruptures were most common among fatally injured car-drivers. Most frequently injured part of the heart was the right atrium. Injuries of thoracic aorta, heart and pericardium indicated a higher probability that the fatally injured would be the car-driver (λ=0.818; df=2; p=0.011, λ=0.906; df=2; p=0.000, and λ=0.951; df=2; p=0.000; this was also pointed out by the rupture of the right atrium and multiple ruptures of the thoracic aorta (λ=0.966; df=2; p=0.000 and λ=0.918; df=2; p=0.009. The concomitant injuries of the thoracic aorta with thoracic spine, sternum and heart pointed out that the injured person was the car-driver (λ=0.971; df=4; p=0.007, λ=0.974; df=4; p=0.013 and λ=0.958; df=4; p=0.000, as well as the concomitant injuries of heart and sternal fracture (λ=0.960; df=4; p=0.001. The probability of about 80% that the fatally injured person in head-on collisions was a car-driver was pointed out by concomitant blunt thoracic aorta rupture with fractured sternum and

  8. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: rogerinhofurtado@gmail.com [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  9. Simultaneous stent implantation for coarctation of the aorta and closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer duct occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, F; Hawelleh, A A; Goussous, Y; Hijazi, Z M

    1999-05-01

    We report on a 13-year-old girl with coarctation of the aorta and patent ductus arteriosus who underwent successful simultaneous stent implantation for the coarctation and catheter closure of the ductus using an Amplatzer duct occluder. PMID:10385155

  10. The effects of Vigna unguiculata on cardiac oxidative stress and aorta estrogen receptor-β expression of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etik Khusniyati

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: V. unguiculata is an alternative therapy in decreasing cardiac oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats. Besides, high dose of V. unguiculata also able to increase aorta estrogen receptor-β expression in ovariectomized rats.

  11. Endogenous regulation of angiogenesis in the rat aorta model. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicosia, R F; Lin, Y. J.; Hazelton, D.; Qian, X.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat aorta model of angiogenesis. Freshly cut aortic rings generated microvascular outgrowths in serum-free collagen gel culture. Angiogenesis was reduced to 10% when the explants were embedded in collagen 10 to 14 days after excision from the animal. Immunochemical studies of conditioned medium demonstrated secretion of VEGF by the aortic cultures. Levels of VEGF decreased during the seco...

  12. Doppler echocardiographic measurement of flow velocity in the ascending aorta during supine and upright exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, P J; Sagar, K B; Wann, L S

    1985-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography was used to measure stroke volume, peak flow velocity, and acceleration of flow in the ascending aorta in 10 healthy young volunteers during unlimited supine bicycle exercise and upright treadmill exercise. High quality studies were obtained in all subjects through the suprasternal notch acoustic window; there was no appreciable degradation in Doppler signal caused by interference by increased respiration or chest wall motion. Stroke volume index increased from 54 ml/...

  13. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: computed tomography may be a dangerous waste of time.

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth-White, M. J.; Buckenham, T.; Treasure, T

    1994-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta is a justifiably feared condition. Some authors have proposed the use of computed tomography as a non-invasive means of diagnosis. We report two cases where computed tomographic scans were misinterpreted, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate referrals. The pitfalls of using a cross-sectional imaging technique to diagnose a transverse lesion and the relative ease and accuracy of aortography are discussed.

  14. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Gueye Lamine; Sarr Bocar; Diop Doudou; Wele Alassane; Kane Modou O; Ngom Saliou; Sarr Mamadou; Andriantsitohaina Ramaroson; Diallo Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, ...

  15. Successful treatment of persistent chylopericardium with somatostatin after operation on ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Saziye; Rager, Olivier; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2014-04-01

    Chylopericardium after intrathoracic surgical procedures rarely occurs. Optimal guidelines for the management of chylopericardium are lacking. In this case report, we describe our experience in treating chylopericadium with somatostatin in a 47-year-old man who underwent replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valvuloplasty after aortic rupture. Postoperatively, a late tamponade was drained, and microbiologic analyses confirmed chyle. Conservative treatment including total parental nutrition failed, so we initiated somatostatin treatment as a continuous perfusion, with good results. PMID:24694457

  16. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. (paper)

  17. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Tufiño; Cleva Villanueva-López; Maximiliano Ibarra-Barajas; Ismael Bracho-Valdés; Rosa Amalia Bobadilla-Lugo

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD) induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks duri...

  18. Effects of the pregnant uterus on the abdominal aorta and its branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pregnant uterus was found to exert pressure upon the lumbar region with a maximum over the midline of the lordosis and diminishing laterally. Those parts of the arterial system formed by the aorta and its dorsal branches and displaceable at autopsy, were accordingly dislodged by the uterus, whereas the fixed parts were compressed. The pressure effects extended cranially during pregnancy. Symptoms of compression can be relieved by avoiding supine and prone positions. (Auth.)

  19. Role of surgery in the management of the adult patient with coarctation of the aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnarine, I

    2005-01-01

    Adult patients with coarctation of the aorta have a range of clinical presentations. These include the presence of additional cardiovascular anomalies (predominantly aortic valve abnormality) and presentation with complications after coarctation repair in childhood (such as recurrent coarctation or aneurysm formation). Developments in endovascular technology over the past decade may potentially reduce the morbidity from open surgical repair. However, some cases are unsuitable for endovascular...

  20. Forensic expertise of thoracic aorta, heart and pericardial injuries in car-occupant fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Forensic expertise has not specified with certainty any specific injury among fatally injured frontal car-occupants in frontal car collisions. Objective. To establish if blunt injuries of thoracic aorta, heart, and pericardium could be used as predictors where the fatally injured car-occupant was at the moment of car-collision. Methods. A retrospective autopsy study was performed. The subjects were fatally injured car-drivers, front-seat and rearseat passengers in head-on car co...

  1. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  2. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  3. An unusual origin of proximal coronary bypass anastomosis in a patient with porcelain aorta: How we solved the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Pavle; Velicki Lazar; Redžek Aleksandar; Golubović Miodrag; Till Viktor; Ivanović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Severe calcification of the ascending aorta (porcelain aorta) is a very difficult condition in cardiac surgery because of a high embolization potential during the process of cannulation, aortic cross-clamping and a particular difficulty to suture the proximal anastomosis. We described a case of a 68-year-old female referred to our Institute due to unstable angina. Further diagnostics revealed a severe high grade, multilevel fibrolipid symptomatic carotid stenosis and ostial left main co...

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of inferior vena cava/abdominal aorta diameter index: a new approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Ahmad, Rashidi; Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Mohammed, Mohammad Iqhbal

    2016-01-01

    Background We designed this study to expand the usage of ultrasound to detect early occurrence of hypovolemia. We explore the potential use of inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) diameter index (IVC:AA) measured ultrasonographically to detect class 1 hypovolemic shock with blood loss less than 15%.ᅟ Methods The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the diameter of inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta in blood donors by using ultrasound, pre and post blood donation....

  5. Bolus timing in high-pitch CT angiography of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeres, Martin, E-mail: beeres@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Loch, Matthias, E-mail: MatthiasLoch@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulz, Boris, E-mail: boris.schell@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Kerl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kerl@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Al-Butmeh, Firas, E-mail: Firas.Albutmeh@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: bbodelle@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Herrmann, Eva, E-mail: Herrmann@Med.Uni-Frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana, E-mail: tatjanagruber2004@yahoo.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Lee, Clara, E-mail: Clara.Lee@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Jacobi, Volkmar, E-mail: Volkmar.Jacobi@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the bolus geometry in high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta without ECG synchronisation in comparison to single-source CT. Methods: Overall 160 consecutive patients underwent CTA either in conventional single-source mode with a pitch of 1.2 (group 1), or in dual-source mode with a pitch of 3.0 (groups 2, 3 and 4) using different contrast media timings with bolus triggering at 140 HU (5 s, group 1; 10 s, group 2; 12 s, group 3; 14 s, group 4). Contrast material, saline flush, flow rate and kV/mAs settings were kept equal for optimum comparability. Aortic attenuation was measured along the z-axis of the patient at different anatomic landmarks and subjective image quality was compared. Results: The most homogeneous enhancement of the aorta was reached with a delay of 10 s after reaching the trigger threshold. The imaging length was not significantly different, but the examination time was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter in the high-pitch group (7.7 s vs. 1.7 s for group 1 vs. 2, 3 and 4). Conclusion: In high-pitch CT angiography using a start delay of 10 s after a trigger threshold of 140 HU in the descending aorta is reached, a homogenous contrast along the z-axis is accomplished.

  6. Clinical analysis of abdominal aorta block in operation of gynecologic tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yu-lan; TANG Chun-sheng; WEN Ze-qing; YIN Fu-bo; LIU Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effects of the abdominal aorta block in controlling haemorrhage during operations of the gynecologic tumor. Methods: From July 1965 to January 2005, we collected patients (n= 49) of gynecologic tumor complicated with haemorrhage during operations, who were divided into 3 groups: preventive blocking group (PG, n= 12), treatment blocking group (TG, n= 20) used abdominal aorta block technique with sterilized cotton band and silica gel tube, and control group (CG, n=17) which were used the regular haemostatic methods, such as ligature, suture and ribbon gauze packing.During operations, the vital signs including the amount of bleeding and transfusion were measured. Results: Compared with the CG, the amount of bleeding and transfusion in the PG and TG decreased significantly (P<0.01). After using the technique, 32 cases of haemorrhage were controlled completely. All patients finished operation smoothly in the end and the vital signs were stable. The vision field of operation was clear and the operating time was shortened dramatically (3.0 h vs 5.7 h and 3.8 h vs 5.7 h, P<0.01). No complications caused by the block occurred in the post-operation. Conclusion: Lower abdominal aorta block is safe and effective in controlling haemorrhage during operations of the gynecologic tumor.

  7. Morphological description of collateral branches from the abdominal aorta of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Costa Macedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamandua tetradactyla, Xenarthra, is a native species from South America which, due to the few number of studies on its biology, still has many unknown aspects in its morphology. Taking into account the importance of morphological data for various studies, this paper aimed to elucidate the branching of the abdominal aorta in this species to foster the development of further studies. To do this, 4 specimens were used, 2 male and 2 female, all young, from the Bauxite Mine – Paragominas, Para, Brazil, donated after death due to running over to the Animal Morphology Research Laboratory (LaPMA of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a formaldehyde solution (10%, and then dissected, in order to evidence the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches. The parietal branches consisted of 1 pair of caudal phrenic arteries, 2 pairs of intercostal arteries, and 3 pairs of lumbar arteries. Among the visceral branches, stood out: celiac artery; cranial mesenteric artery; adrenal arteries; renal arteries; caudal mesenteric artery; and external, internal, and median sacral iliac arteries, formed from the final portion of the abdominal aorta. Testicular and ovarian arteries originated from the renal arteries, differing from that described in various species.

  8. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  9. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  10. Aneurisma de aorta com ruptura para esôfago Aortic aneurysm rupture into the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano da Silveira de Barcellos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de aneurisma de aorta descendente com ruptura para o esôfago que, após aortoplastia com interposição de tubo de dacron e rafia da laceração esofágica, evoluiu com fístula esôfago pleural no terceiro dia pós-operatório. A paciente necessitou de reintervenção e cuidados intensivos, reabilitando-se adequadamente. A propósito deste caso incomum e do aprendizado adquirido no seu manejo, revisamos a literatura a fim de discutir a melhor alternativa de correção desta rara e, freqüentemente, fatal forma de apresentação das doenças da aorta.We present the case of a patient with a descending aorta aneurysm rupture into the esophagus, which, after aortoplasty with Dacron tube interposition and suture of esophageal laceration, developed a pleural-esophagus fistula on the 3rd postoperative day. She needed re-intervention and intensive care, followed by adequate recovery. Considering this unusual case and the knowledge acquired through its management, we reviewed the literature in order to discuss the best alternative for the correction of this rare and often fatal form of presentation of aortic diseases.

  11. Decellularized aorta of fetal pigs as a potential scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-feng; HE Zhi-juan; YANG Da-ping; HAN Xue-feng; GUO Tie-fang; HAO Chen-guang; MA Hui; NIE Chun-lei

    2008-01-01

    Background For cardiovascular tissue engineering, acellularized biomaterials from pig have been widely investigated. Our purpose was to study mechanical properties and biocompatibility of decellularized aorta of fetal pigs (DAFP) to determine its potential as scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.Methods Descending aorta of fetal pigs was removed cells using trypsin, ribonuclease and desoxyribonuclease. Mechanical properties of DAFP were evaluated by tensile stress-strain and burst pressure analysis. Assessment of cell adhesion and compatibility was conducted by seeding porcine aortic endothelial cells. To evaluate biocompatibility in vivo, DAFP was implanted subcutaneously into adult male Sprague Dawley rats for 2, 4 and 8 weeks.Results Histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy examination of DAFP revealed well-preserved extracellular matrix proteins and porous three-dimensional structures. Compared with fresh aorta, DAFP had similar ultimate tensile strength, axial compliance and burst pressure. Cell culture studies in vitro showed that porcine aortic endothelial cells adhered and proliferated on the surfaces of DAFP with excellent cell viability. Subdermal implantation demonstrated that the DAFP did not show almost any immunological reaction and exhibited minimal calcification during the whole follow-up period.Conclusion The DAFP has the potential to serve as scaffolds for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.

  12. Procyanidins in crataegus extract evoke endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Kang, K W; Kim, K W; Kim, N D

    2000-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus, a mixture of flavonoids and procyanidins extracted from hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha, L. and C. monogyna Jacq., relaxed vascular tone or increased production of cyclic GMP in the rat aorta, but flavonoid components of Crataegus extract, hyperoside, rutin and vitexin, did not affect the vascular tone. The aim of the present study was to characterize the endothelium-dependent relaxation elicited by procyanidins fractionated from Crataegus extract in isolated rat aorta. Procyanidins caused endothelium-dependent relaxation which was associated with the production of cyclic GMP. Both responses to these procyanidins were inhibited by methylene blue or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, but not by indomethacin. Relaxation in response to procyanidins was not affected by atropine, diphenhydramine, [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]substance P, propranolol, nifedipine, verapamil and glibenclamide, but were markedly reduced by tetraethylammonium. These findings showed that procyanidins in Crataegus extract may be responsible for the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in isolated rat aorta, possibly via activation of tetraethylammonium-sensitive K+ channels. PMID:10901280

  13. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  14. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  15. Úlcera penetrante de aorta ascendente en un paciente asintomático Penetrating ascending aortic ulcer in an asymptomatic patient

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    A. Bayona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La úlcera penetrante de aorta (UPA es la ulceración de una placa aterosclerótica que afecta a la lámina elástica interna de la aorta, y que puede evolucionar hacia un hematoma de pared o una disección aórtica si se produce el paso de sangre hacia la capa media. A pesar de que se localiza más frecuentemente en la aorta descendente, puede presentar una alta mortalidad en caso de situarse en la aorta ascendente, donde la cirugía está indicada aunque el paciente se encuentre asintomático. Presentamos el caso de un paciente sin sintomatología con úlcera penetrante de aorta ascendente (UPAA ascendente sometido a sustitución de aorta ascendente por una prótesis vascular.Penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU has been defined as an atherosclerotic plaque ulceration that breaks the internal elastic lamina of the aorta, which may progress to a wall hematoma or aortic dissection in case of blood seeping into the middle layer. Although PAU is commonly located in the descending aorta, the involvement of the ascending aorta can be fatal. Therefore, surgery is indicated even in asymptomatic patients presenting an ascending PAU. We report on an asymptomatic patient with ascending PAU referred for replacement of the ascending aorta with a composite prosthetic graft.

  16. Analysis of the thoracic aorta using a semi-automated post processing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entezari, Pegah, E-mail: p-entezari@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Kino, Aya, E-mail: ayakino@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Honarmand, Amir R., E-mail: arhonarmand@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Galizia, Mauricio S., E-mail: maugalizia@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Yang, Yan, E-mail: yyang@vitalimages.com [Vital images Inc, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Collins, Jeremy, E-mail: collins@fsm.northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Yaghmai, Vahid, E-mail: vyaghmai@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Carr, James C., E-mail: jcarr@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: To evaluates a semi-automated method for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) measurement using ECG-gated Dual Source CT Angiogram (DSCTA). Methods: This retrospective HIPAA compliant study was approved by our IRB. Transaxial maximum diameters of outer wall to outer wall were studied in fifty patients at seven anatomic locations of the thoracic aorta: annulus, sinus, sinotubular junction (STJ), mid ascending aorta (MAA) at the level of right pulmonary artery, proximal aortic arch (PROX) immediately proximal to innominate artery, distal aortic arch (DIST) immediately distal to left subclavian artery, and descending aorta (DESC) at the level of diaphragm. Measurements were performed using a manual method and semi-automated software. All readers repeated their measurements. Inter-method, intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were evaluated according to intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman plot. The number of cases with manual contouring or center line adjustment for the semi-automated method and also the post-processing time for each method were recorded. Results: The mean difference between semi-automated and manual methods was less than 1.3 mm at all seven points. Strong inter-method, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was recorded at all levels (ICC ≥ 0.9). The maximum rate of manual adjustment of center line and contour was at the level of annulus. The average time for manual post-processing of the aorta was 19 ± 0.3 min, while it took 8.26 ± 2.1 min to do the measurements with the semi-automated tool (Vitrea version 6.0.0.1 software). The center line was edited manually at all levels, with most corrections at the level of annulus (60%), while the contour was adjusted at all levels with highest and lowest number of corrections at the levels of annulus and DESC (75% and 0.07% of the cases), respectively. Conclusion: Compared to the commonly used manual method, semi-automated measurement of vessel dimensions is

  17. The implantation of separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to assess the technical feasibility of implanting separating stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta and to study its biocompatibility. Methods: Twelve adult dogs were randomly and equally divided into three groups. The right femoral artery was cut open, through which the separating stent-graft was inserted and deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, with the proximal end of the graft being quite close to the origin of the left subclavian artery. the technical feasibility of the deployment process was assessed. Angiography was performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement to evaluate the position and patency of the stent-graft. Then the dogs were sacrificed and the specimens were collected for pathologic study. Both gross and microscopic examinations were made to evaluate the fixation of the stent-graft with the vessel wall, the endothelialization of stent-graft surface and the pathologic changes of the vascular wall. Results: A total of ten separating stent-grafts were successfully deployed in the canine thoracic aorta, no migration or deformation occurred. One dog died of massive bleeding due to the rupture of the right femoral artery which occurred when the delivery system containing the inner bare stent was inserted through the right femoral artery. Death occurred in another dog as a result of the ascending aorta rupture caused by the migration of outer-layer stent-graft. Angiography was conducted at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after stent-graft placement. No migration, deformation, rupture or stenosis of the implanted stent-grafts were observed. The formation of intima on the inner surface of the bare stent appeared at 4 weeks, which became more and more obvious with the time passing, and at 12 weeks complete endothelialization of stent-graft surface was observed. Conclusion: Technically, it is feasible to deploy the separating aortic stent-graft into the canine thoracic aorta. Moreover, the separating aortic stent-graft carries excellent

  18. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  19. Analysis of the thoracic aorta using a semi-automated post processing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluates a semi-automated method for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) measurement using ECG-gated Dual Source CT Angiogram (DSCTA). Methods: This retrospective HIPAA compliant study was approved by our IRB. Transaxial maximum diameters of outer wall to outer wall were studied in fifty patients at seven anatomic locations of the thoracic aorta: annulus, sinus, sinotubular junction (STJ), mid ascending aorta (MAA) at the level of right pulmonary artery, proximal aortic arch (PROX) immediately proximal to innominate artery, distal aortic arch (DIST) immediately distal to left subclavian artery, and descending aorta (DESC) at the level of diaphragm. Measurements were performed using a manual method and semi-automated software. All readers repeated their measurements. Inter-method, intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were evaluated according to intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman plot. The number of cases with manual contouring or center line adjustment for the semi-automated method and also the post-processing time for each method were recorded. Results: The mean difference between semi-automated and manual methods was less than 1.3 mm at all seven points. Strong inter-method, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was recorded at all levels (ICC ≥ 0.9). The maximum rate of manual adjustment of center line and contour was at the level of annulus. The average time for manual post-processing of the aorta was 19 ± 0.3 min, while it took 8.26 ± 2.1 min to do the measurements with the semi-automated tool (Vitrea version 6.0.0.1 software). The center line was edited manually at all levels, with most corrections at the level of annulus (60%), while the contour was adjusted at all levels with highest and lowest number of corrections at the levels of annulus and DESC (75% and 0.07% of the cases), respectively. Conclusion: Compared to the commonly used manual method, semi-automated measurement of vessel dimensions is

  20. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah A Ghareib,1 Hany M El-Bassossy,1,2 Ahmed A Elberry,3,4 Ahmad Azhar,5 Malcolm L Watson,6 Zainy Mohammed Banjar7 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 5Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1, and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 µM on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 µM, guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 µM, calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM, and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 µM were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6

  1. Aortoscopia no tratamento das dissecções agudas da aorta Aortoscopy in the treatment of acute dissecting aneurysms of the aorta

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    Gladyston SOUTO

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 , foram operados 10 pacientes portadores de dissecção aguda da aorta (DA Ao 4 do tipo A e 6 do tipo B. O sexo masculino predominou e a idade dos pacientes variou de 34 a 78 anos. Em todos foram realizadas aortoscopias usando hipotermia profunda com parada circulatória total. Usou-se um gastroscópio, obtendo visão do lume da Ao, sendo que todos os pacientes tinham menos que 15 dias da doença. No tipo A, havia re-entrada abaixo da subclávia esquerda em 2 pacientes e, nos outros 2, na bifurcação das ilíacas. No tipo B, havia re-entrada ao nível das renais em 2 pacientes e, ao nível da bifurcação da Ao e das ilíacas, em 4. Em 2 pacientes do tipo A, a aortoscopia orientou na colocação de uma "Tromba de Elefante" como complemento. Nos outros 2, orientou na inversão do sentido da linha arterial. No tipo B, orientou na perfeita colocação da "Tromba de Elefante" e, em 4 pacientes, utilizamos a aortoscopia como complemento diagnóstico. O tempo utilizado na aortoscopia não alterou a morbimortalidade. Podemos concluir que a aortoscopia é um método de diagnóstico rápido, com boa definição das alterações anatômicas da Ao, permitindo um tratamento efetivo. Nos casos agudos instáveis podemos dispensar alguns exames pré-operatórios para não retardarmos a operação. O diagnóstico da re-entrada nos seguimentos inferiores da Ao ajuda a evitar a dissecção retrógrada. Acreditamos que a aortoscopia poderá, no futuro, ser de grande ajuda no diagnóstico e tratamento das DA Ao, bem como de outras lesões da Ao.From January to December 1998, ten patients with dissecting aneurysms of the Aorta (ADA Ao were operated on, 4 type A and 6 type B. Males predominated and ages ranged from 34 to 78 years. In all of them aortoscopy was performed with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. A gastroscope was used with visualization of the aortic lumen and all patients had less than 15 days of disease

  2. Tratamento cirúrgico da coarctação de aorta pela aortoplastia trapezoidal Surgical treatment of coarctation of the aorta using trapezoidal aortoplasty

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    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A aortoplastia trapezoidal é uma variante técnica da anastomose término-terminal que, amparada em elementos da geometria, objetiva aumentar o diâmetro da aorta ao nível da sutura reduzida e, consequentemente, a manutenção de gradientes pressóricos residuais ou recorrentes indesejáveis a curto e a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Após a ressecção da área coarctada e tecido ductal, são confeccionados em cada coto aórtico 3 trapezóides que, ao serem confrontados, criam linha de sutura com aspecto sinusoidal (zigue-zague. Foram operados por esta técnica 33 pacientes, a maioria homens, com idades variando de 3 meses a 36 anos (m 9,5 ± 9,7. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreu mortalidade imediata ou tardia e o tempo de evolução a longo prazo foi de 1,1 a 7,6 anos (m 3,6 ± 3,4. A maioria dos pacientes ficou assintomática com níveis normais de pressão arterial, possibilitando a descontinuação da terapêutica antihipertensiva (pOBJECTIVE: Trapezoidal aortoplasty is a technical variant of end-to-end anastomosis, which, based on elements of geometry, aims at increasing the diameter of the aorta at the level of the suture, therefore reducing the occurrence of residual or recurrent pressure gradients in the short and long run. METHODS: After resecting the coarcted area and ductal tissue, 3 trapezoids are confected in each aortic stump, which, when confronted, create a suture line with a sinusoidal aspect (zigzag. Thirty-three patients underwent surgery with this technique, 22 (66.7% males, with ages ranging from 3 months to 36 years (mean of 9.84 ± 9.69. RESULTS: No immediate or late deaths occurred. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 7.6 years (mean of 3.6 ± 3.4. Most patients became asymptomatic with normal blood pressure levels, enabling the discontinuation of antihypertensive therapy (P<0.0001. A significant reduction in the pressure gradients was observed on Doppler echocardiography and during cardiac catheterization (P<0.001. The analysis of

  3. A theory for water and macromolecular transport in the pulmonary artery wall with a detailed comparison to the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhongqing; Jan, Kung-Ming; Rumschitzki, David S

    2012-04-15

    The pulmonary artery (PA) wall, which has much higher hydraulic conductivity and albumin void space and approximately one-sixth the normal transmural pressure of systemic arteries (e.g, aorta, carotid arteries), is rarely atherosclerotic, except under pulmonary hypertension. This study constructs a detailed, two-dimensional, wall-structure-based filtration and macromolecular transport model for the PA to investigate differences in prelesion transport processes between the disease-susceptible aorta and the relatively resistant PA. The PA and aorta models are similar in wall structure, but very different in parameter values, many of which have been measured (and therefore modified) since the original aorta model of Huang et al. (23). Both PA and aortic model simulations fit experimental data on transwall LDL concentration profiles and on the growth of isolated endothelial (horseradish peroxidase) tracer spots with circulation time very well. They reveal that lipid entering the aorta attains a much higher intima than media concentration but distributes better between these regions in the PA than aorta and that tracer in both regions contributes to observed tracer spots. Solutions show why both the overall transmural water flow and spot growth rates are similar in these vessels despite very different material transport parameters. Since early lipid accumulation occurs in the subendothelial intima and since (matrix binding) reaction kinetics depend on reactant concentrations, the lower intima lipid concentrations in the PA vs. aorta likely lead to slower accumulation of bound lipid in the PA. These findings may be relevant to understanding the different atherosusceptibilities of these vessels. PMID:22198178

  4. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

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    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  5. Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Farrerol Correlates with Potency to Reduce Intracellular Calcium of VSMCs

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    Xiaojiang Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug.

  6. Factors associated with calcification of the thoracic aorta determined by three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with the development of vascular calcification of the thoracic aorta determined by three-dimensional computed tomography. Computed tomography (Light Speed 16 from General Electric Company) using contrast medium was performed in 46 hemodialysis patients (29 males and 17 females). The volume of the thoracic aorta, 10 cm caudal part from the bifurcation of the trachea, and the volume of the vascular calcification were determined using the software, Advantage Workstation 4.2. Calcification index (CS) was defined as the ratio of the volume of the vascular calcification to the volume of the thoracic aorta. The association of annual changes in CS (ΔCS) with multiple factors was examined. ΔCS showed positive correlation with the product of average corrected serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) for one year, Whole parathyroid hormone (PTH), maximal thickness of the intima-media complex of the carotid artery (Max IMT), pulse-wave velocity, and age. Stepwise multiple regression analysis disclosed that ΔCS was predictable from Whole PTH, Max IMT, and Ca·P product. ΔCS did not correlate with average serum Ca, P, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), osteocalcin (OC), ucOC/OC, pentosidine, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, average systolic blood pressure for one year, radial cortical bone density, or dialysis duration. ΔCS was not significantly different between males and females, diabetics and non-diabetics, smokers and non-smokers, patients with and without vitamin D injection, or patients with and without cinacalcet hydrochloride. Our data suggest that the important factors associated with development of vascular calcification are Ca·P product, PTH, and Max IMT. (author)

  7. Intramural haematoma of the thoracic aorta: who's to be alerted the cardiologist or the cardiac surgeon?

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    Papadopoulos Georgios S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article is written so as to present the pathophysiology, the symptomatology and the ways of diagnosis and treatment of a rather rare aortic disease called Intra-Mural Haematoma (IMH. Intramural haematoma is a quite uncommon but potentially lethal aortic disease that can strike as a primary occurrence in hypertensive and atherosclerotic patients to whom there is spontaneous bleeding from vasa vasorum into the aortic wall (media or less frequently, as the evolution of a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU. IMH displays a typical of dissection progress, and could be considered as a precursor of classic aortic dissection. IMH enfeebles the aortic wall and may progress to either outward rupture of the aorta or inward disruption of the intima layer, which ultimately results in aortic dissection. Chest and back acute penetrating pain is the most commonly noticed symptom at patients with IMH. Apart from a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE, a tomographic imaging such as a chest computed tomography (CT, a magnetic resonance (MRI and most lately a multy detector computed tomography (MDCT can ensure a quick and accurate diagnosis of IMH. Similar to type A and B aortic dissection, surgery is indicated at patients with type-A IMH, as well as at patients with a persistent and/or recurrent pain. For any other patient (with type-B IMH without an incessant pain and/or without complications, medical treatment is suggested, as applied in the case of aortic dissection. The outcome of IMH in ascending aorta (type A appears favourable after immediate (emergent or urgent surgical intervention, but according to international bibliography patients with IMH of the descending aorta (type B show similar mortality rates to those being subjected to conservative medical or surgical treatment. Endovascular surgery and stent-graft placement is currently indicated in type B IMH.

  8. Heartbeat-related distension and displacement of the thoracic aorta in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test our hypothesis that distension and displacement in various segments of the healthy thoracic aorta are significant and can be predicted based on clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: Sixty-one Caucasian volunteers without cardiovascular disease (49 ± 16 years, range 19–82; 28 men, 33 women) divided into two age groups (A: <50, B: ≥50 years) underwent 1.5-T MRI. ECG-gated dynamic data sets were acquired at five locations perpendicular to the thoracic aorta. Aortic distension and Centre of Mass (CoM) displacement were determined as percentages of diastolic aortic diameter. A multiple linear regression model including age group, gender, location, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index was tested. Results: Mean aortic distension averaged over all locations was 11.2 ± 4.1% (age group A) and 6.7 ± 3.3% (age group B), mean displacement 15.1 ± 8.3% (A) and 11.0 ± 6.2% (B). Systolic and diastolic aortic diameter and CoM position significantly differed at all locations (p < 0.001). Distension and displacement could be predicted based on the regression model (p < 0.001). Age group A and women exhibited significantly greater distension and displacement compared to age group B (p < 0.001) and men (p < 0.01), respectively. Distension increased, displacement decreased from proximal to distal. Conclusion: Distension and translational displacement are significant at all levels of the thoracic aorta and can be predicted based on clinical characteristics.

  9. Vasa vasorum in the tunica media and tunica adventitia of the porcine aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonar, Zbyněk; Tomášek, Petr; Loskot, Petr; Janáček, Jiří; Králíčková, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2016-05-01

    Vasa vasorum supply both the tunica adventitia and the tunica media of major arteries with nutrients and oxygen. We estimated the density of von Willebrand factor-positive profiles of vasa vasorum visible in transversal histological sections of 123 tissue samples collected from five anatomical positions in the porcine aortae of growing pigs (n=25). The animals ranged in age from 0 to 230 days. The tunica media of the thoracic aorta had a greater vasa vasorum density, with microvessels penetrating deeper towards the lumen than in the abdominal aorta. The density of vasa vasorum gradually decreased with age in both the media and the adventitia. The relative depth into which the vasa vasorum penetrated and where they branched remained constant during the ageing and growth of the media. The ratio of the tunica media and tunica adventitia thicknesses did not change in the single aortic segments during ageing. The media of older animals received fewer but equally distributed vasa vasorum. A greater density of vasa vasorum in the media was correlated with greater media thickness and a greater elastin fraction (data on elastin taken from another study on the same samples). Immunohistochemical quantification revealed deeper penetration of vasa vasorum towards the adluminal layers of the tunica media that were hitherto reported to be avascular. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, have been made available as a supplement. Mapping of the vasa vasorum profile density and position has promising illustrative potential for studies on atherosclerotic and inflammatory neovascularization, aortic aneurysms, and drug distribution from arterial stents in experimental porcine models. PMID:26844625

  10. Intramural haematoma of the thoracic aorta: who's to be alerted the cardiologist or the cardiac surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Apostolakis, Efstratios E; Siminelakis, Stavros N; Papadopoulos, Georgios S; Goudevenos, John

    2009-01-01

    This review article is written so as to present the pathophysiology, the symptomatology and the ways of diagnosis and treatment of a rather rare aortic disease called Intra-Mural Haematoma (IMH). Intramural haematoma is a quite uncommon but potentially lethal aortic disease that can strike as a primary occurrence in hypertensive and atherosclerotic patients to whom there is spontaneous bleeding from vasa vasorum into the aortic wall (media) or less frequently, as the evolution of a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU). IMH displays a typical of dissection progress, and could be considered as a precursor of classic aortic dissection. IMH enfeebles the aortic wall and may progress to either outward rupture of the aorta or inward disruption of the intima layer, which ultimately results in aortic dissection. Chest and back acute penetrating pain is the most commonly noticed symptom at patients with IMH. Apart from a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a tomographic imaging such as a chest computed tomography (CT), a magnetic resonance (MRI) and most lately a multy detector computed tomography (MDCT) can ensure a quick and accurate diagnosis of IMH. Similar to type A and B aortic dissection, surgery is indicated at patients with type-A IMH, as well as at patients with a persistent and/or recurrent pain. For any other patient (with type-B IMH without an incessant pain and/or without complications), medical treatment is suggested, as applied in the case of aortic dissection. The outcome of IMH in ascending aorta (type A) appears favourable after immediate (emergent or urgent) surgical intervention, but according to international bibliography patients with IMH of the descending aorta (type B) show similar mortality rates to those being subjected to conservative medical or surgical treatment. Endovascular surgery and stent-graft placement is currently indicated in type B IMH. PMID:19793400

  11. A practical MRI technique for detecting Abdominal Aorta Aneurism and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Aktas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral Arterial Disease(PAD and abdominal aorta aneurysm(AAA are frequent problems in geriatric population. In DSA, CTA or MRA techniques contrast agents has to be used for diagnosis that can be nephrotoxic for elderly patients. Magnetic resonans imaging (MRI is the most powerful, non-ionising radiological diagnostic tool that has the highest soft tissue contrast resolution. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectivity of MRI by the means of detecting the AAA and PAD in comparison with DSA. Material and Method: After getting ethical commitee approvel and informed consent, we have performed Balanced turbo field echo(B-TFE MRI technique without contrast agent in 1.5 Tesla MRI device before DSA examination. The luminal diameters of renal arteries, infrarenal abdominal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was measured by using Philips DICOM Viewer R2.2 application. The intraclass corelation coefficient and reliability used to check if the techniques could be used for each other and the t-test was used to measure the differences between them. Results: There has been a high relationship between B-TFE and DSA in detecting the pathologies of larger arteries like aorta. In the case of small arterial pathologies, there is relatively lower relationship between BTFE and DSA. Discussion: For the diagnosis of AAA and PAD, DSA is the gold standart technique but it is invasive and patients have radiation exposure. In the follow up of geriatric patients with larger arterial pathologies B-TFE can be used instead of contrast enhanced MRA and invasive DSA.

  12. Iterative Otsu's method for OCT improved delineation in the aorta wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Daniel; Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José F.; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-07-01

    Degradation of human ascending thoracic aorta has been visualized with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the vessel wall exhibit structural degradation in the media layer of the artery, being this disorder the final trigger of the pathology. The degeneration in the vessel wall appears as low-reflectivity areas due to different optical properties of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides in contrast with typical ordered structure of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT dimension indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker can offer in the future a real-time clinical perception of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas can be delimited by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not optimum in the aorta samples and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded areas within the aorta wall, robust to noisy environments, based on the iterative application of Otsu's thresholding method. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies compared with the simple application of the algorithm. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  13. [Comparative transcriptome analysis of human aorta atherosclerotic lesions and peripheral blood leukocytes from essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, A V; Goriunova, L E; Khaspekov, G L; Il'inskaia, O P; Sirotkin, V N; Andreeva, E R; Tararak, E M; Bulkina, O S; Buza, V V; Britareva, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Bibilashvili, R Sh

    2009-01-01

    One of the major cardiovascular risk factor which predisposes to and accelerates atherosclerosis is arterial hypertension (AH). To determine the molecular basis of the crosslink between AH and atherosclerosis for the development of new treatment strategies large-scale transcriptome analysis of the cells implicated in atherogenesis is needed. We used cDNA microarray technique for simultaneous analysis of gene expression in human abdominal aorta normal sites and atherosclerotic lesions of different histological types, as well as in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with essential hypertension (EH) and donors. The microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical analysis. Differential expression of 40 genes has been found, among which twenty two genes demonstrated up-regulation and 18 genes demonstrated down-regulation in atherosclerotic aorta compared with normal vessel. New gene-candidates, implicated in atherogenesis, have been identified - FPRL2, CD37, CD53, RGS1, LCP1, SPI1, CTSA, EPAS1, FHL1, GEM, RHOB, SPARCL1, ITGA8, PLN, and COL14A1. These genes participate in cell migration and adhesion, phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells, immune and inflammatory reactions, oxidative processes and extracellular matrix remodeling. We have found increased expression levels of CD53, SPI1, FPRL2, SPP1, CTSD, ACP5, LCP1, CTSA and LIPA genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from EH patients and in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta. The majority of these genes significantly (p0.5) correlated with AH stage as well as with histological grading of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19772500

  14. Human fetal aorta-derived vascular progenitor cells: identification and potential application in ischemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Invernici, Gloria; Madeddu, Paolo; Emanueli, Costanza; Parati, Eugenio A.; Alessandri, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the formation of blood vessels in embryonic or fetal tissue mediated by immature vascular cells (i.e., angioblasts), is poorly understood. Here we report a summary of our recent studies on the identification of a population of vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) in human fetal aorta. These undifferentiated mesenchymal cells co-express endothelial and myogenic markers (CD133+, CD34+, KDR+, desmin+) and are localized in outer layer of the aortic stroma of 11–12 weeks old human fetu...

  15. The influence of thyroid states upon responses of the rat aorta to catecholamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekera, R. D.; Kuriyama, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Mechanical responses to various stimulants and the distribution of adrenoceptor subtypes were investigated in smooth muscle cells of the rat aorta in eu- (control), hyper- and hypo-thyroid states. 2. Concentration-response relationships for K showed that the KCl EC50 value was slightly higher (28.4 mM K) in hypothyroid than in euthyroid and hyperthyroid states (22.5 mM and 22.8 mM K, respectively). The order of maximum amplitudes of KCl contraction was control greater than hypothyroid grea...

  16. Constrictive responses of aorta in irradiated rats: influence of hypoxia and anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amplification of constrictive responses of vessels after exposure of rats to a low dose gamma radiation (50 cGy at a dose rate of 2.8*10-7 Gy per sec) is defined mainly by decrease in relaxation influences of the endothelium. Vasoactive properties of endothelial cells are the deciding factor of changes of responses of aorta during the action of agonists of adrenergic receptors in conditions of hypoxia and anoxia. During insufficient oxygen supply, as opposed to conditions of oxygenation, post-radiation destabilization of endothelial mechanisms of adrenergic control of arterial vessels tone is observed. (authors)

  17. Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes from aortas of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Part 1. Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, T P; Augustyn, J M; Fritz, K E

    1978-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes were isolated from rabbit aortas exhibiting nearly confluent cholesterol-induced foam cell lesions by extraction with 0.15 M NaCl. Purification and characterization was achieved by gel chromatography, non-ionic differential flotation and by cellulose polyacetate electrophoresis. Analysis showed that these complexes consisted of very low density lipoproteins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-C and hyaluronic acid. The demonstration that rabbit intimal foam cell lesions contain extractable glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes makes this animal model an excellent tool for further studies on the role of these complexes in the atherogenic process. PMID:215171

  18. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  19. Aneurisma de aorta com ruptura para esôfago Aortic aneurysm rupture into the esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano da Silveira de Barcellos; Paulo Ceratti de Azambuja; Marcelo Kunh Momolli; Clóvis Manfredini Rigoni; Marcelo Lopes; Henrique Biavatti; Wagnes Franceschi; Claudio Borges Fortes

    2008-01-01

    Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de aneurisma de aorta descendente com ruptura para o esôfago que, após aortoplastia com interposição de tubo de dacron e rafia da laceração esofágica, evoluiu com fístula esôfago pleural no terceiro dia pós-operatório. A paciente necessitou de reintervenção e cuidados intensivos, reabilitando-se adequadamente. A propósito deste caso incomum e do aprendizado adquirido no seu manejo, revisamos a literatura a fim de discutir a melhor alternativa de c...

  20. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    OpenAIRE

    Orelio, C.; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there are gaps in our understanding of the processes taking place in the AGM at the time of HSC emergence. To identify genes involved in AGM HSC emergence, we performed differential display reverse transcriptase-polymeras...

  1. Experimental myocardial hypertrophy induced by a minimally invasive ascending aorta coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascending aorta coarctation was produced by a minimally invasive technique in rabbits. Animal mortality was 5%. Morphometric and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. A parabiotically isolated heart model was used to assess the hemodynamic parameters. Left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and muscle area showed clear evidence of hypertrophy when compared to control. The hemodynamic changes in the isolated heart model suggested decreased diastolic and systolic function in the coarcted group. The present model produced hypertrophy with low mortality rates as a result of its less invasive nature.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling and highly refined mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes strategies and techniques to perform modeling and automatic mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics (adventitia, media and intima walls), using open source codes. The models were constructed in the Blender package and Python scripts were used to export the data necessary for the mesh generation in TetGen. The strategies proposed are able to provide meshes of complicated and irregular volumes, with a large number of mesh elements involved (12,000,000 tetrahedrons approximately). These meshes can be used to perform computational simulations by Finite Element Method (FEM).

  3. Vasodilator Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and Its Main Constituent Citral in Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Zapata-Sudo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB, a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%, limonene (4.7% and α-pinene (3.4%. Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50 of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05. In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  4. In-vitro investigation of cerebral-perfusion effects of a rotary blood pump installed in the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaienia, Mohammad Amin; Paul, Gordon; Avital, Eldad; Rahideh, Akbar; Rothman, Martin Terry; Korakianitis, Theodosios

    2016-06-14

    This study describes use of a cardiovascular simulator to replicate the hemodynamic responses of the cerebrovascular system with a mechanical circulatory support device operating in the descending aorta. To do so, a cerebral autoregulation unit was developed which replicates the dilation and constriction of the native cerebrovascular resistance system and thereby regulates the cerebral flow rate within defined limits. The efficacy of the replicated autoregulation mechanism was investigated by introducing a number of step alterations in mean aortic pressure and monitoring the cerebral flow. The steady responses of the cerebral flow to changes in mean aortic pressure were in good agreement with clinical data. Next, a rotary pump, modeling a mechanical circulatory support device, was installed in the descending aorta and the hemodynamic responses of the cerebral system were investigated over a wide range of pump operating conditions. Insertion of a mechanical circulatory support device in the descending aorta presented an improved cardiac output as a result of afterload reduction. It was observed that the primary drop in cerebral flow, caused by the pump in the descending aorta, was compensated over the course of five seconds due to a gradual decrease in cerebrovascular resistance. The experimental results suggest that the implantation of a mechanical circulatory support device in the descending aorta, a less invasive procedure than typical mechanical circulatory support implantation, will not have an adverse effect on the cognitive function, provided that the cerebral autoregulation is largely unimpaired. PMID:27155746

  5. An unusual origin of proximal coronary bypass anastomosis in a patient with porcelain aorta: How we solved the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe calcification of the ascending aorta (porcelain aorta is a very difficult condition in cardiac surgery because of a high embolization potential during the process of cannulation, aortic cross-clamping and a particular difficulty to suture the proximal anastomosis. We described a case of a 68-year-old female referred to our Institute due to unstable angina. Further diagnostics revealed a severe high grade, multilevel fibrolipid symptomatic carotid stenosis and ostial left main coronary artery stenosis and a highly calcified ascending aorta and aortic arch. We performed simultaneous carotid segment replacement with the Dacron prosthesis and revascularisation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Proximal venous anastomosis was created in the Dacron prosthesis of the right carotid artery. Perfusion of the patient was achieved via the graft sutured at the right subclavian artery due to impossibility of direct aortic cannulation.

  6. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Fujikake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta.

  7. Aortic valve replacement and ascending aorta replacement in ankylosing spondylitis: report of three surgical cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasuji, M; Hetzer, R; Oelert, H; Stauch, G; Borst, H G

    1982-10-01

    Out of 887 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement between January 1976 and December 1981 at Hannover Medical School Hospital, 3 patients had severe aortic valve insufficiency associated with ankylosing spondylitis (Morbus Bechterew). One of them had huge aneurysmatic dilatation of the ascending aorta and successfully underwent replacement of the ascending aorta by a vascular prosthesis. Microscopical examination of the resected aortic wall showed characteristic findings of aortitis in ankylosing spondylitis. The 3 patients are in good clinical condition at 5 and 6 months, and 2 1/2 years, respectively, after uneventful surgery. It is concluded that aortic valve replacement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis can be performed feasibly and clinical results have been satisfactory. The risk of aneurysmatic dilatation of the ascending aorta resulting from aortitis associated with ankylosing spondylitis is emphasized. PMID:6183782

  8. Paraoxon Attenuates Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction through Inhibiting Ca2+ Influx in the Rabbit Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhong Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of paraoxon on vascular contractility using organ baths in thoracic aortic rings of rabbits and examined the effect of paraoxon on calcium homeostasis using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. The findings show that administration of paraoxon (30 μM attenuated thoracic aorta contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 μM and/or a high K+ environment (80 mM in both the presence and absence of thoracic aortic endothelium. This inhibitory effect of paraoxon on vasoconstrictor-induced contraction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, or in the presence of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil. But atropine had little effect on the inhibitory effect of paraoxon on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Paraoxon also attenuated vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by the cumulative addition of CaCl2 and attenuated an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by K+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, paraoxon (30 μM inhibited significantly L-type calcium current in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that paraoxon attenuates vasoconstrictor-induced contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbits thoracic aorta.

  9. Dilation of the ascending aorta in Turner syndrome - a prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Erik M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of aortic dissection is 100-fold increased in Turner syndrome (TS. Unfortunately, risk stratification is inadequate due to a lack of insight into the natural course of the syndrome-associated aortopathy. Therefore, this study aimed to prospectively assess aortic dimensions in TS. Methods Eighty adult TS patients were examined twice with a mean follow-up of 2.4 ± 0.4 years, and 67 healthy age and gender-matched controls were examined once. Aortic dimensions were measured at nine predefined positions using 3D, non-contrast and free-breathing cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Transthoracic echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were also performed. Results At baseline, aortic diameters (body surface area indexed were larger at all positions in TS. Aortic dilation was more prevalent at all positions excluding the distal transverse aortic arch. Aortic diameter increased in the aortic sinus, at the sinotubular junction and in the mid-ascending aorta with growth rates of 0.1 - 0.4 mm/year. Aortic diameters at all other positions were unchanged. The bicuspid aortic valve conferred higher aortic sinus growth rates (p Conclusion A general aortopathy is present in TS with enlargement of the ascending aorta, which is accelerated in the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of type A dissection of the aorta - an interdisciplinary challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute dissection of the ascending aorta is a life-threatening disease. Successful management requires close teamwork of internal medical specialist, radiologist and cardiovascular surgeon. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach is reviewed on the basis of 18 of our own cases - 15 men and 3 women aged from 42 to 88 years. Peculiarities of history, pain and ECG give valuable clues to the differentiation of aortic dissection from myocardial infarction and massive pulmonary embolism. As a non-invasive rapidly available diagnostic method echocardiography may yield decisive information about the aortic root and the presence of pericardial effusion. Definite confirmation of diagnosis is accomplished by aortography and/or computed tomography. Blood pressure and aortic flow must be decreased to the lowest level tolerated by the patient to prevent pericardial tamponade or rupture into the mediastinum. The urgency of surgical repair is underlined by a median survival time of 12 hours from onset of symptoms to death with conservative treatment. 7 of our patients were operated on. In 6 cases surgery was performed by means of extracorporeal circulation and the ascending aorta was replaced by a graft. 3 patients survived the operation (2 for over 2 years and three died in the postoperative period due to cerebral and pulmonary complications). In one case with inoperable dissection an axillo-femoral bypass was performed for relief of complete ischaemia of the left lower limb. Postoperatively, maintainance of the patient's blood pressure at the low normal level is mandatory. (Author)

  11. Analysis of blood flow dynamics in the abdominal aorta based on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images of the abdominal aorta including peri-renal artery by PCMRA (phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography) were analyzed to calculate WSS (wall shear stress) and its OSI (oscillatory shear index) in order to visually elucidate the cause of aneurysm formation. PCMRA was conducted for acquisitions of vascular morphology in one cardiac cycle of a healthy male 30s with cardiac gating, and of blood flow rates from 3 directions. Images were median-filtered to reduce noises and regions of interest of rectangular parallelepiped were defined to involve the aorta. WSS, the parameter representing the intensity of friction stress to the vessel wall of blood flow, and OSI, the degree of oscillatory WSS change, were calculated firstly by the reported Snake model for the vessel morphology and then by applying its local information to blood flow rate information from 3 directions. Color-displayed images revealed that both WSS and OS were high at the highest incidental region of aortic aneurysm formation around the peri-renal artery. The finding was in good agreement with the result of computed bio-dynamic simulation that the strong WSS by elevated swirling of blood flow is generated at the region. Thus WSS and OS can be significant factors of aneurismal formation, which should be further confirmed from aspects of increased case number and precision. (T.T.)

  12. Delayed rupture of thoracic aorta aneurysm following a kick to the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; De Giorgio, Fabio; Partemi, Sara; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Carbone, Arnaldo

    2009-03-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR) because different mechanical forces act on the aorta, at anatomically susceptible sites, including shearing, torsion and stretching, but the origin, transduction and relative importance of these forces remain uncertain. We report a case of a 74-year-old man injured by a kick to the abdomen. After 2 days he felt chest pain paroxysm and weakness in his left leg. The patient was admitted to an emergency care department where he experienced sudden and severe hemodynamic deterioration, dying rapidly. The autopsy, performed 3 days later, showed haemorragic infarction of hypogastric subcutaneous tissues and revealed an extended dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with following haemopericardium. In our case we considered that a low energy compression to the abdomen, in presence of underlying atherosclerosis, caused aortic dissection rather than rupture and then the 48h time span after the traumatic event and the cardiac tamponade was enough to complete the aortic retrograde dissection. We finally emphasise the importance of the careful surveillance of any trauma close to the abdomen in view of initially unpredictable, as well as eventful injuries. The finding of early signs of neointima formation in thoracoabdominal portions of aortic dissection strongly supported our interpretation. The forensic interest of this case is correlated to the voluntary character of the inflicted injury. The culprit was thus charged with manslaughter. PMID:18849182

  13. Ethanol disrupts the formation of hypochord and dorsal aorta during the development of embryonic zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Linxi; WANG; Yuexiang; JIANG; Qiu; ZHONG; Tao; SONG

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ethanol during human embryonic period has severe teratogenic effects on the cardiovascular system. In our study, we demonstrated that ethanol of gradient concentrations can interfere with the establishment of circulatory system in embryonic zebrafish. The effective concentration to cause 50% malformations (EC50) was 182.5 mmol/L. The ethanol pulse exposure experiment displayed that dome stage during embryogenesis is the sensitive time window to ethanol. It is found that 400 mmol/L ethanol pulse exposure can induce circulatory defects in 43% treated embryos. We ruled out the possibility that ethanol can interfere with the process of hematopoiesis in zebrafish. By employing in situ hybridization with endothelial biomarker (Flk-1), we revealed that ethanol disrupts the establishment of trunk axial vasculature, but has no effect on cranial vessels. Combined with the results of semi-thin histological sections, the in situ hybridization experiments with arterial and venous biomarkers (ephrinB2, ephB4) suggested that ethanol mainly interrupts the development of dorsal aorta while has little effect on axial vein. Further study indicated the negative influence of ethanol on the development of hypochord in zebrafish. The consequent lack of vasculogenic factors including Radar and Ang-1 partly explains the defects in formation and integrity of dorsal aorta. These results provide important clues to the study of adverse effects of ethanol on the cardiovascular development in human fetus.

  14. Hemodynamics in a Pediatric Ascending Aorta Using a Viscoelastic Pediatric Blood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Bryan C; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B

    2016-04-01

    Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of infant death in the United States with over 36,000 newborns affected each year. Despite this growing problem there are few mechanical circulatory support devices designed specifically for pediatric and neonate patients. Previous research has been done investigating pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) assuming blood to be a Newtonian fluid in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, ignoring its viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties. In contrast to adult VADs, PVADs may be more susceptible to hemolysis and thrombosis due to altered flow into the aorta, and therefore, a more accurate blood model should be used. A CFD solver that incorporates a modified Oldroyd-B model designed specifically for pediatric blood is used to investigate important hemodynamic parameters in a pediatric aortic model under pulsatile flow conditions. These results are compared to Newtonian blood simulations at three physiological pediatric hematocrits. Minor differences are seen in both velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) during early stages of the cardiac cycle between the Newtonian and viscoelastic models. During diastole, significant differences are seen in the velocities in the descending aorta (up to 12%) and in the aortic branches (up to 30%) between the two models. Additionally, peak WSS differences are seen between the models throughout the cardiac cycle. At the onset of diastole, peak WSS differences of 43% are seen between the Newtonian and viscoelastic model and between the 20 and 60% hematocrit viscoelastic models at peak systole of 41%. PMID:26159560

  15. Coronary heart disease and the zinc-to-copper ratio in human aorta and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinard, J.T.; Moses, H.A.; Stackhouse, C.; Fludd, R.; Thompson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Trace levels of zinc and copper have been determined in the aorta from individuals with known histories of coronary heart disease (experimental group) and from individuals without a history of heart disease (control group) or any condition with an alleged or known association with trace zinc and copper. Subjects for the experimental and control groups were matched in terms of age, sex, and race. The zinc-to-copper ratio in the aorta for the experimental group was found to be significantly higher than the zinc-to-copper ratio in the control group at the 90% level of confidence. The results suggest that an imbalance in the zinc-to-copper ratio is a risk factor in coronary artery disease. Data for trace elements in major water sources for different geographical areas of the US from 1962-1967 were compiled and correlations with mortality rates for heart diseases from 1969-1971 were made. The results revealed that there was an extremely high correlation between the zinc-to-copper ratio in water and mortality rates of non-white females with coronary heart disease.

  16. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  17. Contraction of rat thoracic aorta strips induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, H.; Lederis, K.

    1987-02-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a slow and progressive increase in tension of rat thoracic aorta strips in the presence of extracellular CaS . Complete relaxation could not be obtained in CaS -free buffer containing 1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(US -aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 10 X M PMA. In the absence of extracellular CaS , PMA (10 X M) induced a small but sustained contraction which was not altered by the addition of another 2 mM EGTA and 3 x 10 V M verapamil. Papaverine (10 U M) relaxed the PMA-induced contraction to the base line, but phentolamine (10 V M), cyproheptadine (10 V M), atropine (10 V M) and tetrodotoxine (10 W M) did not change the contraction. CaS -depleted muscle strips, prepared by four repeated applications of 10 X M norepinephrine in CaS -free buffer, were contracted by 10 X M PMA, but at a lower maximum tension than nontreated strips. The action of PMA on rat aorta strips in CaS -free buffer did not require the presence of the adventitial layer or endothelial cells. These results suggest that PMA may induce activation of protein kinase C and smooth muscle contraction in the absence of extracellular CaS , without an increase in myoplasmic CaS .

  18. Acoustic properties of atherosclerosis of human aorta obtained with high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Y; Sasaki, H; Okawai, H; Nitta, S; Tanaka, M

    1998-09-01

    The ultrasonic properties of the tissue elements in the aorta were measured using a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). Twelve autopsied aortas were formalin-fixed, frozen and sectioned at 10 microm thickness and mounted on glass slides for SAM investigation. A specially developed SAM system operating in the frequency range of 100-200 MHz was employed, and color-coded images of the two-dimensional (2-D) distributions of attenuation and sound speed were displayed. The region-of-interest (ROI) for attenuation and sound speed measurements was determined by comparison of optical and acoustic images. The average value of the slope of attenuation was 0.61 dB/mm/MHz and the sound speed was 1568 m/s in the normal intima; 2.5 dB/mm/MHz, 1760 m/s in the calcificated lesion; 1.7 dB/mm/MHz and 1677 m/s in the fibrosis; and 0.34 dB/mm/MHz, 1526 m/s in the fatty material, respectively. Acoustic microscopy provides the basic data for understanding the IVUS imaging of atherosclerosis, as well as on the pathological features of atherosclerosis. PMID:9809640

  19. Novel tissue-engineered vascular patches based on decellularized canine aortas and their recellularization in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Qiufen [Key Laboratory Advanced Technologies of Material, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang Yi; Ge Dongxia; Wu Jiang [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, West China Center of Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen Huaiqing [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, West China Center of Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: chq@scu.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    Decellularized allo- or xenogeneic vascular grafts have been found to give more promising results than some biodegradable synthetic polymers. However, owing to absence of well-organized cells, especially confluent endothelial cells, their long-term patency is limited. Seeding vessel-originated cells on these grafts may overcome the deficiency. In this study, canine aortas were decellularized and cross-linked. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Masson' trichrome staining showed complete removal of cell debris, while structure integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) was remained. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were seeded on these decellularized aorta patches in three manners, ECs alone (EC/O), SMCs alone (SMC/O) and ECs on SMCs layer (EC/SMC). In EC/O and SMC/O, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated both cells could form confluent layers on the decellularized patches when seeded at high density, but their morphology and alignment changed with seeding density. In EC/SMC, ECs could grow well on SMCs layer, but their morphology, alignment, and confluence degree were deeply influenced by the density of SMCs beneath.

  20. Novel tissue-engineered vascular patches based on decellularized canine aortas and their recellularization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiufen; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Dongxia; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Huaiqing

    2008-11-01

    Decellularized allo- or xenogeneic vascular grafts have been found to give more promising results than some biodegradable synthetic polymers. However, owing to absence of well-organized cells, especially confluent endothelial cells, their long-term patency is limited. Seeding vessel-originated cells on these grafts may overcome the deficiency. In this study, canine aortas were decellularized and cross-linked. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Masson' trichrome staining showed complete removal of cell debris, while structure integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) was remained. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were seeded on these decellularized aorta patches in three manners, ECs alone (EC/O), SMCs alone (SMC/O) and ECs on SMCs layer (EC/SMC). In EC/O and SMC/O, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated both cells could form confluent layers on the decellularized patches when seeded at high density, but their morphology and alignment changed with seeding density. In EC/SMC, ECs could grow well on SMCs layer, but their morphology, alignment, and confluence degree were deeply influenced by the density of SMCs beneath.

  1. Novel tissue-engineered vascular patches based on decellularized canine aortas and their recellularization in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decellularized allo- or xenogeneic vascular grafts have been found to give more promising results than some biodegradable synthetic polymers. However, owing to absence of well-organized cells, especially confluent endothelial cells, their long-term patency is limited. Seeding vessel-originated cells on these grafts may overcome the deficiency. In this study, canine aortas were decellularized and cross-linked. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Masson' trichrome staining showed complete removal of cell debris, while structure integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) was remained. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were seeded on these decellularized aorta patches in three manners, ECs alone (EC/O), SMCs alone (SMC/O) and ECs on SMCs layer (EC/SMC). In EC/O and SMC/O, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated both cells could form confluent layers on the decellularized patches when seeded at high density, but their morphology and alignment changed with seeding density. In EC/SMC, ECs could grow well on SMCs layer, but their morphology, alignment, and confluence degree were deeply influenced by the density of SMCs beneath

  2. Preparation of vulnerable plaques in abdominal aorta: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta by pharmacological triggering of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups: group A, receiving balloon injury together with high lipid diet;group B, receiving high lipid diet only, and group C, receiving regular diet only. After feeding for 12 weeks, all the rabbits in three groups underwent pharmacological triggering with Chinese Russell's viper venom(CRVV) and histamine to induce the rupture of the plaque and the formation of thrombosis. Results: In 8 survival rabbits of group A, ten lesions with the stenotic degree over 50% were found, which had large lipid core with the thickness of fibrous cap being thinner than 65μm, by which these ten lesions were judged as vulnerable plaques. In 9 rabbits of group B, only 3 vulnerable plaques could be determined,while no single vulnerable plaque could be identified in the rabbits of group C. Conclusion: For establishing an animal model of vulnerable plaque in abdominal aorta in rabbits, balloon injury combined with high lipid diet is a feasible and reliable method. (authors)

  3. Mild coarctation of the aorta: to touch or not to touch the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Randles, Amanda; Rikhtegar Nezami, Farhad; Partida, Ramon; Nakamura, Kenta; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Bhatt, Ami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is an aortic obstruction. A peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PKdP) of greater than 20 mmHg warns severe COA and the need for interventional/surgical repair. The optimal method and timing of intervention remain uncertain especially for mild COA (PKdP treatment strategies for mild COA may need to be redefined as transcatheter interventions emerge, benefits of such interventions are unclear. We investigated the effects of transcatheter interventions on the aorta and left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics in 11 patients with mild COA using a developed computational fluid dynamics and lumped parameter modeling framework along with particle image velocimetry and clinical measurements. Such interventions can improve aortic hemodynamics to some extent (e.g., time-averaged wall shear stress and kinetic energy were reduced by about 20%). However there is no concomitant effect on the LV hemodynamics (e.g., stroke work and LV pressure were reduced by only less than 4%). Our computational approach can effectively predict clinical conditions. Herein one must question intervention for mild COA, as it has limited utility in reducing myocardial strain.

  4. Development of early PCLP1-expressing haematopoietic cells within the avian dorsal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonpää, P; Kohonen, P; Koskela, K; Koskiniemi, H; Salminen-Mankonen, H; Lassila, O

    2005-09-01

    The first haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) develop in the dorsal aorta as haematopoietic intra-aortic clusters (HIAC). To evaluate the initial steps of definitive haematopoiesis, we have studied the emergence and the expression profile of podocalyxin-like protein 1 (PCLP1)-expressing cells in early chick embryos. Here we demonstrate that at embryonic day 2 (E2), the PCLP1+ cells are present in the splanchnic mesoderm and in the ventral lining of the paired dorsal aorta. Following aortic fusion at E3, the PCLP1-expressing cells are exclusively found in the aortic floor and as the development proceeds, both the haematopoietic clusters and the aortic endothelial cells express PCLP1. In parallel with the early PCLP1 expression, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression was detected in the splanchnopleura and thereafter in the densely packed mesenchymal cells beneath the HIAC. The microarray analyses of early E3 PCLP1+ cells revealed elevated expression of genes known to be involved in the stem cell function. These data suggest that splanchnopleura-derived PCLP1-expressing cells give rise to the earliest definitive haematopoietic progenitors. PMID:16179008

  5. Thermally treated wine retains vasodilatory activity in rat and guinea pig aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnić, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Jajić, Ivan; Boban, Nataša; Sutlović, Davorka; Jerončić, Ana; Boban, Mladen

    2011-06-01

    In contrast to the intact wine, cardiovascular effects of the thermally treated wine have not been studied, despite widespread habits of cooking with wine and consumption of mulled wine. Vasodilatory effects of the red wine heated at 75 and 125°C were examined in the isolated rat and guinea pig aorta and compared with the intact and wine dealcoholized without thermal stress. Samples were analyzed for their phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, resveratrol and ethanol contents. Heating-induced degradation of individual phenolic fraction was observed only in the samples treated at 125°C, although total phenolic concentration and related antioxidant activity increased in the thermally treated samples due to the reduction in their volume. All wine samples regardless of treatment caused similar maximal relaxation in both species, but the response was stronger in aortas from guinea pigs. At the lowest concentrations up to 1‰, dealcoholized wine produced vasodilation greater than that produced by intact wine and wines treated at 75 and 125°C, which showed similar vasodilating activity at all concentrations. Our results indicate that wine thermally treated under heating conditions applicable to the preparation of a mulled wine and cooking with wine largely retains vasodilatory activity in vitro despite significant heat-induced changes in its composition. PMID:21423027

  6. Resetting of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex 10 years after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.; Perrault, H; Vobecky, S.; Trudeau, F; Delvin, E; Fournier, A; Davignon, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise cardiopulmonary baroreflex responses and examine the effects of a 45 minute cycling bout late after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta.
SUBJECTS—10 young adults (mean (SEM) age 18.1 (2.6 years)) operated on for coarctation of the aorta 12.7 (3.5) years earlier, and 10 healthy controls.
DESIGN—Forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) and vascular resistance, left ventricular internal diastolic diameter, and central venous pressure estimated fro...

  7. Characterization of receptors mediating contraction of the rat isolated small mesenteric artery and aorta to arginine vasopressin and oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Wiro B; Van der Graaf, Pieter H; Saxena, Pramod R

    1998-01-01

    The exact nature of the receptor subtype(s) involved in the action of arg-vasopressin (AVP) on the rat aorta and small mesenteric artery (SMA) is controversial. Therefore, we have studied the effects of the selective V1A receptor antagonists, OPC 21268 and SR 49059, and the oxytocin (OT) receptor antagonist, atosiban, on the AVP- and OT-induced contractions of the two vessels.AVP and OT displayed similar intrinsic activities in the rat aorta and SMA, but AVP was ∼130 fold and ∼500 fold more p...

  8. Endothelial dysfunction in the early- and late-stage type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyama, Emi; Saito, Motoaki; Kinoshita, Yukako; Satoh, Itaru; Dimitriadis, Fotios; SATOH, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    As there are increasing evidences that human diabetes induces cardiovascular dysfunction, we investigated the type-2 diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in the early and late-stage Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat aorta. We performed organ bath studies, and examined the changes in expression levels of muscarinic M(3) receptor, endothelial, inducible, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS, respectively) mRNAs in the rat aorta utilizing real-time polymerase chain reaction in 12-we...

  9. Surgical Treatment of Mitral-Aortic Incompetence and Aneurysm of the Ascending Aorta in a Child with Marfan's Syndrome: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Stellin, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Uberto; Faggian, Giuseppe; Livi, Ugolino; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Frigo, Giuseppe; Gallucci, Vincenzo

    1983-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with Marfan's syndrome developed severe mitral and aortic valve incompetence and aneurysmatic dilatation of the ascending aorta. She underwent successful replacement of the mitral valve, aortic valve, and ascending aorta with coronary reimplantation. After 3 months of follow-up, she continues to be asymptomatic.

  10. CT Angiography of the Aorta: Prospective Evaluation of Individualized Low-Volume Contrast Media Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashigaito, Kai; Schmid, Tabea; Puippe, Gilbert; Morsbach, Fabian; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Husarik, Daniela B

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To prospectively develop individualized low-volume contrast media (CM) protocols adapted to tube voltage in patients undergoing computed tomographic (CT) angiography of the aorta. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board and local ethics committee. All patients provided written informed consent. CT angiography was performed by using automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection (ATVS) (range, 70-150 kVp; 10-kVp increments). Iodine attenuation curves from an ex vivo experiment in a phantom were used to design CM protocols for CT angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta in 129 consecutive patients (hereafter, cohort A). Further modified CM protocols based on results in cohort A were designed with the aim of homogeneous vascular attenuation of 300-350 HU across tube voltages and were applied to another 61 consecutive patients (cohort B). Three independent blinded radiologists assessed subjective image quality, and one reader determined objective image quality. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to test for differences in subjective image quality, and linear regression was performed to test for differences in objective image quality between the automatically selected tube voltages. Results Experiments revealed tube voltage-dependent iodine attenuation curves, which were used to determine the CM protocols in cohort A; these ranged from 68 mL at 110 kVp to 45 mL at 80 kVp. In both cohorts, ATVS selected 80 kVp in 62 patients, 90 kVp in 84, 100 kVp in 33, and 110 kVp in 11. In cohort A, image quality that was satisfactory or better was attained in 126 (98%) of 129 patients who had no significant differences in subjective image quality between tube voltages (P = .106) but who did have significant differences in attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (P < .001 for both). In cohort B, the further-modified CM protocol (from 33 mL at 80 kVp to 68 mL at 110 kVp) yielded image quality that was satisfactory or better

  11. Mechanisms of relaxation induced by flavonoid ayanin in isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Carrón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway.  This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether. Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M.  Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M, L-NAME (10-4 M, L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M, indomethacin (5x10-6 M, dipyridamole (3x10-7 M, glibenclamide (10-6 M, propranolol (10-6 M, verapamil (10-7 M or atropine (3x10-5 M.  In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M. Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05, an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME.  L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME.  Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response.  Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation.  Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh, while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.

  12. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide in aorta from ovariectomized senescent mice. Role of cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gómez, Xavier; Novella, Susana; Pérez-Monzó, Isabel; Garabito, Manel; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Medina, Pascual

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of aging and/or ovariectomy on vascular reactivity to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor stimulation with U46619, and the modulation by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in aorta from female senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) and from senescence resistant mice (SAMR1). Five-month-old female SAMR1 and SAMP8 were divided into three groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized and ovariectomized plus estradiol. Twenty-eight days after surgery, thoracic aortic rings were mounted for isometric recording of tension and concentration-response curves for U46619 (10(-10)-3×10(-7)M) were performed in the absence and in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4)M) and/or COX inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5)M). Vascular superoxide production was detected by dihydroethidium staining on sections of thoracic aorta. NO bioavailability in response to U46619 was suppressed by estrogen withdrawn in young and senescent mice and was restored by the administration of estradiol. In the presence of indomethacin, contractions to U46619 decreased in all groups indicating an aging- and estrogen-dependent modulation of contractile prostanoids. The simultaneous incubation of L-NAME and indomethacin did not change the maximal responses and sensitivities to TXA2 in any group in comparison with untreated aortic segments. The superoxide generation induced by TXA2 was greater in aorta from SAMP8 than in SAMR1. Moreover, in ovariectomized groups superoxide production was further increased and treatment with 17β-estradiol reverted the effects of the ovariectomy. Inhibition of COX with indomethacin prevented the U46619-induced increase in superoxide formation. Our results indicate that NO bioavailability in response to TP receptor activation is both estrogen- and aging-dependent. TXA2 induced contractions are partially mediated by COX activation. Both aging and ovariectomy enhanced COX-dependent component of the TXA2

  13. Ministernotomy approach for surgery of the aortic root and ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Sossio; Lentini, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    Different minimally invasive approaches have been proposed for cardiac surgery. Between those, the ministernotomy finds wide consensus for the treatment of the aortic disease, being both the upper reversed T and the upper J the mostly used type of incisions. The authors review the literature on the use of ministernotomy in the treatment of the ascending aorta and arch pathology. The scientific literature was reviewed by searching Medline, the Cochrane Library and the CINAHL database. A total of 1411 papers were found in Medline, 186 in the Cochrane database and 514 in CINAHL database; 50 papers were used to write the article; of which seven represent the most significant papers on the subject. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patients group studied, relevant outcomes, and the results of these papers are tabulated. The ministernotomy is gaining consensus among surgeons. The indication to surgery, initially restricted only to selected elective patients, is now extended to more complex surgeries, including both the aortic root and aortic arch, redo-operations and, in minor cases, to emergency patients. Furthermore, the use of ministernotomy in redo aortic surgery with patent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) artery is a promising alternative. However, the use of this technique is still limited to few institutions and there are still a limited number of studies comparing this approach to full sternotomy in a prospective, randomized fashion. Even with those limitations, from the review of the literature, it seems that ministernotomy approach for aortic root and ascending aorta surgery is a feasible alternative, showing some advantages compared to full sternotomy. Those advantages include: reduced postoperative bleeding and pain, lower risk of mediastinitis, better aesthetic results, and faster respiratory function recovery. This is true not only for first time surgery, but also, and especially, for redo cases

  14. RETROGRADE CEREBRAL PERFUSION AS METHOD OF BRAIN PROTECTION DURING OPERATIONS ON ASCENDING AND TRANSVERSE AORTA WITH HYPOTHERMIC CIRCULATORY ARREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tarabarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no optimal approach to cerebral protection during ascending and transverse aortic arch repairs in our days. This study was designed to analyze experience of using retrograde cerebral perfusion as method of brain protection during operations on ascending and transverse aorta with hypothermic circulatory arrest. 

  15. Cardiac-synchronized gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography: preliminary experience for the evaluation of the thoracic aorta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldfarb, J.W.; Holland, A.E.; Heijstraten, F.M.J.; Skotnicki, S.H.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced three-dimensional breath-hold magnetic resonance cardiac-synchronized angiography was performed in 13 patients suspected or known to have thoracic aortic disease. High-quality angiograms of the ascending/descending thoracic aorta and coronary arteries were obtained with this

  16. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of macrophages and dendritic cell subsets in the healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElenaVGalkina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis continues to be the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Development of atherosclerosis depends on chronic inflammation in the aorta and multiple immune cells are involved in this process. Importantly, resident macrophages and dendritic cells are present within the healthy aorta, but the functions of these cells remain poorly characterized. Local inflammation within the aortic wall promotes the recruitment of monocytes and dendritic cell precursors to the aorta and micro-environmental factors direct the differentiation of these emigrated cells into multiple subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. Recent data suggest that several populations of macrophages and dendritic cells can co-exist within the aorta. Although the functions of M1, M2, Mox and M4 macrophages are well characterized in vitro, there is a limited set of data on the role of these populations in atherogenesis in vivo. Recent studies on the origin and the potential role of aortic dendritic cells provide novel insights into the biology of aortic dendritic cell subsets and prospective mechanisms of the immune response in atherosclerosis. This review integrates the results of experiments analyzing heterogeneity of dendritic cells and macrophage subsets in healthy and diseased vessels and briefly discusses the known and potential functions of these cells in atherogenesis.

  17. Prosthetic Subclavian-Aortic Bypass as a Safe Surgical Technique for the Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Refatllari

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Coarctation of the aorta in adults is treated with optimal early results at our surgical centre. Subclavian-aortic bypass grafting requires less aortic dissection, can be performed with a partially occluding clamp, and does not compromise the spinal cord vascularization.

  18. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. (author)

  19. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, S.; Satomi, G. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Heart Inst. and Hospital)

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of the in vivo Abdominal Aorta: A Feasibility Study for Comparing Aortic Stiffness between Hypertensives and Normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, Arunark; Woodrum, David; Araoz, Philip A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to identify hypertensive changes in the abdominal aorta when compared to normotensives based on the stiffness measurements. Methods MRE was performed on 8 volunteers (4 normotensives and 4 hypertensives) to measure the effective stiffness of the abdominal aorta. MRE wave images are directionally filtered and phase gradient analysis was performed to determine the stiffness of the aorta. Student’s t-test was performed to determine significant difference in stiffness measurements between normotensives and hypertensives. Results The normotensive group demonstrated an average abdominal aortic stiffness of 3.7 ± 0.8 kPa, while the controlled-hypertensive demonstrated an average abdominal aortic stiffness of 9.3 ± 1.9kPa. MRE effective stiffness of abdominal aorta in hypertensives was significantly greater than that of normotensives with p=0.02. Conclusion Feasibility of in vivo aortic MRE is demonstrated. Hypertensives have significantly higher aortic stiffness assessed through MRE than normotensives. PMID:22045617

  1. Orientation, anisotropy, clustering and volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within the wall of porcine abdominal aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonar, Z.; Kochová, P.; Janáček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 145-156. ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NR8863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : aorta * stereology * histology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  2. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  3. Patient-Specific Simulation Models of the Abdominal Aorta With and Without Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand

    thick-walled cylinder allowing for inspection of the stress distributions inside the wall. The 4FF model characterizes the mechanical behavior. The blood is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. The fluid and solid models were implemented in a commercially available finite element software...... computational simulation models incorporating subject-specific geometry of the abdominal aorta (AA) as well as subject-specific blood flow conditions. The geometry was acquired from magnetic resonance imaging, and the blood flow characteristics were acquired from ultrasound. The solid AA wall was modeled as a....... The goal of third study was to evaluate the predictability of the 4FF model. This was achieved by combining subject-specific blood flow and age-matched material parameters of the 4FF model in a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. The predicted wall dynamics were compared to in vivo wall dynamics...

  4. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we propose the AORTA architecture for making agents organization-aware. It is designed...... such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how the agents can coordinate their...

  5. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making......Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... agents organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss...

  6. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance

  7. Deletion of Metallothionein Exacerbates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative and Inflammatory Injury in Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to explore the effect of metallothionein (MT on intermittent hypoxia (IH induced aortic pathogenic changes. Markers of oxidative damages, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were observed by immunohistochemical staining after 3 days and 1, 3, and 8 weeks after IH exposures. Endogenous MT was induced after 3 days of IH but was significantly decreased after 8 weeks of IH. Compared with the wild-type mice, MT knock-out mice exhibited earlier and more severe pathogenic changes of oxidative damages, inflammatory responses, and cellular apoptosis, as indicated by the significant accumulation of collagen, increased levels of connective tissue growth factor, transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1,3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the aorta. These findings suggested that chronic IH may lead to aortic damages characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, and MT may play a pivotal role in the above pathogenesis process.

  8. Automated Detection of Healthy and Diseased Aortae from Images Obtained by Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gayhart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We developed the next stage of our computer assisted diagnosis (CAD system to aid radiologists in evaluating CT images for aortic disease by removing innocuous images and highlighting signs of aortic disease. Materials and Methods. Segmented data of patient’s contrast-enhanced CT scan was analyzed for aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU. Aortic dissection was detected by checking for an abnormal shape of the aorta using edge oriented methods. PAU was recognized through abnormally high intensities with interest point operators. Results. The aortic dissection detection process had a sensitivity of 0.8218 and a specificity of 0.9907. The PAU detection process scored a sensitivity of 0.7587 and a specificity of 0.9700. Conclusion. The aortic dissection detection process and the PAU detection process were successful in removing innocuous images, but additional methods are necessary for improving recognition of images with aortic disease.

  9. Abdominal aorta aneurysm: Case report of high radiation dose during stent-graft implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a case report regarding a possible problem of high radiation dose during stent-graft implantation. Before deciding on how to treat an aneurysm (stent grafting or traditional surgery), possible complications such as difficult anatomical conditions and diseases of the aorta and iliac arteries should be considered to avoid potentially high doses of radiation. In case of this patient, it was very difficult to introduce a guidewire through the contralateral limb into the body of the graft due to tortuosity and kinking of iliac arteries. Because of the long duration of the procedure (68 min), the patient was exposed to a very high radiation dose (4.37 Gy) and DAP (1760.3 Gy cm2)

  10. Trimodality Therapy for an Advanced Thymic Carcinoma With Both Aorta and Vena Cava Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momozane, Tohru; Inoue, Masayoshi; Shintani, Yasushi; Funaki, Soichiro; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Minami, Masato; Shirakawa, Yukitoshi; Kuratani, Toru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    A case of locally advanced thymic carcinoma that was successfully resected with the great vessels after chemoradiation therapy is reported. A 57-year-old man with Masaoka stage III thymic carcinoma received two cycles of cisplatin/docetaxel and 60 Gy irradiation. The response was stable disease with 19% size reduction, and a radical resection with the ascending aorta and superior vena cava with the patient under circulatory arrest with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has been free of disease for 28 months. Trimodality therapy with use of a cardiovascular surgical procedure might be a valuable option in locally advanced thymic carcinoma. PMID:27449450

  11. Functional interaction between TRP4 and CFTR in mouse aorta endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droogmans Guy

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the functional interaction between the putative Ca2+ channel TRP4 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, in mouse aorta endothelium (MAEC. Results MAEC cells express CFTR transcripts as shown by RT-PCR analysis. Application of a phosphorylating cocktail activated a Cl- current with characteristics similar to those of CFTR mediated currents in other cells types (slow activation by cAMP, absence of rectification, block by glibenclamide. The current is present in trp4 +/+ MAEC, but not in trp4 -/- cells, although the expression of CFTR seems unchanged in the trp4 deficient cells as judged from RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions It is concluded that TRP4 is necessary for CFTR activation in endothelium, possibly by providing a scaffold for the formation of functional CFTR channels.

  12. Elastic characterization of swine aorta by scanning acoustic microscopy at 30 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Christopher; Shelke, Amit; Kundu, Tribikram; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of blood vessel walls are important determinants of physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system. Acoustic imaging (B mode) is routinely used in a clinical setting to determine blood flow and wall distensibility. In this study scanning acoustic microscopy in vitro is used to determine spatially resolved tissue elastic properties. Broadband excitation of 30 MHz has been applied through scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) for topographical imaging of swine thoracic aorta in reflection mode. Three differently treated tissue samples were investigated with SAM: a) treated with elastase to remove elastin, b) autoclaving for 5 hours to remove collagen and c) fresh controlled untreated sample as control. Experimental investigations are conducted for studying the contribution of individual protein components (elastin and collagen) to the material characteristics of the aortic wall. Conventional tensile testing has been conducted on the tissue samples to study the mechanical behavior. The mechanical properties measured by SAM and tensile testing show qualitative agreement.

  13. Calcified aneurysm of the abdominal aorta 12 years after umbilical artery catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondiaux, Eleonore; Miquel, Julie [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Thomas, Pascale; Watelet, Jacques [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Vascular Surgery, Rouen (France); Laloum, Denis [Caen University Hospital, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neonatal Medicine, Caen (France); Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine et Pharmacie, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen Cedex 01 (France)

    2008-02-15

    We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain and who was found to have an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). The patient was born from a quadruplet pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization. Postnatal transient respiratory distress required assisted ventilation that had been monitored by two consecutive umbilical arterial catheters (UAC). AAA is a rare condition in childhood. Infection and/or trauma are known to be the most frequent causes. Most of the reported cases have occurred in children in whom a UAC had been placed during the neonatal period. In this patient the delay between UAC placement and diagnosis was considerable. At the time of this report the patient had remained well during a follow-up of 8 years after treatment. (orig.)

  14. Calcified aneurysm of the abdominal aorta 12 years after umbilical artery catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain and who was found to have an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). The patient was born from a quadruplet pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization. Postnatal transient respiratory distress required assisted ventilation that had been monitored by two consecutive umbilical arterial catheters (UAC). AAA is a rare condition in childhood. Infection and/or trauma are known to be the most frequent causes. Most of the reported cases have occurred in children in whom a UAC had been placed during the neonatal period. In this patient the delay between UAC placement and diagnosis was considerable. At the time of this report the patient had remained well during a follow-up of 8 years after treatment. (orig.)

  15. Approach to the patient with bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, José T; Shin, David D; Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2006-12-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is a common congenital heart valve abnormality accounting for a large number of valve replacements in the United States. Although still incompletely understood, the natural history of BAV disease is severe aortic stenosis and associated ascending aortic dilatation. In addition to the increased risk of endocarditis, aortic dissection and severe aortic valve dysfunction are responsible for most fatal complications. Thus, early and precise recognition of this condition is mandatory. The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations highlight the role of MRI and CT as complimentary tools to echocardiography for the diagnosis and surveillance of the morphology of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. Moreover, better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, including inflammation, bone formation, atherosclerotic-like processes, and aortic wall abnormalities, as well as the heritability and genetic predisposition for the disease, will define the potential for targeted medical therapies in the future. Currently, the treatment of this condition is primarily surgical. Although combined valve and ascending aorta replacement has been the most common surgical approach in the past, the increased cumulative risk of thrombotic and embolic events among these young patients has led to more conservative approaches. Several valve-sparing approaches with comparable mid-term results compared with the classic procedures have recently been reported. However, longer follow-up studies will be helpful to better define the advantages of these new surgical options. After a quick overview of the natural history of the BAV, this article provides an updated approximation of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology as well as the recommendations for the management and treatment of this disease. PMID:17078910

  16. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  17. Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT, a major constituent (63.5% of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g. In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 µg/ml inhibited the contractile effects of 1 µM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means ± SEM = 184 ± 6, 185 ± 3 and 188 ± 19 µg/ml, N = 6, respectively. In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 µM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 ± 7 µg/ml, N = 6. Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6 the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 µM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM. In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a voltage-dependent Ca² channels, and b intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation.

  18. Novel Methodology for Characterizing Regional Variations in the Material Properties of Murine Aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersi, Matthew R; Bellini, Chiara; Di Achille, Paolo; Humphrey, Jay D; Genovese, Katia; Avril, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Many vascular disorders, including aortic aneurysms and dissections, are characterized by localized changes in wall composition and structure. Notwithstanding the importance of histopathologic changes that occur at the microstructural level, macroscopic manifestations ultimately dictate the mechanical functionality and structural integrity of the aortic wall. Understanding structure-function relationships locally is thus critical for gaining increased insight into conditions that render a vessel susceptible to disease or failure. Given the scarcity of human data, mouse models are increasingly useful in this regard. In this paper, we present a novel inverse characterization of regional, nonlinear, anisotropic properties of the murine aorta. Full-field biaxial data are collected using a panoramic-digital image correlation (p-DIC) system. An inverse method, based on the principle of virtual power (PVP), is used to estimate values of material parameters regionally for a microstructurally motivated constitutive relation. We validate our experimental-computational approach by comparing results to those from standard biaxial testing. The results for the nondiseased suprarenal abdominal aorta from apolipoprotein-E null mice reveal material heterogeneities, with significant differences between dorsal and ventral as well as between proximal and distal locations, which may arise in part due to differential perivascular support and localized branches. Overall results were validated for both a membrane and a thick-wall model that delineated medial and adventitial properties. Whereas full-field characterization can be useful in the study of normal arteries, we submit that it will be particularly useful for studying complex lesions such as aneurysms, which can now be pursued with confidence given the present validation. PMID:27210500

  19. Strengths and Limitations of Current Adult Nomograms for the Aorta Obtained by Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Clemente, Alberto; Assanta, Nadia; Murzi, Michele; Murzi, Bruno; Crocetti, Maura; Marotta, Marco; Scalese, Marco; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Normalized measurements for the evaluation of aortic disease severity are preferred to the adoption of generic cutoff values. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the strengths and limitations of currently available aortic nomograms by echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords normal values, aorta, echocardiography, CT, and MRI. Addition of these keywords further refined the results: reference values, nomograms, aortic arch, and adults. Thirty studies were included in the final analysis. Despite the strengths noted in the recent investigations, multiple methodological and numerical limitations emerged. The numerical limitations included sample size limitation in most of the studies (only few investigations consisted of >800 subjects and many had 70-300), lack of aortic arch measurements, and paucity of data for non-Caucasian subjects. Methodological limitations consisted of lack of standardization in measurements (systole vs. diastole, internal vs. external border, axial vs. orthogonal planes), heterogeneity and data normalization issues (various age intervals used, body size often not evaluated, data expressed as observed values rather than estimated values by z-score), and study design issues. The designs were mostly retrospective with poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The nomograms presented range of normality with significant differences, but also with some reproducible pattern. Despite recent advances, multiple methodological or numerical limitations exist in adult nomograms for the aorta. Comprehensive nomograms of aortic dimensions at multiple levels including the aortic arch for different imaging techniques, involving a wide sample size, and using standardized methodology for measurements and data normalization are warranted. The availability of robust nomograms may encourage the use of personalized

  20. Vasorelaxant effect of essential oil isolated from Nigella sativa L. seeds in rat aorta: Proposed mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui-Tangi, Khadija; Israili, Zafar Hasan; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds (Nigella oil) was investigated for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta. Nigella oil at concentrations of 10-100 μg/mL elicited a dose-dependent relaxation of the aorta, which was pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10(-6) M) or KCl (100mM). In the presence of Nigella oil (75 μg/mL, the dose response curves to increasing concentrations of NA (10(-9) M to 10(-4)M) or KCl (10mM-100mM) were displaced downwards, indicating inhibition of the vasoconstrictive effect. This relaxation effect was independent of the presence of endothelium. In addition, the vasodilatory activity of the Nigella oil was not affected by pre-treatment of the rings with N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine (an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase; 0.1mM), suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect is not mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the rings with Nigella oil (75 μg/mL suppressed the tension increment produced by increasing external calcium concentration (0.25 mM to 1.5mM). Tin conclusion, the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds produces smooth muscle relaxation, which is independent of endothelium and is not mediated by nitric oxide. The results also suggest that the vasorelaxing effect of the oil results from the blockade of both voltage-sensitive and receptor-operated calcium channels, and this may have therapeutic significance, in that Nigella oil may be useful as an antihypertensive agent in humans. PMID:26826822

  1. Assessment of mechanical properties of porcine aortas under physiological loading conditions using vascular elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Edgar J S; Peters, Mathijs F J; Nijs, Jan; Rutten, Marcel C M; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lopata, Richard G P

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the elastic properties of the arterial wall is often performed with ultrasound (US) imaging. The purpose of this study is to estimate mechanical properties of the vascular wall using in vitro inflation testing on biological tissue and two-dimensional (2-D) US elastography, and investigate the performance of the proposed methodology for physiological conditions. An inflation experiment was performed on 12 porcine aortas for (a) a large pressure range (0-140mmHg); and (b) physiological pressures (70-130mmHg) to mimic in vivo hemodynamic conditions. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired for one longitudinal and two transverse cross-sections for both experiments, and were analyzed to obtain the geometry and diameter-time behavior. The shear modulus (G) was estimated from these data for each pressure range applied. In addition, an incremental study based on the static data was performed to (1) investigate the changes in G for increasing mean arterial pressure (MAP) for a certain pressure difference (30, 40, 50 and 60mmHg); (2) compare the results with those from the dynamic experiment, for the same pressure range. The resulting stress-strain curves and shear moduli G (94±16kPa) for the static experimentare in agreement with literature and previous work. A linear dependency on MAP was found for G, yet the effect of the pulse pressure difference was negligible. The dynamic data revealed a G of 250±20kPa, whereas the incremental shear modulus (Ginc) was 240±39kPa. For all experiments, no significant differences in the values of G were found between different image planes. This study shows that 2-D US elastography of aortas during inflation testing is feasible and reproducible under controlled and physiological circumstances. In future studies, the in vivo, dynamic experiment should be repeated for a range of MAPs, and pathological vessels should be examined. PMID:26766329

  2. Characteristics of aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology using computed tomography (CT) and surgical findings. We retrospectively enrolled 209 patients with BAVs who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CT. BAVs were classified as anterior-posterior (BAV-AP) or lateral (BAV-LA) orientation of the cusps and divided according to the presence (raphe+) or absence (raphe-) of a raphe. Ascending aortic dimensions were measured by CT at four levels. BAV-AP was present in 129 patients (61.7 %) and raphe+ in 120 (57.4 %). Sixty-nine patients (33.0 %) had aortic regurgitation (AR), 70 (33.5 %) had aortic stenosis (AS), and 58 (27.8 %) had combined AS and AR. AR was more common in patients with BAV-AP and raphe+; AS was more common with BAV-LA and raphe-.Annulus/body surface area and tubular portion/body surface area diameters in patients with BAV-AP (17.1 ± 2.3 mm/m2 and 24.2 ± 5.3 mm/m2, respectively) and raphe+ (17.3 ± 2.2 mm/m2 and 24.2 ± 5.5 mm/m2, respectively) were significantly different from those with BAV-LA (15.8 ± 1.9 mm/m2 and 26.4 ± 5.5 mm/m2, respectively) and raphe- (15.7 ± 1.9 mm/m2 and 26.2 ± 5.4 mm/m2, respectively). The morphological characteristics of BAV might be associated with the type of valvular dysfunction, and degree and location of an ascending aorta dilatation. (orig.)

  3. Vessel wall MRI of the thoracic aorta: correlation to histology and transesophageal ultrasound. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To visualise the vessel wall of the descending thoracic aorta using magnetic resonance imaging. To evaluate the diagnostic potential of tailored T1-weighted sequences with contrast enhancement to assess systemic atherosclerotic disease. Methods: This study was performed on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner using a gradient strength of 30 mT/m and the phased array spine coil. A cadaver was examined to optimise a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to evaluate atherosclerotic aortic wall disease. The acquired MR images were compared to gross specimens and histology. Subsequently seven patients who had undergone transesophageal ultrasound (TEU) with detailed assessment of the descending thoracic aorta were examined with MRI. The optimised protocol included untriggered and fat suppressed T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences and ECG-triggered and fat suppressed T1-weighted spin echo sequences before and after iv administration of Gd-DTPA. Findings of the MR images were compared to the results of TEU. Contrast enhancement measurements were performed in normal and thickened vessel wall segments. Results: For the cadaver study a good correlation of the degree of vessel wall thickening and the extent of plaque imaged with the applied MR protocol was found. Tissue characterisation was limited due to post mortem changes. In vivo ECG-triggered T1-weighted images showed good correlation to TEU in terms of vessel wall thickness and plaque extension as verified by means of consensus reading. Differentiation of the plaque components fat, calcium and fibrous tissue was possible. In thickened aortic wall segments and fibrous caps a mean contrast enhancement of 50.4%±23.5% was measurable while normal wall segments showed an enhancement of 6.7%±3.1%. (orig.)

  4. Aneurysms of the ascending aorta and arch: the role of imaging in diagnosis and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Sundt, Thoralf M; Anavekar, Nandan S; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Araoz, Philip A

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms tend to be asymptomatic and were previously often diagnosed only after a complication such as dissection or rupture occurred. Better imaging techniques and an increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging has led to an increase in the diagnosis of aortic aneurysms, which has allowed for elective treatment prior to the development of a complication. The location, size and etiology of an aneurysm all impact the clinical outcomes and these factors are used to determine the appropriate timing of surgical replacement. Surgeons often rely on the information obtained from preoperative imaging to determine when to intervene and what type of procedure will be necessary, making it important for the radiologist to understand these issues in order to provide the necessary information. Postoperative imaging after surgical replacement of the aorta is also important, as there are some common findings that occur in this patient population that can impact how they are treated. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and associated findings of aneurysms of the ascending aorta and arch, with a focus on how computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography findings are used to determine the appropriate timing for elective replacement and the type of surgical procedure, as well as the role of follow-up imaging. This will include a review of the most commonly performed types of surgical procedures, to provide an understanding of how the findings of preoperative imaging studies impact what the surgeon does in the operating room, as well as the expected findings of postoperative imaging studies. PMID:21166528

  5. Characteristics of aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve morphology

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    Shin, Hong Ju [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Kim, Jun Suk [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To characterize aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology using computed tomography (CT) and surgical findings. We retrospectively enrolled 209 patients with BAVs who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CT. BAVs were classified as anterior-posterior (BAV-AP) or lateral (BAV-LA) orientation of the cusps and divided according to the presence (raphe+) or absence (raphe-) of a raphe. Ascending aortic dimensions were measured by CT at four levels. BAV-AP was present in 129 patients (61.7 %) and raphe+ in 120 (57.4 %). Sixty-nine patients (33.0 %) had aortic regurgitation (AR), 70 (33.5 %) had aortic stenosis (AS), and 58 (27.8 %) had combined AS and AR. AR was more common in patients with BAV-AP and raphe+; AS was more common with BAV-LA and raphe-.Annulus/body surface area and tubular portion/body surface area diameters in patients with BAV-AP (17.1 ± 2.3 mm/m{sup 2} and 24.2 ± 5.3 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) and raphe+ (17.3 ± 2.2 mm/m{sup 2} and 24.2 ± 5.5 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) were significantly different from those with BAV-LA (15.8 ± 1.9 mm/m{sup 2} and 26.4 ± 5.5 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) and raphe- (15.7 ± 1.9 mm/m{sup 2} and 26.2 ± 5.4 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively). The morphological characteristics of BAV might be associated with the type of valvular dysfunction, and degree and location of an ascending aorta dilatation. (orig.)

  6. Puerarin Improves Diabetic Aorta Injury by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase-Derived Oxidative Stress in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Puerarin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the TCM lobed kudzuvine root. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of puerarin on diabetic aorta in rats. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were administered with puerarin for 3 weeks. Levels of serum insulin (INS, PGE2, endothelin (ET, glycated hemoglobin (GHb, H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO in rats were measured by ELISA and colorimetric assay kits. The aortas were stained with H&E. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2, and NOX4 and the protein expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NF-κB p65, E-selectin, NOX2, and NOX4 in aorta tissues were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The localization of ICAM-1, NF-κB p65, NOX2, and NOX4 in the aorta tissues was also determined through immunohistochemistry. Results. Puerarin treatment exerted no effect on fasting blood glucose levels but significantly reduced the serum levels of INS, GHb, PGE2, ET, H2O2, and NO. In addition, puerarin improved the pathological alterations and inhibited the expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NOX2, and NOX4 at both mRNA and protein levels. Puerarin also significantly reduced the number of cells showing positive staining for ICAM-1, NOX2, NOX4, and NF-κB p65. Conclusion. Puerarin demonstrated protective effect on the STZ-induced diabetic rat aorta. The protective mechanisms may include regulation of NF-κB and inhibition of NOX2 and NOX4 followed by inhibition of cell adhesion molecule expression.

  7. Data of the natural and pharmaceutical angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor isoleucine-tryptophan as a potent blocker of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaliani, Irakli; Martin, Melanie; Zatschler, Birgit; Müller, Bianca; Deussen, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The present data are related to the research article entitled "Whey peptide isoleucine-tryptophan inhibits expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in rat aorta" [1]. Here we present data on removal of endothelium from aorta, endothelium dependent aortic relaxation and inhibition of expression of pro-MMP2 by di-peptide isoleucine-tryptophan (IW). Experiments were performed in rat aortic endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in vitro, along with isolated rat aorta ex vivo. The cells and isolated aorta were stimulated with angiotensin II (ANGII) or angiotensin I (ANGI). ACE activity was inhibited by treatment with either IW or captopril (CA). Losartan was used as a blocker of angiotensin type-1 receptor. IW inhibited MMP2 protein expression induced with ANGI in a dose-dependent manner. IW was effective both in ECs and SMCs, as well as in isolated aorta. Similarly, captopril (CA) inhibited ANGI-induced MMP2 protein expression in both in vitro and ex vivo. Neither IW nor CA inhibited ANGII-induced MMP2 protein expression in contrast to losartan. The data also displays that removal of endothelium in isolated rat aorta abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced with acetylcholine. However, SMC-dependent relaxation induced with sodium nitroprusside remained intact. Finally, the data provides histological evidence of selective removal of endothelial cells from aorta. PMID:27508250

  8. Onze anos de experiência com emprego do anel intraluminal para tratamento das doenças da aorta

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    BERNARDES Rodrigo de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta é geralmente acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade. O paciente que tem média de idade avançada geralmente é apresentado ao cirurgião em estado grave, com má condição nutricional, muitas vezes com alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas causados pela própria doença aguda. A correção convencional exige técnicas coadjuvantes complexas e agressivas como a circulação extracorpórea prolongada, hipotermia profunda, parada circulatória total além de prolongados tempos de pinçamento de aorta. Na tentativa de reduzir a agressão cirúrgica no paciente já intensamente debilitado pela própria doença, desenvolvemos, em 1988, um anel intraluminal (1, 2 que tem medidas projetadas e experimentadas para facilitar a sua manipulação e anastomose, proporcionando uma diminuição acentuada no tempo de operação, tempo de CEC, tempo de pinçamento de aorta, excluindo muitas vezes a circulação extracorpórea e a hipotermia, obtendo uma anastomose fácil, rápida, segura e hemostática. Entre março de 1988 e janeiro de 1999, 432 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de dissecções ou aneurismas da aorta em nosso Serviço. Em 328 pacientes empregamos o anel intraluminal como técnica de anastomose. Usamos 489 anéis. Cento e vinte e cinco pacientes eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo A, 29 eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo B, 81 de aneurisma de aorta ascendente, 8 de aneurisma de arco aórtico, 28 pacientes eram portadores de aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente, 17 eram portadores de aneurisma toracoabdominal e 40 pacientes de aneurisma de aorta abdominal infra-renal. A mortalidade global foi de 13,41%. O seguimento ambulatorial destes pacientes variou de 11 anos a 25 dias. A curva actuarial de sobrevivência em 11 anos mostra 67,3%. Em nenhum caso observamos as complicações descritas na literatura, como embolia, formação de

  9. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  10. Effects of C-reactive protein on the expression of OX40 ligand in mouse aorta endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wang; Shushu Zhu; Xuefu Han; Jindan Xu; Jinnan Zhang; Di Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of OX40 ligand(OX40L) on C-reactive protein(CRP)-triggered mouse aorta endothelial cells (MAECs) in vitro. Methods: MAECs from aorta were isolated by digestion with collagenase type Ⅱ. The cell growth was confirmed by morphological characteristics and the immunological marker, factor Ⅷ(or Willebrand factor, vWF). The expression of OX40L by MAECs was detected by RT-PCR and western blot after incubating with 100 μg/ml CRP for 48 hours. Results: Twenty-day cultures of MAECs formed confluent monolayer of a cobblestone pattern. RT-PCR and western blot assay showed that the level of OX40L expression in MAECs receiving CRP treatment was higher than control. Conclusion: A reliable method is described to isolate and propagate MAECs. CRP upregulates OX40L expression in MAECs.

  11. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  12. Use of the frozen elephant trunk technique in complicated chronic dissection with porcelain aorta and visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Michal O; Irimie, Vadim; Urbanski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with chronic aortic dissection is reported. Because the visceral arteries originated from different, equivalently perfused lumens and the descending aorta was circumferentially calcified (porcelain aorta) limiting the possibilities of anastomosing, careful planning of the surgical strategy was of utmost importance. The complex surgery consisted of ascending and total arch replacement using the 'frozen elephant trunk' technique with Thoraflex™ Hybrid Prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland); however, before insertion of the stent graft, an angioscopic resection of the dissection membrane in the proximal part of the descending aorta was carried out to ensure a complete expansion of the distal edge of the stent within the entire common lumen of the aorta and unimpaired distal flow in both lumens below the stent graft. The surgery and the postoperative course were uneventful. PMID:27002017

  13. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fenglin; Zhou, Wenwu; Tang, Tao; Li, Xiaobing; Wu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jinfu

    2014-01-01

    To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV) was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs...

  14. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV) was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex,...

  15. Partially thrombosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: Unusual cause of chronic inflammation and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    El Amrani, M.; El Kharras, A.; Asserraji, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory syndrome is often a challenge. In dialysis patients, this condition leads to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). We here report a case of a 72-year-old male undergoing chronic hemodialysis and developed rHuEPO resistance without any obvious etiology. Investigations showed a partially thromosed aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta. Antiplatelet therapy was started with a satisfactory outcome.

  16. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster’s Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Methods Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), al...

  17. Cine MRI of the ascending aorta in the elderly with respect to the flow signal void and aortic valve morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cine flow MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla system to observe signal intensity of blood flow within the ascending aorta in the elderly who had no aortic stenosis and to determine frequency of the flow signal void. Coronal and sagittal imaging planes of the ascending aorta were obtained in 27 aged patients with no known cardiac diseases (14 men and 13 women, mean age of 76) and 7 young volunteers (7 men, mean age of 24), utilizing ECG-gating, GRASS (gradient-recalled acquisition in steady state), and a flow compensation sequence. The young volunteers presented little or no signal void within the ascending aorta. In 26 (96%) of the 27 aged patients, on the other hand, signal void was demonstrated in the blood flow distal to the aortic valve during systole. The maximum length of the signal void that was measured at 318∼632 msec after the R wave of ECG ranged from 33 to 97 mm. Conventional and Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate motion and morphology of the aortic valve in 19 of the 27 aged patients. Eighteen of these 19 subjects had aortic signal void on cine MRI. Echocardiography showed sclerotic changes of the aortic valve (i.e., increased echogenicity of the cusps and/or commissure fusion) in 10 (53%) of the 19 subjects. The mean maximum length of the signal void in the 10 patients with aortic valve sclerosis was significantly greater than that in the 9 patients with echocardiographically normal valve (68 vs.45 mm, p<0.01). These results suggest that signal void of blood flow in the ascending aorta, which is recognized as one of the characteristic findings in patients with aortic stenosis, is not a specific feature for this disease but rather a commom one in the elderly particularly those with sclerotic changes of the aortic valve. However, the length of the signal void may distinguish between nonstenotic and stenotic aortic valves. (author)

  18. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

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    Kerim Çağlı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  19. Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating prostacyclin production in the mouse aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hooi Hooi; Leo, Chen Huei; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiating factor in the development of cardiovascular complications. Treatment with relaxin improves tumour necrosis factor α-induced endothelial dysfunction by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and restoring superoxide dismutase 1 protein in rat aortic rings ex vivo. It is, therefore, possible that relaxin treatment could alleviate endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced vascular dysfunction in the mouse aorta. Abdominal aortae were isolated from C57BL/6 male mice and incubated in M199 media for 3days with either normal glucose (5.5mM) or high glucose (30mM), and co-incubated with placebo (20mM sodium acetate) or 10nM serelaxin at 37°C in 5% CO2. Vascular function was analysed using wire-myography. High glucose significantly reduced the sensitivity to the endothelium-dependent agonist, acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC50; normal glucose=7.66±0.10 vs high glucose=7.29±0.10, n=11-12, Paortae, but had no effect in serelaxin treated aortae. This suggests that high glucose incubation alters the superoxide and COX-sensitive pathway, which was normalized by co-incubation with serelaxin. Neither high glucose incubation nor serelaxin treatment had an effect on cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (Ptgs1, Ptgs2), prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) and receptor (Ptgir) as well as thromboxane A2 receptor (Tbxa2r) mRNA expression. Importantly, production of prostacyclin was significantly (Paortae, which was prevented by serelaxin treatment. Our data show that serelaxin treatment for 3 days restores high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating vasodilator prostacyclin production and possibly through the reduction of superoxide in the mouse aorta. PMID:26993102

  20. Training differentially regulates elastin level and proteolysis in skeletal and heart muscles and aorta in healthy rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Gilbert; Aleksandra Wyczalkowska-Tomasik; Malgorzata Zendzian-Piotrowska; Bozena Czarkowska-Paczek

    2016-01-01

    Exercise induces changes in muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix that may depend on elastin content and the activity of proteolytic enzymes. We investigated the influence of endurance training on the gene expression and protein content and/or activity of elastin, elastase, cathepsin K, and plasmin in skeletal and heart muscles and in the aorta. Healthy rats were randomly divided into untrained (n=10) and trained (n=10; 6 weeks of endurance training with increasing load) groups. Gene exp...

  1. The role of cystatin C in vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Jun; Dong, Zhao-Qiang; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of cystatin C (CysC) in the vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: the balloon-injured injury group (n = 16), the CysC monoclonal antibody group (n = 16), and the sham-operative group (n = 16). Serum CysC levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in adventitial area, adventitial thickness, lumen area (LA), neointimal area (IA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA), external elastic lamina area (EELA), vascular remodeling index (VRI) and residual stenosis (RS) were measured by the Leica image analysis system. Immunohistochemical analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. Serum CysC levels of rabbits in the balloon-injured injury group were significantly higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody group and the sham-operative group (both P IA, IELA and EELA in the balloon-injured injury group were also higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody and sham-operative groups (all P rabbits. PMID:24981928

  2. Elastodynamic analysis of the human aorta and the effect of biomechanical parameters on its behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Siamak; Dargahi, Javad; Farmanzad, Farhad

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a finite element formulation for the analysis of the elastodynamic behavior of the human aorta is presented. In this formulation, a one-dimensional approach was adopted and a comprehensive computer program was written and employed in the mathematical analysis. All the necessary material and geometrical parameters were appropriately incorporated in the simulation. A comparison was made between the simplified elasticity theory and the one proposed in this study using the poroelasticity theory. The effects of certain parameters including the fluid density and the material permeability of the matrix on the behavior of the aortic tissue were investigated. According to these findings, the higher the density of the liquid in the tissue, the more delay will be observed in the resonance frequencies. It was also concluded that in the poroelasticity theory, the resonance frequencies occur at a later stage compared with the elasticity theory. The permeability of liquid into the pores and its damping effect are the two factors that contributed to the delay in the resonance. It was observed that at a frequency of 10 Hz, up to a permeability of about 10(-8) m(4)/N.s, the effect on the magnitude of the amplitude is negligible. However, from this threshold value up to a point at which the permeability is equal to 10(-5) m(4)/N.s, there is a corresponding increase in the amplitude. PMID:17611299

  3. Validity of Current Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Constraints for Aorta and Major Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jinyu; Kubicek, Gregory; Patel, Ashish; Goldsmith, Benjamin; Asbell, Sucha O; LaCouture, Tamara A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding dose constraints for critical structures in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is essential to generate a plan for optimal efficacy and safety. Published dose constraints are derived by a variety of methods, including crude statistics, actuarial analysis, modeling, and simple biologically effective dose (BED) conversion. Many dose constraints reported in the literature are not consistent with each other, secondary to differences in clinical and dosimetric parameters. Application of a dose constraint without discriminating the variation of all the factors involved may result in suboptimal treatment. This issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology validates dose tolerance limits for 10 critical anatomic structures based on dose response modeling of clinical outcomes data to include detailed dose-volume metrics. This article presents a logistic dose-response model for aorta and major vessels based on 238 cases from the literature in addition to 387 cases from MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper University Hospital, for a total of 625 cases. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0813 dose-tolerance limit of Dmax = 52.5Gy in 5 fractions was found to have a 1.2% risk of grade 3-5 toxicity, and the Timmerman 2008 limit of Dmax = 45Gy in 3 fractions had 2.3% risk. From the model, the 1% and 2% risk levels for D4cc, D1cc, and D0.5cc are also provided in 1-5 fractions, in the form of a dose-volume histogram (DVH) Risk Map. PMID:27000510

  4. Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta: klinische Symptomatik, elektrokardiographische, röntgenologische und echokardiographische Diagnostik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In der Diagnostik von Aortenerkrankungen ist die transthorakale (TTE und transösophageale (TEE Echokardiographie eine der bedeutendsten bildgebenden Untersuchungsmethoden. Als eine "bedside"-Methode ist sie schnell verfügbar, risikoarm und durch eine hohe Sensitivität und Spezifität charakterisiert. Nach kardiologischen Basisuntersuchungen wie der Röntgen-Thoraxuntersuchung und dem EKG sollte zunächst eine TTE und insbesondere bei Einbeziehung der Aorta descendens eine TEE durchgeführt werden. Obwohl die TEE der TTE überlegen ist, sind beide Methoden als komplementär zu betrachten. Im Rahmen der laborchemischen Diagnostik der Aortendissektion kann sich die Bestimmung des C-reaktiven Proteins als hilfreich erweisen. Mit einem erhöhten Risiko hinsichtlich von Aortenerkrankungen behaftet müssen Patienten mit einer arteriellen Hypertonie, mit Atherosklerose sowie mit Aortenklappenanomalien und genetischen Mißbildungssyndromen angesehen werden. Insbesondere in diesen Fällen sollte bei entsprechender Symptomatik eine Aortenerkrankung ausgeschlossen werden.

  5. Evidence for a requirement of agonist-induced diacylglycerol production during tonic contraction of rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible role for protein kinase C during the tonic phase of arterial contraction was examined in rat aorta by observing the effects of the phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on angiotensin II (AII)-induced responses. The ability of AII and phenylephrine (PE) to induce diacylglycerol (DAG) production was monitored as agonist-stimulated 32P-labelling of phosphatidic acid (PA). AII (5 x 10-7M) causes only a transient contractile response, while PE (10-5M) causes a sustained tonic contraction. 32P-labelling studies showed that AII caused an initial increase of PA synthesis equal to PE, however, AII failed to sustain this increase at 5 and 10 min while PE was able to do so, indicating the failure of AII to provide DAG to sustain protein kinase C activation. Activation of protein kinase C with TPA prior to and during AII exposure converted the normally transient contraction to a more sustained, tonic pattern. These results suggest that the inability of AII to maintain tension, unlike PE, is due to its inability to produce DAG continuously and activate protein kinase C

  6. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  7. Inhibitory effects of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 on the aorta-gonad-mapharsen hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definitive hematopoiesis starts in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mouse embryo. Our previous studies revealed that STAT3, a gp130 downstream transcription factor, is required for AGM hematopoiesis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates serine-727 of STAT3. HIPK2 is a serine/threonine kinase known to be involved in transcriptional repression and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of HIPK2 in hematopoiesis in mouse embryo. HIPK2 transcripts were found in fetal hematopoietic tissues such as the mouse AGM region and fetal liver. In cultured AGM cells, HIPK2 protein was detected in adherent cells. Functional analyses of HIPK2 were carried out by introducing wild-type and mutant HIPK2 constructs into AGM cultures. Production of CD45+ hematopoietic cells was suppressed by forced expression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures. This suppression required the kinase domain and nuclear localization signals of HIPK2, but the kinase activity was dispensable. HIPK2-overexpressing AGM-derived nonadherent cells did not form cobblestone-like colonies in cultures with stromal cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures impeded the expansion of CD45lowc-Kit+ cells, which exhibit the immature hematopoietic progenitor phenotype. These data indicate that HIPK2 plays a negative regulatory role in AGM hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo

  8. Reduced contrast medium in abdominal aorta CTA using a multiphasic injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: v.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Stegehuis, Paulien L., E-mail: p.l.stegehuis@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: m.rutten@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if with a multiphasic injection technique the administered amount of contrast medium for abdominal computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) can be decreased, whilst improving CT image quality. Materials and methods: In 30 patients a multiphasic injection method was compared to the standard uniphasic contrast medium injection protocol. Fifteen patients underwent abdominal CTA with a standard uniphasic injection protocol (protocol I) receiving 100 mL of a non-ionic radiopaque contrast agent (Ioversol). The second group of 15 patients underwent CTA with a multiphasic injection protocol (protocol II) receiving a total of 89 mL Ioversol. Vascular contrast enhancement and difference in enhancement uniformity were assessed quantitatively and image quality was assessed by three independent radiologists. Results: Quantitative assessment of the vascular contrast enhancement showed that there was no significant difference in enhancement uniformity for patients between the protocols. The image quality was rated as being good to excellent in 81.8% and 88.0% of the scans, for protocol I and protocol II, respectively. However these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: By using a multiphasic injection technique with CTA of the abdominal aorta a reduction of 11 percent of contrast medium can be realized. Enhancement patterns are quantitatively as well as qualitatively comparable to the standard contrast medium injection protocol.

  9. The Effect of Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Aerial Parts on Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    S Raghava Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (AP, (Burf. Nees. of Acanthaceae, has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory tract infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. AP has cardio protective property and is familiarly known as "King of Bitters". The present study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of different solvent extracts of AP on rat thoracic aorta. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of AP are used in this study. Experiments are performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for possible vasorelaxing activity of AP. Cumulative dose response curves are recorded by using isometric force displacement transducer Model FT-03 and it is connected to Grass Polygraph Model 79D. Additionally, HPLC study of chloroform extract of AP is conducted and compared with commercially available standard andrographolide. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of AP is first suspended in 1% (v/v DMSO then volume made up with Krebs solution. The average of responses to each concentration of the agonist is plotted on the ordinate the logarithm of the concentration of the agonist on the abscissa. Among all these extracts of AP, chloroform extract 80 and 160 μg/mL is found to be the highly significant (P< 0.001 vasorelaxant effect on norepinephrine induced contraction on rat thoracic aortic ring preparations.

  10. "I Can't Walk!" Acute Thrombosis of Descending Aorta Causing Paraplegia

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    Matthew L Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with acute, bilateral lower extremity weakness and loss of sensation, as well as absent pulses bilaterally. Computed tomography angiography showed complete occlusion of the aorta below the inferior mesenteric artery, extending to the iliac bifurcations. Echocardiographic findings showed severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of 15% and cryptic cardiogenic shock in spite of stable vital signs. Prior to early operative intervention, an early goal-oriented hemodynamic strategy of shock management resulted in the resolution of motor and sensory deficits. After definitive surgical intervention, the patient was discharged neurologically intact. Acute aortic occlusion is frequently accompanied by myocardial dysfunction, which can be from mild to severe. The most severe form can even occur with normalvital signs or occult cardiogenic shock. Early detection and goal-directed preoperative hemodynamic optimization, along with surgical intervention in the ED, is required to optimize outcomes. [West JEmerg Med. 2013;14(5:424–427.

  11. Endothelium protectant and contractile effects of the antivaricose principle escin in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Omar F; Vidrio, Horacio

    2007-07-01

    The triterpene saponin escin is the active component of the extract of seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Escin is also used experimentally to increase membrane permeability in isolated cells. Since endothelial dysfunction is postulated to be involved in venous insufficiency, the possible endothelium-protectant effect of escin was explored in rat aortic rings, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Escin enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine when such relaxation had been reduced by exposure to the superoxide ion generator pyrogallol. This effect was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a calcium-dependent enzyme, activated by the increased endothelial cell permeability to calcium induced by escin. Another effect of escin thought to contribute to its therapeutic activity is its ability to produce venous contraction. The compound was found to induce concentration-related contraction also in rat aortic rings. This response was partially inhibited by removal of the endothelium or by preincubation with indomethacin, and was completely abolished by incubation in a calcium-free perfusion fluid. Contraction was considered to be due mainly to the aforementioned effect on calcium permeability, with some mediation by release of endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids. It was concluded that, in rat aorta, escin possesses an endothelium-protectant action and a direct contractile effect. The former could contribute to its beneficial effect in the treatment of venous insufficiency, while the latter could constitute a limiting side effect. PMID:17512261

  12. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

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    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  13. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

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    Gueye Lamine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative.

  14. Assessment of a Polyester-Covered Nitinol Stent in the Canine Aorta and Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the patency and healing characteristics of a woven polyester fabric-covered stent in the canine model.Methods: Twenty-four self-expanding covered stents were placed in the infrarenal aorta and bilateral common iliac arteries of eight dogs and evaluated at 1 (n = 2), 3 (n = 2), and 6 (n = 4) months. Stent assessment was done using angiography prior to euthanasia, and light and scanning electron microscopy.Results: Angiographically, just prior to euthanasia, 8 of 8 aortic and 14 of 16 iliac endovascular covered stents were patent. Histologically, the stented regions showed complete endothelialization 6 months after graft implantation. A neointima had formed inside the stented vessel regions resulting in complete encasement of the fabric-covered stent by 3 months after graft implantation. Medial compression with smooth muscle cell atrophy was present in all stented regions. Explanted stent wires, examined by scanning electron microscopy, showed pitting but no cracks or breakage.Conclusion: The covered stent demonstrated predictable healing and is effective in preventing stenosis in vessels 10.0 mm or greater in diameter but does not completely preclude stenosis in vessels 6.0 mm or less in diameter

  15. Evaluation of the Vasoplegic impact of Papaverine in the rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the degree of vasoplegic affinity of papaverine to rat thoracic aortas following constriction caused by adrenalin, serotonin and potassium chloride in an in-vitro model. Methods: The in vitro vasoplegic efficacy of papaverine against adrenalin (10-5 M), serotonin (5HT) (10-4 M), and KCl (60 mM) was assessed, using a rat aortic vasospasm model in an organ bath. First, aortic rings were constricted with a submaximal dose of vasoconstrictor agents. The samples were then incubated with papaverine (3x10-4 M) for 20 minutes, followed by readministration of the same vasoconstrictor agents. The first vasospastic response (before papaverine incubation) and the new vasoconstrictor responses (after papaverine incubation) of the vessels were then compared. Results: The vasoplegic effect of vasoconstrictor agents in decreasing order was observed as adrenalin>KCl>5HT. This different affinity for the vasoplegic effect is considered to be a temporary impact of the drugs and the maximal inhibition of vasoconstriction was detected for the adrenalin receptor. Conclusion: The relevance of the macromolecules is responsible for the permanent efficacy of the drugs. Different degrees of vasoconstriction were also obtained after papaverine administration, which suggests that different responses can occur as a result of different stimulation of receptor modulators. (author)

  16. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

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    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  17. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  18. Effects of aortic root motion on wall stress in the Marfan aorta before and after personalised aortic root support (PEARS) surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S D; Xu, X Y; Pepper, J R; Izgi, C; Treasure, T; Mohiaddin, R H

    2016-07-01

    Aortic root motion was previously identified as a risk factor for aortic dissection due to increased longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aortic root motion on wall stress and strain in the ascending aorta and evaluate changes before and after implantation of personalised external aortic root support (PEARS). Finite element (FE) models of the aortic root and thoracic aorta were developed using patient-specific geometries reconstructed from pre- and post-PEARS cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images in three Marfan patients. The wall and PEARS materials were assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and linearly elastic. A static load on the inner wall corresponding to the patients' pulse pressure was applied. Cardiovascular MR cine images were used to quantify aortic root motion, which was imposed at the aortic root boundary of the FE model, with zero-displacement constraints at the distal ends of the aortic branches and descending aorta. Measurements of the systolic downward motion of the aortic root revealed a significant reduction in the axial displacement in all three patients post-PEARS compared with its pre-PEARS counterparts. Higher longitudinal stresses were observed in the ascending aorta when compared with models without the root motion. Implantation of PEARS reduced the longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta by up to 52%. In contrast, the circumferential stresses at the interface between the supported and unsupported aorta were increase by up to 82%. However, all peak stresses were less than half the known yield stress for the dilated thoracic aorta. PMID:27255604

  19. Zinc protects against diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta: roles of metallothionein and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Xiao; Wang, Yonggang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Weixia; Tan, Yi; Cai, Lu; Zheng, Yang; Su, Guanfang; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuehui

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases remain a leading cause of the mortality world-wide, which is related to several risks, including the life style change and the increased diabetes prevalence. The present study was to explore the preventive effect of zinc on the pathogenic changes in the aorta. Methods A genetic type 1 diabetic OVE26 mouse model was used with/without zinc supplementation for 3 months. To determine gender difference either for pathogenic changes in the aorta of diabetic mice o...

  20. Predictors for pathologically confirmed aortitis after resection of the ascending aorta: A 12-year Danish nationwide population-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jean; Sunesen, Kaare; Kornum, Jette B.; Duhaut, Pierre; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Assessing the prevalence of, and predictors for, pathologically-confirmed inflammation of the aorta in Denmark, using a nationwide population-based study design. Methods We identified all adults with first-time surgery on the ascending aorta between January 1, 1997 and March 1, 2009 in Denmark. Presence of aortic inflammation was ascertained through linkage to a nationwide pathology registry. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for sex, age at surg...

  1. Occlusion of the abdominal aorta by balloon dilation catheter assisting surgical excision of a sacrum chordoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgiray, Erkin; Cağli, Sedat; Zileli, Mehmet; Cinar, Celal; Oran, Ismail

    2009-07-01

    Chordoma is known to be the most common primary tumor of the sacrum. Its surgery is challenging from many aspects. A large amount of bleeding is one of the biggest issues. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with a huge mass at sacrum. The mass was diagnosed as chordoma after a needle biopsy. Prior to the surgery, a balloon dilation catheter (BDC) was placed in the distal abdominal aorta via the femoral artery. Just after the skin incision, the BDC was inflated with contrast medium and total occlusion of the aorta was achieved. At the end of the operation we observed that total hemorrhage had decreased dramatically. No complications were recorded except hypertension during the occlusion of the aorta which was expected. The patient was discharged after two weeks of hospitalization post-operatively without any neurological deficit. Our report is the second in the neurosurgical literature to our knowledge. Although this result is preliminary and needs to be replicated and expanded upon, our first experience with this method is effective for decreasing the amount of bleeding. We believe that our method prevents hemo-dynamical problems caused by massive bleeding and complications secondary to massive transfusion. PMID:19621292

  2. Experimental investigation of the flow field past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in pulsatile flow within an anatomical aorta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2011-11-01

    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) has been mounted at the inlet of an anatomical model of the human aorta, and placed within a mock circulation loop that simulates physiological flow conditions. The working fluid matches the refractive index of silicone, from which the aorta model and other parts of the test section are made, and the viscosity of blood. Flow characteristics past the BMHV are measured using stereoscopic and planar particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry. In contrast to previous experiments, in which heart valves have been tested in simplified aortic geometries, this arrangement permits the study of the dependence of flow past the valve upon recirculation in the sinuses of Valsalva, the flow rate through the coronary arteries, and the aorta curvature. The effect of valve orientation will also be investigated with the objective to determine a hemodynamically optimal configuration with potential benefits to implantation procedures. The measured viscous shear stress distribution will be analyzed towards predicting the initiation of thrombosis in patients and identifying regions of stagnation, which could facilitate thrombus attachment.

  3. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

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    J.J. Hosni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  4. Molecular anatomy of ascending aorta in atherosclerosis by MS Imaging: Specific lipid and protein patterns reflect pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Balluff, Benjamin; Maroto, Aroa S; Carreira, Ricardo J; van Zeijl, Rene J M; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Padial, Luis R; McDonnell, Liam A; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued here to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a novel unexplored ex vivo imaging approach in CVD able to provide in-tissue molecular maps. A rabbit model of early atherosclerosis was developed and high-spatial-resolution MALDI-MSI was applied to comparatively analyze histologically-based arterial regions of interest from control and early atherosclerotic aortas. Specific protocols were applied to identify lipids and proteins significantly altered in response to atherosclerosis. Observed protein alterations were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in rabbit tissue, and additionally in human aortas. Molecular features specifically defining different arterial regions were identified. Localized in the intima, increased expression of SFA and lysolipids and intimal spatial organization showing accumulation of PI, PG and SM point to endothelial dysfunction and triggered inflammatory response. TG, PA, SM and PE-Cer were identified specifically located in calcified regions. Thymosin β4 (TMSB4X) protein was upregulated in intima versus media layer and also in response to atherosclerosis. This overexpression and localization was confirmed in human aortas. In conclusion, molecular histology by MS Imaging identifies spatial organization of arterial tissue in response to atherosclerosis. PMID:26079611

  5. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

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    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  6. Surgical resection and survival of patients with unsuspected single node positive lung cancer (NSCLC invading the descending aorta

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    Wex, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with aortic invasion is still debated.Methods: Thirteen patients with locally advanced (T4 NSCLC and invasion of the descending aorta underwent pneumonectomy (n=9 or lobectomy (n=4 together with aorta en bloc resection and reconstruction (n=8 or subadventitial dissection (n=5, complete lymph node dissection, and had microscopic unsuspected node metastasis at N1 (n=5 and N2/3 (n=8 levels of whom 12 received radiation therapy. Clamp-and-sew was used to resect and reconstruct the aorta.Results: Operative mortality and morbidity rate was 0% and 23%, respectively. Four patients died of systemic tumor relapse and 2 of local recurrence. Six patients were alive after a median follow-up of 40 months (range 15–125 months. Overall 5-year survival rate was 45%. Median survival time and 5-year survival rate of patients after aortic resection was 35 months and 67%, respectively, and was 17 months and 0%, respectively, after aortic subadventi-tial dissection (p=0.001. N1 and N2 nodal status adversely affected survival, but survival difference was not significant (N1 versus N2/3; 52% versus 39% at 5 years; p=0.998.Conclusions: Aortic resection with single station node positive T4 lung cancer can achieve long-term survival. The data indicate that aortic resection-reconstruction is associated with better outcome than subadventitial dissection.

  7. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

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    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  8. Training differentially regulates elastin level and proteolysis in skeletal and heart muscles and aorta in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Zendzian-Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Exercise induces changes in muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix that may depend on elastin content and the activity of proteolytic enzymes. We investigated the influence of endurance training on the gene expression and protein content and/or activity of elastin, elastase, cathepsin K, and plasmin in skeletal and heart muscles and in the aorta. Healthy rats were randomly divided into untrained (n=10) and trained (n=10; 6 weeks of endurance training with increasing load) groups. Gene expression was evaluated via qRT-PCR. Elastin content was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity was measured fluorometrically. Elastin content was significantly higher in skeletal (P=0.0014) and heart muscle (P=0.000022) from trained rats versus untrained rats, but not in the aorta. Although mRNA levels in skeletal muscle did not differ between groups, the activities of elastase (P=0.0434), cathepsin K (P=0.0343) and plasmin (P=0.000046) were higher in trained rats. The levels of cathepsin K (P=0.0288) and plasminogen (P=0.0005) mRNA were higher in heart muscle from trained rats, but enzyme activity was not. Enzyme activity in the aorta did not differ between groups. Increased elastin content in muscles may result in better adaption to exercise, as may remodeling of the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle. PMID:27069251

  9. Training differentially regulates elastin level and proteolysis in skeletal and heart muscles and aorta in healthy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces changes in muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix that may depend on elastin content and the activity of proteolytic enzymes. We investigated the influence of endurance training on the gene expression and protein content and/or activity of elastin, elastase, cathepsin K, and plasmin in skeletal and heart muscles and in the aorta. Healthy rats were randomly divided into untrained (n=10 and trained (n=10; 6 weeks of endurance training with increasing load groups. Gene expression was evaluated via qRT-PCR. Elastin content was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity was measured fluorometrically. Elastin content was significantly higher in skeletal (P=0.0014 and heart muscle (P=0.000022 from trained rats versus untrained rats, but not in the aorta. Although mRNA levels in skeletal muscle did not differ between groups, the activities of elastase (P=0.0434, cathepsin K (P=0.0343 and plasmin (P=0.000046 were higher in trained rats. The levels of cathepsin K (P=0.0288 and plasminogen (P=0.0005 mRNA were higher in heart muscle from trained rats, but enzyme activity was not. Enzyme activity in the aorta did not differ between groups. Increased elastin content in muscles may result in better adaption to exercise, as may remodeling of the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle.

  10. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional breath-hold MR angiography of the thoracic aorta; Angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica tridimensionale nell'apnea con infusione rapida di mezzo di contrasto paramagnetico nello studio dell'aorta toracica

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    Di Cesare, E.; Giordano, A.V.; Cerone, G.; Splendiani, A.; Michelini, O; Masciocchi, C. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-11-01

    In this paper it is investigated the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA in the assessment of thoracic aortic diseases. Thirty-eight patients with diagnosed or suspected conditions of thoracic aorta were examined with contrast-enhanced MRA. All the examinations were performed with a 1.5 T superconductive magnet acquiring breath-hold 3D fast Gradient-Echo (GE) sequences (TR=5.9 ms; TE=1.2 ms; FA=45 degrees; FOV=48 cm; thickness=2-2.5 mm; locs=30-32; TA=22-24s; MA=512) on the coronal plane. The contrast agent was injected bolus after a bolus-test to evaluate circulation time. In the experts opinion contrast-enhanced three dimensional MR angiography should be the screening technique of choice in the evaluation of thoracic aorta thanks to its low invasiveness, short acquisition time, large field of view and morphologica resolution ECG gating is not needed. Limitations are found in the study of wall and periaortic region which are better evaluated with conventional MR imaging. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' stato verificare le potenzialita' della tecnica di angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica tridimensionale (angio-RM tridimensionale) nell'apnea con bolo di mdc paramagnetico nello studio delle malattie dell'aorta toracica. Sono stati sottoposti ad angio-RM con mdc trentotto pazienti con diagnosi o sospetta malattia dell'aorta toracica. E' stato utilizzato un magnete superconduttivo operante a 1,5 tesla (GE) impiegando una sequenza 3D Fast Gradient-Echo (TR=5,9 ms; TE=1,2 ms; FA=45 degrees; FOV=48 cm; thickness=2-2.5 mm; locs=30-32; TA=22-24s; matrice=512) acquista in apnea sul piano coronale. Il mdc e' stato somministrato a bolo con ritardo calcolato sulla base del bolo-test che ha sempre preceduto l'acquisizione volumetrica. La valutazione con angio-RM tridimensionale con bolo di mdc rappresenta a nostro avviso la tecnica di scelta nello studio dell'aorta toracica in ragione della scarsa invasivita

  11. Evaluation of different techniques for repair of co-arctation of aorta

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    Karimi AA

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is on different surgical techniques for repair of Co-arctation of aort and their effect for correction of systemic hypertension and lower extremity hypotension. In addition to these, the clinical and paraclinical data were noticed. 50 pt were operated in "SHARIATI" hospital during 1370-1377 with diagnosis of Co-arctation of aorta (30 men, mean age 19.4 years, 20 women, mean age 16.6 years. In addition to older age of our patients which results in more post-op sequela, there was suprrisingly a long-lag between onset of symptoms, diagnosis and operation (mean 4.36 years. 62% of Co-arctation were juxtaductal and the remainder were non-classical forms. 52% of our patients had co-existing cardiac disease which were very high in comparison with other studies (12%. This is due to older age of our patients and more valvular heart diseases. Among complicated cases of co-arctation, 71.9% were in men and 28.1% in women and this difference is due to high incidence of bicuspid aortic valve in men. The mean angiographic gradient were 57.5 mmHg which increases with age. CXR was abnormal in 91.7% and ECG in 74.2% of patients. The different applied surgical techniques include ee-A=26%, TIG=40%, TBG=18%, DPR=14%, FSCR=2%. There is no significant difference regarding post-op complications, BP in post-op period, and increase in pedal pulses, except in TBG group which HTN was more common. Two early deaths occurred which were in DRP group.

  12. Elastic properties of the aorta and factors affecting aortic stiffness in patients with

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    Derya Tok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we evaluated aortic stiffnessand echocardiographic and laboratory factors affectingaortic stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome(MetS.Materials and methods: Forty-six patients (25 male,mean age 47.3±6.5 years with the diagnosis of MetS accordingto the Adult Treatment Panel III Final Report criteriawere included. Forty-four age and gender matchedhealthy subjects (18 male, mean age 46.0±6.1 yearswere recruited as the control group. Aortic strain, distensibilityand stiffness index were calculated by M-modeechocardiography and diastolic parameters were measured.Results: Left ventricular mass index (LVMI, decelerationtime (DT, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT wereincreased and mitral E/A ratio was decreased in patientswith MetS compared to controls. In the MetS patients,aortic distensibility was significantly decreased (10.4±3.5cm2.dyn-1.10-6 vs. 12.7±3.4 cm2.dyn-1.10-6, p=0.002,and ASI was significantly increased (6.5±2.0 vs. 3.2±0.8,p<0.001. ASI was positively correlated with triglycerides,fasting glucose, uric acid, hsCRP, LVMI, DT, IVRT andsystolic blood pressure level, and was negatively correlatedwith HDL-cholesterol and mitral E/A ratio. In regressionanalysis, hsCRP (p=0.05 and systolic blood pressurelevel (p<0.001 were independent predictors of ASI.Conclusions: ASI is increased in patients with MetS. Inthese patients; decrease in aortic elasticity properties wasassociated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Highsystolic pressure and hsCRP levels were found to be independentpredictors of ASI.Key words: Metabolic syndrome, Echocardiography,elastic properties of aorta, hsCRP

  13. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising

  14. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

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    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  15. A natação forçada induz subsensibilidade à fenilefrina em aorta torácica de rato Forced-swim induces subsensitivity to phenylephrine in the rat thoracic aorta

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    Maria José C. Sampaio Moura

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O estresse pode alterar a função vascular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sensibilidade à fenilefrina (FE em aorta torácica de ratos submetidos à natação forçada. Ratos Wistar (200-250 g foram submetidos a três sessões de natação aplicadas em dias consecutivos (15, 30 e 30 min respectivamente. Imediatamente após a última sessão, os animais foram sacrificados e, da aorta torácica foram obtidos anéis (3-5 mm com e sem endotélio. Os anéis foram mantidos em solução de Krebs-Henseleit (37 ºC; 95% O2-5% CO2. A integridade do endotélio foi avaliada pelo relaxamento em resposta à acetilcolina (10 µM, após indução de contração por FE (0,1 µM. Curvas concentração-efeito à FE foram obtidas (n=5/grupo. Não houve diferença na resposta máxima à FE entre os tratamentos controle e estresse, em anéis com e sem endotélio (p>0,05. A natação forçada induziu subsensibilidade à FE em anéis com endotélio de aorta torácica isolada de ratos submetidos à natação (pD2= 6,89 ± 0,07, pStress may change vascular function. The aim of this report was to study the sensitivity to phenylephrine (PHE in the thoracic aorta from rats submitted to forced-swim. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g were submitted to three swimming sessions, one session/day (15, 30 and 30 min, respectively. Immediately after the last swimming session, the animals were sacrificed and thoracic aorta was isolated. Aortic rings (3-5 mm, with and without endothelium, were carefully obtained and were main-tained in Krebs-Henseleit solution (95% O2- 5% CO2, 37 ºC. Endothelial integrity was assessed by relaxation to acetylcholine (10 µM in pre-contracted rings (PHE 0.1 µM. Concentration-effect curves to PHE were obtained (n = 5/group. There was no difference between control and stress groups in the maximum response to PHE of aortic rings with and without endothelium (p>0.05. Forced-swim induced subsensitivity to PHE in aortic rings with endothelium isolated

  16. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry

  17. Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular follow-up is required in patients with previous intervention for coarctation of the aorta to detect recoarctation or aneurysm formation. In this study we describe the findings encountered on routine follow-up exams and we compare the use of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE MRA) with fast spin-echo MRI (FSE) to study the thoracic aorta after previous intervention. In 51 consecutive patients previously treated for aortic coarctation, 74 MR studies of the thoracic aorta were performed during a 2-year period using CE MRA and FSE MRI. The thoracic aorta was evaluated for abnormalities of course, caliber, shape, and pathology of side branches. The CE MRA and FSE MRI studies were evaluated side by side by consensus of two reviewers evaluating which MR technique depicted the abnormalities of the thoracic aorta the best. Of 74 exams, six clinically important abnormalities were found: four aneurysms and two restenoses. Two small pseudoaneurysms were missed on the FSE studies. Contrast-enhanced MRA was judged to visualize aortic abnormalities better than FSE (47 of 74 MR studies) especially for the transverse aortic arch, coarctation site, left subclavian artery, and aortic arch configuration. For the ascending aorta and distal descending aorta, CE MRA and FSE performed equally well. Aortic diameters measured at four levels in the first 18 MRI studies showed no significant differences in diameter when measured by FSE or CE MRA (p = not significant). Clinically important abnormalities, such as aneurysm formation and restenosis, can be present years after treatment for aortic coarctation. In the regular follow-up of these patients, CE MRA may provide additional diagnostic information compared with FSE and should be included as part of the routine exam. (orig.)

  18. Collagen-induced arthritis increases inducible nitric oxide synthase not only in aorta but also in the cardiac and renal microcirculation of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma Zochio Tozzato, G; Taipeiro, E F; Spadella, M A; Marabini Filho, P; de Assis, M R; Carlos, C P; Girol, A P; Chies, A B

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may promote endothelial dysfunction. This phenomenon requires further investigation, especially in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), as it is considered the experimental model most similar to RA. The objectives of this study were to identify CIA-induced changes in noradrenaline (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) responses in mice aortas that may suggest endothelial dysfunction in these animals. Moreover, we characterize CIA-induced modifications in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the aortas and cardiac and renal tissues taken from these mice that may be related to possible endothelial dysfunction. Male DBA/1J mice were immunized with 100 μg of emulsified bovine collagen type II (CII) plus complete Freund's adjuvant. Twenty-one days later, these animals received a boost of an additional 100 μg plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Fifteen days after the onset of the disease, aortic rings from CIA and control mice were challenged with NE and ACh in an organ bath. In these animals, iNOS was detected through immunohistochemical analysis of aorta, heart and kidneys. Plasma nitrite concentration was determined using the Griess reaction. CIA did not change NE or ACh responses in mice aorta but apparently increased the iNOS expression not only in aorta, but also in cardiac and renal microcirculation. In parallel, CIA reduced nitrite plasma concentration. In mice, CIA appears to increase the presence of iNOS in aorta, as well as in heart and in kidney microcirculation. This iNOS increase occurs apparently in parallel to a reduction of the bioavailability of NO. This phenomenon does not appear to change NE or ACh responses in aorta. PMID:26456019

  19. Quantitative X-ray CT analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta and its relationship to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of abdominal aorta calcification by X-ray CT is useful method for non-invasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis. We recently examined the relationship between the X-ray CT measurement of abdominal aorta calcification and the degree of obesity. For this purpose, the body mass index (BMI) and the subcutaneous fat thickness (determined by X-ray CT at the umbilical level) were analyzed in relation to the abdominal aorta calcification index (ACI) in 845 patients (453 males and 392 females aged 40-79 years). Patients with BMI under 20 were classified as 'lean', those with BMI between 20-26 as 'normal' and those with BMI over 26 as 'obese'. 1. Among males, the ACI was highest in lean individuals and lowest in obese individuals. The difference in ACI between lean and obese males was significant in the middle aged group (40-65 years). Among females, no relationship was observed between the degree of obesity and ACI. 2. Among males, ACI was higher in individuals with low subcutaneous fat thickness and lower in individuals with greater subcutaneous fat thickness. The difference was significant in the middle aged group. Among females, no relationship was observed between the two parameters. 3. When the visceral fat to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S) in 85 males and females aged 60-69 years was analyzed in relation to ACI, ACI tended to decrease as the V/S increased, in both males and females. 4. Relationships between BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness, between BMI and lipids and between lipids and ACI were also analyzed. (author)

  20. CD45lowc-Kithigh cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45lowc-Kit+ cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45−c-Kit−, CD45−c-Kitlow, CD45−c-Kithigh, CD45lowc-Kithigh, CD45highc-Kithigh, and CD45highc-Kitverylow). Among these six populations, CD45lowc-Kithigh cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45lowc-Kithigh cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45lowc-Kithigh cells. Here, we determined that CD45lowc-Kithigh cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45lowc-Kithigh cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  1. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

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    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  2. Low-dose Computed Tomography in a Pregnant Woman with a Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramac, Jelena Popić; Vidjak, Vinko; Skegro, Dinko; Duić, Zeljko; Blasković, Darko; Erdelez, Lidija; Skopljanac-Macina, Andrija; Suknaić, Slaven; Slavica, Marko; Leder, Nikola Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Imaging the pregnant patient presents a unique challenge to radiologist due to the risk of radiation to the conceptus (embryo/fetus). A rare case of a successfully recognized and treated pseudoaneurysm (PA) of the abdominal aorta is to be presented. The pseudoaneurysm occurred in the third trimester and had a favorable outcome for the mother and the baby. Emergent abdominal ultrasound (US) is the first modality in diagnostic algorithm for the rupture of aortic aneurysm in a pregnant woman. It provides the most rapid diagnostic information, although intestinal gas and abdominal tenderness may limit its accuracy. To confirm the findings, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA) can be used. In our case, the diagnosis was established using a color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdomen and was later confirmed by a low dose CT scan of the abdominal aorta. MRA in such cases have some disadvantages. At many health centers, the monitoring of patients with acute ruptures is more difficult in the MR suite than at the CT scanner. MRA angiographic images are also subject to degradation by multiple artifacts and the visualization of the distal vasculature is suboptimal and inferior to the one done by CTA. Due to fetal movements, a small quantity of fresh blood can be overlooked by MR. MRA is often not available on a 24-hours basis, and the time required for making a diagnosis can preclude the use of MRA in an unstable patient. For this reason, we used a low dose CTA protocol to confirm the diagnosis. Low dose scanning protocols in CT can obtain sufficient diagnostic information while reducing the risk of radiation. A particular focus is put on the outline of new concepts for dose management and optimization. We used new approaches based on tube current modulation. The birth was induced by an urgent Caesarean section followed by a resection of a pseudoaneurysm and a reconstruction of the aorta with an end-to-end vascular prosthesis. PMID:26898082

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Level Contributes to Structural Integrity and Component Production of Elastic Fibers in the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Haw-Chih; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ju-Yi; Lai, Chao-Han; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Teng, Shih-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Alice Y W; Jiang, Meei-Jyh; Li, Yi-Heng; Wu, Hua-Lin; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Loss of integrity and massive disruption of elastic fibers are key features of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to attenuate AAA through inhibition of inflammation and proteolytic degradation. However, its involvement in elastogenesis during AAA remains unclear. PPARγ was highly expressed in human AAA within all vascular cells, including inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. In the aortas of transgenic mice expressing PPARγ at 25% normal levels (Pparg(C) (/-) mice), we observed the fragmentation of elastic fibers and reduced expression of vital elastic fiber components of elastin and fibulin-5. These were not observed in mice with 50% normal PPARγ expression (Pparg(+/-) mice). Infusion of a moderate dose of angiotensin II (500 ng/kg per minute) did not induce AAA but Pparg(+/-) aorta developed flattened elastic lamellae, whereas Pparg(C/-) aorta showed severe destruction of elastic fibers. After infusion of angiotensin II at 1000 ng/kg per minute, 73% of Pparg(C/-) mice developed atypical suprarenal aortic aneurysms: superior mesenteric arteries were dilated with extensive collagen deposition in adventitia and infiltrations of inflammatory cells. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by doxycycline somewhat attenuated the dilation of aneurysm, it did not reduce the incidence nor elastic lamella deterioration in angiotensin II-infused Pparg(C/-) mice. Furthermore, PPARγ antagonism downregulated elastin and fibulin-5 in fibroblasts, but not in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated PPARγ binding in the genomic sequence of fibulin-5 in fibroblasts. Our results underscore the importance of PPARγ in AAA development though orchestrating proper elastogenesis and preserving elastic fiber integrity. PMID:27045031

  4. Differences in the primary culture, purification and biological characteristics between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaobo Hu; Zifang Song; Qichang Zheng; Jun Nie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences of primary culture, purification and biological characteristics between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. Methods: Endothelial cells were obtained using the vascular ring adherence, collagenase digestion method and an improved vascular ring adherence method, while smooth muscle cells were separated from tissue sections of rat aorta. Clones of endothelial cells were selected by limiting dilution assay. Both cell types were identified using specific cell immunofluorescent markers,and phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the morphological disparity between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells at the single cell and colony level. Cell proliferation was determined by the cell counting kit-8. Differences between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were evaluated in trypsin digestion 6me, attachment time and recovery after cryopreservation. Results: Endothelial cells were obtained by all three methods. The improved vascular ring method provided the most reproducible results. Cells were in good condition, and of high purity. Smooth muscle cells were cultured successfully by the tissue fragment culture method. Clonal expansion of singleendothelial cells was attained. The two cell types expressed their respective specific markers, and the rate of proliferation of smooth muscle cells exceeded that of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were more sensitive to trypsin digestion than smooth muscle cells. In addition, they had a shorter adherence time and better recovery following cryopreservation than smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: The improved vascular ring method was optimal for yielding endothelial cells. Limiting dilution is a novel and valid method for purifying primary endothelial cells from rat aorta. Primary rat endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell cultures exhibited different morphological characteristics, proliferation rate, adherence time, susceptibility to trypsin

  5. Orientation, anisotropy, clustering, and volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within the wall of porcine abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonar Z.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed tissue samples of the normal porcine abdominal aorta using stereological assessment of histological sections through the tunica media layer. The results demonstrated that the local volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within tunica media does not differ among samples taken round the circumference of the artery, and that volume fraction can be assessed in sections stained with green trichrome as well as with immunohistochemistry against actin. The distribution of angles between the long axes of nuclei of the smooth muscle cells and the radial direction was different from normal. The profiles of smooth muscle cells were distributed in an isotropic, but an inhomogeneous manner.

  6. Endothelial cell growth factor and ionophore A23187 stimulation of production of inositol phosphates in porcine aorta endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Moscat, J; Moreno, F.; Herrero, C.; C. López; García-Barreno, P.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a bovine brain-derived endothelial cell growth factor has recently been reported, but its mode of action is unknown. We show that the endothelial cell growth factor is a potent stimulant of inositol monophosphate release in porcine aorta endothelial cells. Although the activation of phospholipase C by this factor does not appear to be dependent on Ca2+, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 stimulates release of inositol phosphates. It is suggested that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3...

  7. Differential effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat heart and aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatto V.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart induces myocardial hypertrophy. There are several experimental data suggesting that this hypertrophy may also depend, at least partially, on the increase of local production of angiotensin II secondary to the activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. In this study we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in the heart and also in the aorta and plasma. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 305 g were treated with a dose of (±-isoproterenol (0.3 mg kg-1 day-1, N = 8 sufficient to produce cardiac hypertrophy without deleterious effects on the pumping capacity of the heart. Control rats (N = 7 were treated with vehicle (corn oil. The animals were killed one week later. ACE activity was determined in vitro in the four cardiac chambers, aorta and plasma by a fluorimetric assay. A significant hypertrophy was observed in both ventricular chambers. ACE activity in the atria remained constant after isoproterenol treatment. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 of ACE activity in the right ventricle (6.9 ± 0.9 to 8.2 ± 0.6 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 and in the left ventricle (6.4 ± 1.1 to 8.9 ± 0.8 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. In the aorta, however, ACE activity decreased (P<0.01 after isoproterenol (41 ± 3 to 27 ± 2 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 while it remained unchanged in the plasma. These data suggest that ACE expression in the heart can be increased by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors. However, this effect is not observed on other local renin-angiotensin systems, such as the aorta. Our data also suggest that the increased sympathetic discharge and the elevated plasma concentration of catecholamines may contribute to the upregulation of ACE expression in the heart after myocardial infarction and heart failure.

  8. Estresse Isolado ou Associado ao Etanol Libera Prostanóides em Aorta de Ratos via ?2-Adrenoceptores

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    Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira Baptista

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Estresse e etanol são ambos, independentemente, importantes fatores de risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: avaliar o risco cardiovascular do consumo de etanol e exposição ao estresse, isolados e em associação, em ratos machos adultos. Métodos: Os ratos foram separados em quatro grupos: controle, etanol (20% na água de beber durante seis semanas, estresse (imobilização 1h dia/5 dias por semana/ 6 semanas e estresse/etanol. As curvas de concentração-resposta à noradrenalina - na ausência e na presença de ioimbina, L-NAME ou indometacina - ou fenilefrina foram determinadas em aortas torácicas com e sem endotélio. EC50 e resposta máxima (n = 8-12 foram comparadas através de ANOVA de dois fatores (two-way / método de Bonferroni. Resultados: Estresse ou estresse em associação com o consumo de etanol aumentaram as respostas máximas de noradrenalina em aortas intactas. Essa hiper-reatividade foi eliminada pela remoção do endotélio, ou pela presença da indometacina ou ioimbina, mas não foi alterada pela presença de L-NAME. Enquanto isso, o consumo de etanol não alterou a reatividade à noradrenalina. As respostas da fenilefrina em aortas com e sem endotélio também permaneceram inalteradas independentemente do protocolo. Conclusão: O estresse crônico aumentou as respostas aórticas dos ratos à noradrenalina. Esse efeito é dependente do endotélio vascular e envolve a liberação de prostanóides vasoconstritores através da estimulação de α-2 adrenoceptores endoteliais. Além disso, o consumo crônico de etanol pareceu não influenciar as respostas de noradrenalina em aorta de rato, nem modificar o aumento de tais respostas observadas em consequência da exposição ao estresse.

  9. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Nasiri; Hamid Reza Sameni; Abedin Vakili; Morteza Jarrahi; Mahdi Zahedi Khorasani

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP) and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Saffron (200 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day) administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histolo...

  10. Atorvastatin inhibits the expression of RAGE induced by advanced glycation end products on aortas in healthy Sprague–Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lei; Zang, Panpan; Feng, Bo; Qian, Qiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Background Atorvastatin can downregulate the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the aortas of diabetic rats. However, its effect on healthy rats remains unclear. The aim of this study was to observe the direct impact of atorvastatin on advanced glycation end products- (AGEs) induced RAGE expression in healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods SD rats received AGE-BSA (20 mg/kg/day or 40 mg/kg/day), dual treatment (AGE-BSA 40 mg/kg/day and atorvastatin 20 mg/k...

  11. Comparison of the effect of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnus, Jan; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of selected agonists and antagonists of alpha-adrenergic receptors on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro with particular emphasis on alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. The study was conducted on 30 New Zealand breed rabbits from which specimens of the abdominal aorta were collected. The sections were set up in an automatic water bath in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. The experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors played the main role in the contractile response ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta. Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptor by administration ofphenylephrine resulted in an increase in smooth muscle tonus ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta by an average of 4.75 mN. The reaction after stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by similar doses of their agonists was much weaker. Prolonged tissue response time and time needed to reach maximum tonus for alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists were observed. The obtained results confirm the thesis that the alpha1-adrenergic receptor is the most important factor controlling the contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta, but the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is also involved in maintaining muscle tissue tonus. PMID:23767297

  12. Estimated in vivo postnatal surface growth patterns of the ovine main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fata, Bahar; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Delineating the normal postnatal development of the pulmonary artery (PA) and ascending aorta (AA) can inform our understanding of congenital abnormalities, as well as pulmonary and systolic hypertension. We thus conducted the following study to delineate the PA and AA postnatal growth deformation characteristics in an ovine model. MR images were obtained from endoluminal surfaces of 11 animals whose ages ranged from 1.5 months/15.3 kg mass (very young) to 12 months/56.6 kg mass (adult). A bicubic Hermite finite element surface representation was developed for the each artery from each animal. Under the assumption that the relative locations of surface points were retained during growth, the individual animal surface fits were subsequently used to develop a method to estimate the time-evolving local effective surface growth (relative to the youngest measured animal) in the end-diastolic state. Results indicated that the spatial and temporal surface growth deformation patterns of both arteries, especially in the circumferential direction, were heterogeneous, leading to an increase in taper and increase in cross-sectional ellipticity of the PA. The longitudinal PA growth stretch of a large segment on the posterior wall reached 2.57 ± 0.078 (mean ± SD) at the adult stage. In contrast, the longitudinal growth of the AA was smaller and more uniform (1.80 ± 0.047). Interestingly, a region of the medial wall of both arteries where both arteries are in contact showed smaller circumferential growth stretches-specifically 1.12 ± 0.012 in the PA and 1.43 ± 0.071 in the AA at the adult stage. Overall, our results indicated that contact between the PA and AA resulted in increasing spatial heterogeneity in postnatal growth, with the PA demonstrating the greatest changes. Parametric studies using simplified geometric models of curved arteries during growth suggest that heterogeneous effective surface growth deformations must occur to account for the

  13. Reconstruction of the descending thoracic aorta by multiview compounding of 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic aortic data sets for improved examination and quantification of atheroma burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Maria Chiara; Piazzese, Concetta; Weinert, Lynn; Tsang, Wendy; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro; Lang, Roberto Miguel; Caiani, Enrico Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    A robust and efficient approach to reconstruction of the descending thoracic aorta from contiguous 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) images is proposed. An ad hoc image acquisition protocol was designed to acquire ordered and partially overlapped 3-D TEE data sets, followed by dedicated image processing to align and fuse all acquired data sets. Alignment strategy implemented pairwise rigid registration guided by a priori knowledge, and it was validated using artificially misaligned images. Image fusion was finally performed to enable visualization and analysis of extended field-of-view of the acquired aorta. The application of different fusion techniques was also investigated. The method was applied to a population of 17 consecutive patients. Qualitative and quantitative results supported the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed approach. In a clinical scenario, its application could allow the quantitative assessment of aortic plaque burden in the descending thoracic aorta from 3-D TEE images. PMID:25684644

  14. Study on the dynamic change of endothelin in the development of stenosis of aorta after balloon injury in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dynamic change of endothelin (ET) in the blood with pathological and immunohistochemical changes of ET(ET-immunoreaction, ET-IR) in the development of stenosis of rabbit aorta after transluminal angioplasty. Methods: According to the different periods of being killed after micro-balloon angioplasty, 30 rabbits were divided randomly into 6 groups including 6-hour group, 1-day group, 3-day group, 7-day group, 15-day group and 22-day group. 3 out of 5 rabbits in each group were created as models of aortic endothelium injury by micro-balloon angioplasty, the rest 2 rabbits were taken as control. ET levels in the plasma were measured by ELISA before, as well as after micro-balloon angioplasty. Pathomorphological examination of the local traumatic aorta was carried out to observe the intimal thickness and the extent of lumen stenosis, and ET-IR was assessed by immunohistochemical technique performed on aortic wall after micro-balloon angioplasty. Results: (1) The major change of vascular stenosis was proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelium. (2) ET levels in the plasma and ET-IR on the local aortic wall were significantly increased after micro-balloon angioplasty. Conclusions: The experimental results show that the major pathologic change of vascular stenosis is the obvionus proliferation of VSMC and endothelium. Further more, ET is a key factor in the development of vascular stenosis. (authors)

  15. Anatomical description of arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati (Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae

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    Daniel Arrais Biihrer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a widely distributed species in South America, also in Brazil. This study aimed to observe and describe the branching morphology of the main arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati, by comparing the findings with existing literature on the other domestic and wild species. For this study, two adult male specimens were used, collected from highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, victims of roadkill. The specimens were fixed in formalin solution and their aortic branches were filled with latex for subsequent dissection and analysis. It was observed that the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aortic arch, there is no formation of a bicarotid or celiac-mesenteric trunk, facts similarly described in domestic carnivores. Thus, it was noticed that the arterial branches of aorta in the coati, both in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, show a distribution very similar to that observed in domestic carnivores, something which reflects their evolutionary closeness within the Carnivora order. Thus, this study proves to be relevant by deepening anatomical knowledge on this wild species, enabling that aspects already known in canine veterinary medicine are applied to the coati.

  16. Aortoesophageal fistula as a complication of thoracic aorta aneurism stent grafting – a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular stent grafting is performed in patients with aneurysms of aorta or other major vessels. The procedure is considered to be generally safe, with a low risk of complications, the most common of which include endoleaks, stenosis or thrombosis at the stagraft and itsmigration. Very rare complications include aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas (0.5–1.7% cases). A 64-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with suspected aortoesophageal fistula. Two years prior, the patient had undergone a stent graft repair of the thoracic aorta at the local vascular surgery clinic. Both laboratory results and CT angiography revealed aortoesophageal fistula, which was also detected in endoscopic examination. Despite intensive treatment and preparation for surgery, the patient died 6 days after admission. Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications in the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms by endovascular stent-grafting. This clearly indicates that preventive care and regular medical examinations are important to prevent their occurrence

  17. Correção endovascular do aneurisma da aorta abdominal: análise dos resultados de único centro

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    Eduardo Rafael Novero

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos imediatos e em médio prazo do tratamento endovascular em pacientes portadores de aneurisma da aorta abdominal em um centro de referência para doenças cardiovasculares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de uma série de pacientes submetidos a tratamento endovascular de aneurisma da aorta abdominal, no período de janeiro de 2009 a julho de 2010. Foram avaliados as características demográficas, o sucesso técnico, o sucesso terapêutico, a morbimortalidade, as complicações e a taxa de reintervenções perioperatórias imediatos, e após um ano de acompanhamento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 102 pacientes consecutivos com idade média de 72 ± 9 anos, sendo 79% deles do sexo masculino. Houve sucesso técnico em 97,1% e êxito terapêutico em 81% dos casos. A mortalidade perioperatória foi de 0,9% e a anual, de 7,8%. Foram necessárias reintervenções em 18,8% dos pacientes durante o seguimento. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso estudo, os resultados obtidos justificam a realização desse procedimento nos pacientes com anatomia adequada.

  18. Sex-specific vascular responses of the rat aorta: effects of moderate term (intermediate stage) streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoyuan; Shaligram, Sonali; Zhang, Rui; Anderson, Leigh; Rahimian, Roshanak

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia affects male and female vascular beds differently. We have previously shown that 1 week after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin (STZ), male and female rats exhibit differences in aortic endothelial function. To examine this phenomenon further, aortic responses were studied in male and female rats 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes (intermediate stage). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured in phenylephrine (PE) pre-contracted rat aortic rings. Concentration response curves to PE were generated before and after L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Furthermore, mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NADPH oxidase subunit (Nox1) were determined. At 8 weeks, diabetes impaired EDV to a greater extent in female than male aortae. Furthermore, the responsiveness to PE was significantly enhanced only in female diabetic rats, and basal NO, as indicated by the potentiation of the response to PE after L-NAME, was reduced in female diabetic rat aortae to the same levels as in males. In addition, eNOS mRNA expression was decreased, while the Nox1 expression was significantly enhanced in diabetic female rats. These results suggest that aortic function in female diabetic rats after 8 weeks exhibits a more prominent impairment and that NO may be involved. PMID:26845285

  19. Improvement of Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Aorta of Rat Models Type 1 and 2 Diabetes by Hespiridin

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    H Mirkhani,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. A considerable body of evidence implicates oxidative stress as an important pathogenic factor of diabetic vasculopathies. In the present study, the effect of hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside with antioxidant activity, is studied in endothelium-dependent relaxation of the rat aorta in experimental diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1 and type 2 (DM2. Patients and Methods: Single dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60mg/kg and subcutaneous daily injection of dexamethasone (10µg/kg for one month were used to induce DM1 and DM2, respectively. Hesperidin (500mg/kg was administered orally for two months in DM1 and one month in DM2. The effect of acetylcholine (Ach on phenyl ephrine (PE induced. PE contracted aorta was then studied and the EC50 and maximal relaxant effect of Ach were calculated and compared in the two groups.Results: In the experimental DM1, hesperidin restored endothelium-dependent relaxation near to those of normal animals. Its effect on experimental DM2 consisted of a significant reduction of EC50 value of Ach compared to those of diabetic animals. It also showed a great but non-significant effect (P=0.07 on Ach-induced maximum relaxation compared to DM2 untreated animals. Conclusion: These results show that hesperidin can improve vascular endothelial dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus.

  20. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography of the thoracic aorta: experiences after 118 examinations with a standard dose contrast administration and different injection protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to test three injection protocols for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the thoracic aorta with a standard-dose application. Ninety-three patients with a total of 118 examinations underwent MRA of the thoracic aorta at 1.5 T. There were three injection protocols: in 24 cases, no test bolus was performed and contrast was injected manually; in 14 cases, contrast was injected manually after a test bolus; and in 80 cases, a MR-compatible injector was used after a timing examination. All patients received 20 ml of Gd-DTPA. Quantitative signal-to-noise (SNR) measurements were obtained at different locations in the thoracic aorta, the pulmonary arteries, and the superior vena cava. Two readers in conference retrospectively evaluated each examination with respect to overall image quality and quality of bolus timing. Bolus timing was considered optimal in 70 cases, and either too early or too late in 11 cases. In 37 examinations the bolus was broadened. The SNR measurements of the thoracic aorta revealed that examinations after bolus testing were significantly superior to examinations without a test bolus (p<0.001). Signal intensity ratios of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk were significantly higher in examinations with an optimal contrast timing (p<0.001). Magnetic resonance angiograms of the thoracic aorta with a timing run are significantly superior to non-timed examinations with respect to image quality and SNRs. The administration of 20 ml of Gd-DTPA is sufficient for adult patients. (orig.)

  1. Atherosclerosis in coronary artery and aorta in a semi-urban population by applying modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis: An autopsy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thej, Mothakapalli Jagadish; Kalyani, Raju; Kiran, Jayaramaiah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) following atherosclerosis is a giant killer and the incidence of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries is rapidly increasing among Indians. The study was formulated to assess the histomorphological atherosclerotic changes in aorta and coronary arteries at autopsy by applying the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis based on morphological descriptions to find out the age and sex related prevalence of atherosclerosis in the semi-urban population of Kolar, a district in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Autopsy was conducted on 113 cases whose age ranged from 8-85 years. Autopsy was conducted by the conventional technique; heart and the aorta were removed and fixed in 10% formalin. The heart was dissected along the direction of flow of blood and aorta along the posterior surface. Microscopic assessment of the three main coronary arteries and aorta was done using the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis. Proportions were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The number of males was 78 (69%) and number of females was 35 (31%). Mean age was 37.11 ± 15.69 years. Increased incidence of intermediate lesions was noted in young individuals (15-34 yrs). Atherosclerotic lesions were more in left anterior descending artery compared to other coronary arteries and in abdominal aorta compared to thoracic and ascending aorta. Vulnerable plaques were more in right coronary artery. Conclusion: With cardiovascular disease attaining pandemic proportions, the study of subclinical atherosclerosis is the need of the hour to estimate the disease burden in the asymptomatic population. The increased amount of atherosclerosis (advanced and intermediate lesions) found in the young population in this study gives an indication that anti-atherogenic preventive measures need to be implemented in young individuals, so as to prevent coronary artery disease from causing premature death

  2. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery and the basilar artery with persistent trigeminal artery associated with coarctation of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mehring, U.M.; Gissler, H.M.; Mathias, K.D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Staedtische Kliniken Dortmund (Germany); Dept. of Radiology and MicroTherapy, Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a case of congenital absence of the cervical and petrous part of the left internal carotid artery, the middle and proximal part of the basilar artery, and the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery associated with a left persistent trigeminal artery and a coarctation of the aorta. The left cerebral vessels are supplied via the anterior communicating artery and the left persistent trigeminal artery. The coexisting coarctation of the aorta led to a subclavian steal phenomenon. The alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics has to be taken in consideration when performing cerebral angiography and surgical correction in such a case. (orig.)

  3. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery and the basilar artery with persistent trigeminal artery associated with coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of congenital absence of the cervical and petrous part of the left internal carotid artery, the middle and proximal part of the basilar artery, and the V4 segment of the left vertebral artery associated with a left persistent trigeminal artery and a coarctation of the aorta. The left cerebral vessels are supplied via the anterior communicating artery and the left persistent trigeminal artery. The coexisting coarctation of the aorta led to a subclavian steal phenomenon. The alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics has to be taken in consideration when performing cerebral angiography and surgical correction in such a case. (orig.)

  4. Aneurismas complejos de la aorta abdominal: cirugía abierta frente a exclusión endovascular avanzada. Estudio comparativo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Almonacil, Vicente Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Justificación del estudio e hipótesis de trabajo: la enfermedad aneurismática de la aorta se estima que afecta al 2%-7% de los varones mayores de 60 años. Dichas estimaciones, extrapoladas a la población de España, se corresponderían con 140.000-350.000 personas portadoras de una aneurisma de aorta abdominal. En siete de cada cien personas acaece la rotura del aneurisma, siendo actualmente la décima causa de muerte en varones mayores de 55 años. En aquellos pacientes de alto riesgo para la ci...

  5. Percutaneous Implantation of the self-expanding valve Prosthesis a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia severe aortic stenosis and porcelain aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Levent; Asil, Serkan; Kaya, Ergün Baris; Ozer, Necla; Aytemir, Kudret

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or inappropriate for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have porcelain aorta and familial hypercholesterolemia, due to the potential complications of aortic root and aortic annulus. In this case report, we present a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, previous coronary artery bypass grafting and porcelain aorta, who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve. PMID:27393846

  6. Transesophageal access to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta via echoendoscopy: An experimental study Acceso transesofágico a cavidades cardiacas y aorta torácica descendente mediante ecoendoscopia: Estudio experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López Martín

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the applications of endoscopic ultrasonography have diversified over recent years. The possibility of reaching cardiac territory has been successfully explored in experimental models, opening up a new field of possibilities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that were unthinkable until very recently. The aims set out in this study are to evaluate cardiac anatomy, its approach, the safety of the experimental procedure and the resulting morphological and histological changes after the procedure. Material and methods: the study has been performed on two adult pigs. They have undergone different surgical approaches to the cardiac cavities and descending thoracic aorta with excellent results. Results: different cardiac structures have been identified and operated upon (right auricle, left auricle, left ventricle, cardiac valves, as well as major vessels. The use of contrast, both intracavitary and from a peripheral vein, enabled us to verify the anatomical spaces studied. During the procedures we monitored for arrhythmias, hemodynamic behavior, possibility of infection by obtaining sample hemocultures before and after procedures, and response to punctures. Conclusions: the present study has enabled us to evaluate access to the heart from the esophageal lumen using endoscopic ultrasonography, with results that are very similar to those described in the current bibliography. However, we offer two novelties: puncture of the right auricle through the interauricular partition and puncture of the descending thoracic aorta, both performed with ease and apparent safety.Objetivo: las aplicaciones de la ultrasonografía endoscópica se han diversificado en los últimos tiempos. La posibilidad de acceder al territorio cardiaco se ha explorado en modelos experimentales con buenos resultados, abriendo un campo de nuevas posibilidades de intervencionismo diagnóstico y terapéutico hasta hace poco impensables. Los objetivos planteados en este

  7. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  8. 3D MR angiography of the entire aorta: modified application of the body-phased array coil for a single-shot technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Evaluation of different contrast-enhanced MR angiography imaging protocols for visualization of the entire aorta in breath-hold technique. Methods and patients: Three different CE (0.15 mmol/kg) MRA protocols were evaluated by phantom and patient studies: (1) two separate MRA with conventional application of the body-phased array coil; (2) a single-shot MRA with modified application of the body-phased array coil; (3) a single-shot MRA with the body coil. Duplex sonography, CTA and DSA were used as standard of reference. Results: In all examinations the entire aorta could be visualized. The best SNR was acquired with protocol (1). The SNR of protocol (2) was reduced if the sagittal body diameter of the patient was greater than 20 cm and decreased significantly with diameters over 30 cm. By the use of protocol (3) the SNR was notably poor. The quality scored for the visualization of the entire aorta was 97.5% (protocol 1); 92.5% (protocol 2); and 80.0% (protocol 3). Conclusion: In most cases the modified application of the body-phased array coil allows the imaging of the entire aorta as a single-shot 3D CE MRA in diagnostic quality

  9. Accumulation of co-localised unesterified cholesterol and neutral lipids within vacuolised elastin fibres in athero-prone areas of the human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Y V; Lord, R S

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether there are alterations of elastin fibres in the arterial intima at the pre-atherosclerotic stage, grossly normal areas of human thoracic aorta were taken soon after death from 13 healthy trauma victims whose ages ranged from 16 to 40 years. Two areas were compared: atherosclerosis-prone (AP) areas localised to the dorsal aspect of the aorta along the rows of intercostal branch origins, and atherosclerosis-resistant (AR) areas from the ventral aorta. Electron microscopic analysis combined with cytochemical staining was applied. Unesterified cholesterol was identified using the filipin-staining technique while neutral lipids were visualised by the OTO-technique. Intimal features were studied by combining the filipin-staining and the OTO-technique. Electron microscopical examination showed that in both AR and AP areas, some elastin fibres in the intima were vacuolised. Unesterified cholesterol was found to be predominantly localised in the musculoelastic layer, in particular, inside the vacuolised elastin fibres. This localisation was seen in all 13 AP areas studied in contrast to the AR areas where it was observed in only four of 13 aortas studied (P stage in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:9920513

  10. Clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the resection of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in performing the surgical resection of sacral tumors. Methods: Conventional surgical excision of sacral tumors was employed in 24 patients with sacral tumors (control group), while preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was carried out in 32 patients with sacral tumors (study group). The operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate of both groups were documented, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Angiography showed that in the study group the sacral tumors were supplied by several vessels, and these feeding arteries were occluded separately. The tumors were successfully removed in all patients with the help of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. During the surgery, the surgical area was clearly exposed and the blood loss wa remarkably reduced. After the surgery, no ectopic vascular embolization, renal ischemia, limb ischemia or other complications occurred. Statistically significant difference in the operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate existed between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce the blood loss during the surgery and provide a clear surgical field, and thus the surgical safety can be significantly ensured. (authors)

  11. Different effects of R 56865 and calcium entry blockers on K+- and noradrenaline-induced contractions and45Ca uptake in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, P.; Wilhelm, D.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Nebel, U.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1988-01-01

    The effects of R 56865, nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem and flunarizine on K+- and NA-induced contractions and K+-induced45Ca uptake were compared in the isolated rat aorta. The calcium entry blockers concentration dependently inhibited the K+-induced contraction and45Ca uptake over the same dose-r

  12. Ca2+influx insensitive to organic Ca2+entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 x 10-5mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+release, we assumed that a Ca2+influx component contributes

  13. Fatal dissection of the descending aorta after implantation of a stent in a 19-year-old female with Turner's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fejzic, Z.; Oort, A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    We report a fatal dissection of the descending aorta as a complication after a two-staged implantation of a stent to relieve aortic coarctation in a young female with Turner's syndrome. Implantation of the stent, with dilation up to 70 percent, and half a year later re-dilation to 100 percent, was w

  14. Ang II enhances noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings thus contributing to the up-regulation of metalloprotease-2 in aortic dissection patients' aorta wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECT: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II could enhance noradrenaline (NA release from sympathetic nerve endings of the aorta thus contributing to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 during the formation of aortic dissection (AD. METHODS: Ang II, NA, MMP-2, MMP-9 of the aorta sample obtained during operation from aortic dissection patients were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and ELISA and compared with controls. Isotope labelling method was used to test the impact of exogenous Ang II and noradrenaline on the NA release and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression on Sprague Dawley (SD rat aorta rings in vitro. Two kidneys, one clip, models were replicated for further check of that impact in SD rats in vivo. RESULTS: The concentration of Ang II, MMP-2, 9 was increased and NA concentration was decreased in aorta samples from AD patients. Exogenous Ang II enhanced while exogenous NA restrained NA release from aortic sympathetic endings. The Ang II stimulated NA release and the following MMP-2 up-regulation could be weakened by Losartan and chemical sympathectomy. Beta blocker did not influence NA release but down-regulated MMP-2. Long term in vivo experiments confirmed that Ang II could enhance NA release and up-regulate MMP-2. CONCLUSIONS: AD is initiated by MMP-2 overexpression as a result of increased NA release from sympathetic nervous endings in response to Ang II. This indicates an interaction of RAS and SAS during the formation of AD.

  15. Different sensitivities for four calcium entry blockers of serotonin-, but not K+-induced contractions of isolated jugular vein and aorta of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of the calcium entry blockers (CEBs) nifedipine, diltiazem, flunarizine and gallopamil on K+- and serotonin (5-HT)-induced contractions of the rat jugular vein and aorta in vitro. In both tissues all four CEBs inhibited K+-induced contractions concentration-depe

  16. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic RatsKL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  17. EDRF [endothelium-derived relaxing factor]-release and Ca++-channel blockage by Magnolol, an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, in rat thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnolol is an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis. It inhibited norepinephrine-induced phasic and tonic contractions in rat thoracic aorta. At the plateau of the NE-induced tonic contraction, addition of magnolol caused two phases (fast and slow) of relaxation. These two relaxations were concentration-dependent, and were not inhibited by indomethacin. The fast relaxation was completely antagonized by hemoglobin and methylene blue, and disappeared in de-endothelialized aorta while the slow relaxation was not affected by the above treatments. Magnolol also inhibited high potassium-induced, calcium-dependent contraction of rat aorta in a concentration-dependent manner. 45Ca++ influx induced by high potassium or NE was markedly inhibited by magnolol. Cyclic GMP, but not PGI2, was increased by magnolol in intact, but not in de-endothelialized aorta. It is concluded that magnolol relaxed vascular smooth muscle by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and by inhibiting calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels

  18. CT angiography for the pre- and postoperative evaluation of the thoracic aorta; CT-Angiografie zur prae- und postoperativen Evaluation in der thorakalen Aortenchirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, Gregor; Euringer, W.; Langer, M.; Blanke, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Radiology; Siepe, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Cardiovascular Surgery

    2011-04-15

    CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for the pre- and postsurgical evaluation of patients with pathologies of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the technical principle, recent technical developments and requirements for specific examination protocols and image interpretation, and to highlight common pathologies and findings. (orig.)

  19. Combination of Medicinal Herbs KIOM-79 Reduces Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation and the Expression of Inflammatory Factors in the Aorta of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Sohn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that KIOM-79 shows a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation and inhibited a proinflammatory state in a murine macrophage cell line. In the present study, we investigated the effect of KIOM-79 on AGE accumulation and vascular inflammation in the aorta of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg once a day orally for 13 weeks. We examined the dissected aortas for AGE accumulation, expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE, and the expression of proinflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were also measured by Southwestern histochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. KIOM-79 markedly reduced the accumulation of AGEs and the expression of RAGE in the aorta. We also found that KIOM-79 attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors including NF-κB, MCP-1, VEGF, VCAM-1, and iNOS in the aortas of ZDF rats. These data suggest that KIOM-79 may prevent or retard the development of inflammation in diabetic vascular disease.

  20. Significance of the Intima-Media thickness of carotid and thoracic aorta in coronary artery disease in the South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: IMT of the carotid and thoracic aorta is strongly associated with risk of CAD in a South Indian population, and may be used as a non-invasive screening tool for coronary atherosclerosis in resource-limited settings. The presence of dyslipidemia influenced IMT and may be used as a tool to follow patients on hypolipidemic drugs.

  1. Radiation Dose and Image Quality at High-Pitch CT Angiography of the Aorta : Intraindividual and Interindividual Comparisons With Conventional CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Hanna, E. Lexworth; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Spears, J. Reid; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Fink, Christian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate radiation dose and quantitative image quality parameters at high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta compared with conventional CTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We studied the examinations of 110 patients (65 men and 45 women; mean age +/- SD, 64

  2. Two anomalous cases of the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Tanaka, K; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes two arterial anomaly cases in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which were encountered in two Japanese male cadavers in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In these cases, the usual celiac trunks were not identified, and the hepato-mesenteric and the gastro-splenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, in the first case, the common hepatic artery passed ventral side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type V of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. In the second case, the common hepatic artery passed dorsal side of the portal vein and divided into the hepatic proper and the gastroduodenal arteries. This type of arterial anomaly belongs to the Type VI of Adachi's classification and the Type IV' of Morita's classification. PMID:11059229

  3. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in 32P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation

  4. Effects and mechanism of different adrenergic receptor antagonists on left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qin; LI Long-gui; ZHANG Yun

    2004-01-01

    To study the changes of a collagen-binding protein (Colligin) and myosin heavy chain isoform (α/β-MHC) gene and protein in left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to coarctation of abdominal aorta in rats and the ef-fects of three kinds of adrenergic receptor blockers: Carvedilol (CAR), Metoprolol (MET) and Terazosin (TER) on these changes, and to elucidate the effects and new mechanism of CAR on left ventricular hypearophy regression. Methods: A model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta(CAA) was used in this study. Thirty two male istar rats were divided randomly into four groups 4 weeks after CAA operation: CAA, CAR, MET and TER.emodynamics, ventric-ular remodeling parameters, expressions of Colligin and α/β-MHC mRNA, protein expressions of Collagen Ⅰ /Ⅲ and Colligin were investigated in the four groups and sham operation group. Results: Left ventricle hypertrophy was observed clearly 16 weeks after operation. The ratio of α/β-MHC mRNA decreased, while expressions of Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ proteins and Colligin mRNA/protein increased( P < 0.05). CAR could ameliorate left ventricle hypertrophy prior to MET and TER. CAR could also change the expressions of α/β-MHC, Collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ and Colligin in both gene and protein levels ( P < 0.05), while MET and TER have no effect on them ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: The effects of CAR on extracellular matrix proteins and MHC isoform shift regression of left ventricle may be due to antiproliferative or antioxidative mechanism, which was indepen-dent of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist.

  5. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  6. Atorvastatin acutely reduces the reactivity to spasmogens in rat aorta: implication of the inhibition of geranylgeranylation and MYPT-1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp Yildirim, Fatoş İlkay; Kaleli Durman, Deniz; Aypar, Eda; Ark, Mustafa; Özdemir, Osman; Uydeş Doğan, Birsel Sönmez

    2016-04-01

    Statins are known to display benefits in various diseases independently from their cholesterol lowering properties. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of atorvastatin on vascular reactivity to various spasmogens in isolated rat aorta. The responses to noradrenaline (NA, 10(-8) -10(-4) m), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 10(-10) -10(-7) m), and potassium chloride (KCl, 10-100 mm) were evaluated in aortic rings pretreated with atorvastatin (10(-7) -10(-4) m, 30 min). To verify the mechanism of action, the effects of atorvastatin were studied in the presence of cholesterol precursor, mevalonate (10(-2) m, 45 min), mevalonate-derived isoprenoids, namely geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP, 5 × 10(-6) m, 30 min) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP, 5 × 10(-6) m, 30 min), and in the absence of endothelium. In parallel, aortic rings were pretreated with the specific inhibitor of Rho kinase, Y-27632 (10(-7) -10(-6) m). Atorvastatin significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the contractions to spasmogens in rat aorta. This acute inhibitory effect was also evident in endothelium-denuded rings. Pretreatment with mevalonate and GGPP, but not with FPP, reversed the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin (10(-4) m) on NA and ET-1 induced contractions. Similar to atorvastatin, pretreatment with Y-27632 inhibited the contractions to NA and KCl in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that both atorvastatin (10(-4) m) and Y-27632 (10(-6) m) pretreatment inhibited the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 (MYPT-1) triggered by NA, indicating an inhibitory influence on myosin phosphatase. In conclusion, atorvastatin displayed an acute inhibitory effect on vascular contractility evoked by various spasmogens and the inhibitory effect was possibly mediated by the inhibition of mevalonate and GGPP synthesis as well as the prevention of MYPT-1 phosphorylation induced by Rho/Rho kinase. PMID:26610064

  7. Computational biomechanics and experimental validation of vessel deformation based on 4D-CT imaging of the porcine aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Dilana; Finol, Ender A.; Kostrzewa, Michael; Kopaigorenko, Maria; Richter, Götz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease results from pathological biomechanical conditions and fatigue of the vessel wall. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patient-specific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular disease. An experimental validation is necessary for the evaluation and the clinical implementation of such computational models. In the present study, we have implemented dynamic Computed-Tomography (4D-CT) imaging and catheter-based in vivo measured pressures to numerically simulate and experimentally evaluate the biomechanics of the porcine aorta. The computations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and simulate the arterial wall response to the transient pressure-based boundary condition. They are evaluated by comparing the numerically predicted wall deformation and that calculated from the acquired 4D-CT data. The dynamic motion of the vessel is quantified by means of the hydraulic diameter, analyzing sequences at 5% increments over the cardiac cycle. Our results show that accurate biomechanical modeling is possible using FEM-based simulations. The RMS error of the computed hydraulic diameter at five cross-sections of the aorta was 0.188, 0.252, 0.280, 0.237 and 0.204 mm, which is equivalent to 1.7%, 2.3%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, when expressed as a function of the time-averaged hydraulic diameter measured from the CT images. The present investigation is a first attempt to simulate and validate vessel deformation based on realistic morphological data and boundary conditions. An experimentally validated system would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  8. Ranolazine enhances nicardipine-induced relaxation of alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavaki, Christina; Hatziefthimiou, Apostolia; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Aidonidis, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    Ranolazine (RAN) and nicardipine (NIC) have been studied for their vasorelaxing effects but the combination of these agents against adrenergic vasoconstriction has not been tested. The present study aimed at investigating the vasorelaxing effect by the combination of the two agents on alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction on isolated rabbit aorta. Aortic rings were mounted for isometric tension recording in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Concentration-response curves of RAN (10(-9) to 10(-4) M), NIC (10(-1) to 10(-5) M), and RAN + NIC (3 x 10(-6) M) were obtained in a cumulative manner using phenylephrine (PE, 2 x 10(-6) M) as constrictor agent. The effective concentration (EC)50 values for RAN and NIC were 6.5 x 10(-6) M and 1.4 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The treatment of PE-precontracted aortic rings with either RAN or NIC up to 65 min revealed that both agents displayed a biphasic pattern of initial rising and late sustained phases of relaxation. At 35 min of incubation, RAN and NIC induced relaxation by 23 +/- 3% and 14 +/- 4%, respectively (N = 7, P=NS, RAN vs. NIC); their combination resulted in a 34 +/- 4% relaxation (N=7; P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. NIC). At 65 min the effect of NIC prevailed and tended to be closer to the values of the combination treatment (P < 0.01, RAN + NIC vs. RAN). The results indicate that RAN at therapeutic concentrations exerts a significant additive vasorelaxing effect when combined with NIC in rabbit aorta. PMID:26148375

  9. Remodeling of Aorta Extracellular Matrix as a Result of Transient High Oxygen Exposure in Newborn Rats: Implication for Arterial Rigidity and Hypertension Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michele M.; Cloutier, Anik; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Sartelet, Hervé; Germain, Nathalie; Comte, Blandine; Schulz, Richard; DeBlois, Denis; Nuyt, Anne Monique

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal high-oxygen exposure leads to elevated blood pressure, microvascular rarefaction, vascular dysfunction and arterial (aorta) rigidity in adult rats. Whether structural changes are present in the matrix of aorta wall is unknown. Considering that elastin synthesis peaks in late fetal life in humans, and early postnatal life in rodents, we postulated that transient neonatal high-oxygen exposure can trigger premature vascular remodelling. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed from days 3 to 10 after birth to 80% oxygen (vs. room air control) and were studied at 4 weeks. Blood pressure and vasomotor response of the aorta to angiotensin II and to the acetylcholine analogue carbachol were not different between groups. Vascular superoxide anion production was similar between groups. There was no difference between groups in aortic cross sectional area, smooth muscle cell number or media/lumen ratio. In oxygen-exposed rats, aorta elastin/collagen content ratio was significantly decreased, the expression of elastinolytic cathepsin S was increased whereas collagenolytic cathepsin K was decreased. By immunofluorescence we observed an increase in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 staining in aortas of oxygen-exposed rats whereas TIMP-2 staining was reduced, indicating a shift in the balance towards degradation of the extra-cellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen. There was no significant difference in MMP-2 activity between groups as determined by gelatin zymography. Overall, these findings indicate that transient neonatal high oxygen exposure leads to vascular wall alterations (decreased elastin/collagen ratio and a shift in the balance towards increased deposition of collagen) which are associated with increased rigidity. Importantly, these changes are present prior to the elevation of blood pressure and vascular dysfunction in this model, and may therefore be contributory. PMID:24743169

  10. Remodeling of aorta extracellular matrix as a result of transient high oxygen exposure in newborn rats: implication for arterial rigidity and hypertension risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Huyard

    Full Text Available Neonatal high-oxygen exposure leads to elevated blood pressure, microvascular rarefaction, vascular dysfunction and arterial (aorta rigidity in adult rats. Whether structural changes are present in the matrix of aorta wall is unknown. Considering that elastin synthesis peaks in late fetal life in humans, and early postnatal life in rodents, we postulated that transient neonatal high-oxygen exposure can trigger premature vascular remodelling. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed from days 3 to 10 after birth to 80% oxygen (vs. room air control and were studied at 4 weeks. Blood pressure and vasomotor response of the aorta to angiotensin II and to the acetylcholine analogue carbachol were not different between groups. Vascular superoxide anion production was similar between groups. There was no difference between groups in aortic cross sectional area, smooth muscle cell number or media/lumen ratio. In oxygen-exposed rats, aorta elastin/collagen content ratio was significantly decreased, the expression of elastinolytic cathepsin S was increased whereas collagenolytic cathepsin K was decreased. By immunofluorescence we observed an increase in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 staining in aortas of oxygen-exposed rats whereas TIMP-2 staining was reduced, indicating a shift in the balance towards degradation of the extra-cellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen. There was no significant difference in MMP-2 activity between groups as determined by gelatin zymography. Overall, these findings indicate that transient neonatal high oxygen exposure leads to vascular wall alterations (decreased elastin/collagen ratio and a shift in the balance towards increased deposition of collagen which are associated with increased rigidity. Importantly, these changes are present prior to the elevation of blood pressure and vascular dysfunction in this model, and may therefore be contributory.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological evaluation of a case of false aneurysm of descending aorta with rupture into the left lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging diagnosis of a false aneurysm of descending aorta which is very rare in a 79-year old male is studied in comparison with the findings of the postmortem examination. The patient died of rupture into the left lung. A chest roentgenogram showed a tumor shadow in the left upper mediastinum with inflammatory densities in the left upper lobe. The tomogram revealed that there was complete obstruction of apical bronchus of the left lung. The bolus CT showed a true aneurysm at the beginning of descending aorta. MRI was performed using a 0.15-Tesla resistive magnent. Ungated spin-echo and inversion recovery images of the thoracic aorta were obtained in the transaxial and sagittal planes. The spin-echo images revealed the location of the aneurysmal lumen, and the IR images showed thrombosis on the aneurysmal wall. Therefore, the clinical diagnosis was an aortic aneurysm of the descending aorta with rupture into the lung. Pathological diagnosis by autopsy was a false aneurysm. There was a saccular pseudoaneurysm with old thrombus and a circular entrance at the beginning of the descending aorta, just below the atheroma plaque with calcification, occupying the subpleural region near the apex of the S1+2 of the left lung. Histologically this case was identified a rupture of a false aneurysm with marked scars on some parts of its wall caused by old pleuritis, anastomosing the peripheral bronchus of B1+2. There was massive hemorrhage throughout both lungs. Although it is very difficult to distinguish a false aneurysm from an aortic true aneurysm, MRI has great advantage of providing valuable information about blood flow and thrombosis, comparing with CT. (author)

  12. Tratamento de aneurismas da parte torácica da aorta pela introdução de "stents" sob visão endoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Honório PALMA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tratamento de paciente com dois aneurismas saculares da aorta descendente, utilizando dois "stents" distintos, manufaturados sob medida tanto em comprimento quanto em diâmetro. Inseridos sob visão endoscópica com aparelho da marca "Olimpus" esterilizado com óxido de etileno, através de abertura na croça da aorta. O procedimento foi realizado por esternotomia mediana, com circulação extracorpórea, em hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total. A manipulação endoscópica da aorta descendente, sem sangue, permitiu a identificação dos dois aneurismas, assim como a visão dos ramos principais da aorta e a inserção com expansão , na posição exata, dos dois "stents". A evolução pós- operatória foi satisfatória, sendo que este procedimento, inédito, abre uma nova perspectiva no tratamento dos aneurismas torácicos, toracoabdominais e abdominais.This is a case report of a patient with two saccular aneurysms in the thoracic descending aorta. Treatment consisted of the positioning, through an opening in the aortic arch under deep hipothermia and total circulatory arrest, of two auto expandable stents, guided an Olympus endoscope. The bloodless field made possible the identification of the main thoracic and abdominal aortic branches facilitating the positioning and expansion of both stents. Immediate postoperative recovery was excellent. This is a previously unreported way of placing stents and could open a new perspective in the treatment of thoraco, abdominal and thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  13. MR-based tridirectional flow imaging. Acquisition and 3D analysis of flows in the thoracic aorta; MRT-basierte tridirektionale Flussbildgebung. Aufnahme und 3D-Analyse von Stroemungen in der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhinninghofen, R. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Informatik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg, Paediatrische Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Frydrychowicz, A.; Markl, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Medizin Physik, Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Tridirectional MR flow imaging is a novel method that extends the well-established technique of phase-contrast flow measurement by vectorial velocity encoding, i.e., by encoding in all three spatial directions. Modern sequence protocols allow the acquisition of velocity vector fields with high spatial resolutions of 1-3 mm and temporal resolutions of 20-50 ms over the heart cycle. Using navigating techniques, data on the entire thoracic aorta can be acquired within about 20 min in free breathing. The subsequent computer-based data processing includes automatic correction of aliasing effects, eddy currents, gradient field inhomogeneities, and Maxwell terms. The data can be visualized in three dimensions using vector arrows, streamlines, or particle traces. The parallel visualization of morphological slices and of the surface of the vascular lumen in 3D enhances spatial and anatomical orientation. Furthermore, quantitative values such as blood flow velocity and volume, vorticity, and vessel wall shear stress can be determined. Modern software systems support the integrated flow-based analysis of typical aortic pathologies such as aneurysms and aortic insufficiency. To what extent this additional information will help us in making better therapeutic decisions needs to be studied in clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Die tridirektionale MRT-Flussbildgebung ist ein junges Verfahren, das die etablierte Phasenkontrastflussmessung um die vektorielle Geschwindigkeitskodierung, also Kodierung in allen 3 Raumrichtungen, erweitert. Moderne Sequenzen erfassen Geschwindigkeitsvektorfelder mit raeumlich hoher Aufloesung von 1-3 mm und ueber den Herzschlag mit einer zeitlichen Aufloesung von 20-50 ms. Dank Navigatortechnik kann die gesamte thorakale Aorta innerhalb von ca. 20 min in freier Atmung aufgenommen werden. Die anschliessende rechnergestuetzte Datenaufbereitung umfasst die automatische Korrektur von Aliasingeffekten, Wirbelstroemen, Gradientenfeldinhomogenitaeten und

  14. Análisis del comportamiento mecánico en una sección de la aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González-Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La importancia social de las enfermedades arteriales motiva el interés en desarrollar estudios sobre el comportamiento mecánico de las paredes arteriales que aporten información para la práctica médica, ya que estas enfermedades están fuertemente relacionadas con factores mecánicos como son los estados de deformación y tensión. El presente trabajo ofrece una metodología para analizar el comportamiento mecánico de una arteria (la aorta. Dicho análisis parte de una geometría real construida a partir de imágenes médicas. En la formulación del modelo de elementos finitos se escogió un material con comportamiento no-lineal, con grandes deformaciones, hiperelástico, no-homogéneo y ortótropico. A la hora de analizar los resultados logrados y compararlos con los resultados obtenidos por otros autores no es posible establecer una comparación debido a los diferentes métodos de ensayo empleados por distintos autores y la dificultad en la experimentación en arterias humanas, solo es posible establecer zonas criticas en las cuales se presente algún tipo de enfermedad arterial.The social importance of the arterial illnesses motivates the interest in developing studies on the mechanical behavior of the arterial walls. The medical practice has pointed that these illnesses are strongly related with mechanical factors, such as states of deformation and tension as other related parameters. The present work offers a methodology to analyze the mechanical behavior of an artery (the aorta. This analysis uses a real geometry model that has been built based on medical images. In the formulation of the finite elements model the material has been considered with a no-linear behavior, with big deformations, hyperplasic, no-homogeneous and orthotropic. It is not possible to establish comparisons between the achieved results and the ones obtained by other authors. That is due to the different methods used by different authors and the difficulty in the

  15. Old Myths, New Concerns: the Long-Term Effects of Ascending Aorta Replacement with Dacron Grafts. Not All That Glitters Is Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; Al-Attar, Nawwar; Sutherland, Fraser W; Acar, Christophe; Nenna, Antonio; Trombetta, Marcella; Chello, Massimo; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic grafts are widely used in cardiac and vascular surgery since the mid-1970s. Despite their general good performance, inability of mimicking the elastomechanical characteristics of the native arterial tissue, and the consequent lack of adequate compliance, leads to a cascade of hemodynamic and biological alterations deeply affecting cardiovascular homeostasis. Those concerns have been reconsidered in more contemporaneous surgical and experimental reports which also triggered some research efforts in the tissue engineering field towards the realization of biomimetic arterial surrogates. The present review focuses on the significance of the "compliance mismatch" phenomenon occurring after aortic root or ascending aorta replacement with prosthetic grafts and discusses the clinical reflexes of this state of tissue incompatibility, as the loss of the native elastomechanical properties of the aorta can translate into detrimental effects on the normal efficiency of the aortic root complex with impact in the long-term results of patients undergoing aortic replacement. PMID:27245785

  16. Lethal Aorto-Right Ventricular Defect After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient With Radiation-Induced Porcelain Aorta: Notes of Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Lionel; Dijos, Marina; Peltan, Julien; Casassus, Frederic; Seguy, Benjamin; Natsumeda, Makoto; Lafitte, Stephane; Labrousse, Louis; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with severe radiation-induced aortic stenosis was rejected for cardiac surgery because of porcelain aorta. We successfully implanted an Edwards SAPIEN valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA), but the patient was readmitted 3 weeks later for heart failure with a continuous murmur on auscultation. Echocardiography showed a small defect between the aorta and the infundibulum of the right ventricle, which was also confirmed with aortography and computed tomography. Medical therapy was optimized; however, he died unexpectedly a few weeks later. We concluded that irradiated tissues are particularly fragile and require specific attention during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Furthermore, this case suggests that a more aggressive closure should have been applied. PMID:26342846

  17. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  18. Radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Robert A.; Hamza, Mustafa; Tsakok, Teresa M.; Tsakok, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘in coronary artery bypass grafting using radial artery grafts, does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency’. Altogether >183 papers were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study ty...

  19. Comparative Effect of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Vascular Responses of Rat Thoracic Aorta to Potassium Ion Channel Openers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel U Owu; Orie, Nelson N.; Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R.; Clapp, Lucie H.; Eme E. Osim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with many cardiovascular dysfunction and impairment of potassium channel function. Aim: We compared the vascular reactivity in aorta from streptozotocin-induced and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats to potassium channel openers. Methodology: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of DM, vascular reactivity of the aortic rings from STZ-ind...

  20. Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with collaterals to right lung associated with anomalous left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khositseth, Anant [Mahidol University, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Siripornpitak, Suvipaporn; Pornkul, Ratanaporn [Mahidol University, Department of Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    We present a 10-month-old boy with cyanosis. This is a rare case of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect (VSD), major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) to the right lung with absent native right pulmonary artery (RPA) in association with anomalous left pulmonary artery (LPA) from the ascending aorta (AAo). Echocardiography was unable to identify all of the cardiovascular abnormalities. Multidetector CT demonstrated all of these abnormalities and is the investigation of choice instead of cardiac catheterization. (orig.)

  1. Atorvastatin induces thrombomodulin expression in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits and in TNFa-treated human aortic endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shing-Jong; Hsieh, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Chi; Kuan, I-I; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lin, Fen-Yen; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2009-01-01

    Expression of functionally active thrombomodulin (TM) on endothelial cells is critical for vascular thromboresistance. 3-Hydroxyl-3-methyl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) can protect the vasculature from inflammation and atherosclerosis caused by cholesterol-dependent and cholesterolindependent mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of atorvastatin on TM expression in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits and in TNFa-treated human aortic endothelial ...

  2. A simple maneuver in follow-up digital subtraction angiography for multiple coronary-aorta bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple maneuver in intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is proposed to improve the images of left internal thoracic artery bypass grafts (IA-LITAGs). A contrast flush in the left subclavian artery, using a catheter that had been percutaneously introduced from the left brachial artery, was carried out in 14 patients with multiple coronary-aorta bypass grafts (CABGs) after aortic DSA. The side-hole portion of the catheter tip was positioned in the proximal left subclavian artery as the coiled portion remained in the aortic arch. Nonionic contrast medium (350 mg/ml iodine) was injected with an automatic injector in a volume of 6-8 ml and at a flow rate of 3-4 ml/sec. Left subclavian arterial flush DSA delineated the LITAGs excellently in 11, well in 3, and fairly or poorly in none of the 14 cases. There were no complications in any of these cases. A supplemental contrast flush of the left subclavian artery with a pigtail catheter following aortic DSA improves the diagnosis of multiple CABG patency. (author)

  3. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex. The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility.

  4. [Expression of BMP-4 in stromal cells in vitro derived from human aorta-gonad-mesonephros region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Wu, Yan-Feng; Wu, Bei-Yan; Huang, Shao-Liang

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of BMP-4 in stromal cells in vitro derived from human aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Stromal cells derived from human AGM region (hAGM S1-S5) and fibroblasts derived from human fetal trunk (hFT) were cultured in vitro. RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of BMP-4 in hAGM S1-S5 stromal cells at mRNA level. And BMP-4 level was detected in the supernatant of hAGM S1-S5 stromal cells by ELISA assay. hFT cells were used as control group. The results showed that the heterogenous hAGM S1-S5 stromal cells displyed shapes of fibroblast-like and endothelial-like cells. hAGM S1-S5 stromal cells expressed BMP-4 mRNA, but fetal trunk fibroblasts (hFT) did not express BMP-4 mRNA. In the supernatant of hAGM S1-S5 cells, BMP-4 could be detected by ELISA assay ana its levels were statistically higher than that in hFT group (p 0.05). It is concluded that human AGM-derived stromal cells in vitro express BMP-4, and the establishment of a new culture system based on the feeder cells of AGM stroma would promote the differention of embryonic stem cells into hematopoietic stem cells at a high proportion. PMID:17708801

  5. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Fisker Hag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients has been observed. The cause of this accelerated atherosclerosis is a matter of controversy. As clinical studies are complicated by a multiplicity of risk-factors and a low incidence of hard endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rats; these genes are all thought to play important roles in early atherogenesis. Furthermore, the plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured. We found that gene expressions of LOX-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in the aortic arch of HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls. Also, the level of sICAM-1 was elevated in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls, but the ICAM-1 gene expression profile did not show any differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1Tg rats have gene expression patterns indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis in aorta, suggesting that HIV-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease.

  6. Design of a cost-effective, hemodynamically adjustable model for resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Benjamin A; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Williams, Timothy K; Neff, Lucas P; Carden, Anthony J; Li, Yiran; Gotlib, Oren; Tran, Nam K; Galante, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct technique for salvaging patients with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. Current REBOA training paradigms require large animals, virtual reality simulators, or human cadavers for acquisition of skills. These training strategies are expensive and resource intensive, which may prevent widespread dissemination of REBOA. We have developed a low-cost, near-physiologic, pulsatile REBOA simulator by connecting an anatomic vascular circuit constructed out of latex and polyvinyl chloride tubing to a commercially available pump. This pulsatile simulator is capable of generating cardiac outputs ranging from 1.7 to 6.8 L/min with corresponding arterial blood pressures of 54 to 226/14 to 121 mmHg. The simulator accommodates a 12 French introducer sheath and a CODA balloon catheter. Upon balloon inflation, the arterial waveform distal to the occlusion flattens, distal pulsation within the simulator is lost, and systolic blood pressures proximal to the balloon catheter increase by up to 62 mmHg. Further development and validation of this simulator will allow for refinement, reduction, and replacement of large animal models, costly virtual reality simulators, and perfused cadavers for training purposes. This will ultimately facilitate the low-cost, high-fidelity REBOA simulation needed for the widespread dissemination of this life-saving technique. PMID:27270855

  7. WR2721 ameliorates the radiation-induced depression in reactivity of rat abdominal aorta to U46619

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies showed that 20 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation results in a decreased response of the abdominal aorta to the stable thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimic, U46619. The present study evaluated the effect of WR2721 on this radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness. Rats receiving WR2721 (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min before irradiation showed no depression in vascular reactivity to U46619 compared to control. The abolition of the radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness was not caused by a direct vasoconstrictor action of WR2721 or its metabolites. The vascular response of rat abdominal aortic rings to KCl was unchanged after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation. WR2721 did not alter the vascular response to KCl. These studies confirm that exposure to whole-body ionizing radiation decreased abdominal aortic vascular responsiveness to U46619. This depressed vascular reactivity can be abolished by pretreatment with the radioprotectant, WR2721. These observations may provide a rapid initial screening method for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of radioprotectant drugs

  8. Intra-Bone Marrow Transplantation Confers Superior Multilineage Engraftment of Murine Aorta-Gonad Mesonephros Cells Over Intravenous Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Romero-Moya, Damia; Prieto, Cristina; Bueno, Clara; Bigas, Anna; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment has been achieved using single-cell transplantation of prospectively highly purified adult HSC populations. However, bulk transplants are still performed when assessing the HSC potential of early embryonic hematopoietic tissues such as the aorta-gonad mesonephros (AGM) due to very low HSC activity content early in development. Intra-bone marrow transplantation (IBMT) has emerged as a superior administration route over intravenous (IV) transplantation for assessing the reconstituting ability of human HSCs in the xenotransplant setting since it bypasses the requirement for homing to the BM. In this study, we compared the ability of IBMT and IV administration of embryonic day 11.5 AGM-derived cells to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of myeloablated recipients. IBMT resulted in higher levels of AGM HSC long-term multilineage engraftment in the peripheral blood, BM, spleen, and thymus of primary and secondary recipients, and in limiting dilution experiments. The administration route did not skew the multilineage contribution pattern, but IBMT conferred higher Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) long-term engraftment, in line with the superior IBMT reconstitution. Therefore, IBMT represents a superior administration route to detect HSC activity from developmentally early sources with limited HSC activity content, such as the AGM. PMID:26603126

  9. Expression profile analysis of aorta-gonad-mesonephros region-derived stromal cells reveals genes that regulate hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is involved in the generation and maintenance of the first definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). A mouse AGM-derived cell line, AGM-S3, was shown to support the development of HSCs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating early hematopoiesis, we obtained subclones from AGM-S3, one of which was hematopoiesis supportive (S3-A9) and the other one of which was non-supportive (S3-A7), and we analyzed their gene expression profiles by gene chip analysis. In the present study, we found that Glypican-1 (GPC1) was highly expressed in the supportive subclone AGM-S3-A9. Over-expression of GPC1 in non-supportive cells led to the proliferation of progenitor cells in human cord blood when cocultured with the transfected-stromal cells. Thus, GPC1 may have an important role in the establishment of a microenvironment that supports early events in hematopoiesis

  10. Identification of a population of cells with hematopoietic stem cell properties in mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a primary source of definitive hematopoietic cells in the midgestation mouse embryo. In cultures of dispersed AGM regions, adherent cells containing endothelial cells are observed first, and then non-adherent hematopoietic cells are produced. Here we report on the characterization of hematopoietic cells that emerge in the AGM culture. Based on the expression profiles of CD45 and c-Kit, we defined three cell populations: CD45low c-Kit+ cells that had the ability to form hematopoietic cell colonies in methylcellulose media and in co-cultures with stromal cells; CD45low c-Kit- cells that showed a granulocyte morphology; CD45high c-Kitlow/- that exhibited a macrophage morphology. In co-cultures of OP9 stromal cells and freshly prepared AGM cultures, CD45low c-Kit+ cells from the AGM culture had the abilities to reproduce CD45low c-Kit+ cells and differentiate into CD45low c-Kit- and CD45high c-Kitlow/- cells, whereas CD45low c-Kit- and CD45high c-Kitlow/- did not produce CD45low c-Kit+ cells. Furthermore, CD45low c-Kit+ cells displayed a long-term repopulating activity in adult hematopoietic tissue when transplanted into the liver of irradiated newborn mice. These results indicate that CD45low c-Kit+ cells from the AGM culture have the potential to reconstitute multi-lineage hematopoietic cells

  11. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  12. Synthesis and Effects of Novel Dihydropyridines as Dual Calcium Channel Blocker and Angiotensin Antagonist on Isolated Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Hadizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four novel losartan analogues 5a-d were synthesized by connecting a dihydropyridine nucleus to imidazole ring. The effects of 5a and 5b on angiotensin receptors (AT1 and L-type calcium channels were investigated on isolated rat aorta. Materials and MethodsAortic rings were pre-contracted with 1 µM Angiotensin II or 80 mM KCl and relaxant effects of losartan, nifedipine, 5a and 5b were evaluated by cumulative addition of these drugs to the bath solution.ResultsThe results showed that compounds 5a and 5b have both L-type calcium channel and AT1 receptor blocking activity. Their effects on AT1 receptors are 1000 and 100,000 times more than losartan respectively. The activity of compound 5b on L-type calcium channel is significantly less than nifedipine but compound 5a has comparable effect with nifedipine. ConclusionFinally we concluded that these two new Compounds can be potential candidates to be used as effective antihypertensive agents.

  13. Effects of Na+ on ultraviolet light-induced photorelaxation and c-GMP levels in rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated strips of rabbit aorta in a state of drug-induced contraction relax reversibly when irradiated with ultraviolet light. The authors previously found that the magnitude of the photorelaxation progressively diminished as the extracellular Na+ ion concentration was reduced from 145 mM to 85 mM. At 85 mM Na+, there was minimal photorelaxation, even though the preparation continued to respond to vasoconstricting agents. The reduction in photosensitivity is not an osmotic effect because restoration of osmolarity did not restore photosensitivity. Neither the mechanism underlaying photorelaxation nor its modification by Na+ is precisely known. In order to examine these further the authors measured cyclic GMP levels in the absence and presence of UV light at both normal and reduced Na+ levels. At 145 mM Na+, irradiation resulted in an increase of cGMP from 0.299 to 0.717 fmole/μg protein. At 85 mM Na+, the corresponding levels were 0.541 and 1.24 fmole/μg protein. Thus, cGMP levels increase (approximately double) with UV irradiation at both reduced and normal Na+ concentrations even though there is little or no photorelaxation in the reduced Na+ environment. The reduction in Na+ may uncouple a link between cGMP elevation and cytoplasmic calcium in the aortic cell

  14. Thalidomide influences atherogenesis in aortas of ApoE(-/-)/LDLR (-/-) double knockout mice: a nano-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschulte, Marian; Gunkel, Irina; Stieger, Philipp; Sedding, Daniel G; Brinkmann, Anne; Ritman, Erik L; Krombach, Gabriele A; Langheinrich, Alexander C

    2014-04-01

    Plaque progression in atherosclerosis is closely connected to angiogenesis due to vasa vasorum (VV) growth. Objective of this study was to determine the unknown long-term effect of thalidomide on adventitial VV neovascularization and plaque progression using nano-focussed computed tomography (nano-CT). Proliferation and migration assays in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) measured number of viable cells after incubation with thalidomide. Male ApoE(-/-)/LDLR(-/-) (AL) mice (n = 5) received a thalidomide containing western diet (WD) over 29 weeks. Another five male AL mice (WD without thalidomide) served as control group. Descending aortas were scanned with nano-CT at (1.5 μm)(3) isotropic voxel size. Number and area of adventitial VV as well as plaque cross sectional area were measured. Results were complemented by histology. Thalidomide inhibited proliferation and migration of HCAEC dose-dependently. VV neovascularization decreased in number per cross section (7.66 ± 0.301 vs. 8.62 ± 0.164, p Nano-CT imaging revealed a reduced plaque growth and VV neovascularization after long-term application of thalidomide. Therefore, nano-CT can be considered as a new method to detect therapeutic effects in experimental models of atherosclerosis. PMID:24487918

  15. Localization of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans in vascular endothelium: Antithrombin binding on cultured endothelial cells and perfused rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the interaction of 125I-antithrombin (125I-AT) with microvascular endothelial cells (RFPEC) to localize the cellular site of anticoagulantly active heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). The radiolabeled protease inhibitor bound specifically to the above HSPG with a Kd of approximately 50 nM. Confluent monolayer RFPEC cultures exhibited a linear increase in the amount of AT bound per cell for up to 16 d, whereas suspension RFPEC cultures possessed a constant number of protease inhibitor binding sites per cell for up to 5 d. These results suggest that monolayer RFPEC cultures secrete anticoagulantly active HSPG, which then accumulate in the extracellular matrix. This hypothesis was confirmed by quantitative light and EM level autoradiography which demonstrated that the AT binding sites are predominantly located in the extracellular matrix with only small quantities of protease inhibitor complexed to the cell surface. We have also pinpointed the in vivo position of anticoagulantly active HSPG within the blood vessel wall. Rat aortas were perfused, in situ, with 125I-AT, and bound labeled protease inhibitor was localized by light and EM autoradiography. The anticoagulantly active HSPG were concentrated immediately beneath the aortic and vasa vasorum endothelium with only a very small extent of labeling noted on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells. Based upon the above data, we propose a model whereby luminal and abluminal anticoagulantly active HSPG regulate coagulation mechanism activity

  16. Kinetic identification of an intracellular calcium compartment sensitive to phosphate and dinitrophenol in intact isolated rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work from this laboratory revealed the presence of at least three distinct intracellular calcium compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. In this study one of these intracellular compartments is shown to be sensitive to dinitrophenol and to increased extracellular phosphate. Intact aortic segments were loaded with 45Ca in bicarbonate-buffered physiologic salt solution for 1 hour, and then transferred to a flow-through chamber perfused with physiologic salt solution. Effluent from the chamber was collected for 8 hours, and 45Ca efflux curves were analyzed using compartmental analysis. When aortic segments were loaded and washed out in dinitrophenol, the slowest component of the efflux curve was less prominent; in high phosphate it was more prominent. The rate constant changes required to account for these data were primarily in the exchange between the cytosolic and slowest intracellular calcium compartment, suggesting that the slowest calcium compartment resolved during the 8-hour washout was mitochondrial. This compartment contained 5.4 +/- 3.2 nmol calcium/g wet wt. tissue. The calcium flux across its membranes was 0.32 +/- 0.04 nmol min-1g-1. Because this flux is much smaller than the plasma-membrane calcium flux, we suggest that, in normal physiological circumstances, plasma-membrane extrusion is more important for the removal of Ca from the smooth muscle cytosol than is uptake into this slow intracellular compartment

  17. Vasorelaxant Effect of a Newly Synthesized Dihydropyridine Ethyl Ester (DHPEE on Rat Thoracic Aorta: Dual Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Babaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DHPEE is a newly synthesized compound by merging the key structural elements in an angiotensin receptor blocker (Telmisartan with key structural elements in 1,4- dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (Nifedipine. In this study, we examined dual calcium channel blocking and AT1 antagonist activity for DHPEE. Methods: The functional inhibitory characteristics of DHPEE were studied in vitro in rat thoracic aorta preparations precontracted by phenylephrine (1µM or KCl (80µM or Ang II in normal or calcium-free solutions. Results: Concentration–dependent significant relaxation was observed in aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, KCl or Ang II. The tension increment produced by increasing external calcium was also reduced by DHPEE. DHPEE caused a marked decrease in the maximal contractile response of the vasoactive agents and shifted their concentration-response curves to the right. Conclusion: DHPEE possesses dual characteristics and cause vasorelaxation by blocking the L-type calcium channels and blocking Ang II receptors (AT1 in rat aortic smooth muscle.

  18. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  19. One-stage total repair of anomalous origin of right pulmonary artery from aorta by the double-flap technique, followed by coarctation repair using extended end-to-end arch reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta combined with coarctation of aorta is a rare congenital malformation. The method chosen for performing a prompt surgery to correct the multiple disease lesions is important. Here we report one-stage surgical strategy which involved a double-flap technique alongside an extended end-to-end arch reconstruction in a newborn baby

  20. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. RESULTS The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. CONCLUSIONS BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  1. The meso-angioblast: a multipotent, self-renewing cell that originates from the dorsal aorta and differentiates into most mesodermal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasi, Maria G; Riminucci, Mara; De Angelis, Luciana; Borello, Ugo; Berarducci, Barbara; Innocenzi, Anna; Caprioli, Arianna; Sirabella, Dario; Baiocchi, Marta; De Maria, Ruggero; Boratto, Renata; Jaffredo, Thierry; Broccoli, Vania; Bianco, Paolo; Cossu, Giulio

    2002-06-01

    We have previously reported the origin of a class of skeletal myogenic cells from explants of dorsal aorta. This finding disagrees with the known origin of all skeletal muscle from somites and has therefore led us to investigate the in vivo origin of these cells and, moreover, whether their fate is restricted to skeletal muscle, as observed in vitro under the experimental conditions used. To address these issues, we grafted quail or mouse embryonic aorta into host chick embryos. Donor cells, initially incorporated into the host vessels, were later integrated into mesodermal tissues, including blood, cartilage, bone, smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle. When expanded on a feeder layer of embryonic fibroblasts, the clonal progeny of a single cell from the mouse dorsal aorta acquired unlimited lifespan, expressed hemo-angioblastic markers (CD34, Flk1 and Kit) at both early and late passages, and maintained multipotency in culture or when transplanted into a chick embryo. We conclude that these newly identified vessel-associated stem cells, the meso-angioblasts, participate in postembryonic development of the mesoderm, and we speculate that postnatal mesodermal stem cells may be derived from a vascular developmental origin. PMID:12015303

  2. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity (χ2-test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased (χ2-test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods (≤ 2 %). (orig.)

  3. Measurement of the Distance and Angle Between the Aorta and Superior Mesenteric Artery on CT Scan: Values in Indian Population in Different BMI Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagirath Desai, Aditi; Sandeep Shah, Dharita; Jagat Bhatt, Chhaya; Umesh Vaishnav, Kavita; Salvi, Bharat

    2015-12-01

    The primary intention of the study was to "prove" that the reduced angle and distance between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta significantly correlates with reduced body mass index (BMI). This in turn indicates the strong etiological role of this factor for causation of SMA syndrome. (Most literature till date still mentions sudden depletion of fat pad between the vessels as a "proposed predisposing factor"). The superior mesenteric artery syndrome is characterized by the compression of the third segment of the duodenum by the mesentery at superior mesenteric artery level and a resulting duodenal (±gastric) dilatation. The disease is closely related with the depletion of the fat pad between the vessels narrowing the angle and reducing the distance between the vessels. A prospective study of 100 patients (58 males and 42 females) in the age range 15-85 years (mean age 50 years) who had undergone CT scan for various other complaints. CT scan had been performed with routine protocol comprising plain phase followed by arterial and venous phase by measuring the angle between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery, and also BMI was calculated. Mean values for distance and angle were obtained with standard deviation and 95 % confidence intervals. Pearson coefficients were also calculated and results tabulated. A strong positive correlation exists between BMI and the angle between the aorta and SMA. With increment in BMI, the angle also increases so less chance of developing superior mesenteric artery syndrome. PMID:26730074

  4. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. Results: The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. Conclusion: The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease.

  5. Percutaneous transfemoral placement of a new flexible stent-graft into the thoracic aorta followed by a percutaneous suture-mediated closure of the access site - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the transfemoral placement of a new, flexible stent-graft into the thoracic aorta and the suture-mediated closure of the femoral access. Patients and Methods: five patients were treated endovascularly with a stent-graft for an aneurysm (n = 3) or acute dissection (n = 2) of the thoracic aorta via a femoral 24 F sheath. The femoral access site was closed with two suture-mediated closure devices after placement of the stent-graft. Results: the aneurysm or the false lumen was excluded from perfusion by the placement of the stent-graft in all patients. Hemostasis at the femoral access site was successful in all patients with the percutaneous suture device. A minor stenosis of the femoral artery was found angiographically in four patients after suture-mediated closure. Besides a reversible renal failure due to the medically induced hypotension for the treatment of an acutely ruptured aneurysm, no complications resulted from the stent-graft placement or the percutaneous suture. Conclusion: the percutaneous transfemoral placement of stent-grafts in the thoracic aorta using a suture-mediated closure of the access site is technically feasible. Long-term results of the technique have to be awaited. (orig.)

  6. Valva aórtica bicúspide: fundamentos teóricos e clínicos para substituição simultânea da aorta ascendente Bicuspid aortic valve: theoretical and clinical aspects of concomitant ascending aorta replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Paes Leme De Sá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A valva aórtica bicúspide (VAB está associada à ectasia ânulo-aórtica, aneurisma e dissecção da aorta ascendente. A alta incidência desta malformação congênita e doença da aorta sugere íntima relação entre os fenômenos. Anormalidades ocorrendo em diferentes fases da migração das células da crista neural podem ser responsáveis pela ocorrência em anormalidades na valva aórtica, na camada média da aorta ascendente e nos vasos do arco aórtico. Estudos prévios revelam que mesmo indivíduos com VAB normal ou com disfunção leve podem apresentar dilatação da raiz aórtica. Os autores acreditam que somente as alterações hemodinâmicas produzidas por uma VAB sem estenose ou insuficiência parecem ser insuficientes para as graves complicações vasculares observadas nos portadores de VAB. Vários mecanismos têm sido propostos para explicar os achados moleculares e histológicos desta doença. Encontramos a redução da fibrilina-1 na aorta ascendente e artéria pulmonar como possível causa. Histologicamente, a aorta ascendente pode apresentar necrose cística da média e fragmentação elástica, semelhante àquela encontrada em portadores de síndrome de Marfan. Vários autores atualmente recomendam que em se operando um paciente com VAB, especialmente aqueles com insuficiência aórtica, mesmo na presença de uma discreta dilatação (45 mm deve-se substituir a valva aórtica e a aorta ascendente concomitantemente quando a expectativa de vida exceder 10 anos, para se prevenir futuros aneurismas ou rupturas.Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is associated with annuloaortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. The high incidence of this congenital malformation and aortic disease suggests a close correlation between the two phenomena. Abnormalities in different phases of cell migration of the neural crest might be responsible for the occurrence of abnormalities in the aortic valve, media layer of the ascending aorta

  7. Avaliação da Velocidade Média na Aorta Torácica Descendente em Fetos com Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taveira Marcos Roberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar se existe correlação significativa entre a velocidade média na dopplerfluxometria da artéria aorta torácica descendente e o grau de anemia fetal. Métodos: estudo prospectivo, transversal, no qual foram analisados 66 fetos de gestantes isoimunizadas, em que se realizou a cordocentese para a realização de transfusões intra-uterinas pela via intravascular (66,7%. Nos fetos que foram submetidos à transfusão intra-uterina pela via intraperitoneal, ou naqueles casos em que não houve necessidade de tratamento intra-uterino (33,3%, a determinação da concentração de hemoglobina do cordão foi realizada pela punção do cordão umbilical, no momento da interrupção da gestação. Neste grupo de fetos estudados, foi realizado exame dopplerfluxométrico da artéria aorta torácica descendente, sendo calculada a velocidade média de fluxo. Foi realizado estudo de associação entre as variáveis. Foram também calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. Resultados: observou-se correlação significativa e inversa entre a velocidade média na artéria aorta torácica descendente e o nível de hemoglobina fetal. A velocidade média na dopplerfluxometria da artéria aorta torácica descendente apresentou sensibilidade de 47,5% para anemia fetal moderada (Hg<10 g/dL, com o teste exato de Fisher apresentando valor de p<0,01, e de 54,5% para anemia fetal grave (Hg<7,0 g/dL, com um valor de p=0,01. Conclusões: houve associação significativa entre a velocidade média na aorta torácica descendente e o grau de diagnóstico de anemia fetal.

  8. Percutaneous biopsy for small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava using the modified coaxial technique under CT guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung [Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The author wanted to report the accuracy and safety of performing percutaneous biopsy of a small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with using the modified coaxial technique (MCT) under CT guidance. Thirty-six cases of CT-guided biopsy using MCT were performed in 35 patients (15 men and 20 women, aged 21-80 years, mean age:56.5 years), who had small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and IVC. The maximum diameters of the target nodes were 11-20 mm in 21 cases, 21-30 mm in 14 cases and 31-40 mm in 1 case (mean diameter: 19.8 mm). The locations of the target lesions were the left or posterior side of the aorta (n=22), between the aorta and IVC (n=7), and the right or posterior side of the IVC (n=7). Using the modified coaxial technique, a guiding cannula was introduced precisely to the border of the target lesion. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed through the cannula and this was followed by multiple core biopsies (6-8 cores) using an automated biopsy gun. The pathologic results and complications were reviewed. The clinical course after biopsy and the histopathologic diagnosis were reviewed by following up the medical records. From examining the 36 biopsies, a definitive pathologic diagnosis was made in 33 cases (92%). The etiologies were as follows; 16 (44%) metastatic tumors, 11 (31%) lymphomas and 6 cases (17%) of tuberculosis with positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Two cases were reported as chronic granulomatous inflammation due to suspected tuberculosis, and they were treated with tuberculosis medication. One case was reported as chronic inflammation and so re-biopsy was performed; this resulted in the diagnosis of tuberculosis with positive AFB. Serious complications such as rupture of major vessels or bowel perforation did not occur. It is considered that performing percutaneous biopsy for small lymphadenopathy around the abdominal aorta and IVC with using the modified coaxial technique under CT guidance

  9. Radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert A; Hamza, Mustafa; Tsakok, Teresa M; Tsakok, Maria T

    2013-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'in coronary artery bypass grafting using radial artery grafts, does proximal anastomosis to the aorta or left internal mammary artery achieve better patency'. Altogether >183 papers were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Radial artery grafts typically have a narrower lumen than vein grafts, and as such there is some concern that anastomosing them directly to the aorta during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may impair graft patency. As such, some surgeons prefer to anastomose radial artery grafts to a second-order vessel such as the left internal mammary artery (LIMA). We sought to assess the evidence for this. A handful of papers directly addressing the issue of the effect of the site of proximal anastomosis on graft patency were found, with three showing no significant difference. One such study reported an insignificant difference in angiographic patency at 32 months postoperatively, with 94.1% of off-aorta grafts remaining patent vs 87.2% of off-LIMA grafts (p = 0.123). However, a large-scale well-designed study was able to demonstrate a statistically significant difference at five years postoperatively, with 74.3% of off-aorta grafts patent, compared with 65.2% of off-LIMA (p = 0.004). Nonetheless, a number of papers that report patency for either off-aorta or off-LIMA grafts give comparable figures for each technique. Additionally, different centres and investigators report very different patency results for grafts that have the same site of proximal anastomosis. One centre was able to achieve patency rates for off-LIMA grafts of 88% up to a mean of 7.7 years postoperatively while another centre reported a patency rate

  10. Detección de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal en una población derivada para ecocardiografía transtorácica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde S. Berensztein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó: 1 la factibilidad de realizar una ecografía limitada a la aorta abdominal en pacientes a quienes se indica un ecocardiograma transtorácico, 2 las variables clínicas y ecocardiográficas que se correlacionan con el diámetro de la aorta abdominal, 3 la prevalencia de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA y 4 los factores de riesgo clínicos para AAA. Se evaluaron prospectivamente 280 pacientes consecutivos (media de edad: 68, rango 18 a 93 años, 118 de sexo masculino [42%]. Se verificó que: 1 el examen ecográfico de la aorta abdominal es factible en la mayoría de los pacientes (95,36% [IC 95% 92,88-97,84%], 2 el diámetro de la aorta abdominal se correlaciona con el sexo masculino, la edad, los antecedentes personales de enfermedad vascular periférica y los antecedentes de familiares de primer grado con AAA; también se correlaciona con el diámetro de la raíz aórtica (RA y con el grosor parietal relativo (GPR, 3 existe una prevalencia alta de AAA en la población estudiada (4,49% [IC 95% 1,99-7,00%], particularmente en los varones = 65 años (12,33% [IC 95% 4,60-20,05%] y 4 el sexo masculino, la hipertensión arterial, la dislipemia, el tabaquismo, la diabetes, los antecedentes personales de cardiopatía isquémica o de vasculopatía periférica y los antecedentes de familiares de primer grado con AAA son factores de riesgo para AAA. En conclusión, estaría justificada la realización de una ecografía abdominal como extensión de la ecocardiografía transtorácica en varones = 65 años, en particular si coexisten otros factores de riesgo para AAA.

  11. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through

  12. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. PMID:27063446

  13. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (12.0±1.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract and flavonoids (11.0±1.4 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract. The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH- (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- free radical scavenging activity where we observed that germosprout extract had considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate antihemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with either peroxynitrite or Fenton’s reagent in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the proposition that germosprout extract could act as a good antioxidative agent, we also induced in vitro oxidative stress in erythrocyte membranes and in the aorta, brain, heart, and liver tissue homogenates in the presence of the extract. As expected, germosprout extract decreased oxidative stress almost to the same extent as that of vitamin E, as measured by lipid peroxide levels, in all the mentioned tissues. We conclude that rice germosprout extract could be a good natural source of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress-induced hemolysis and damage of blood vessels and other tissues.

  14. Block of human aorta Kir6.1 by the vascular KATP channel inhibitor U37883A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surah-Narwal, S; Xu, S Z; McHugh, D; McDonald, R L; Hough, E; Cheong, A; Partridge, C; Sivaprasadarao, A; Beech, D J

    1999-01-01

    A human aorta cDNA library was screened at low stringency with a rat pancreatic Kir6.1 cDNA probe and a homologue of Kir6.1 (hKir6.1) was isolated and sequenced.Metabolic poisoning of Xenopus laevis oocytes with sodium azide and application of the K+ channel opener drug diazoxide induced K+ channel currents in oocytes co-injected with cRNA for hKir6.1 and hamster sulphonylurea receptor (SUR1), but not in oocytes injected with water or cRNA for hKir6.1 or SUR1 alone.K+ channel currents due to hKir6.1+SUR1 or mouse Kir6.2+SUR1 were strongly inhibited by 1 μM glibenclamide. K+-current carried by hKir6.1+SUR1 was inhibited by the putative vascular-selective KATP channel inhibitor U37883A (IC50 32 μM) whereas current carried by Kir6.2+SUR1 or Shaker K+ channels was unaffected.The data support the hypothesis that hKir6.1 is a component of the vascular KATP channel, although the lower sensitivity of hKir6.1+SUR1 to U37883A compared with native vascular tissues suggests the need for another factor or subunit. Furthermore, the data suggest that pharmacology of KATP channels can be determined by the pore-forming subunit as well as the sulphonylurea receptor and point to a molecular basis for the pharmacological distinction between vascular and pancreatic/cardiac KATP channels. PMID:10516647

  15. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage. PMID:21787183

  16. Blood Plasma TGF- β1 Concentration in Sporadic Dilatative Pathology of Ascending Aorta: More Questions than Answers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramune Sepetiene

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1 is a cytokine that participates in a broad range of cellular regulatory processes and is associated with various diseases including aortic aneurysm. Increased TGF- β1 levels are associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS caused by FBN1 mutations and subsequent defects in signaling system. We studied TGF- β1 levels in 62 patients with sporadic, non syndromic, dilatative pathology of ascending aorta (DPAA and in reference group subjects (n = 212. An initial screening of 212 reference individuals identified TGF- β1 gender discrepancies and age-dependent cytokine increase in women. Patients with DPAA had increased levels of TGF- β1 in comparison to reference group subjects (median 7.7 ng/ml, range 2.1-25.3, and median 6.2 ng/ml, range 1.0-33.1, respectively. There is a significant association between TGF-β1 concentration and DPAA (OR 1.084, CI 1.027-1.144, p = 0.004 but the mechanisms of cause and effect have not been established yet. Slightly increased TGF-β1 concentrations in patients with sporadic DPAA in comparison to the reference subjects show a potential use of TGF-β1 as a biomarker for the disease. However, cytokine dependence on age, gender, and other unknown factors among individuals with no cardiovascular complains reduces its specificity for DPAA. We would also like to raise awareness regarding the choice of methods when measuring TGF-β1 levels with an emphasis on preanalytical phase and the choice of sample.

  17. Natriuretic peptide receptor-B (guanylyl cyclase-B) mediates C-type natriuretic peptide relaxation of precontracted rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, J G; Fendly, B M; Garbers, D L; Lowe, D G

    1995-03-01

    The most potent known agonist for the natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B)/guanylyl cyclase-B is C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). A homologous ligand-receptor system consists of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and NPR-A/guanylyl cyclase-A. A third member of this family is NPR-C, a non-guanylyl cyclase receptor. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against NPR-B by immunizing mice with a purified receptor-IgG fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of NPR-B and the Fc portion of human IgG-gamma 1. One monoclonal antibody, 3G12, did not recognize NPR-A or NPR-C and bound to human and rat NPR-B. CNP binding to NPR-B and stimulation of cGMP synthesis were inhibited by 3G12. With cells isolated from either the media or adventitia layers of rat thoracic aorta, 3G12 did not interfere with ANP-stimulated cGMP synthesis, but it inhibited CNP-stimulated cGMP levels in cells from both layers. CNP (IC50 = 10 nM) and ANP (IC50 = 1 nM) caused relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted rat aortic rings. 3G12 caused a marked increase in the IC50 for CNP, from 10 nM to 140 nM, but failed to affect ANP-mediated relaxation. Therefore, our results for the first time demonstrate that CNP relaxes vascular smooth muscle by virtue of its binding to NPR-B. PMID:7876238

  18. Increased contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in high fat diet fed rat thoracic aorta

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    Ghatta Srinivas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding normal rats with high dietary levels of saturated fat leads to pathological conditions, which are quite similar to syndrome X in humans. These conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia might induce hypertension through various mechanisms. Metabolic syndrome and the resulting NIDDM represent a major clinical challenge because implementation of treatment strategies is difficult. Vascular abnormalities probably contribute to the etiology of many diabetic complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiomyopathy. It has been shown that in Streptozotocin induced diabetic animals there is an increase in maximal responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II. The purpose of this study was to evaluate High fat diet fed rats for the development of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and to assess their vascular responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study and were divided into two equal groups. One of the groups was fed with normal pellet diet and they served as the control group, whereas the other group was on a high fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma triglycerides, plasma cholesterol, and plasma glucose were measured every week. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 weeks of feeding. At the end of fourth week of high fat diet feeding, thoracic aortae were removed, and cut into helical strips for vascular reactivity studies. Dose-response curves of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in pD2, with 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in both groups but Emax was increased. Conclusions These results suggest that hypertension in high fat diet rats is associated with increased in vitro vascular reactivity to 5-HT and Ang II.

  19. Magnetic resonance evaluation of luminal patency after polylactide stent implantation: an experimental study in a rabbit aorta model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravascular metallic stents cause magnetic field distortions, disturbing luminal detection. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of polylactic acid (PLA) stents on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Biodegradable double spiral helical PLA stents (n=12) or stainless steel (SS) (n=6) stents were implanted into the infrarenal aortas of New Zealand White rabbits. All SS- and 6 PLA-stented animals as well as 6 non-operated control rabbits were imaged with gadolinium-enhanced MRA (1.5 T), and infrarenal aortic diameters (proximal, distal, and narrowest), together with the stent artifact, were measured. Six of the PLA-stented rabbits were followed up, and MRA was assessed at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months after the stent implantation. Image artifacts caused by the SS stents were visualized in all cases. The PLA stents caused no magnetic field distortion, allowing imaging of the underlying vessel including the vessel lumen. In the follow-up group of 6 rabbits with a PLA stent, 5 of 6 were patent at the end of the follow-up of 12 months. These stents allowed luminal detection at all time points, with no significant differences in aortic measurements emerging during the whole follow-up period. When immediately postoperatively scanned SS and PLA rabbits were compared with controls, no differences were observable in proximal diameters. Instead, the percentage of distal luminal loss was greater in the PLA-stented rabbits, as compared with SS stents (p<0.01). The PLA stenting in small vessels allows evaluation of luminal patency with MRA both immediately after implantation and during follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Correlation of the ratio of caudal vena cava diameter and aorta diameter with systolic pressure variation in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Caterina; Rabozzi, Roberto; Franci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the correlation coefficient of the ratio between diameter of the caudal vena cava (CVC) and diameter of the aorta (Ao) in dogs as determined ultrasonographically with systolic pressure variation (SPV). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs (9 females and 5 males; mean ± SD age, 73 ± 40 months; mean body weight, 22 ± 7 kg) that underwent anesthesia for repair of skin wounds. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced. Controlled mechanical ventilation with a peak inspiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O was immediately started, and SPV was measured. During a brief period of suspension of ventilation, CVC-to-Ao ratio was measured on a transverse right-lateral intercostal ultrasonographic image obtained at the level of the porta hepatis. When the SPV was ≥ 4 mm Hg, at least 1 bolus (3 to 4 mL/kg) of Hartmann solution was administered IV during a 1-minute period. Bolus administration was stopped and the CVC-to-Ao ratio measured when SPV was SPV and CVC-to-Ao ratio before bolus administration were 7 ± 2 mm Hg and 0.52 ± 0.16, respectively. Mean ± SD SPV and CVC-to-Ao ratio after bolus administration were 2 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 0.91 ± 0.13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, the CVC-to-Ao ratio was a feasible, noninvasive ultrasonographically determined value that correlated well with SPV. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:137-143). PMID:27027706

  1. Modelo experimental de isquemia: reperfusão intestinal por clampeamento de aorta abdominal em ratos Wistar

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    Bruno da Costa Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver um modelo experimental de isquemia global normotérmica transitória capaz de demonstrar os tempos de isquemia e reperfusão necessários para desenvolvimento de lesão de isquemia/reperfusão em intestinos delgados de ratos Wistar através clampeamento de aorta abdominal suprarrenal. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar adultos machos, pesando entre 250 e 350g, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos, com quatro ratos cada, e submetidos a tempos crescentes de isquemia (0 - 30 - 45 - 60 - 90 minutos. Dentro de cada grupo, à exceção do grupo controle, dois ratos foram submetidos à 60 minutos de reperfusão e dois à 90 minutos. Após os procedimentos, procedeu-se análise histológica através de medição de áreas de necrose. RESULTADOS: O grau de necrose intestinal variou de 15 a 54% (p=0,0004. Houve tendência de aumento progressivo no grau de lesão relacionado ao aumento no tempo de isquemia, contudo, os maiores graus de lesão foram observados nos menores tempos de reperfusão. A análise do coeficiente de variação de necrose entre os dez grupos de isquemia/reperfusão demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significante em 15 postos, sendo 13 relacionados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo foi capaz de demonstrar os tempos necessários para que ocorra lesão de isquemia/reperfusão intestinal através de clampeamento aórtico e poderá servir como base para facilitar o desenvolvimento de estudos voltados para a compreensão deste tipo de lesão.

  2. Hypertonic and isotonic potassium solutions have different effects on vessel contractility resulting in differences in optimal resting tension in rat aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng GUAN; Ruo-hua CHEN; Pei WANG; Ye QIN; Ding-feng SU; Chao-yu MIAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To compare high K+-induced contraction and optimal resting tension mea-sured by two commonly used techniques of hypertonic and isotonic K+ in aortas with and without adventitial fat from various age rats. Methods: Three age groups of rats (15, 25, and 62 weeks) were used to prepare thoracic aortic rings in which adventitial fat was either removed or left intact. High K+ (30 mmol/L)-induced contractions were observed under increasing resting tensions of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5,3.0, and 3.5 g. Optimal resting tension was the resting tension at which the aorta showed a maximal contraction. Results: The contractions induced by 2 kinds of high K+ were significantly different. Hypertonic and isotonic K+ induced a differ-ent style of contraction, and the pattern varied with different ages. At the age of 15 weeks, isotonic K+-induced contractions were greater than hypertonic K+-in-duced contractions. However, at the age of 62 weeks, isotonic K+-induced con-tractions were smaller than hypertonic K+-induced contractions. Optimal resting tensions measured by 2 kinds of high K+ were inconsistent. Optimal resting tensions in different kinds of aortic preparations from various age rats were almost a constant of 2 g, determined by isotonic K+, but a variable, determined by hyper-tonic K+. The adventitial fat could delay the development of high K+-induced contractions at different resting tensions, but had little effect on the maximal contractions. Conclusion: Hypertonic and isotonic K+ may produce different contractions resulting in differences in optimal resting tension in rat aorta.

  3. Value of intravascular ultrasound imaging in following up patients with replacement of the ascending aorta for acute type A aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei; Francois Schiele; Nicolas Meneveau; Made-France Seronde; Pierre Legalery; Fiona Caulfield; Jean-Francois Bonneville; Sidney Chocron; Jean-Pierre Bassand

    2008-01-01

    Background The value of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging in patients with replacement of the ascending aorta for acute type A aortic dissection (AD) is unknown.The purpose of this study was to assess the potential use of IVUS imaging in this setting.Methods From September 2002 to July 2005,IVUS imaging with a 9 MHz probe was performed in a series of 16 consecutive patients with suspected or established AD.This study focused on 5 of them with replacement of the ascending aorta for acute type A AD.Among these 5 patients,other imaging modalities including aortography,spiral computed tomography,magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography were performed in 5,3,3 and 1 patients,respectively.Results There were no complications related to IVUS imaging.For the replaced graft,as other imaging modalities,IVUS could identify all 5 grafts,the proximal and the distal anastomoses,and the ostia of the reimplanted coronary arteries.In 2 cases,IVUS detected 2 peri-graft pseudo-aneurysms (1 per case),which were also detected by magnetic resonance imaging but omitted by aortography.For the residual dissection,IVUS had similar findings as other imaging modalities in detecting the patency (5/5),the longitudinal and the circumferential extent,the thrombus (4/5),the recurrent dissection (1/5) and an aneurysm distal to the graft (5 in 4 patients).However,it detected more intimal tears and side branch involvements than other imaging modalities (15 vs 10 and 3 vs 1,respectively).Conclusions In following-up patients with replacement of the ascending aorta for acute type A AD,IVUS imaging can provide complete information of the replaced graft and the residual dissection.So,IVUS imaging may be considered when the four current frequently used imaging modalities can not supply sufficient information or there are some discrepancies between them.

  4. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ho Ok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  5. A pilot study of changes in (18)F-FDG uptake, calcification and global metabolic activity of the aorta with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca G; Torigian, Drew A; Botvinick, Elias; Houseni, Mohamed; Basu, Sandip; Chen, Wengen; Alavi, Abass

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to quantify changes in the inflammatory and calcific components of atherosclerosis in the aortic wall using fluoro-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18)F-FDGPET and contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) with increasing age. Twelve subjects, 8 men and 4 women aged from 21-80 years who had both (18)F-FDG-PET and CECT of the chest and abdomen were included in this study. Subjects were grouped into three according to age. (18)F-FDG uptake in four segments of the aorta was measured. Using CECT images, aortic segmental wall volumes were measured. Wall calcification volume in each aortic segment was also measured via adaptation of a coronary artery calcium-scoring program to the aorta. Calcification volumes were then subtracted from aortic wall volumes. Each net segmental aortic wall volume was then multiplied by the accompanying mean SUV of the segment to calculate global metabolic activity (GMA) for each aortic segment. Our results showed that in each aortic wall segment, mean SUV, wall volumes, wall calcification volumes, and GMA statistically significantly increased with age. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG uptake, wall volume, wall calcification volume, and GMA in the aorta increase with aging. The (18)F-FDG uptake represents the early inflammatory component of the atherosclerotic process, whereas calcification generally represents a later and irreversible stage of the disease. Measurement and combination of PET and CECT parameters to calculate GMA may allow for optimal morphologic and functional noninvasive quantitative assessment of global aortic atherosclerotic disease. PMID:19675864

  6. Gene delivery of plasmid DNA to rabbit aorta by genetic engineering of cationized gelatin hydrogel coated partially covered endovascular stent graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To genetically engineer endovascular stent grafts that facilitate plasmid DNA delivery and offer the promise of sustained intravascular delivery system of therapeutic materials. Methods Partially covered polyester stent-grafts coated with cationized gelatin hydrogels (CGH) containing pCAGGS- LacZ or pEGFP were implanted in the descending aorta of 8 rabbits, which had neointima due to balloon injury four weeks ago. The aorta with stent-graft containing pCAGGS-LacZ and the one containing pEGFP was taken as negative control for each other. Expression of the plasmid-encoded marker genes, β-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) were evaluated at 3 days after implantations by X-Gal staining and RT-PCR or fluorescence microscopy. Results: Local plasmid DNA transfer was confined to the vessel wall at the site of stent-graft implantation, especially where the graft was compressed firmly to the vessel by metal struts. Plasmid DNA was not detected in vessel segments immediately proximal or distal to the stent graft and dissemination of plasmid DNA to brain, heart, lung, liver or kidney was not observed. The β-galactosidase-expressed cells were identified as endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells by pathological analysis. Fluorescence microscopy identified the EGFP expression which demonstrated the transgene delivery of plasmid DNA and it was not related to the plasmid-encoded marker genes. No signal was detected in the aorta of the rabbits that received cationized gelatin hydrogels coated stent-grafts without plasmid DNA. Conclusions: Cationized gelatin hydrogels coated partially covered stent grafts provide a new access for transgene delivery to the cells of aortic wall. (authors)

  7. [Analysis of the heterogenicity of cytological and morphometric indices of the endothelial nuclei of the aorta and pulmonary artery in atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'eva, N A; Lysenko, L V; Lysenko, A I

    2008-01-01

    The authors made a qualitative cytological analysis of the percentage of the heterogenic endothelium and its association with the severity of atherosclerosis. A total of 15,000 endotheliocytes (usual-type, giant uninucleated, binucleated, trinucleated, multinucleated, and horseshoe-shaped nuclei) were studied above different forms of atherosclerotic lesion of the human aorta and pulmonary artery. The material was obtained from 5 deceased patients aged 35 to 85 years. Both uninucleated and multinucleated cells were identified as the endothelium by an immunohistochemical test in the detection of specific factor VIII antigen in their cytoplasm. The proportion of heterogenic cells above the intact portions of the pulmonary artery and aorta was ascertained to be 13.7 and 24.8%, respectively; at the same time that of this endothelium above the fatty streaks increased up to 56.1 and 58.7%, respectively; and that above fatty plaques did up to 72.2 and 73.1%, respectively. Thus, the total number of endotheliocytes with the usual type of nuclei statistically significantly decreased above atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks and plaques) of the pulmonary artery and aorta to 35.8 and 31.8%, respectively. Extrusion of a population of cells with the usual type of nuclei with the progress of atherosclerotic lesions is attended by an increase in the proportion of the heterogenic endothelium up to 64.2 and 68.2%, respectively. It is suggested that the optimum combination of variable dimensions of the endothelium and the size and number of their nuclei is an adaptive reaction and an essential prerequisite to the most effective endothelial function when atherosclerotic lesion of the arterial intima progresses. PMID:18727432

  8. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

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    Guo Zhixin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1 in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ. Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGFin the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.

  9. Efeitos da remoção da túnica adventícia da aorta descendente em suínos

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    Almondi Fagundes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da remoção da adventícia da aorta em suínos. MÉTODOS: O experimento foi realizado com oito suínos. Removeu-se a camada adventícia da aorta descendente. Após a eutanásia com duas, quatro, seis e oito semanas, o segmento aórtico era removido. Após, eram feitos cortes histológicos com a coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE e pelo método de Weigert - Van Gieson. RESULTADOS: Após duas semanas identificou-se um leve desarranjo do terço externo da túnica média. Nos animais sacrificados após quatro semanas observou-se um desarranjo estrutural dos terços externos da túnica média. Após seis semanas observou-se necrose da parede aórtica. Finalmente, após oito semanas além da fibrose da parede aórtica identificou-se a destruição da lâmina elástica interna. CONCLUSÃO: A remoção da adventícia da aorta em suínos levou à alterações degenerativas da média, determinando perda da estrutura da parede aórtica que é variável em sua localização, intensidade e forma, dependendo do tempo a partir do qual se estabeleceu a lesão isquêmica.

  10. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects. PMID:9232544

  11. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo, E-mail: nobuhisa.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Yamasaki, Shoutarou [Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Ramadan, Ahmed [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Taga, Tetsuya, E-mail: taga.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  12. Correção cirúrgica da coarctação da aorta em adultos sob assistência circulatória extracorpórea esquerda Surgical repair of coarctation of aorta in adults under left heart bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a experiência do serviço com a correção da coarctação da aorta em adultos utilizando assistência circulatória esquerda. MÉTODOS: De novembro de 2007 a outubro de 2009, oito pacientes adultos com coarctação da aorta foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica com interposição de enxerto tubular através de toracotomia póstero-lateral esquerda e uso de assistência circulatória com uso de circuito átrio esquerdo e artéria femoral. Cinco pacientes eram do sexo feminino e tinham idade média de 31,5 ± 13,1 anos. Todos tinham hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e apresentavam doenças cardiovasculares associadas. RESULTADOS: Não houve óbitos ou complicações neurológicas. O tempo médio cirúrgico foi de 308 minutos, o tempo médio de assistência circulatória de 73 minutos e o de pinçamento aórtico médio de 65 minutos. O sangramento médio no pós-operatório foi de 696 ml. Seis pacientes evoluíram com HAS grave no pós-operatório, sendo necessário uso de vasodilatadores endovenosos. As altas hospitalares ocorreram em média no 9º dia pós-operatório. Houve redução significativa do gradiente médio da pressão arterial sistêmica. O seguimento ambulatorial com ecocardiograma até dois meses de pós-operatório demonstrou gradiente aorta/enxerto médio de 20,3 mmHg. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da assistência circulatória esquerda pode ser uma opção na correção cirúrgica da coarctação da aorta em adultos, principalmente em pacientes com alterações parede da aorta, não sendo observada isquemia medular nos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with repair of coarctation of the aorta in adults using left heart bypass. METHODS: From November 2007 to October 2009, eight adult patients with coarctation of the aorta underwent surgical repair under circulatory support using a left atrium to femoral artery bypass circuit, with graft interposition tube through left posterolateral thoracotomy

  13. Intraluminal Projection of Descending Thoracic Aorta and Intraaortic Balloon Pump Catheter Examined by Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Orihashi, Kazumasa; Oka, Yasu

    1991-01-01

    The thoracic descending aorta (DTA) was examined in 57 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (41 men and 16 women: 63.0 ± 10.6 years old) using two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. An intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) was instituted in ten patients. A short-axis view of DTA was examined for intraluminal projection from the diaphragm level to the aortic arch level. In a frozen-frame image, the area and the height of the projection at each clockwise direction was measur...

  14. The value of true-FISP sequence added to conventional gadolinium-enhanced MRA of abdominal aorta and its major branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzelli, Andrea [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.iozzelli@poste.it; D' Orta, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: ammos@tiscali.it; Aliprandi, Alberto [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: a.aliprandi@grupposandonato.it; Secchi, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: francisecchi@virgilio.it; Di Leo, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: gianni.dileo77@virgilio.it; Sardanelli, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: f.sardanelli@grupposandonato.it

    2009-12-15

    To test true-fast imaging with steady-state precession (true-FISP) added to gadolinium-based MR angiography (Gd-MRA) for imaging abdominal aorta and major abdominal vessels, 35 consecutive patients (age 67 {+-} 11 years) with known or suspected abdominal and/or peripheral vascular disease were studied with sagittal and axial 2D true-FISP during free breathing and coronal 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) Gd-MRA (breath-holding, 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DOTA at 2 ml/s). We evaluated: suprarenal aorta, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery, left renal artery, infrarenal aorta, inferior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation/common iliac arteries, lumbar arteries and aortic atheromasia. The possible presence of accessory renal arteries, collateral vasculature and vascular prosthesis/stent was evaluated. A quality four-point score was assigned to each item on both sequences, from 0 (not visible) to 3 (good-to-excellent image quality) and Wilcoxon test was used. Main diagnoses resulted: normal or atheromasic aorta (n = 25); aortic aneurysm (n = 2); patent aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis (n = 2); patent vascular iliac stent (n = 2); aneurysm of iliac artery (n = 1); patent aortic endovascular prosthesis (n = 1); patent aorto-femural bypass (n = 1) and aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis endoleak (n = 1). We also found three patients with accessory renal arteries, two with collateral circulation, and three with surgical aorto-iliac prosthesis. The score of true-FISP (25.9 {+-} 4.1, median 27) was significantly higher (p = 0.003) than that of Gd-MRA (23.9 {+-} 3.6, median 24). True-FISP was superior for visualizing inferior mesenteric artery (score 2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.0 {+-} 1.4; p < 0.001) and atheromasic plaques (2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.2 {+-} 1.1; p < 0.001). One collateral vasculature was demonstrated only with Gd-MRA. Summarizing, true-FISP is a power and fast non-breath-hold sequence to be added to Gd-MRA, obtaining an information increase.

  15. A special type of endovascular stent repair with complicated thoracic aneurysm and chronic type B dissection aligned in tandem: double perfusion in true and false distal aorta lumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Hui-li; ZHANG Jian-qun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm are two of the most common catastrophic events involving the aorta. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair is now considered as a promising alternative to open surgical graft replacement, The aim of endovascular repair of a thoracic aneurysm is to exclude, and thus depressurize, the aneurismal wall and the aim of the endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection is to obliterate all of the false lumen through thrombosis after sealing the primary entry tears, thus to ensure the true lumen perfusion.

  16. Effects of Acidification and Alkalinization on the Lipid Emulsion-Mediated Reversal of Toxic Dose Levobupivacaine-Induced Vasodilation in the Isolated Rat Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Yu, Jongsun; Lee, Youngju; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lim, Dong Hoon; Hwang, Yeran; Kim, Yeon A.; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of pre-acidification and pre-akalinization on the lipid emulsion-mediated reversal of toxic dose levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated rat aorta. Isolated aortic rings with and without the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were exposed to four types of Krebs solution (pH 7.0, 7.2, 7.4, and 7.6), followed by the addition of 60 mM potassium chloride. When the toxic dose of levobupivacai...

  17. Combined Rastelli and Bentall Procedures for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and a Large Aortopulmonary Collateral Artery and Ascending Aorta Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiostri, Benjamin; Piccinini, Fernando; Vrancic, Mariano; Klinger, Daniel; Navia, Daniel; Lalor, Nicolas; Longo, Francisco; Kreutzer, Christián

    2014-06-23

    We report a challenging case of a 32-year-old patient in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, a left aortopulmonary collateral artery, a right modified Blalock-Taussing shunt, and a gigantic aneurysm of the ascending aorta with severe aortic valve insufficiency. A combined Rastelli and Bentall procedure was performed by a joint adult and pediatric cardiovascular surgery team. One year after the operation, the patient is in NYHA class I, working full time. PMID:24958054

  18. Complete Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta and a Ventricular Septal Defect in a 1,480 g Low Birth Weight Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hongkyu; Cho, Joon-Yong; Kim, Gun-Jik

    2011-01-01

    Although outcomes of neonatal cardiac surgery have dramatically improved in the last two decades, low body weight still constitutes an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In particular, cardiac surgery in neonates with very low birth weight (≤1.5 kg) is carried out with greater risk because most organ systems are immature. We report here on a successful case of early one-stage total repair of coarctation of the aorta and a ventricular septal defect in a 1,480 gram neonate.

  19. An anomalous case of the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Takeshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koh-Ichi; Nohno, Mariko; Araki, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of an arterial anomaly in the celiaco-mesenteric region, encountered in a Japanese female cadaver for dissection at the gross anatomy laboratory of Kurume University School of Medicine in 2003. The usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and the hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arose from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the hepatic artery arising from the hepato-mesenteric trunk ran behind the portal vein. The classification for this type of arterial anomaly is a Type II' of Morita's classification and Type II of Higashi and Hirai's classification, not belong to the Adachi's. PMID:16119612

  20. Tratamento do aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal com endoprótese ramificada para as artérias viscerais Branched endovascular stent graft for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Simi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal (AATA tratado, exclusivamente, pela técnica endovascular, utilizando uma endoprótese ramificada e customizada. Paciente do sexo feminino, 68 anos de idade, tabagista, hipertensa, portadora de extenso AATA e múltiplas comorbidades que restringiam a indicação de cirurgia convencional. O aneurisma iniciava-se na aorta torácica descendente, estendendo-se até a aorta abdominal infra-renal, envolvendo as emergências das artérias viscerais, tronco celíaco, artérias mesentérica superior e renais. O AATA foi tratado pela técnica endovascular com implante de uma endoprótese ramificada. Essa endoprótese ramificada foi customizada com base nas características anatômicas da aorta e no posicionamento dos ramos viscerais, obtidos em angiotomografia, objetivando excluir o aneurisma, mantendo a perfusão das artérias viscerais. O procedimento foi realizado em centro cirúrgico, sob anestesia combinada, regional e geral, antecedido de drenagem liquórica e sob orientação fluoroscópica. O acesso para o implante do corpo principal da endoprótese ramificada e o controle radiológico foram realizados através das artérias femorais, previamente dissecadas. Através das ramificações da endoprótese, foram implantadas extensões secundárias, com stents revestidos, para as respectivas artérias viscerais, cujo acesso foi realizado via artéria axilar esquerda. O tempo total do procedimento foi de 14 horas, com 4 horas e 30 minutos de fluoroscopia, e foram utilizados 120 mL de contraste iodado. No pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou instabilidade hemodinâmica. Ecocardiograma transesofágico mostrou dissecção retrógrada da aorta torácica, tipo A, seguida de trombose espontânea da falsa luz. A tomografia de controle mostrou exclusão do AATA e perviedade das pontes para os ramos viscerais, sem vazamentos. A alta ocorreu no 13º dia de pós-operatório. O tratamento endovascular do

  1. Dose-effects of aorta-infused clenbuterol on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in various organs. Recently, a selective β2AR agonist clenbuterol was suggested to protect against cerebral I/R injury. This study was designed to investigate changes of β2ARs after spinal cord I/R injury and dose-effects of aorta-infused clenbuterol on spinal cord I/R injury in rabbits. METHODS: Spinal cord ischemia was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by infrarenal abdominal aortic occlusion with a balloon catheter for 30 minutes except the sham group. During occlusion, nothing (I/R group, normal saline (NS group or clenbuterol at different doses of 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg (C0.005, C0.01, C0.05, C0.1, C0.5, and C1 groups was infused into the occluded aortic segments. The hemodynamic data, blood glucose and serum electrolytes were measured during experimental period. Neurological function was assessed according to the modified Tarlov scales until 48 hours after reperfusion. After that, the lumbar spinal cord was harvested for β2AR immunohistochemistry and histopathologic evaluation in the anterior horns. RESULTS: The β2AR expression in the anterior horns of the spinal cord was significantly higher in the I/R group than in the sham group. Tarlov scores and the number of viable α-motor neurons were higher in C0.01-C0.5 groups than in the NS group, C0.005 and C1 groups and were highest in the C0.1 group. Hypotension and hyperglycemia were found in the C1 group. CONCLUSION: β2ARs in the anterior horn were upregulated after spinal cord I/R injury. Aortic-infused clenbuterol (0.01-0.5 mg/kg can attenuate spinal cord I/R injury dose-dependently during the ischemic period. The Optimal dosage was 0.1 mg/kg. Activation of β2AR could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of spinal cord I/R injury.

  2. Compliance of the aorta in two diseases affecting vascular elasticity, familial hypercholesterolemia and diabetes: a MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Laura Hyttinen2, Alpo F Vuorio3, Pekka Keto1, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland; 3Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Arterial elasticity changes in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and diabetes mellitus (DM with different but overlapping mechanisms. We compared aortic elasticity between 19 FH patients with the same mutation, 18 type 2 DM patients, and 30 controls, all aged 48 to 64. They underwent aortic magnetic resonance imaging, risk-factor assessment, and carotid and femoral ultrasound measurements. All patients were on adequate cardiovascular medication including statins and had established coronary heart disease (CHD. FH patients had longer-duration CHD (13.3 ± 7.7 years than did DM patients (5.0 ± 3.1. Aortic compliance in the descending thoracic (DM 0.38 ± 0.14 vs control 0.53 ± 0.19, P = 0.032 and abdominal aorta (DM 0.45 ± 0.20 vs control 0.66 ± 0.25, P = 0.011 was lower in DM patients than in controls, whereas no significant difference existed between FH patients and controls. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness was greater in FH and DM patients than in controls with no difference between patient groups. Carotid or femoral plaques appeared in 15 (79% FH and in 10 (56% DM patients. One control had a femoral plaque. Five FH patients showed stenosis, occlusion or both in carotid arteries. In our opinion, DM patients’ lower compliance reflect mainly arterial media affecting arteriosclerosis, while FH patients’ plaque status and longer duration of CHD suggest more advanced atherosclerosis. The FH patients may therefore be at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. However, due to small patient material, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI

  3. Expansive effects of aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived stromal cells on hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jin-rong; LIU Wen-li; ZHOU Yu-feng; ZHOU Jian-feng; SUN Han-ying; LUO Li; ZHANG Heng; XU Hui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to all blood and immune cells and are used in clinical transplantation protocols to treat a wide variety of refractory diseases, but the amplification of HSCs has been difficult to achieve in vitro. In the present study, the expansive effects of aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region derived stromal cells on HSCs were explored, attempting to improve the efficiency of HSC transplantation in clinical practice.Methods The murine stromal cells were isolated from the AGM region of 12 days postcoitum (dpc) murine embryos and bone marrow(BM)of 6 weeks old mice, respectively. After identification with flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, the stromal cells were co-cultured with ESCs-derived, cytokines-induced HSCs. The maintenance and expansion of ESCs-derived HSCs were evaluated by detecting the population of CD34+ and CD34+Sca-1+cells with flow cytometry and the blast colony-forming cells (BL-CFCs), high proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFCs) by using semi-solid medium colonial culture. Finally, the homing and hematopoietic reconstruction abilities of HSCs were evaluated using a murine model of HSC transplantation in vivo.Results AGM and BM-derived stromal cells were morphologically and phenotypically similar, and had the features of stromal cells. When co-cultured with AGM or BM stromal cells, more primitive progenitor cells (HPP-CFCs ) could be detected in ESCs derived hematopoietic precursor cells, but BL-CFC's expansion could be detected only when co-cultured with AGM-derived stromal cells. The population of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were expanded 3 times,but no significant expansion in the population of CD34+Sca-1+ cells was noted when co-cultured with BM stromal cells. While both CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and CD34+Sca-1+ cells were expanded 4 to 5 times respectively when co-cultured with AGM stromal cells. AGM region-derived stromal cells, like BM-derived stromal

  4. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Shandong University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Huili [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lei, Zhenmin [Department of OB/GYN, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Li, Rongda [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Ling, E-mail: qzlinl@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  5. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE−/− mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE−/− mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE−/− mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE−/−, Fas−/− and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas−/− mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE−/− mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE−/− mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE−/− mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

  6. Coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2015:chap 62. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Endocarditis Heart failure - overview High blood pressure Magnetic resonance angiography Pediatric heart surgery Stable angina Stroke Turner syndrome Patient ...

  7. Coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm Aortic dissection Aortic rupture Bleeding in the brain Early development of coronary artery disease (CAD) Endocarditis (infection in the heart) Heart failure Hoarseness Kidney problems Paralysis of the lower half of the body (a ...

  8. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity; Compliance der morphologisch unauffaelligen Aorta bei Jugendlichen mit Marfan Syndrom: Vergleich von MR-Messungen der aortalen Dehnbarkeit und der Pulswellengeschwindigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Arnold, R. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Boese, J. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany). Angiography, Fluoroscopic and Radiographic Systems; Krug, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Fink, C. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods ({<=} 2 %). (orig.)

  9. Integrin αIIb (CD41 plays a role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell activity in the mouse embryonic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Boisset

    2013-04-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that play important roles as modulators of cell behaviour through their adhesion properties and the initiation of signaling cascades. The αIIb integrin subunit (CD41 is one of the first cell surface markers indicative of hematopoietic commitment. αIIb pairs exclusively with β3 to form the αIIbβ3 integrin. β3 (CD61 also pairs with αv (CD51 to form the αvβ3 integrin. The expression and putative role of these integrins during mouse hematopoietic development is as yet unknown. We show here that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs differentially express αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrins throughout development. Whereas the first HSCs generated in the aorta at mid-gestation express both integrins, HSCs from the placenta only express αvβ3, and most fetal liver HSCs do not express either integrin. By using αIIb deficient embryos, we show that αIIb is not only a reliable HSC marker but it also plays an important and specific function in maintaining the HSC activity in the mouse embryonic aorta.

  10. Multidetector row CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease: diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Maurizio E-mail: maurizio.romano@mailcmn.area.na.cnr.it; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Amato, Bruno; Markabaoui, Karim; Tamburrini, Oscar; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of four channel multidetector row CT angiography (MDCTA) of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities arteries compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and methods: In our prospective study 42 patients with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (27 M, 15 F, age range 40-79 years) underwent MDCTA and DSA within 5 days. Images were blindly interpreted by two radiologists. Maximum intensity projections (MIP), multiplanar (MPR) reformations, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions as well as axial images were available for analysis of MDCTA. DSA were analyzed on hard copies. Results: Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTA were 93 and 95%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 90 and 97%. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 94%. Normal arterial segments and 100% occlusions were correctly identified in all cases by MDCTA. Moderately stenotic segments interpretation in the calves appeared to be more controversial, but no statistical difference in accuracy of MDCTA in the infrapopliteal district arteries was noted with respect to accuracy in the more proximal arterial bed. Good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreement were observed, with k values greater than 0.80. Conclusions: MDCTA of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities is an accurate imaging modality in clinical practice when compared with DSA.

  11. The role of EP and TP receptors in the response to prostaglandin E2 in the aorta of WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Eva Hc; Jensen, Boye; Skøtt, Ole; Leung, George Ph; Feletou, Michel; Man, Ricky Yk; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) through activation of prostaglandin E (EP) receptor contributes to endothelium-dependent contractions. Methods and Results Western blotting revealed that the protein expression of EP1 receptor was significantly down-r...... inhibit endothelium-dependent contractions can be attributed to its partial antagonism at TP receptors. Nevertheless, the impairment of PGE(2)-mediated relaxation may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in the aorta of the SHR.......AIM: The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) through activation of prostaglandin E (EP) receptor contributes to endothelium-dependent contractions. Methods and Results Western blotting revealed that the protein expression of EP1 receptor was significantly down......-regulated in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), but there was no significant difference in the expression of EP2, EP4 and total EP3 receptors between preparations of Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR. Isometric tension studies showed that low concentrations of PGE(2) caused endothelium...

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico do túnel ventrículo esquerdo-aorta Surgical treatment of aortic-left ventricular fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Caliani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Criança do sexo masculino, oito meses, com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca e sopro. Durante a investigação foi realizado ecocardiograma e estudo cineangiocardiográfico que evidenciou comunicação secundária tipo túnel entre o ventrículo esquerdo e a aorta, a qual apresentava regurgitação severa. O paciente foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea, sendo o túnel fechado com sutura direta através de aortotomia convencional. O ecocardiograma pós-operatório não evidenciou fluxo pelo túnel e o paciente apresenta-se em grau funcional I (NYHA.An 8-months-old boy, presenting with heart failure and murmur was investigated using echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization revealing a fistula (aortic-leaft ventricular tunnel between the aorta and the left ventricle, bypassing the aortic valve and thereby causing massive regurgitation through this tunnel as was demonstrated by Doppler ultrasonography. The patient was submitted to surgery to occlude the tunnel through the aortic orifice under cardiopulmonary bypass. A postoperative echocardiogram revealed complete occlusion of the tunnel and the patient is completely free of symptoms.

  13. Proposta para padronização do relatório de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Goda Torlai; Gustavo S. Portes Meirelles; Fausto Miranda Jr; José Honório A.P. da Fonseca; Sérgio Ajzen; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo de padronização de relatório para aneurisma da aorta abdominal na tomografia computadorizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas, no período de abril a outubro de 2004, entrevistas com integrantes da Disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular da nossa instituição, para elaboração de um modelo de padronização de relatório de tomografia computadorizada para o estudo do aneurisma da aorta abdominal. A partir deste modelo foi elaborado um questionário, enviado a nove outros cir...

  14. The Effect of the LysoPC-induced Endothelial Cell Conditioned Medium on Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression of the Calf Thoracic Aorta Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪莲; 姚济华; 余枢

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the effect of and mechanism of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) on proliferation of the calf thoracic aorta smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), the ASMCs were used to observe the effects of LysoPC-induced endothelial cell conditioned medium on the DNA content and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the calf thoracic ASMCs by flow cytometry and Western Blot technique. It was found that LysoPC-induced endothelial cell conditioned medium could significantly promote PCNA expression of the calf ASMCs, induce the converting of ASMCs from G0/G1 phase to S phase of DNA synthesis, and increase the tyrosine phosphorylation protein expression. Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor (TPKi) RG50864 could obviously inhibit proliferation of LysoPC-induced ASMCs in a dose-dependence manner. The results indicated that the effect of LysoPC promoting the proliferation of ASMCs is partly evoked by endothelial cell derived growth factors such as PDGF and so on.

  15. Tratamento cirúrgico do túnel ventrículo esquerdo-aorta Surgical treatment of aortic-left ventricular fistula

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Caliani; Flávio Reis Gouvêa; Luiz Carlos Simões; Ana Helena Dorigo; Erika Porto; Flávio Reis Neves; Odilon Nogueira Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Criança do sexo masculino, oito meses, com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca e sopro. Durante a investigação foi realizado ecocardiograma e estudo cineangiocardiográfico que evidenciou comunicação secundária tipo túnel entre o ventrículo esquerdo e a aorta, a qual apresentava regurgitação severa. O paciente foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea, sendo o túnel fechado com sutura direta através de aortotomia convencional. O ecocardiograma pós-operat...

  16. Effect of contrast material pushed with saline solution using dual injection on enhancement of aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma in multislice CT of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effect of the enhancement value of the abdominal aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma by the saline flush technique. One hundred eight patients who underwent multislice CT of the liver were randomly divided into four groups: 100 ml of contrast material (Iomeprol 300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) only and 100 ml of contrast material (300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) flushed with 50 ml of saline solution at a rate of 5 ml/sec. The saline flush technique demonstrated statistically significantly greater portal enhancement. Therefore, we consider that this technique contributes to the visualization of three-dimensional CT portography. (author)

  17. An anomalous case of the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y; Yamaki, K; Saga, T; Hirata, T; Yoshida, M; Soejima, H; Kanazawa, T; Araki, Y; Yoshizuka, M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an arterial anomaly case in the celiaco-mesenteric region, which was encountered in a Japanese male cadaver in the dissecting room at Kurume University School of Medicine in 1999. In this case, the usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the hepato-spleno-mesenteric and the gastro-phrenic trunks were independently arising from the abdominal aorta. In addition, the common hepatic artery divided into the left hepatic, the right hepatic, and the gastroduodenal arteries simultaneously, then, the accessory gastric artery arose from the left hepatic artery. This type of arteral anomaly belongs to the Type III of Adachi's classification and the Type II of Morita's classification. PMID:10948660

  18. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F. [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT{sub 2}R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT{sub 2}R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  19. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. (Sigfried and Janet Weis Center for Research, Danville, PA (USA))

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  20. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Garattoni, Monica; Buia, Francesco; Attina, Domenico; Lovato, Luigi; Zompatori, Maurizio [University Hospital ' ' S.Orsola' ' , Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, Cardio-Thoracic Radiology Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94 % of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50 %, with only 21.5 % of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8 % (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6 % (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. (orig.)

  1. Aneurisma de la aorta abdominal: Tratamiento endovascular con una endoprótesis fenestrada Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Endovascular treatment with fenestrated endoprothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Rostagno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento endovascular de los aneurismas de aorta abdominal es una alternativa a la cirugía abierta para pacientes de alto riesgo. Consiste en la exclusión del saco aneurismático mediante la interposición de una endoprótesis colocada por vía femoral. El tratamiento endovascular no puede ser utilizado en todos los pacientes. Una limitación frecuente la constituye el nacimiento de una arteria visceral desde el saco aneurismático. Para contrarrestar esta limitación recientemente se han desarrollado endoprótesis fenestradas que presentan orificios que se corresponden con el nacimiento de las arterias involucradas en el aneurisma evitando su oclusión, permitiendo de esta manera el tratamiento endovascular. En esta comunicación se presenta un caso de tratamiento endovascular de un aneurisma de aorta abdominal mediante la colocación de una endoprótesis fenestrada en un paciente cuya arteria renal izquierda nacía directamente del saco aneurismático.Endovascular treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is consider an alternative to open surgery for high risk patients. Its goal is to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation by using an endoprothesis introduced from a femoral approach. Patients must be strictly selected to avoid possible complications. The most frequent limitation is related to anatomic contraindications such as visceral arteries involved in the aneurysm. Fenestrated endograft have been recently developed to allow endovascular treatment when anatomic features contraindicate classic endovascular procedures. Fenestrated endograft have holes that match with the origin of the visceral arteries maintaining its potency. In this paper we report the endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by using a fenestrated endoprothesis in a patient whose left renal artery is originated from the aneurysm.

  2. Study on the dynamic change of endothelin and the effect of treatment by captopril in the development of stenosis of aorta after balloon injury in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dynamic change of endothelin (ET) in the blood, the pathological change, and the ET-IR (ET-immunoreaction, ET-IR) in the development of stenosis after balloon injury of rabbit aorta, and to investigate the effect of captopril on the prevention of restenosis after transluminal angioplasty. Methods: According to the different time of being killed after micro-balloon angioplasty, 48 rabbits were divided randomly into 6 groups such as 6-hour group, 1-day group, 3-day group, 7-day group, 15-day group, and 22-day group. 6 out of 8 rabbits of each group were created models of aortic endothelium injury by micro-balloon angioplasty, and 3 of them were given captopril (2 mg·kg-1·d-1 p. o.) from 1 day before balloon injury to the day being killed. The rest 2 rabbits in each group were controls. ET level in the plasma was measured by ELISA before, as well as after micro-balloon angioplasty, and pathomorphological examination of local aorta was carried out to observe the intimal thickness and the extent of lumen stenosis, and ET-IR was assessed by immunohistochemical technique in the aortic wall. Results: (1) The major change of vascular stenosis was the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelium. (2) ET levels in the plasma and ET-IR in the local aortic wall were significantly increased after micro-balloon angioplasty. (3) The intimal thickness and extent of lumen stenosis in the group of medical treatment by captopril were significantly lower than those in injury group. Conclusions: The experimental results show that the major pathologic change of vascular stenosis is the significant proliferation of VSMC and endothelium. Further more, ET is a key factor in the development of vascular stenosis, and captopril can prevent restenosis after angioplasty. (author)

  3. Risk factors and clinical courses of chemoradiation-related arterio-esophageal fistula in esophageal cancer patients with clinical invasion of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a standard treatment for esophageal cancer invading adjacent structures (T4-EC), arterio-esophageal fistula (AEF) occurs occasionally as a critical adverse event of T4-EC with CRT. The frequency, clinical course, and risk factors of AEF related to CRT are not well known. We retrospectively analyzed 48 patients with T4-EC invasion of the aorta who were treated with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and concurrent radiotherapy at our institution between September 2002 and April 2009. Treatment-related AEF was defined as AEF without obvious tumor progression. We evaluated the frequency, clinical courses, and risk factors of AEF. The median survival time was 10.6 months with a median follow-up time of 33.3 months. The 2-year survival rate was 25%. Treatment-related AEF was observed in 7 patients (14.6%) and 4 of them died of massive bleeding due to aortic AEF. In the other 3 patients with non-aortic AEF, hemorrhage could be arrested by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). In the univariate analysis of risk factors for AEF, lower serum cholesterol level was a risk factor for AEF (odds ratio (OR) 14.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-137; P=0.008). Although CRT has a curative potential even for patients with T4-EC invading the aorta, we should be aware of the relatively high incidence of treatment-related AEF. TAE may be successful in rescuing a non-aortic AEF patient. Low serum cholesterol level may be a risk factor for AEF, but further investigation is needed. (author)

  4. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT1 receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT1-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT1 receptor activation. ► Translocation of p47

  5. 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta without ECG-gating: efficacy of faster gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction in terms of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of non ECG-gated 128-slice CT angiography of the aorta (CTAA) with fast gantry rotation time and iterative reconstruction. Four hundred and eighty patients underwent non ECG-gated CTAA. Qualitative and quantitative image quality assessments were performed. Radiation dose was assessed and compared with the dose of patients who underwent ECG-gated CTAA (n = 126) and the dose of previous CTAA performed with another CT (n = 339). Image quality (aortic root-ascending portion) was average-to-excellent in more than 94 % of cases, without any non-diagnostic scan. For proximal coronaries, image quality was average-to-excellent in more than 50 %, with only 21.5 % of non-diagnostic cases. Quantitative analysis results were also good. Mean radiation dose for thoracic CTAA was 5.6 mSv versus 20.6 mSv of ECG-gated protocol and 20.6 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 72.8 % (p < 0.001). Mean radiation dose for thoracic-abdominal CTAA was 9.7 mSv, versus 20.9 mSv of 16-slice CTAA scans, with an average dose reduction of 53.6 % (p < 0.001). Non ECG-gated 128-slice CTAA is feasible and able to provide high quality visualization of the entire aorta without significant motion artefacts, together with a considerable dose and contrast media volume reduction. (orig.)

  6. Calcium scoring in unenhanced and enhanced CT data of the aorta-iliacal arteries: impact of image acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis parameter settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komen, N. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium)), email: nielskomen@hotmail.com; Klitsie, P.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Hermans, J.J.; Niessen, W.J. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Kleinrensink, G.J. (Dept. of Neurosciences and Anatomy, Univ. Medical Center Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Several studies have been published on the matter of abdominal aortic and iliac calcifications and the association to clinical entities such as diabetes mellitus and renal failure. However, comparing of these studies is questionable since quantification methods for atherosclerosis differ. Purpose. To evaluate the effect of image acquisition settings, reconstruction parameters, and analysis methods on calcium quantification in the abdominal aorta. Material and Methods. Calcium scores were retrospectively determined on standardized abdominal CT scans of 15 patients. Two researchers obtained calcium scores with 10 different lower thresholds (LT) (130, 145, 160, 175, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 1000) in CT scans with and without contrast enhancement, with slice thicknesses (ST) varying between 2.0-5.0 mm for the non-contrast-enhanced series and between 1.0-5.0 mm for the contrast-enhanced series. In addition calcium scores obtained with two convolution kernels (B10f, B20f) were compared. Inter-observer variability was calculated. Results. Calcium scoring at higher STs is overestimated compared to smaller STs and this effect was more pronounced with increasing calcium loads. Concerning the convolution kernel, scores obtained with kernel B10f were overestimated compared to kernel B20f. Increase of LT resulted in a decrease of the calcium score and scoring in contrast-enhanced series resulted in higher scores compared to non-contrast-enhanced series. These effects are more apparent in patients with higher calcium loads. Calcium scoring reproducibility with the reference standard is limited for the aorta-iliac trajectory, whereas scoring with the remaining settings is reproducible. Conclusion. Scores obtained with different settings cannot be compared. The inter-observer reproducibility was limited using the reference standard and practical difficulties were substantial. Scoring with higher LT, ST, and contrast enhancement is faster and has less practical

  7. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sharifi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA and garlic extract with together on plasma concentration of cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL, and formation of fatty streaks through the phenomena called “chelation therapy” in male Rabbit aorta. 32 male Rabbits were used and divided to 4 groups as group 1: cholesterol – rich diet (CRD + EDTA + Garlic Extract (GE, group 2: CRD + EDTA, Group 3: CRD + GE, Group 4: CRD (control group. The animals were under food and drug diet for 5 weeks. Blood samples of Rabbits were taken before and after the test and then plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were measured. Finally, abdominal aorta was studied and pathologically evaluated. Results: The experiments showed the significant decrease of mean cholesterol in case groups and mean triglyceride in the groups which have received EDTA + GE and EDTA. Our results showed that mean LDL and LDL/HDL Ratio in case groups have been decreased in comparison to control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean HDL in the group which has received EDTA + GE. Conclusion: In this study it was shown that the using of fresh garlic and EDTA with together has a reductive effect on cholesterol, Triglyceride, and LDL concentration and also has an increasing effect on HDL concentration. But it seems that concomitant using of these tow substances with together strengthen the effect of each one, and it produces a great reduction of the blood

  8. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  9. Cirurgia das dissecções crónicas da aorta ascendente com insuficiência valvar Surgery of chronic aortic dissection with aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Pêgo-Fernandes

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1980 a dezembro de 1988, foram operados 44 pacientes com dissecções aórticas crônicas e insuficiência aórtica. Esse grupo foi analisado para se avaliar a evolução comparativa dos doentes em que a valva aórtica foi preservada em relação àqueles em que houve substituição valvar. As características pré-operatórias eram semelhantes, sendo efetuada troca da valva quando havia degeneração valvar ou ectasia ânulo-aórtica. Nos casos de desabamento de válvulas com alargamento do anel realizou-se plástica valvar. Em 48% dos casos foi possível a preservação valvar através de suspensão da valva aórtica. Nos 23 doentes em que foi realizada a substituição valvar, a técnica de Bentall e De Bono foi utilizada em 16. Em seis pacientes foram associados outros procedimentos cirúrgicos. Em todos os doentes operados a partir de 1986 foi utilizada cola biológica. Em 41 (93% pacientes a aorta proximnal foi substituída e nos três restantes realizou-se aortoplastia. Cinco pacientes (11% tiveram morte hospitalar, três por baixo débito, um por sangramento e um por complicação neurológica. Dois pacientes (4% apresentaram morte tardia. O seguimento dos 37 sobreviventes variou de dois a 108 meses, com média de 18: 78% estavam em classe I e os demais em classe II. Dois pacientes que tiveram a valva preservada apresentaram insuficiência aórtica discreta. Três doentes que receberam válvula biológica necessitaram reoperaçáo tardiamente, por disfunção da válvula. Um doente submetido, inicialmente, a aortoplastia e plástica valvar apresentou redissecção e insuficiência aórtica após 60 meses, sendo reoperado pela técnica de Bentall. No estudo com curva atuarial de sobrevida notamos que os pacientes submetidos a plástica valvar tiveram maior sobrevida. Podemos concluir que: 1 a suspensão valvar é uma técnica satisfatória em pacientes com dissecções crônicas da aorta, com baixa mortalidade e

  10. Hybrid surgical management of a patient with an aneurysm of the arch and descending portion of the right-sided aorta combined with type B dissection and decompensated tracheal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Yu V; Abugov, S A; Komarov, R N; Puretskiĭ, M V; Stepanenko, A B; Stogniĭ, N Yu; Magamadov, Ya U

    2011-01-01

    The right-sided aorta is a rare congenital abnormality of the cardiovascular system encountered in 0.05-0.1% of cases during roentgenological examinations and in 0.04-0.1% of cases of autopsy series. Given utterly low prevalence of this pathology, we considered it wise to present herein our own case report dealing with hybrid surgical management of a patient suffering from an aneurysm of both the arch and descending portion of the right-sided aorta combined with type B dissection thereof and decompensated tracheal stenosis. The first stage of the operation consisted in prosthetic repair of the distal third of the arch and the descending portion of the aorta with the "Vascutek" stent graft 20 mm with type 1 haemodynamical correction (i. e., re-establishing the blood flow into the true channel in the zone of the distal anastomosis) in the conditions of extracorporeal circulation (EC) and bihemispheric antegrade cerebral perfusion ACP, followed by replantation of the left subclavian artery ostium into the left common carotid artery. An aneurysmal growth rate of more than 1 cm a year was considered an absolute indication for the second stage of correction of the aortic pathology concerned. The second stage included stenting of the thoracic portion of the aorta. The TF262C150X Valiant thoracic stent graft was implanted into the area of the distal anastomosis with a conduit, followed by positioning the TF 323C150X Valiant thoracic system inserted into the distal end of the first stent. The use of hybrid techniques (a combination of open and endovascular interventions) predetermined the success of surgical management of the patient presenting with dissection of the right-sided aorta. PMID:22616242

  11. Effects of Acidification and Alkalinization on the Lipid Emulsion-Mediated Reversal of Toxic Dose Levobupivacaine-Induced Vasodilation in the Isolated Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Yu, Jongsun; Lee, Youngju; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lim, Dong Hoon; Hwang, Yeran; Kim, Yeon A; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of pre-acidification and pre-akalinization on the lipid emulsion-mediated reversal of toxic dose levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated rat aorta. Isolated aortic rings with and without the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were exposed to four types of Krebs solution (pH 7.0, 7.2, 7.4, and 7.6), followed by the addition of 60 mM potassium chloride. When the toxic dose of levobupivacaine (3 × 10(-4) M) produced a stable and sustained vasodilation in the isolated aortic rings that were precontracted with 60 mM potassium chloride, increasing lipid emulsion concentrations (SMOFlipid(®): 0.24, 0.48, 0.95 and 1.39%) were added to generate concentration-response curves. The effects of mild pre-acidification alone and mild pre-acidification in combination with a lipid emulsion on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated by Western blotting. Mild pre-acidification caused by the pH 7.2 Krebs solution enhanced the lipid emulsion-mediated reversal of levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings, whereas mild pre-acidification caused by the pH 7.2 Krebs solution did not significantly alter the lipid emulsion-mediated reversal of the levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endothelium-denuded aortic rings or endothelium-intact aortic rings with L-NAME. A lipid emulsion attenuated the increased eNOS phosphorylation induced by the pH 7.2 Krebs solution. Taken together, these results suggest that mild pre-acidification enhances the lipid emulsion-mediated reversal of toxic dose levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation in the endothelium-intact aorta via the inhibition of nitric oxide. PMID:26917987

  12. Hemoptise e hemotórax como apresentação de ruptura de aorta torácica Hemoptysis and hemothorax as presentation of thoracic aortic rupture

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    Márcio Silva Miguel Lima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissecção da aorta torácica é doença de grande mortalidade em sua fase inicial, mas pode, em alguns casos, se cronificar. Relatamos caso de paciente com dissecção crônica de aorta tipo B (Stanford, admitido na Emergência com confusão mental, dispnéia e relato de hemoptise importante. O eletrocardiograma mostrava alterações inespecíficas e a radiografia de tórax revelou opacificação do hemitórax esquerdo. O ecocardiograma transtorácico não evidenciou dissecção aórtica, mas demonstrou imagem compatível com hemotórax, ocasionando a suspeita de ruptura da aorta. O paciente evoluiu em colapso cardiovascular e óbito. Este caso descreve duas apresentações atípicas da dissecção de aorta: hemotórax e hemoptise importante.Thoracic aortic dissection is a disease of great mortality in its initial phase, but in some cases it can assume chronic course. We report a case of a patient with Stanford type A1 aortic dissection, admitted with mental confusion, dyspnea and event of severe hemoptysis. Electrocardiogram showed unspecific change and chest X-ray revealed opacification of the left hemithorax. Transthoracic echocardiogram did not show aortic dissection, but showed image similar to hemithorax leading to the suspicion of aortic rupture. The patient developed cardiovascular collapse and evolved to death. This case describes two unusual presentations of aortic dissection: hemothorax and severe hemoptysis.

  13. Ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus Aneurisma roto da aorta descendente em paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico

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    Daniel Oliveira De Conti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a 25-year-old systemic lupus erythematosus woman who underwent 19 years steroid therapy. She was treated with 2 endovascular stent-grafts, discharged from hospital 13 days after the procedure in good health. Three months later she returned with hemorrhagic shock due to high digestive hemorrhage secondary to an aortic-esophageal fistula. She underwent to an open emergency surgery, and died during the post-operative period.Paciente de 25 anos, do sexo feminino, portadora de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, fazendo uso de corticoesteroide havia 19 anos, deu entrada em unidade de emergência com aneurisma roto de aorta torácica descendente. Foi submetida a tratamento endovascular com 2 stents, recebeu alta hospitalar no 13º dia de pós-operatório, em boas condições de saúde. Três meses depois, retornou em choque hemorrágico secundário a hemorragia digestiva alta. Feito o diagnóstico de fístula aorto-esofágica, foi submetida à cirurgia aberta de emergência, indo a óbito durante o período pós-operatório.

  14. Vasorelaxant Effect of 5'-Methylthioadenosine Obtained from Candida utilis Yeast Extract through the Suppression of Intracellular Ca(2+) Concentration in Isolated Rat Aorta.

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    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Saiki, Tomomi; Omae, Masato; Hamasawa, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Our study is the first to demonstrate the vasorelaxant effect of Candida utilis yeast extract on rat aorta (EC50 of 7.2 ± 3.2 mg/mL). Among five identified compounds, 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) exhibited comparable vasorelaxant effect (EC50 of 190 ± 40 μM) with adenosine, a known vasodilator, on 1 μM phenylephrine (PE)-contracted Sprague-Dawley rat aortic rings. MTA induced vasorelaxation in an endothelium-independent manner and independent of the adenosine receptors. MTA reduced a CaCl2-induced vasocontraction stimulated by 1 μM PE, whereas the effect was abolished in a 60 mM KCl-induced vasocontraction. This indicates that MTA was not involved in the suppression of extracellular Ca(2+) influx. MTA significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated the PE-induced activation of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK II) in aortic rings and inhibited the phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channel (VDCC). In conclusion, the underlying mechanism(s) of MTA-induced vasorelaxation involves the inhibition of Ca(2+)/CaMK II/VDCC phosphorylation pathway, resulting in the suppression of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in aortic rings. PMID:27066696

  15. Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinpocetine is a highly specific inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (CaM-PDE) with an IC50 of 19 microM and produces a significant accumulation of cyclic GMP but not cyclic AMP in rabbit aorta. In isolated rabbit aortic strips, vinpocetine (0.01 and 0.1 mM) inhibited the contraction and 45Ca uptake due to both phenylephrine (1 microM) and KCl (40 mM), whereas 8-Br-cyclic GMP (0.1-1mM) selectively impaired phenylephrine-induced responses. Furthermore, the KCl-stimulated 45Ca efflux in normal Ca2+ buffer, which reflects elevated cytosolic Ca2+, was greatly diminished by vinpocetine but not by 8-Br-cyclic GMP. However, phenylephrine-induced 45Ca efflux and contraction in Ca2+-free buffer, which reflect Ca2+ release from intracellular sites, were similarly inhibited by both vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP. The results suggest that vinpocetine may effect vasodilatation through blockade of the slow channel and selective inhibition of CaM-PDE in the vascular smooth muscle

  16. [DISORDERS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS OPERATED ON THE ASCENDING AORTA WITH THE EXPANSION OF INTERVENTION ON THE AORTIC ARCH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokeria, L A; Nikitin, E S; Mironenko, V A; Rychin, S V; Vyganovskaya, N B; Makrushin, I M; Gordeev, S L

    2015-01-01

    Precapillary artery--arterial (bronchial artery--pulmonay artery) anastomoses, come into play in cases where the locking artery open and alveoli washed arterialized blood. Normally, these anastomoses are closed. Intrapulmonary shunts carry blood supply acinar hinder extraordinary circumstances (chronic pulmonary embolism, surgery, occurring in cardiopulmonary bypass, when the flaw of blood through the Iungs is suspended for the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass). Patients operated on the ascending aorta with the expansion of intervention on the nortic arch during the correction of pathology carry blood supply only the central nervous system. All other organs and systems at this time were protected by mild hypothermia. However, during circulatory arrest, required for correction of pathology acinar damage as a result of hypoxia, probably because there is no blood flow in the pulmonary artery and there is no blood flow in the bronchial arteries. Last, in the ordinary course of artificial circulation, capable due to arterio-arterial pulmonary anastomoses prevent hypoxic damage to acinar, not lead to persistent hypoxemia in the immediate postoperative period in these patients, as a result of violations of lung diffusion capacity. PMID:27019884

  17. Differential Changes of Aorta and Carotid Vasodilation in Type 2 Diabetic GK and OLETF Rats: Paradoxical Roles of Hyperglycemia and Insulin

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    Mei-Fang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated large vessel function in lean Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (GK and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty diabetic rats (OLETF with possible roles of hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity and insulin. Both young and old GK showed marked hyperglycemia with normal insulin level and well-preserved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in aorta and carotid artery. There were significant elevations in endothelial/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS and inducible/constitutive heme oxygenase (HO-1/HO-2 in GK. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation in GK was inhibited partly by NOS blockade and completely by simultaneous blocking of HO and NOS. In contrast, OLETF showed hyperinsulinemia and mild hyperglycemia but significant endothelium dysfunction beginning at early ages with concomitantly reduced eNOS. Insulin injection corrected hyperglycemia in GK but induced endothelium dysfunction and intima hyperplasia. Hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity in vitro enhanced vessel eNOS/HO. We suggest that hyperinsulinemia plays a role in endothelium dysfunction in obese diabetic OLETF, while hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity-induced eNOS/HO upregulation participates in the adaptation of endothelium function in lean diabetic GK.

  18. Polydatin Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Rat Aorta Rings Impaired by High Glucose: A Novel Insight into the PPARβ-NO Signaling Pathway.

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    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Polydatin, a natural component from Polygonum Cuspidatum, has important therapeutic effects on metabolic syndrome. A novel therapeutic strategy using polydatin to improve vascular function has recently been proposed to treat diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. However, the biological role and molecular basis of polydatin's action on vascular endothelial cells (VECs-mediated vasodilatation under diabetes-related hyperglycemia condition remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of polydatin in restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation and to determine the details of its underlying mechanism. By measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation, we found that acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired by elevated glucose (55 mmol/L; however, polydatin (1, 3, 10 μmol/L could restore the relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Polydatin could also improve the histological damage to endothelial cells in the thoracic aorta. Polydatin's effects were mediated via promoting the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, enhancing eNOS activity and decreasing the inducible NOS (iNOS level, finally resulting in a beneficial increase in NO release, which probably, at least in part, through activation of the PPARβ signaling pathway. The results provided a novel insight into polydatin action, via PPARβ-NO signaling pathways, in restoring endothelial function in high glucose conditions. The results also indicated the potential utility of polydatin to treat diabetes related cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The effect of omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial tight junction occludin expression in rat aorta during lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizak, Jakub; Frimmel, Karel; Bernatova, Iveta; Navarova, Jana; Sotnikova, Ruzena; Okruhlicova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Occludin is essential for proper assembly of tight junctions (TJs) which regulate paracellular endothelial permeability. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3 PUFA) protect endothelial barrier function against injury. Materials and Methods: We examined anti-inflammatory effect of Ω-3 PUFA intake (30 mg/kg/day for 10 days) on expression and location of occludin in the aorta of adult Wistar rats after a single dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli, 1 mg/kg). The ultrastructure of TJs after LPS administration was also investigated. We measured plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and CD68 expression and determined the total activity of NO synthase (NOS) in the aortic tissue. Results: LPS induced a significant decrease of occludin expression accompanied by structural alterations of TJs. Levels of CRP, MDA, CD68 and NOS activity were elevated after LPS injection compared to controls indicating presence of moderate inflammation. Ω-3 PUFA supplementation did not affect occludin expression in treated inflammatory group. However they reduced CRP and MDA concentration and CD68 expression, but conversely, they increased NOS activity compared to inflammatory group. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a single dose of LPS could have a long-term impact on occludin expression and thus contribute to endothelial barrier dysfunction. 10-day administration of Ω-3 PUFA had partial anti-inflammatory effects on health of rats without any effect on occludin expression. PMID:27114799

  20. Resultados da cirurgia do aneurisma da aorta abdominal em pacientes jovens Outcomes after surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in young patients

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    Telmo P. Bonamigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A presença de aneurisma da aorta abdominal (AAA é rara em pacientes jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da cirurgia do AAA em pacientes com idade BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA are rare in young patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes after AAA repair in patients aged < 50 years. METHODS: Between June 1979 and January 2008, 946 patients underwent elective repair for an infrarenal AAA performed by the first author. Of these, 13 patients (1.4% were < 50 years old at surgery. Demographic characteristics and surgical data were analyzed, as well as early and late outcomes after surgical intervention. RESULTS: Mean age was 46±3.4 years (ranging from 43 to 50 years. Most patients were men (76.9%, hypertensive (76.9% and smokers (61.5%. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were low (15.4% and 0%, respectively; one patient had respiratory infection and another patient had unstable angina. Median follow-up was 85.5 months, and two patients died due to ischemic cardiopathy and cerebrovascular accident during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: AAA repair in young patients is a safe procedure, with good long-term results. In our study, there were no perioperative deaths, and a good long-term survival was observed.

  1. Efeitos a curto prazo de "stents" não recobertos e recobertos com politetrafluoroetileno em aorta de suínos: um modelo experimental Short-term effects of polytetrafluoroethylene covered and uncovered metallic "stents" in pig aorta: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Grüdtner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever um estudo experimental avaliando através da morfometria digital o espessamento intimal na parede arterial após o implante de "stents" metálicos auto-expansíveis recobertos ou não com politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE na aorta de suínos. MÉTODOS: Em três grupos de suínos jovens uma bainha introdutora de 12 F foi inserida na aorta abdominal distal. Os animais do grupo I (n=5 foram considerados controle. Os animais do grupo II (n=10 receberam o implante de um stent metálico auto-expansível não recoberto. No grupo III (n=10 um stent auto-expansível recoberto com PTFE foi inserido. Após quatro semanas os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes arteriais foram retirados, sendo o espessamento intimal quantificado pela análise morfométrica. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os grupos I, II e III quanto às áreas da íntima, média e índice intimal, não foi observada variação estatisticamente significativa. Diferenças foram observadas entre os grupos em relação às áreas luminais proximais (p=0,0036 e distais (p=0,044. Através dos testes de comparação múltipla para Kruskal-Wallis foi identificada uma diferença entre os grupos I e II. Entretanto, quando essas variáveis foram controladas pelo fator peso (relação área luminal/peso, a diferença não foi mais observada. CONCLUSÕES: Nesse estudo a curto prazo, o revestimento de PTFE não esteve associado a adicional espessamento intimal além daquele promovido pelo dispositivo metálico em artérias de grande calibre e condições de alto fluxo.PURPOSE: To report an experimental study evaluating, through digital morphometry, the intimal thickening of the arterial wall after the implant of auto-expandable stainless steel stents covered or not with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE in the pig aorta. METHODS: In three groups of pigs a 12 F sheath was inserted in distal abdominal aorta. Group I animals (n=5 served as control. Group II animals (n=10 received an auto

  2. Correção cirúrgica dos aneurismas da aorta: novo dispositivo que transforma qualquer tipo de prótese em prótese intraluminal Surgical correction of aortic aneurysms: a new device for conversion of any graft of intraluminal one

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    Rodrigo de Castro Bernardes

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propõem o tratamento dos aneurismas da aorta com prótese intraluminal. É usado um novo dispositivo que transforma prótese de tipo, tamanho e diâmetro diferentes em prótese intraluminal, excluindo qualquer tipo de sutura para a fixação, e usando apenas uma ligadura circunferencial extravascular. Entre maio de 1989 e janeiro de 1993, 22 pacientes foram submetidos a aneurismectomia da aorta usando esta técnica: 12 pacientes com dissecção aguda da aorta tipo I e II de DeBAKEY, 1 paciente com dissecção aguda da aorta tipo III de DeBAKEY, 2 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta descendente, 2 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta toracoabdominal e 5 pacientes com aneurisma da aorta abdominal. Três pacientes evoluíram para o óbito no pós-operatório por acidente vascular cerebral, trombose mesentérica e infecção pulmonar, respectivamente. Os pacientes sobreviventes estão sendo seguidos trimestralmente em ambulatório e encontram-se assintomáticos. O uso do anel rígido sulcado de Delrin (R simplifica a técnica cirúrgica, reduzindo o tempo de circulação extracorpórea e de parada cardíaca, dispensando o uso de hipotermia profunda e reduzindo o sangramento. Permite ainda o seu uso em qualquer local da aorta de maneira rápida, fácil e a baixo custo.The authors propose the treatment of aortic aneurysms by using an intraluminal graft. A new device which transforms any kind of graft of different sizes and diameters into an intraluminal one is described. This new device just needs an extra-vascular circunferential ligature and does not require any fixation suture. The use of the rigid, sulcated DELRIN (R ring simplifies the technique shortening the duration of the surgery, reducing surgical bleeding and dispensing the use of profound hypothermia and platelet transfusion. Between May 1989 and January 1993, 22 patients were submited to aneurysmectomy of the aorta using this technique. Twelve patients exhibited acute aortic

  3. Imaging of atherosclerotic aorta of rabbit model by detection of plaque inflammation with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-ming; FENG Ting-ting; ZHAO Xin; XU Zhan-min; LIU Yu; LI De-peng; LI Li-qin; SU Gong; ZHANG Xiao-xia

    2011-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary mechanism of thrombosis which plays a key role in the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Detection of these plaques prone to rupture (vulnerable plaque) could be clinically significant for prevention of cardiac events. It has been shown that high metabolism cells have a high uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of FDG uptake and the immuno-histochemistry parameters of plaques, and the effect of atorvastatin on vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit model.Methods Ten male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal control group (n=2,C group): the animals were fed a standard diet at 120 g/d and were given water ad labium; (2) atherosclerosis group (n=4,As group): animals were fed with high fat diet for 5 months after aortic endothelia damage; (3) treatment group (atherosclerosis + atorvastatin, n=4, Statin group): animals were fed with high fat diet for 5 months and then changed into normal chow plus atorvastatin (2.5 mg·d-1·kg-1) treatment for another 4 months. Then these four rabbits were imaged with fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and sacrificed for pathohistologic studies. FDG uptake by the aorta was expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBR). Maximal standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured over the thoracic and abdominal aortas. The aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) number, CD-14 antibody positive cell (macrophage) number and the ratio of the thickness of fibrous cap to the thickness of lipid core (cap-to-core ratio) in atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed.Results As group showed significantly higher uptake of FDG than C group (SUVs: 0.746±0.172 vs. 0.286±0.073, P <0.001). After 4 months of atorvastatin treatment and the modification of diet, SUVs decreased significantly (Statin group:0.550±0.134, compared to As group

  4. Insights into regional adaptations in the growing pulmonary artery using a meso-scale structural model: effects of ascending aorta impingement.

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    Fata, Bahar; Zhang, Will; Amini, Rouzbeh; Sacks, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    As the next step in our investigations into the structural adaptations of the main pulmonary artery (PA) during postnatal growth, we utilized the extensive experimental measurements of the growing ovine PA from our previous study (Fata et al., 2013, "Estimated in vivo Postnatal Surface Growth Patterns of the Ovine Main Pulmonary Artery and Ascending Aorta," J. Biomech. Eng., 135(7), pp. 71010-71012). to develop a structural constitutive model for the PA wall tissue. Novel to the present approach was the treatment of the elastin network as a distributed fiber network rather than a continuum phase. We then utilized this model to delineate structure-function differences in the PA wall at the juvenile and adult stages. Overall, the predicted elastin moduli exhibited minor differences remained largely unchanged with age and region (in the range of 150 to 200 kPa). Similarly, the predicted collagen moduli ranged from ∼1,600 to 2700 kPa in the four regions studied in the juvenile state. Interestingly, we found for the medial region that the elastin and collagen fiber splay underwent opposite changes (collagen standard deviation juvenile = 17 deg to adult = 28 deg, elastin standard deviation juvenile = 35 deg to adult = 27 deg), along with a trend towards more rapid collagen fiber strain recruitment with age, along with a drop in collagen fiber moduli, which went from 2700 kPa for the juvenile stage to 746 kPa in the adult. These changes were likely due to the previously observed impingement of the relatively stiff ascending aorta on the growing PA medial region. Intuitively, the effects of the local impingement would be to lower the local wall stress, consistent with the observed parallel decrease in collagen modulus. These results suggest that during the postnatal somatic growth period local stresses can substantially modulate regional tissue microstructure and mechanical behaviors in the PA. We further underscore that our previous studies

  5. Reduced estradiol-induced vasodilation and poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP activity in the aortas of rats with experimental polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.

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    Gabriella Masszi

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, both of which have been connected to atherosclerosis. Indeed, an increased risk of clinical manifestations of arterial vascular diseases has been described in PCOS. On the other hand endothelial dysfunction can be detected early on, before atherosclerosis develops. Thus we assumed that vascular dysfunction is also related directly to the hormonal imbalance rather than to its metabolic consequences. To detect early functional changes, we applied a novel rodent model of PCOS: rats were either sham operated or hyperandrogenism was achieved by implanting subcutaneous pellets of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. After ten weeks, myograph measurements were performed on isolated aortic rings. Previously we described an increased contractility to norepinephrine (NE. Here we found a reduced immediate relaxation to estradiol treatment in pre-contracted aortic rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Although the administration of vitamin D3 along with DHT reduced responsiveness to NE, it did not restore relaxation to estradiol. Poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP activity was assessed by poly-ADP-ribose immunostaining. Increased PAR staining in ovaries and circulating leukocytes from DHT rats showed enhanced DNA damage, which was reduced by concomitant vitamin D3 treatment. Surprisingly, PAR staining was reduced in both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells of the aorta rings from hyperandrogenic rats. Thus in the early phase of PCOS, vascular tone is already shifted towards vasoconstriction, characterized by reduced vasorelaxation and vascular dysfunction is concomitant with altered PARP activity. Based on our findings, PARP inhibitors might have a future perspective in restoring metabolic disorders in PCOS.

  6. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1β Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice

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    Chan-Jung Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi polysaccharides (EORPs, which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL- 1β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced IL-1β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μg/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1β expression. The level of IL-1β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4−/− mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.

  7. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae.

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    Manabu Itoh

    Full Text Available Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS using a "Bio-3D printer"-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features.Using a "Bio-3D printer," we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%, human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%, and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%. The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5 and fifth (n = 5 day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation.The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results.

  8. When the diameter of the abdominal aorta should be considered as abnormal? A new ultrasonographic index using the wrist circumference as a body build reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use US to evaluate the normal values of aortic diameter (AD), stratifying the population by age, gender and body build, as measured using wrist circumference (WC). Materials and methods: Between April 2010 and February 2012, consecutive patients ≥ 30 years of age, without history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were prospectively enrolled. They underwent an abdominal ultrasonography for reasons other than aorta evaluation. AD was measured at the infrarenal (AD1), intermediate (AD2), and iliac bifurcation (AD3) levels: a diameter ≥ 3 cm was considered as an aneurysm. The maximal aortic diameter (ADmax) was measured for AAA patients. WC was measured; AD/WC ratio was calculated and presented in percentage: the range of normal values was obtained excluding AAA cases and calculated as mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: We recruited 1200 patients, 15 (1.25%; age range = 64–86 years) had AAA. AD ranges of the other patients were: AD1 = 0.74–1.84 cm, AD2 = 0.78–1.85 cm, and AD3 = 0.68–1.76 cm for females; AD1 = 0.86–2.02 cm, AD2 = 0.91–2.08 cm, and AD3 = 0.84–1.95 cm for males. AD2/WC ratio of non-AAA patients range was 4–15%, with only one outlier at 18%, while ADmax/WC ratio of AAA patients range was 15–35% (p 1, r = 0.318, p 2 and r = 0.280, p 3). Conclusion: The definition of normal AD should consider body build. An AD2/WC ratio of 15% may be regarded as a threshold to differentiate AAA- from non-AAA patients. Patients with AD2/WC values comprised between 12% and 15% may be at risk for AAA

  9. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery on type 2 diabetic rats reduces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in the thoracic aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maimaitiyusufu Wubulikasimu; Han Haifeng; Yan Zhibo; Zhang Xiang; Liu Shaozhuang; Zhang Guangyong; Kasimu Aimaiti

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers a productive resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The development of T2DM vasculopathy is due to chronic inflammation,which increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression.This study sought to examine MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in the thoracic aorta after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery on a T2DM rat model induced by a high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ).Methods Twenty-one T2DM Wistar rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ were randomly divided into DJB and sham duodenal-jejunal bypass (S-DJB) groups.Ten Wistar rats were fed a normal diet as a control.Recovery of gastrointestinal function post-operation and resumption of a normal diet completed the experiment.Body weight,blood glucose,blood lipid levels,and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression levels in aortic endothelial cells were measured throughout.Results DJB rats showed significant weight loss 2 weeks post-operation compared with S-DJB rats.After surgery,DJB rats showed significant improvement and steady glycemic control with improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.They also exhibited improved lipid metabolism with a decrease in fasting free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (all P <0.05).Immunohistochemistry showed decreased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression 12 weeks after surgery (P < 0.01).Conclusions DJB surgery on an induced T2DM rat model improves blood glucose levels and lipids,following a high-fat diet and low dose STZ treatment.In addition,DJB decreased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells,which may play an important role in delaying the development of T2DM vascular disease.

  10. Does caval aorta index correlate with central venous pressure in intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic transuretheral resection of prostate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G F El-Baradey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ultrasonography has been suggested as a useful noninvasive tool for intravascular volume assessment in critically ill-patients. Fluid absorption is an inevitable complication of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. However, there are few data comparing the caval aortic index with central venous pressure (CVP measurement for intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing TURP. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observer blinded study carried out on 50 patients who underwent elective TURP. The primary outcome measure of our study was the correlation of the caval aorta (Ao index with CVP, and the secondary outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of the caval Ao index. Results: There was a positive correlation of inferior vena cava/Ao (IVC/Ao index to CVP (R = 0.9 and significant P = 0.001FNx01. The sensitivity and specificity of the IVC/Ao index were measured to predict the CVP. A CVP ≤7 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 0.8 ± 0.3 mean ± standard deviation (SD (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.66, a CVP of 8-12 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.5 ± 0.2 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.42, and a CVP >12 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.8 ± 0.07 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.58. Conclusion: Sonographic caval Ao index is useful for the evaluation of preoperative and intraoperative volume status, especially in major surgeries with marked fluid shift or blood loss and had the advantage of being noninvasive, safe, quick, and easy technique with no complications.

  11. 应用吡格列酮抑制大鼠血管移植物慢性病变%Pioglitazone alleviates the change of aorta allograft vasculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐自强; 杨亦荣; 陈文伟; 陈必成; 郑少玲; 夏鹏; 蔡勇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of pioglitazone on the development of allograft vasculopathy and itS potential mechanisms.Methods Rat abdominal aorta transplantation was performed On Male Wqstar or SD rats as donors and male SD rats as recipients.The recipients were divided into 3 group:recipients in experimental group (Wistar-SD,n=7) were administered with pioglitazone for 8 weeks postoperatively;recipients in allograft control group(Wistar-SD,n=7)and isograft control group (SD-SD,n=6) with administration of sodium chloride instead of pioglitazone.All recipients were killed to harvest transplanted aorta at 8th week after transplantation.HE staining was used tO observe the histological changes.The ICAM-1(CD54)expression was detected by using immunohistochemical method.The concentration of PDGF in serum was measured by ABC-ELISA.Results Isograft control group showed no obvious changes in transplanted aorta at 8th week after transplantation,however experimental group and allograft control group showed different degrees of changes in pathologic morphology related to the transplant vasculopathy.The pathological changes in experimental group were more severe than those in allograft control group.There was statistically significant difference between allograft control group and experimental group in the ratio of media and intimal thickness,the number of cells positive for-ICAM-1 and the levels of serum PIDGF.Conclusion Pioglitazone has protective effects on chronic allograft vasculopathy,which might be associated with the down-regulation of ICAM-1(CD54)and the decrease in PDGF concentration.%目的 研究吡格列酮对血管移植物慢性病变的影响,并探讨其作用机理.方法 制备大鼠腹主动脉移植模型.实验组以Wistar大鼠为供者,SD大鼠为受者,进行腹主动脉移植,术后采用吡格列酮(0.04 g/kg)灌胃8周;同种移植对照组以Wistar大鼠为供者,SD大鼠为受者,进行腹主动脉移植.

  12. Vascular remodeling after aorta heterotopic grafting in Leprdb/db diabetic mice%Leprdb/db糖尿病小鼠胸主动脉异位移植后的血管重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪花; 戴琳; 程波

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of diabetes on the changes of vascular function and morphology after isogenic thoracic aorta heterotopic transplanting. Method: Syngeneic heterotopic transplantation of segments of thoracic aortas from Leprdb/db and C57BL/6J mice were grafted into the neck circulation (common carotid artery) of syngeneic mice. Mice were euthanized 4 weeks later, and aorta grafts were analyzed by ultrasonography, mor-phometry, vascular functional studies. Result; After 4 weeks of transplantation, wall thickness increased and lumen diameter decreased significantly in Leprdb/db transplant mice, but there was no difference in the structural adaptation of grafts between Leprdb/db and C57BL/6J mice. Conclusion: Diabetes is not critical for vascular remodeling after arterial transplantation.%目的:探讨糖尿病对小鼠胸主动脉同基因异位移植后血管形态功能变化的影响.方法:将Leprdb/db小鼠与C57BL/6J小鼠的胸主动脉异位移植于同基因小鼠的颈总动脉部位,术后4周进行血管超声检测、血管形态学分析与血管功能测定.结果:术后4周糖尿病小鼠的移植血管管壁增厚、管径变窄,但与对照组比较无明显差异.结论:糖尿病对动脉移植后的血管重塑无明显作用.

  13. Fatores de morbimortalidade na cirurgia eletiva do aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal: experiência de 134 casos Morbidity and mortality factors in the elective surgery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case study with 134 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aquiles Tadashi Ywata de Carvalho; Vanessa Prado dos Santos; Álvaro Razuk Filho; Walter Karakhaian; Henrique Jorge Guedes Neto; Valter Castelli Jr.; Roberto Augusto Caffaro

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico convencional do aneurisma da aorta abdominal (AAA) infra-renal pode resultar em complicações graves. A fim de otimizar os resultados na evolução do tratamento, é importante que sejam identificados os pacientes predispostos a determinadas complicações e instituídas condutas preventivas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a taxa de mortalidade operatória precoce, analisar as complicações pós-operatórias e identificar os fatores de risco relacionados com a morbimortalidade. MÉTO...

  14. Evaluación del riesgo de ruptura de aneurismas de aorta abdominal personalizados mediante factores biomecánicos/Patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture risk assessment by means of biomechanical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Zúñiga‐Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El Aneurisma de Aorta Abdominal es la dilatación localizada, irreversible y progresiva que experimenta la pared aortica. Esta patología ha sido reconocida como un importante problema de salud, puesto que su ruptura está asociada mayormente a consecuencias fatales. La falta de criterios fiables, respecto a los actualmente utilizados, para la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura, constituye un inconveniente en la gestión clínica de la enfermedad. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el riesgo de ruptura de Aneurismas de Aorta Abdominal, mediante indicadores numéricos, como es previsto por el enfoque biomecánico. Fueron utilizadas técnicas de modelación por elementos finitos para determinar el comportamiento del flujo sanguíneo y el estado tensional de la pared arterial. Los resultados mostraron que ninguno de los aneurismas analizados presenta riesgo de ruptura elevado y que la evaluación del riesgo de ruptura mediante índices numéricos, es un camino viable para prever la ruptura de un aneurisma específico.Palabras claves: aneurisma de aorta abdominal, factores biomecánicos, interacción fluido-sólido, riesgo de ruptura.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAbdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a localized, progressive and permanent dilation of the infra-renal aorta.AAA has increasingly been recognized as an important health problem in the last decades. The AAA rupture is mostly associated with fatal consequences. The lack of more reliable criteria for rupture riskassessing, results in a problem in the clinical management of the disease. This paper aims to assess the rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms by means of numerical indexes, as envisaged by the biomechanical approach. Finite Volume Techniques were used to determine the blood flow behavior within aneurysmatic sac and the structural state of the arterial wall. The results showed that none of the assessed aneurysms is at

  15. Superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal por Salmonella dublin: relato de caso Superinfection and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm after Salmonella dublin septicemia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Anibal Basile Filho; Albert Jaeger; Antônio Capone Neto; Mário Mantovani

    1988-01-01

    Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 66 anos, que apresentou superinfecção e rotura de aneurisma da aorta abdominal, após septicemia por Salmonella dublin. As infecções endovasculares associadas à rotura de aneurisma pré-existentes são um rico potencial nos pacientes com mais de 50 anos de idade, que apresentam bacteremia ou septicemia por Salmonella sp. A alta mortalidade da aortite por salmonelose é devida à septicemia grave ou à rotura desses aneurismas. Qualquer tecido orgânico pode s...

  16. Inhibitory action of alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide on noradrenaline-induced synthesis of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the smooth muscle cells of rabbit aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Kajikuri, J.; Kuriyama, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Interactions between the synthesis of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in the smooth muscle cells of the rabbit aorta were investigated. 2. In the presence or absence of vascular endothelium, noradrenaline (NA; 5 microM) consistently reduced the amount of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-P2) and increased both phosphatidic acid (PA) and IP3. 3. In the presence or absence of endothelium, acetylcholine (ACh; 100 microM but ...

  17. Desarrollo de un modelo predictivo de mortalidad a largo plazo y complicaciones relacionadas con la endoprótesis, en la reparacion endovascular de aneurismas de aorta abdominal infrarrenal

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Palonés, Francisco Julián

    2015-01-01

    Desde el inicio de la reparación endovascular de aneurismas de aorta abdominal infra renal, la progresión de dicho tratamiento ha superado en numero al realizado anualmente mediante cirugía abierta convencional, en la mayoría de servicios de Cirugía Vascular. A ello ha contribuido principalmente la menor mortalidad operatoria los 30 días y al atractivo que supone para pacientes un procedimiento menos agresivo y para los profesionales, el ofrecer una alternativa en casos en los que la cirugía...

  18. Prostaglandins but not nitric oxide are endothelium-derived relaxing factors in the trout aorta%前列腺素而非一氧化氮是鳟主动脉内皮细胞 舒血管因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virginia M MIL LER; Paul M VANHOUTTE

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type of prostanoids produced by endothelial cells of trout aorta and to determine whether or not the smooth muscle responds to nitric oxide. METHODS: Ventral aortas, with and without endothelium from rainbow trout ( S gairdneri ), were incubated in a buffered salt solution. RESULTS: Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 caused a significant increase in prostaglandin E's and a consistent increase in the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (6-keto-prostaglandin Fla) in the incubation media only when the endothelium was present. This production was inhibited by methylene blue (10μmol/L). In rings of trout aorta without endothelium suspended for the measurement of isometric force in organ chambers, prostacyclin and prostaglandin E1 but not prostaglandin F2 caused concentration-dependent decreases in tension when the tings were contracted with acetylcholine. The smooth muscle did not relax to nitric oxide but did so to sodium nitropmsside. Relaxations to the latter nitrovasodilator were not inhibited by methylene blue. Descending aorta without endothelium from frogs relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner to nitric oxide. CONCLUSION: Predominant endothelium-derived relaxing factors in trout aorta are prostaglandins, the synthesis of which can be inhibited by methylene blue.A phylogenetic appearance of nitric-oxide sensitive mechanism for vasodilatation,perhaps is associated with the transition from water to air respiration.

  19. Monitoring of atherosclerosis evolution by detection of inflammatory states of aortae in a rabbit model using 18F-FDG -PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo dynamic evaluation of atherosclerosis could be clinically significant in the prevention of cardiovascular events. We aimed to monitor Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in different stages of atherosclerosis, and investigate the feasibility of detecting vulnerable plaques using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) angiography. Twenty-two male NZW rabbits were divided into two groups: atherosclerosis group (group A, N.=11) and atherosclerosis and statin group (group S, N.=11). The rabbits underwent two pharmacological triggerings to induce thrombus at the 18. week. In vivo PET/CT scans were performed on four time points: before cholesterol diet (baseline, N.=6), at 8. week (the middle-of-feding, N.=4), at 18. week (the end-of-feeding, N.=22) and after triggering (post-triggering, N.=15). 18F-FDG uptake by the aorta was expressed as maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). SUVs were measured on serial 7.5 mm arterial segments. SUVmean and SUVmax were 0.449±0.108 and 0.550±0.132 at baseline, 0.694±0.117 and 0.754±0.129 at the middle-of-feeding, 0.788±0.121 and 0.861±0.139 in group A, and 0.651±0.194 and 0.736±0.243 in group S at the end-of feeding before triggering. SUVmean and SUVmax were 1.128±0.420 and 1.302±0.489 in thrombosis group, 0.774±0.159 and 0.859±0.191 in non-thrombosis group after triggering. Thrombus were identified in 10 of 22 rabbits (45.5%): 8 of 11 (72.3%) in group A, and 2 of 11 (18.2%) in group S (P<0.001). The inflammatory states of atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque can be detected by quantitative analysis of 18F-FDG uptake. PET/CT may be used for predicting thrombosis events in patients with atherosclerotic disease

  20. Synthesis, docking study and relaxant effect of 2-alkyl and 2-naphthylchromones on rat aorta and guinea-pig trachea through phosphodiesterase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Navarrete, Andrés; González-Andrade, Martín; Alarcón, Carlos; Aguilera-Cruz, Alejandro; Reyes-Ramírez, Adelfo

    2013-10-01

    Chromone (4), which form the base structure of various flavonoids isolated as natural products, is capable of relaxing smooth muscle. This is relevant to the treatment of high blood pressure, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The former disorder involves the contraction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and the latter two bronchoconstriction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). One of the principal mechanisms by which flavonoids relax muscle tissue is the inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), present in both VSM and ASM. Therefore, a study was designed to analyze the structure-activity relationship of chromone derivatives in vaso- and bronchorelaxation through the inhibition of PDE. Docking studies showed that these chromones bind at the catalytic site of PDEs. Consequently, we synthesized analogs of chromones substituted at position C-2 with alkyl and naphthyl groups. These compounds were synthesized from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and acyl chlorides in the presence of DBU and pyridine, modifying the methodology reported for the synthesis of 3-acylchromones by changing the reaction temperature from 80 to 30°C and using methylene chloride as solvent, yielding the corresponding phenolic esters 10a-10h. These compounds were cyclized with an equivalent of DBU, pyridine as solvent, and heated at reflux temperature, yielding the chromones 11a-11h. Evaluation of the vasorelaxant effect of 4, 11a-11h on rat aorta demonstrated that potency decreases with branched alkyl groups. Whereas the EC50 of compound 11d (substituted by an n-hexyl group) was 8.64±0.39 μM, that of 11f (substituted by an isobutyl group) was 14.58±0.64 μM. Contrarily, the effectiveness of the compound is directly proportional to the length of the alkyl chain, as evidenced by the increase in maximal effect of compound 11c versus 11d (66% versus 100%) and 11e versus 11f (60% versus 96%). With an aromatic group like naphthyl as the C-2 substituent, the effectiveness was only 43%. All compounds